Tcl Source Code

Changes On Branch tip-468
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Changes In Branch tip-468 Excluding Merge-Ins

This is equivalent to a diff from 97a181d1d6 to e7363682e5

2019-12-03
16:22
Merge 8.7 Leaf check-in: e7363682e5 user: jan.nijtmans tags: tip-468
13:21
Merge 8.6 check-in: 82b698cbc1 user: jan.nijtmans tags: core-8-branch
2019-11-17
19:47
Merge 8.7 check-in: acbfa8fc49 user: jan.nijtmans tags: tip-468
2018-10-28
19:36
Merge tip-468 branch check-in: 55c044358f user: jan.nijtmans tags: tip-468
2017-04-10
11:01
Merge "tip-468" branch. Add new function Tcl_OpenTcpClientEx() with same change as Tcl_OpenTcpServer... Leaf check-in: 97a181d1d6 user: jan.nijtmans tags: tip-468-bis
09:35
merge (minor style issues from) trunk check-in: 6ecd17f92a user: jan.nijtmans tags: tip-468
2017-01-10
14:35
Further experimental follow-up: Add internal function TclOpenTcpClientEx(), as companion to Tcl_Open... Closed-Leaf check-in: 78d4429e3b user: jan.nijtmans tags: tip-456

Changes to .fossil-settings/binary-glob.

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compat/zlib/win32/zdll.lib
compat/zlib/win32/zlib1.dll
compat/zlib/win64/zdll.lib
compat/zlib/win64/zlib1.dll
compat/zlib/win64/libz.dll.a
compat/zlib/zlib.3.pdf
*.bmp
*.gif
*.png


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*.a
*.dll
*.exe
*.gif
*.gz
*.jpg
*.lib
*.pdf
*.png
*.xlsx
*.zip

Changes to .fossil-settings/crlf-glob.

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compat/zlib/contrib/dotzlib/DotZLib/UnitTests.cs
compat/zlib/contrib/vstudio/readme.txt
compat/zlib/contrib/vstudio/*/zlib.rc
compat/zlib/win32/*.txt
compat/zlib/win64/*.txt



tools/tcl.hpj.in
tools/tcl.wse.in
win/buildall.vc.bat
win/coffbase.txt
win/makefile.vc
win/rules.vc


win/tcl.dsp
win/tcl.dsw
win/tcl.hpj.in




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compat/zlib/contrib/dotzlib/DotZLib/UnitTests.cs
compat/zlib/contrib/vstudio/readme.txt
compat/zlib/contrib/vstudio/*/zlib.rc
compat/zlib/win32/*.txt
compat/zlib/win64/*.txt
libtommath/*.dsp
libtommath/*.sln
libtommath/*.vcproj
tools/tcl.hpj.in
tools/tcl.wse.in
win/buildall.vc.bat
win/coffbase.txt
win/makefile.vc
win/rules.vc
win/rules-ext.vc
win/targets.vc
win/tcl.dsp
win/tcl.dsw
win/tcl.hpj.in

Deleted .fossil-settings/crnl-glob.

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compat/zlib/contrib/dotzlib/DotZLib/UnitTests.cs
compat/zlib/contrib/vstudio/readme.txt
compat/zlib/contrib/vstudio/*/zlib.rc
compat/zlib/win32/*.txt
compat/zlib/win64/*.txt
tools/tcl.hpj.in
tools/tcl.wse.in
win/buildall.vc.bat
win/coffbase.txt
win/makefile.vc
win/rules.vc
win/tcl.dsp
win/tcl.dsw
win/tcl.hpj.in
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Changes to .fossil-settings/ignore-glob.

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*.a
*.dll
*.dylib
*.exe
*.exp

*.lib

*.o
*.obj
*.pdb
*.res
*.sl
*.so
*/Makefile
................................................................................
*/config.cache
*/config.log
*/config.status
*/tclConfig.sh
*/tclsh*
*/tcltest*
*/versions.vc



html
libtommath/bn.ilg
libtommath/bn.ind
libtommath/pretty.build
libtommath/tommath.src
libtommath/*.pdf
libtommath/*.pl

libtommath/*.sh

libtommath/tombc/*
libtommath/pre_gen/*
libtommath/pics/*
libtommath/mtest/*
libtommath/logs/*
libtommath/etc/*
libtommath/demo/*
................................................................................
libtommath/*.out
libtommath/*.tex
unix/autoMkindex.tcl
unix/dltest.marker
unix/tcl.pc
unix/tclIndex
unix/pkgs/*
win/Debug_VC*
win/Release_VC*

win/pkgs/*

win/tcl.hpj





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*.a
*.dll
*.dylib
*.exe
*.exp
*.la
*.lib
*.lo
*.o
*.obj
*.pdb
*.res
*.sl
*.so
*/Makefile
................................................................................
*/config.cache
*/config.log
*/config.status
*/tclConfig.sh
*/tclsh*
*/tcltest*
*/versions.vc
*/version.vc
*/libtcl.vfs
*/libtcl_*.zip
html
libtommath/bn.ilg
libtommath/bn.ind
libtommath/pretty.build
libtommath/tommath.src
libtommath/*.log
libtommath/*.pdf
libtommath/gen.pl
libtommath/*.sh
libtommath/doc/*
libtommath/tombc/*
libtommath/pre_gen/*
libtommath/pics/*
libtommath/mtest/*
libtommath/logs/*
libtommath/etc/*
libtommath/demo/*
................................................................................
libtommath/*.out
libtommath/*.tex
unix/autoMkindex.tcl
unix/dltest.marker
unix/tcl.pc
unix/tclIndex
unix/pkgs/*
win/Debug*
win/Release*
win/*.manifest
win/pkgs/*
win/coffbase.txt
win/tcl.hpj
win/nmhlp-out.txt

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# Set the default behavior, in case people don't have core.autocrlf set.
* eol=lf
* text=auto

# Explicitly declare text files you want to always be normalized and converted
# to native line endings on checkout.
*.3 text
*.c text
*.css text
*.enc text
*.h text
*.htm text
*.html text
*.java text
*.js text
*.json text
*.n text
*.svg text
*.ts text
*.tcl text
*.test text

# Declare files that will always have CRLF line endings on checkout.
*.bat eol=crlf
*.sln eol=crlf
*.vc eol=crlf

# Denote all files that are truly binary and should not be modified.
*.a binary
*.dll binary
*.exe binary
*.gif binary
*.gz binary
*.jpg binary
*.lib binary
*.pdf binary
*.png binary
*.xlsx binary
*.zip binary

Added .github/ISSUE_TEMPLATE.md.






