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EuroTcl/OpenACS 11 - 12 JULY 2024, VIENNA


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NAME

pt_import_api - Parser Tools Import API

Table Of Contents

SYNOPSIS

package require Tcl 8.5 9

CONVERTER convert text
IncludeFile currentfile path
::import text

DESCRIPTION

Are you lost ? Do you have trouble understanding this document ? In that case please read the overview provided by the Introduction to Parser Tools. This document is the entrypoint to the whole system the current package is a part of.

This document describes two APIs. First the API shared by all packages for the conversion of some other format into Parsing Expression Grammars , and then the API shared by the packages which implement the import plugins sitting on top of the conversion packages.

Its intended audience are people who wish to create their own converter for some type of input, and/or an import plugin for their or some other converter.

It resides in the Import section of the Core Layer of Parser Tools.

Converter API

Any (grammar) import converter has to follow the rules set out below:

  1. A converter is a package. Its name is arbitrary, however it is recommended to put it under the ::pt::peg::from namespace.

  2. The package provides either a single Tcl command following the API outlined below, or a class command whose instances follow the same API. The commands which follow the API are called converter commands.

  3. A converter command has to provide the following single method with the given signature and semantic. Converter commands are allowed to provide more methods of their own, but not less, and they may not provide different semantics for the standardized method.

    • CONVERTER convert text

      This method has to accept some text, a parsing expression grammar in some format. The result of the method has to be the canonical serialization of a parsing expression grammar, as specified in section PEG serialization format, the result of reading and converting the input text.

Plugin API

Any (grammar) import plugin has to follow the rules set out below:

  1. A plugin is a package.

  2. The name of a plugin package has the form pt::peg::import::FOO, where FOO is the name of the format the plugin will accept input for.

  3. The plugin can expect that the package pt::peg::import::plugin is present, as indicator that it was invoked from a genuine plugin manager.

    It is recommended that a plugin does check for the presence of this package.

  4. The plugin can expect that a command named IncludeFile is present, with the signature

    • IncludeFile currentfile path

      This command has to be invoked by the plugin when it has to process an included file, if the format has the concept of such.

      The plugin has to supply the following arguments

      • string currentfile

        The path of the file it is currently processing. This may be the empty string if no such is known.

      • string path

        The path of the include file as specified in the include directive being processed.

      The result of the command will be a 5-element list containing

      1. A boolean flag indicating the success (True) or failure (False) of the operation.
      2. In case of success the contents of the included file, and the empty string otherwise.
      3. The resolved, i.e. absolute path of the included file, if possible, or the unchanged path argument. This is for display in an error message, or as the currentfile argument of another call to IncludeFile should this file contain more files.
      4. In case of success an empty string, and for failure a code indicating the reason for it, one of

        * notfound
        
          The specified file could not be found\.
        
        * notread
        
          The specified file was found, but not be read into memory\.
        
      5. An empty string in case of success of a notfound failure, and an additional error message describing the reason for a notread error in more detail.

  5. A plugin has to provide a single command, in the global namespace, with the signature shown below. Plugins are allowed to provide more commands of their own, but not less, and they may not provide different semantics for the standardized command.

    • ::import text

      This command has to accept the a text containing a parsing expression grammar in some format. The result of the command has to be the result of the converter invoked by the plugin for the input grammar, the canonical serialization of the parsing expression grammar contained in the input.

      • string text

        This argument will contain the parsing expression grammar for which to generate the serialization. The specification of what a canonical serialization is can be found in the section PEG serialization format.

  6. A single usage cycle of a plugin consists of an invokation of the command import. This call has to leave the plugin in a state where another usage cycle can be run without problems.

Usage

To use a converter do

# Get the converter (single command here, not class)
package require the-converter-package

# Perform the conversion
set serial [theconverter convert $thegrammartext]

... process the result ...

To use a plugin FOO do

# Get an import plugin manager
package require pt::peg::import
pt::peg::import I

# Run the plugin, and the converter inside.
set serial [I import serial $thegrammartext FOO]

... process the result ...

PEG serialization format

Here we specify the format used by the Parser Tools to serialize Parsing Expression Grammars as immutable values for transport, comparison, etc.

We distinguish between regular and canonical serializations. While a PEG may have more than one regular serialization only exactly one of them will be canonical.

Example

Assuming the following PEG for simple mathematical expressions

PEG calculator (Expression)
    Digit      <- '0'/'1'/'2'/'3'/'4'/'5'/'6'/'7'/'8'/'9'       ;
    Sign       <- '-' / '+'                                     ;
    Number     <- Sign? Digit+                                  ;
    Expression <- Term (AddOp Term)*                            ;
    MulOp      <- '*' / '/'                                     ;
    Term       <- Factor (MulOp Factor)*                        ;
    AddOp      <- '+'/'-'                                       ;
    Factor     <- '(' Expression ')' / Number                   ;
END;

then its canonical serialization (except for whitespace) is

pt::grammar::peg {
    rules {
        AddOp      {is {/ {t -} {t +}}                                                                mode value}
        Digit      {is {/ {t 0} {t 1} {t 2} {t 3} {t 4} {t 5} {t 6} {t 7} {t 8} {t 9}}                mode value}
        Expression {is {x {n Term} {* {x {n AddOp} {n Term}}}}                                        mode value}
        Factor     {is {/ {x {t (} {n Expression} {t )}} {n Number}}                                  mode value}
        MulOp      {is {/ {t *} {t /}}                                                                mode value}
        Number     {is {x {? {n Sign}} {+ {n Digit}}}                                                 mode value}
        Sign       {is {/ {t -} {t +}}                                                                mode value}
        Term       {is {x {n Factor} {* {x {n MulOp} {n Factor}}}}                                    mode value}
    }
    start {n Expression}
}

PE serialization format

Here we specify the format used by the Parser Tools to serialize Parsing Expressions as immutable values for transport, comparison, etc.

We distinguish between regular and canonical serializations. While a parsing expression may have more than one regular serialization only exactly one of them will be canonical.

Example

Assuming the parsing expression shown on the right-hand side of the rule

Expression <- Term (AddOp Term)*

then its canonical serialization (except for whitespace) is

{x {n Term} {* {x {n AddOp} {n Term}}}}

Bugs, Ideas, Feedback

This document, and the package it describes, will undoubtedly contain bugs and other problems. Please report such in the category pt of the Tcllib Trackers. Please also report any ideas for enhancements you may have for either package and/or documentation.

When proposing code changes, please provide unified diffs, i.e the output of diff -u.

Note further that attachments are strongly preferred over inlined patches. Attachments can be made by going to the Edit form of the ticket immediately after its creation, and then using the left-most button in the secondary navigation bar.

KEYWORDS

EBNF, LL(k), PEG, TDPL, context-free languages, expression, grammar, matching, parser, parsing expression, parsing expression grammar, push down automaton, recursive descent, state, top-down parsing languages, transducer

CATEGORY

Parsing and Grammars

COPYRIGHT

Copyright © 2009 Andreas Kupries