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Important Note
==========
Please do not file issues with Tcl on Github. They are unlikely to be noticed in a timely fashion. Tcl issues are hosted in the [tcl fossil repository on core.tcl.tk](https://core.tcl.tk/tcl/tktnew); please post them there.

Added .github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md.






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Important Note
==========
Please do not file pull requests with Tcl on Github. They are unlikely to be noticed in a timely fashion. Tcl issues (including patches) are hosted in the [tcl fossil repository on core.tcl.tk](https://core.tcl.tk/tcl/tktnew); please post them there.

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*.a
*.dll
*.dylib
*.exe
*.exp
*.lib
*.o
*.obj
*.pdb
*.res
*.sl
*.so
*/Makefile
*/config.cache
*/config.log
*/config.status
*/tclConfig.sh
*/tclsh*
*/tcltest*
*/versions.vc
*/version.vc
*/libtcl.vfs
*/libtcl_*.zip
html
libtommath/bn.ilg
libtommath/bn.ind
libtommath/pretty.build
libtommath/tommath.src
libtommath/*.log
libtommath/*.pdf
libtommath/*.pl
libtommath/*.sh
libtommath/doc/*
libtommath/tombc/*
libtommath/pre_gen/*
libtommath/pics/*
libtommath/mtest/*
libtommath/logs/*
libtommath/etc/*
libtommath/demo/*
libtommath/*.out
libtommath/*.tex
unix/autoMkindex.tcl
unix/dltest.marker
unix/tcl.pc
unix/tclIndex
unix/pkgs/*
win/Debug*
win/Release*
win/*.manifest
win/pkgs/*
win/coffbase.txt
win/tcl.hpj
win/nmhlp-out.txt

Changes to .project.

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<projectDescription>
	<name>tcl8.7</name>
	<comment></comment>
	<projects>
	</projects>
	<buildSpec>
	</buildSpec>
	<natures>
	</natures>
</projectDescription>

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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<projectDescription>
	<name>tcl8</name>
	<comment></comment>
	<projects>
	</projects>
	<buildSpec>
	</buildSpec>
	<natures>
	</natures>
</projectDescription>

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sudo: false
language: c

matrix:
  include:
# Testing on Linux with various compilers
    - name: "Linux/GCC/Shared"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - name: "Linux/GCC/Shared: UTF_MAX=6"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT=CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=6
    - name: "Linux/GCC/Shared: UTF_MAX=3"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT=CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=3
    - name: "Linux/GCC/Shared: NO_DEPRECATED"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT="CFLAGS=-DTCL_NO_DEPRECATED=1"
    - name: "Linux/GCC/Static"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - CFGOPT="--disable-shared"
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - name: "Linux/GCC/Debug"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT="--enable-symbols"
# Older versions of GCC...
    - name: "Linux/GCC 7/Shared"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-7
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-7
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - name: "Linux/GCC 6/Shared"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-6
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-6
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - name: "Linux/GCC 5/Shared"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-5
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-5
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - name: "Linux/GCC 4.9/Shared"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-4.9
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-4.9
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
# Clang
    - name: "Linux/Clang/Shared"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: clang
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - name: "Linux/Clang/Shared: UTF_MAX=6"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: clang
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT=CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=6
    - name: "Linux/Clang/Shared: UTF_MAX=3"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: clang
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT=CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=3
    - name: "Linux/Clang/Shared:NO_DEPRECATED"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: clang
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT="CFLAGS=-DTCL_NO_DEPRECATED=1"
    - name: "Linux/Clang/Static"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: clang
      env:
        - CFGOPT="--disable-shared"
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - name: "Linux/Clang/Debug"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: clang
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT="--enable-symbols"
# Testing on Mac, various styles
    - name: "macOS/Xcode 11/Shared/Unix-like"
      os: osx
      osx_image: xcode11
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - name: "macOS/Xcode 11/Shared"
      os: osx
      osx_image: xcode11
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=macosx
      install: []
      script: &mactest
        - make all
        # The styles=develop avoids some weird problems on OSX
        - make test styles=develop
    - name: "macOS/Xcode 10/Shared"
      os: osx
      osx_image: xcode10.3
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=macosx
      install: []
      script: *mactest
    - name: "macOS/Xcode 9/Shared"
      os: osx
      osx_image: xcode9
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=macosx
      install: []
      script: *mactest
    - name: "macOS/Xcode 8/Shared"
      os: osx
      osx_image: xcode8
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=macosx
      install: []
      script: *mactest
# Test with mingw-w64 cross-compile
# Doesn't run tests because wine is only an imperfect Windows emulation
    - name: "Linux-cross-Windows/GCC/Shared/no test"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=x86_64-w64-mingw32 --enable-64bit"
      script: &crosstest
        - make all tcltest
        # Include a high visibility marker that tests are skipped outright
        - >
          echo "`tput setaf 3`SKIPPED TEST: CROSS COMPILING`tput sgr0`"
# Test with mingw-w64 (32 bit) cross-compile
# Doesn't run tests because wine is only an imperfect Windows emulation
    - name: "Linux-cross-Windows-32/GCC/Shared/no test"
      os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: i686-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - gcc-multilib
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT=--host=i686-w64-mingw32
      script: *crosstest
# Test on Windows with MSVC native
    - name: "Windows/MSVC/Shared"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: &vcenv
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - VCDIR="/C/Program Files (x86)/Microsoft Visual Studio/2017/BuildTools/VC/Auxiliary/Build"
      before_install: &vcpreinst
        - PATH="$PATH:$VCDIR"
        - cd ${BUILD_DIR}
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake -f makefile.vc test'
    - name: "Windows/MSVC/Shared: UTF_MAX=6"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: *vcenv
      before_install: *vcpreinst
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake OPTS=utfmax -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake OPTS=utfmax -f makefile.vc test'
    - name: "Windows/MSVC/Shared: NO_DEPRECATED"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: *vcenv
      before_install: *vcpreinst
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake OPTS=nodep -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake OPTS=nodep -f makefile.vc test'
    - name: "Windows/MSVC/Static"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: *vcenv
      before_install: *vcpreinst
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake OPTS=static -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake OPTS=static -f makefile.vc test'
    - name: "Windows/MSVC/Debug"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: *vcenv
      before_install: *vcpreinst
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake OPTS=symbols -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x64 && nmake OPTS=symbols -f makefile.vc test'
# Test on Windows with MSVC native (32-bit)
    - name: "Windows/MSVC-x86/Shared"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: *vcenv
      before_install: *vcpreinst
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake -f makefile.vc test'
    - name: "Windows/MSVC-x86/Shared: UTF_MAX=6"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: *vcenv
      before_install: *vcpreinst
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake OPTS=utfmax -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake OPTS=utfmax -f makefile.vc test'
    - name: "Windows/MSVC-x86/Shared: NO_DEPRECATED"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: *vcenv
      before_install: *vcpreinst
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake OPTS=nodep -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake OPTS=nodep -f makefile.vc test'
    - name: "Windows/MSVC-x86/Static"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: *vcenv
      before_install: *vcpreinst
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake OPTS=static -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake OPTS=static -f makefile.vc test'
    - name: "Windows/MSVC-x86/Debug"
      os: windows
      compiler: cl
      env: *vcenv
      before_install: *vcpreinst
      install: []
      script:
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake OPTS=symbols -f makefile.vc all tcltest'
        - cmd.exe /C 'vcvarsall.bat x86 && nmake OPTS=symbols -f makefile.vc test'
# Test on Windows with GCC native
    - name: "Windows/GCC/Shared"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--enable-64bit"
      before_install: &makepreinst
        - choco install make
        - cd ${BUILD_DIR}
    - name: "Windows/GCC/Shared: UTF_MAX=6"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--enable-64bit CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=6"
      before_install: *makepreinst
    - name: "Windows/GCC/Shared: UTF_MAX=3"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--enable-64bit CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=3"
      before_install: *makepreinst
    - name: "Windows/GCC/Shared: NO_DEPRECATED"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--enable-64bit CFLAGS=-DTCL_NO_DEPRECATED=1"
      before_install: *makepreinst
    - name: "Windows/GCC/Static"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--enable-64bit --disable-shared"
      before_install: *makepreinst
    - name: "Windows/GCC/Debug"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--enable-64bit --enable-symbols"
      before_install: *makepreinst
# Test on Windows with GCC native (32-bit)
    - name: "Windows/GCC-x86/Shared"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
      before_install: *makepreinst
    - name: "Windows/GCC-x86/Shared: UTF_MAX=6"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=6"
      before_install: *makepreinst
    - name: "Windows/GCC-x86/Shared: UTF_MAX=3"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=3"
      before_install: *makepreinst
    - name: "Windows/GCC-x86/Shared: NO_DEPRECATED"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="CFLAGS=-DTCL_NO_DEPRECATED=1"
      before_install: *makepreinst
    - name: "Windows/GCC-x86/Static"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--disable-shared"
      before_install: *makepreinst
    - name: "Windows/GCC-x86/Debug"
      os: windows
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--enable-symbols"
      before_install: *makepreinst
before_install:
  - cd ${BUILD_DIR}
install:
  - ./configure ${CFGOPT} --prefix=$HOME || (cat config.log && exit 1)
before_script:
  - export ERROR_ON_FAILURES=1
script:
  - make all tcltest
  - make test

Changes to ChangeLog.

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A NOTE ON THE CHANGELOG:
Starting in early 2011, Tcl source code has been under the management of
fossil, hosted at http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ .  Fossil presents a "Timeline"
view of changes made that is superior in every way to a hand edited log file.
Because of this, many Tcl developers are now out of the habit of maintaining
this log file.  You may still find useful things in it, but the Timeline is
a better first place to look now.
============================================================================

2013-09-19  Don Porter  <[email protected]>

|







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A NOTE ON THE CHANGELOG:
Starting in early 2011, Tcl source code has been under the management of
fossil, hosted at https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ .  Fossil presents a "Timeline"
view of changes made that is superior in every way to a hand edited log file.
Because of this, many Tcl developers are now out of the habit of maintaining
this log file.  You may still find useful things in it, but the Timeline is
a better first place to look now.
============================================================================

2013-09-19  Don Porter  <[email protected]>

Changes to ChangeLog.2007.

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	an expr syntax error (masked by a [catch]).

	* generic/tclCompCmds.c (TclCompileReturnCmd):	Added crash protection
	to handle callers other than TclCompileScript() failing to meet the
	initialization assumptions of the TIP 280 code in CompileWord().

	* generic/tclCompExpr.c:	Suppress the attempt to convert to
	numeric when pre-compiling a constant expresion indicates an error.

2007-08-22  Miguel Sofer  <[email protected]>

	* generic/tclExecute.c (TEBC): disable the new shortcut to frequent
	INSTs for debug builds. REVERTED (collision with alternative fix)

2007-08-21  Don Porter	<[email protected]>






|







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	an expr syntax error (masked by a [catch]).

	* generic/tclCompCmds.c (TclCompileReturnCmd):	Added crash protection
	to handle callers other than TclCompileScript() failing to meet the
	initialization assumptions of the TIP 280 code in CompileWord().

	* generic/tclCompExpr.c:	Suppress the attempt to convert to
	numeric when pre-compiling a constant expression indicates an error.

2007-08-22  Miguel Sofer  <[email protected]>

	* generic/tclExecute.c (TEBC): disable the new shortcut to frequent
	INSTs for debug builds. REVERTED (collision with alternative fix)

2007-08-21  Don Porter	<[email protected]>

Deleted README.

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README:  Tcl
    This is the Tcl 8.7a0 source distribution.
	http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/
    You can get any source release of Tcl from the URL above.

Contents
--------
    1. Introduction
    2. Documentation
    3. Compiling and installing Tcl
    4. Development tools
    5. Tcl newsgroup
    6. The Tcler's Wiki
    7. Mailing lists
    8. Support and Training
    9. Tracking Development
    10. Thank You

1. Introduction
---------------
Tcl provides a powerful platform for creating integration applications that
tie together diverse applications, protocols, devices, and frameworks.
When paired with the Tk toolkit, Tcl provides the fastest and most powerful
way to create GUI applications that run on PCs, Unix, and Mac OS X.
Tcl can also be used for a variety of web-related tasks and for creating
powerful command languages for applications.

Tcl is maintained, enhanced, and distributed freely by the Tcl community.
Source code development and tracking of bug reports and feature requests
takes place at:

	http://core.tcl.tk/

Tcl/Tk release and mailing list services are hosted by SourceForge:

	http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/

with the Tcl Developer Xchange hosted at:

	http://www.tcl.tk/

Tcl is a freely available open source package.  You can do virtually
anything you like with it, such as modifying it, redistributing it,
and selling it either in whole or in part.  See the file
"license.terms" for complete information.

2. Documentation
----------------

Extensive documentation is available at our website.
The home page for this release, including new features, is
	http://www.tcl.tk/software/tcltk/8.7.html

Detailed release notes can be found at the file distributions page
by clicking on the relevant version.
	http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/

Information about Tcl itself can be found at
	http://www.tcl.tk/about/

There have been many Tcl books on the market.  Many are mentioned in the Wiki:
	http://wiki.tcl.tk/_/ref?N=25206

To view the complete set of reference manual entries for Tcl 8.7 online,
visit the URL:
	http://www.tcl.tk/man/tcl8.7/

2a. Unix Documentation
----------------------

The "doc" subdirectory in this release contains a complete set of
reference manual entries for Tcl.  Files with extension ".1" are for
programs (for example, tclsh.1); files with extension ".3" are for C
library procedures; and files with extension ".n" describe Tcl
commands.  The file "doc/Tcl.n" gives a quick summary of the Tcl
language syntax.  To print any of the man pages on Unix, cd to the
"doc" directory and invoke your favorite variant of troff using the
normal -man macros, for example

		ditroff -man Tcl.n

to print Tcl.n.  If Tcl has been installed correctly and your "man" program
supports it, you should be able to access the Tcl manual entries using the
normal "man" mechanisms, such as

		man Tcl

2b. Windows Documentation
-------------------------

The "doc" subdirectory in this release contains a complete set of Windows
help files for Tcl.  Once you install this Tcl release, a shortcut to the
Windows help Tcl documentation will appear in the "Start" menu:

	Start | Programs | Tcl | Tcl Help

3. Compiling and installing Tcl
-------------------------------

There are brief notes in the unix/README, win/README, and macosx/README about
compiling on these different platforms.  There is additional information
about building Tcl from sources at

	http://www.tcl.tk/doc/howto/compile.html

4. Development tools
---------------------------

ActiveState produces a high quality set of commercial quality development
tools that is available to accelerate your Tcl application development.
Tcl Dev Kit builds on the earlier TclPro toolset and provides a debugger,
static code checker, single-file wrapping utility, bytecode compiler and
more.  More information can be found at

	http://www.ActiveState.com/Tcl

5. Tcl newsgroup
----------------

There is a USENET news group, "comp.lang.tcl", intended for the exchange of
information about Tcl, Tk, and related applications.  The newsgroup is a
great place to ask general information questions.  For bug reports, please
see the "Support and bug fixes" section below.

6. Tcl'ers Wiki
---------------

A Wiki-based open community site covering all aspects of Tcl/Tk is at:

	http://wiki.tcl.tk/

It is dedicated to the Tcl programming language and its extensions.  A
wealth of useful information can be found there.  It contains code
snippets, references to papers, books, and FAQs, as well as pointers to
development tools, extensions, and applications.  You can also recommend
additional URLs by editing the wiki yourself.

7. Mailing lists
----------------

Several mailing lists are hosted at SourceForge to discuss development or
use issues (like Macintosh and Windows topics).  For more information and
to subscribe, visit:

	http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/

and go to the Mailing Lists page.

8. Support and Training
------------------------

We are very interested in receiving bug reports, patches, and suggestions
for improvements.  We prefer that you send this information to us as
tickets entered into our tracker at:

	http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/reportlist

We will log and follow-up on each bug, although we cannot promise a
specific turn-around time.  Enhancements may take longer and may not happen
at all unless there is widespread support for them (we're trying to
slow the rate at which Tcl/Tk turns into a kitchen sink).  It's very
difficult to make incompatible changes to Tcl/Tk at this point, due to
the size of the installed base.

The Tcl community is too large for us to provide much individual support
for users.  If you need help we suggest that you post questions to
comp.lang.tcl.  We read the newsgroup and will attempt to answer esoteric
questions for which no one else is likely to know the answer.  In addition,
see the following Web site for links to other organizations that offer
Tcl/Tk training:

	http://wiki.tcl.tk/training

9. Tracking Development
-----------------------

Tcl is developed in public.  To keep an eye on how Tcl is changing, see
	http://core.tcl.tk/

10. Thank You
-------------

We'd like to express our thanks to the Tcl community for all the
helpful suggestions, bug reports, and patches we have received.
Tcl/Tk has improved vastly and will continue to do so with your help.
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Added README.md.








































































































































































































































































































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# README:  Tcl

This is the **Tcl 8.7a4** source distribution.

You can get any source release of Tcl from [our distribution
site](https://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/).

[![Build Status](https://travis-ci.org/tcltk/tcl.svg?branch=core-8-branch)](https://travis-ci.org/tcltk/tcl)

## Contents
 1. [Introduction](#intro)
 2. [Documentation](#doc)
 3. [Compiling and installing Tcl](#build)
 4. [Development tools](#devtools)
 5. [Tcl newsgroup](#complangtcl)
 6. [The Tcler's Wiki](#wiki)
 7. [Mailing lists](#email)
 8. [Support and Training](#support)
 9. [Tracking Development](#watch)
 10. [Thank You](#thanks)

## <a id="intro">1.</a> Introduction
Tcl provides a powerful platform for creating integration applications that
tie together diverse applications, protocols, devices, and frameworks.
When paired with the Tk toolkit, Tcl provides the fastest and most powerful
way to create GUI applications that run on PCs, Unix, and Mac OS X.
Tcl can also be used for a variety of web-related tasks and for creating
powerful command languages for applications.

Tcl is maintained, enhanced, and distributed freely by the Tcl community.
Source code development and tracking of bug reports and feature requests
takes place at [core.tcl-lang.org](https://core.tcl-lang.org/).
Tcl/Tk release and mailing list services are [hosted by
SourceForge](https://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/)
with the Tcl Developer Xchange hosted at
[www.tcl-lang.org](https://www.tcl-lang.org).

Tcl is a freely available open source package.  You can do virtually
anything you like with it, such as modifying it, redistributing it,
and selling it either in whole or in part.  See the file
`license.terms` for complete information.

## <a id="doc">2.</a> Documentation
Extensive documentation is available at our website.
The home page for this release, including new features, is
[here](https://www.tcl.tk/software/tcltk/8.7.html).
Detailed release notes can be found at the
[file distributions page](https://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/)
by clicking on the relevant version.

Information about Tcl itself can be found at the [Developer
Xchange](https://www.tcl-lang.org/about/).
There have been many Tcl books on the market.  Many are mentioned in
[the Wiki](https://wiki.tcl-lang.org/_/ref?N=25206).

The complete set of reference manual entries for Tcl 8.7 is [online,
here](https://www.tcl-lang.org/man/tcl8.7/).

### <a id="doc.unix">2a.</a> Unix Documentation
The `doc` subdirectory in this release contains a complete set of
reference manual entries for Tcl.  Files with extension "`.1`" are for
programs (for example, `tclsh.1`); files with extension "`.3`" are for C
library procedures; and files with extension "`.n`" describe Tcl
commands.  The file "`doc/Tcl.n`" gives a quick summary of the Tcl
language syntax.  To print any of the man pages on Unix, cd to the
"doc" directory and invoke your favorite variant of troff using the
normal -man macros, for example

		groff -man -Tpdf Tcl.n >output.pdf

to print Tcl.n to PDF.  If Tcl has been installed correctly and your "man" program
supports it, you should be able to access the Tcl manual entries using the
normal "man" mechanisms, such as

		man Tcl

### <a id="doc.win">2b.</a> Windows Documentation
The "doc" subdirectory in this release contains a complete set of Windows
help files for Tcl.  Once you install this Tcl release, a shortcut to the
Windows help Tcl documentation will appear in the "Start" menu:

		Start | Programs | Tcl | Tcl Help

## <a id="build">3.</a> Compiling and installing Tcl
There are brief notes in the `unix/README`, `win/README`, and `macosx/README`
about compiling on these different platforms.  There is additional information
about building Tcl from sources
[online](https://www.tcl-lang.org/doc/howto/compile.html).

## <a id="devtools">4.</a> Development tools
ActiveState produces a high quality set of commercial quality development
tools that is available to accelerate your Tcl application development.
Tcl Dev Kit builds on the earlier TclPro toolset and provides a debugger,
static code checker, single-file wrapping utility, bytecode compiler and
more.  More information can be found at

	http://www.ActiveState.com/Tcl

## <a id="complangtcl">5.</a> Tcl newsgroup
There is a USENET news group, "`comp.lang.tcl`", intended for the exchange of
information about Tcl, Tk, and related applications.  The newsgroup is a
great place to ask general information questions.  For bug reports, please
see the "Support and bug fixes" section below.

## <a id="wiki">6.</a> Tcl'ers Wiki
There is a [wiki-based open community site](https://wiki.tcl-lang.org/)
covering all aspects of Tcl/Tk.

It is dedicated to the Tcl programming language and its extensions.  A
wealth of useful information can be found there.  It contains code
snippets, references to papers, books, and FAQs, as well as pointers to
development tools, extensions, and applications.  You can also recommend
additional URLs by editing the wiki yourself.

## <a id="email">7.</a> Mailing lists
Several mailing lists are hosted at SourceForge to discuss development or use
issues (like Macintosh and Windows topics).  For more information and to
subscribe, visit [here](https://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/) and go to the
Mailing Lists page.

## <a id="support">8.</a> Support and Training
We are very interested in receiving bug reports, patches, and suggestions for
improvements.  We prefer that you send this information to us as tickets
entered into [our issue tracker](https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/reportlist).

We will log and follow-up on each bug, although we cannot promise a
specific turn-around time.  Enhancements may take longer and may not happen
at all unless there is widespread support for them (we're trying to
slow the rate at which Tcl/Tk turns into a kitchen sink).  It's very
difficult to make incompatible changes to Tcl/Tk at this point, due to
the size of the installed base.

The Tcl community is too large for us to provide much individual support for
users.  If you need help we suggest that you post questions to `comp.lang.tcl`
or ask a question on [Stack
Overflow](https://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/tcl).  We read the
newsgroup and will attempt to answer esoteric questions for which no one else
is likely to know the answer.  In addition, see the wiki for [links to other
organizations](https://wiki.tcl-lang.org/training) that offer Tcl/Tk training.

## <a id="watch">9.</a> Tracking Development
Tcl is developed in public.  You can keep an eye on how Tcl is changing at
[core.tcl-lang.org](https://core.tcl-lang.org/).

## <a id="thanks">10.</a> Thank You
We'd like to express our thanks to the Tcl community for all the
helpful suggestions, bug reports, and patches we have received.
Tcl/Tk has improved vastly and will continue to do so with your help.

Changes to changes.

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2013-09-19 (bug fix)[3487626] segfaults in [dict] compilers (porter)

2013-09-19 (bug fix)[31661d2] mem leak in [lreplace] (ade,porter)

Many optmizations, improvements, and tightened stack management in bytecode.

--- Released 8.6.1, September 20, 2013 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details

2013-09-27 (enhancement) improved ::env synchronization (fellows)

2013-10-20 (bug fix)[2835313] segfault from
[apply {{} {while 1 {a {*}[return -level 0 -code continue]}}}] (fellows)

2013-10-22 (bug fix)[3556215] [scan %E%G%X] support (fellows)
................................................................................
2014-08-12 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2014f (kenny)

2014-08-17 (bug fix)[7d52e11] [info class subclasses oo::object] should
include ::oo::class (fellows)

2014-08-25 (TIP 429) New command [string cat] (leitgeb,ferrieux)

--- Released 8.6.2, August 27, 2014 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details

2014-08-28 (bug)[b9e1a3] Correct Method Search Order (nadkarni,fellows)
=> TclOO 1.0.3
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2014-09-05 (bug)[ccc2c2] Regression [lreplace {} 1 1] (bron,fellows)

................................................................................

2014-10-31 (bug)[dcc034] restore [open comX: r+] (lll,nijtmans)

2014-11-05 (bug)[214cc0] Restore [lappend v] return value (sayers,porter)

2014-11-06 (bug)[5adc35] Stop forcing EOF to be permanent (porter)

--- Released 8.6.3, November 12, 2014 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details

2014-11-21 (bug)[743338] Win: socket error encoding (ladayaroslav,nijtmans)

2014-12-01 (bug) restore tbcload/tclcompiler support (kupries)

2014-12-03 (bug)[0c043a] Fix compiled [set var($) val] (porter)

................................................................................
2015-02-11 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2015a (venkat)

2015-02-20 (bug)[32b615] Fix compiled [lreplace] (lreplace-4.[345]) (aspect)

2015-03-10 (enhancement) Revise OS X notifier for better Cocoa (walzer)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

--- Released 8.6.4, March 12, 2015 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details

2015-03-19 (bug)[e66e44] Win: Ctrl-C/Ctrl-Break in console not EOF (nadkarni)

2015-03-21 (bug)[d87cb1] Proper tailcall from compiled ensembles (sofer)

2015-04-23 (bug)[19ea02] Win: shared read from linked dirs (bogdan,oehhar)

................................................................................

2016-02-03 (bug)[25842c] stream [zlib deflate] fails with 0 input (ade,fellows)

2016-02-04 (bug)[3d96b7][593baa][cf74de] crashes in OO teardown (porter,fellows)

2016-02-22 (bug)[9b4702] [info exists env(missing)] kills trace (nijtmans)

--- Released 8.6.5, February 29, 2016 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details






















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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2013-09-19 (bug fix)[3487626] segfaults in [dict] compilers (porter)

2013-09-19 (bug fix)[31661d2] mem leak in [lreplace] (ade,porter)

Many optmizations, improvements, and tightened stack management in bytecode.

--- Released 8.6.1, September 20, 2013 --- https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details

2013-09-27 (enhancement) improved ::env synchronization (fellows)

2013-10-20 (bug fix)[2835313] segfault from
[apply {{} {while 1 {a {*}[return -level 0 -code continue]}}}] (fellows)

2013-10-22 (bug fix)[3556215] [scan %E%G%X] support (fellows)
................................................................................
2014-08-12 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2014f (kenny)

2014-08-17 (bug fix)[7d52e11] [info class subclasses oo::object] should
include ::oo::class (fellows)

2014-08-25 (TIP 429) New command [string cat] (leitgeb,ferrieux)

--- Released 8.6.2, August 27, 2014 --- https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details

2014-08-28 (bug)[b9e1a3] Correct Method Search Order (nadkarni,fellows)
=> TclOO 1.0.3
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2014-09-05 (bug)[ccc2c2] Regression [lreplace {} 1 1] (bron,fellows)

................................................................................

2014-10-31 (bug)[dcc034] restore [open comX: r+] (lll,nijtmans)

2014-11-05 (bug)[214cc0] Restore [lappend v] return value (sayers,porter)

2014-11-06 (bug)[5adc35] Stop forcing EOF to be permanent (porter)

--- Released 8.6.3, November 12, 2014 --- https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details

2014-11-21 (bug)[743338] Win: socket error encoding (ladayaroslav,nijtmans)

2014-12-01 (bug) restore tbcload/tclcompiler support (kupries)

2014-12-03 (bug)[0c043a] Fix compiled [set var($) val] (porter)

................................................................................
2015-02-11 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2015a (venkat)

2015-02-20 (bug)[32b615] Fix compiled [lreplace] (lreplace-4.[345]) (aspect)

2015-03-10 (enhancement) Revise OS X notifier for better Cocoa (walzer)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

--- Released 8.6.4, March 12, 2015 --- https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details

2015-03-19 (bug)[e66e44] Win: Ctrl-C/Ctrl-Break in console not EOF (nadkarni)

2015-03-21 (bug)[d87cb1] Proper tailcall from compiled ensembles (sofer)

2015-04-23 (bug)[19ea02] Win: shared read from linked dirs (bogdan,oehhar)

................................................................................

2016-02-03 (bug)[25842c] stream [zlib deflate] fails with 0 input (ade,fellows)

2016-02-04 (bug)[3d96b7][593baa][cf74de] crashes in OO teardown (porter,fellows)

2016-02-22 (bug)[9b4702] [info exists env(missing)] kills trace (nijtmans)

--- Released 8.6.5, February 29, 2016 --- https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details

2016-03-01 (bug)[803042] mem leak due to reference cycle (porter)

2016-03-08 (bug)[bbc304] reflected watch race condition (porter)

2016-03-17 (bug)[fadc99] compile-5.3 (rodriguez,porter)

2016-03-17 (enhancement)[1a25fd] compile [variable ${ns}::v] (porter)

2016-03-20 (bug)[1af8de] crash in compiled [string replace] (harder,fellows)

2016-03-21 (bug)[d30718] segv in notifier finalize (hirofumi,nijtmans)

2016-03-23 (enhancement)[7d0db7] parallel make (yarda,nijtmans)

2016-03-23 [f12535] enable test bindings customization (vogel,nijtmans)

2016-04-04 (bug)[47ac84] compiled [lreplace] fixes (aspect,ferrieux,fellows)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2016-04-08 (bug)[866368] RE \w includes 'Punctuation Connector' (nijtmans)

2016-04-08 (bug)[2538f3] Win crash Tcl_OpenTcpServer() (griffin)

2016-04-10 [07d13d] Restore TclBlend support lost in 8.6.1 (buratti)

2016-05-13 (bug)[3154ea] Mem corruption in assembler exceptions (tkob,kenny)

2016-05-13 (bug) registry package support any Unicode env (nijtmans)
=> registry 1.3.2

2016-05-21 (bug)[f7d4e] [namespace delete] performance (fellows)

2016-06-02 (TIP 447) execution time verbosity option (cerutti)
=> tcltest 2.4.0

2016-06-16 (bug)[16828b] crash due to [vwait] trace undo fail (dah,porter)

2016-06-16 (enhancement)[4b61af] good [info frame] from more cases (beric)

2016-06-21 (bug)[c383eb] crash in [glob -path a] (oehlmann,porter)

2016-06-21 (update) Update Unicode data to 9.0 (nijtmans)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2016-06-22 (bug)[16896d] Tcl_DString tolerate append to self. (dah,porter)

2016-06-23 (bug)[d55322] crash in [dict update] (yorick,fellows)

2016-06-27 (bug)[dd260a] crash in [chan configure -dictionary] (madden,aspect)

2016-07-02 (bug)[f961d7] usage message with parameters with spaces (porter)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2016-07-02 (enhancement)[09fabc] Sort order of -relateddir (lanam)

2016-07-07 (bug)[5d7ca0] Win: [file executable] for .cmd and .ps1 (nadkarni)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2016-07-08 (bug)[a47641] [file normalize] & Windows junctions (nadkarni)

2016-07-09 [ae61a6] [file] handling of Win hardcoded names (CON) (nadkarni)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2016-07-09 [3613671] [file owned] (more) useful on Win (nadkarni)

2016-07-09 (bug)[1493a4] [namespace upvar] use of resolvers (beric,fellows)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2016-07-10 (bug)[da340d] integer division in clock math (nadkarni)

2016-07-20 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2016f (venkat)

--- Released 8.6.6, July 27, 2016 --- https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details

2016-09-07 (bug)[c09edf] Bad caching with  custom resolver (neumann,nijtmans)

2016-09-07 (bug)[4dbdd9] Memleak in test var-8.3 (mr_calvin,porter)

2016-10-03 (bug)[2bf561] Allow empty command as alias target (yorick,nijtmans)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2016-10-04 (bug)[4d5ae7] Crash in async connects host no address (gahr,fellows)

2016-10-08 (bug)[838e99] treat application/xml as text (gahr,fellows)
=> http 2.8.10

2016-10-11 (bug)[3cc1d9] Thread finalization crash in zippy (neumann)

2016-10-12 (bug)[be003d] Fix [scan 0x1 %b], [scan 0x1 %o] (porter)

2016-10-14 (bug)[eb6b68] Fix stringComp-14.5 (porter)

2016-10-30 (bug)[b26e38] Fix zlib-7.8 (fellows)

2016-10-30 (bug)[1ae129] Fix memleak in [history] destruction (fellows)

2016-11-04 (feature) Provisional Tcl 9 support in msgcat and tcltest (nijtmans)
=> msgcat 1.6.1
=> tcltest 2.4.1

2016-11-04 (bug)[824752] Crash in Tcl_ListObjReplace() (gahr,porter)

2016-11-11 (bug)[79614f] invalidate VFS mounts on sytem encoding change (yorick)

2016-11-14 OSX: End panic() as legacy support macro; system conflicts (nijtmans)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2016-11-15 (bug) TclOO fix stops crash mixing Itcl and snit (fellows)

2016-11-17 (update) Reconcile libtommath updates; purge unused files (nijtmans)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2017-01-09 (bug)[b87ad7] Repair drifts in timer clock (sebres)

2017-01-17 (update) => zlib 1.2.11 (nijtmans)

2017-01-31 (bug)[39f630] Revise Tcl_LinkVar to tolerate some prefixes (nijtmans)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2017-02-01 (bug)[d0f7ba] Improper NAN optimization. expr-22.1[01] (aspect)

2017-02-26 (bug)[25842c] zlib stream finalization (aspect)

2017-03-07 (deprecate) Remove unmaintained makefile.bc file (nijtmans)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2017-03-14 (enhancement) [clock] and [encoding] are now ensembles (kenny)

2017-03-15 (enhancement) several [clock] subcommands bytecoded (kenny)

2017-03-23 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2017b (jima)

2017-03-29 (bug)[900cb0] Fix OO unexport introspection (napier)

2017-04-12 (bug)[42202b] Nesting imbalance in coro injection (nadkarni,sebres)

2017-04-18 (bug)[bc4322] http package support for safe interps (nash,nijtmans)

2017-04-28 (bug)[f34cf8] [file join a //b] => /b (neumann,porter)

2017-05-01 (bug)[8bd13f] Windows threads and pipes (sebres,nijtmans)

2017-05-01 (bug)[f9fe90] [file join //a b] EIAS violation (aspect,porter)

2017-05-04 (bug) Make test filesystem-1.52 pass on Windows (nijtmans)

2017-05-05 (bug)[601522] [binary] field spec overflow -> segfault (porter)

2017-05-08 (bug)[6ca52a] http memleak handling keep-alive (aspect,nijtmans)
=> http 2.8.11

2017-05-29 (bug)[a3fb33] crash in [lsort] on long lists (sebres)

2017-06-05 (bug)[67aa9a] Tcl_UtfToUniChar() revised handling invalid UTF-8 (nijtmans)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2017-06-08 (bug)[2738427] Tcl_NumUtfChars() corner case utf-4.9 (nijtmans)

2017-06-22 (update) Update Unicode data to 10.0 (nijtmans)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2017-06-22 (TIP 473) Let [oo::copy] specify target namespace (fellows)

2017-06-26 (bug)[46f801] Repair autoloader fragility (porter)

2017-07-06 (bug)[adb198] Plug memleak in TclJoinPath (sebres,porter)

2017-07-17 (bug)[fb2208] Repeatable tclIndex generation (wiedemann,nijtmans)

--- Released 8.6.7, August 9, 2017 --- https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details

Changes to 8.7a1 include all changes to the 8.6 line through 8.6.7,
plus the following, which focuses on the high-level feature changes
in this changeset (new minor version) rather than bug fixes:

2016-03-17 (bug)[0b8c38] socket accept callbacks always in global ns (porter)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

2016-07-01 Hack accommodations for legacy Itcl 3 disabled (porter)

2016-07-12 Make TCL_HASH_TYPE build-time configurable (nijtmans)

2016-07-19 (bug)[0363f0] Partial array search ID reform (porter)

2016-07-19 (feature removed) Tcl_ObjType "array search" unregistered (porter)
	*** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY for Tcl_GetObjType("array search") ***

2016-10-04 Server socket on port 0 chooses port supporting IPv4 * IPv6 (max)

2016-11-25 [array names -regexp] supports backrefs (goth)

2017-01-04 (TIP 456) New routine Tcl_OpenTcpServerEx() (limeboy)

2017-01-04 (TIP 459) New subcommand [package files] (nijtmans)

2017-01-16 threaded allocator initialization repair (vasiljevic,nijtmans)

2017-01-30 Add to Win shell builtins: assoc ftype move (ashok)

2017-03-31 TCL_MEM_DEBUG facilities better support 64-bit memory (nijtmans)

2017-04-13 \u escaped content in msg files converted to true utf-8 (nijtmans)

2017-05-18 (TIP 458) New epoll or kqueue notifiers are default (alborboz)

2017-05-31 Purge build support for SunOS-4.* (stu)

2017-06-22 (TIP 463) New option [regsub ... -command ...] (fellows)

2017-06-22 (TIP 470) Tcl_GetDefineContextObject();[oo::define [self]] (fellows)
=> TclOO 1.2.0

2017-06-23 (TIP 472) Support 0d as prefix of decimal numbers (iyer,griffin)

2017-08-31 (bug)[2a9465] http state 100 continue handling broken (oehlmann)

2017-09-02 (bug)[0e4d88] replace command, delete trace kills namespace (porter)

--- Released 8.7a1, September 8, 2017 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details

2017-08-10 [array names -regexp] supports backrefs (goth)

2017-08-10 Fix gcc build failures due to #pragma placement (cassoff,fellows)

2017-08-29 (bug)[b50fb2] exec redir append stdout and stderr to file (coulter)

2017-08-31 (bug)[2a9465] http state 100 continue handling broken (oehlmann)
=> http 2.8.12

2017-09-02 (bug)[0e4d88] replace command, delete trace kills namespace (porter)

2017-10-19 (bug)[1a5655] [info * methods] includes mixins (fellows)

2017-10-23 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2017c (jima)

2017-10-24 (bug)[fc1409] segfault in method cloning, oo-15.15 (coulter,fellows)

2017-11-03 (bug)[6f2f83] More robust [load] for ReactOS (werner)

2017-11-08 (bug)[3298012] Stop crash when hash tables overflow 32 bits (porter)

2017-11-14 (bug)[5d6de6] Close failing case of [package prefer stable] (kupries)

2017-11-17 (bug)[fab924] Fix misleading [load] message on Windows (oehlmann)

2017-12-05 (bug)[4f6a1e] Crash when ensemble map and list are same (sebres)

2017-12-06 (bug)[ce3a21] file normalize failure when tail is empty (porter)

2017-12-08 (new)[TIP 477] nmake build system reform (nadkarni)

2017-12-19 (bug)[586e71] EvalObjv exception handling at level #0 (sebres,porter)

--- Released 8.6.8, December 22, 2017 --- https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details

2018-02-11 (enhance) stop blocking conversion of object to/from class (coulter)

2018-02-12 (enhance) NR-enable [package require] (coulter)

2018-02-14 (bug)[9fd5c6] crash in object deletion, test oo-11.5 (coulter)

2018-02-14 (bug)[3c32a3] crash deleting object with class mixed in (coulter)

2018-02-15 (platform) stop using -lieee, removed from glibc-2.27 (porter)
***POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY for math programs that embed Tcl***

2018-02-23 (bug)[8e6a9a] bad binary [string match], test string-11.55 (porter)

2018-03-05 (bug)[1873ea] repair multi-thread std channel init (sebres)

2018-03-09 (bug)[db36fa] broken bytecode for index values (porter)

2018-03-13 (bug) broken compiled [string replace], test string-14.19 (porter)

2018-03-14 (bug) [string trim*] engine crashed on invalid UTF (sebres)

2018-04-17 (bug) missing trace in compiled [array set], test var-20.11 (porter)

2018-04-22 (bug)[46a241] crash in unset array with search, var-13.[23] (goth)

2018-04-30 (bug)[27b682] race made [file delete] raise "no such file" (sebres)

2018-06-04 (bug)[925643] 32/64 cleanup of filesystem DIR operations (sebres)

2018-06-18 (bug) leaks in TclSetEnv and env cache (coulter)

2018-06-24 (bug)[3592747] [yieldto] dying namespace, tailcall-14.1 (coulter)

2018-07-09 (bug)[270f78] race in [file mkdir] (sebres)

2018-07-12 (bug)[3f7af0] [file delete] raised "permission denied" (sebres)

2018-07-26 (bug)[d051b7] overflow crash in [format] (sebres)

2018-08-29 revised quoting of [exec] args in generated command line (sebres)
***POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY***

2018-09-20 HTTP Keep-Alive with pipelined requests (nash)
=> http 2.9.0

2018-09-27 (new)[TIP 505] [lreplace] accepts all out of range indices (porter)

2018-10-04 (bug) Prevent crash from NULL keyName (nijtmans)
=> registry 1.3.3

2018-10-26 (enhance) advance dde version (nijtmans)
=> dde 1.4.1

2018-10-27 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2018g (jima)

2018-10-29 Update tcltest package for Travis support (fellows)
=> tcltest 2.5.0

2018-11-09 (bug)[35a8f1] overlong string length of some lists (owens)

2018-11-16 (bug)[00d04c] Repair [binary encode base64] (sebres)

- Released 8.6.9, November 16, 2018 - details at http://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ -

2018-11-22 (bug)[7a9dc5] [file normalize ~/~foo] segfault (sebres)

2018-12-30 (bug)[3cf3a9] variable 'timezone' deprecated in vc2017 (nijtmans)

2019-01-09 (bug)[cc1e91] [list [list {*}[set a " "]]] regression (sebres)

2019-02-01 (bug)[e3f481] tests var-1.2[01] (sebres)

2019-03-01 (new) Update to Unicode 12.0 (nijtmans)

2019-03-05 (new)[TIP 527] New command [timerate] (sebres)

2019-03-08 (bug)[39fed4] [package require] memory validity (hume,porter)

2019-04-23 (new) New command tcl::unsupported::corotype (fellows)

2019-05-04 (bug) memlink when namespace deletion kills linked var (porter)

2019-05-28 (new) README file converted to README.md in Markdown (nijtmans)

2019-06-17 (bug)[8b9854] [info level 0] regression with ensembles (porter)

2019-06-20 (bug)[6bdadf] crash multi-arg write-traced [lappend] (fellows,porter)

2019-06-21 (bug)[f8a33c] crash Tcl_Exit before init (brooks,sebres)

2019-08-27 (bug)[fa6bf3] Bytecode fails epoch recovery at numLevel=0 (sebres)

2019-08-29 (bug)[fec0c1] C stack overflow compiling bytecode (ade,sebres)

2019-09-12 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2019c (jima)

2019-09-20 (new) registry/dde no longer need -DUNICODE (nijtmans)
=> registry 1.3.4
=> dde 1.4.2

2019-10-02 (bug)[16768d] Fix [info hostname] on NetBSD (rytaro)

2019-10-23 (new) libtommath updated to release 1.2.0 (nijtmans)

2019-10-25 OSX: system Tcl deprecated. End default use of its packages. (walzer)

2019-10-28 (bug)[bcd100] bad fs cache when system encoding changes (coulter)

2019-11-15 (bug)[135804] segfault in [next] after destroy (coulter,sebres)

- Released 8.6.10, Nov 21, 2019 - details at http://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ -

Changes to 8.7a3 include all changes to the 8.6 line through 8.6.10,
plus the following, which focuses on the high-level feature changes
in this changeset (new minor version) rather than bug fixes:

2017-11-01 (bug)[3c32a3] crash deleting class mixed into instance (coulter)

2017-11-03 [TIP 345] eliminate the encoding 'identity' (porter)

2017-11-04 (bug)[0d902e] [string first] on ASCII stored as Unicode (fellows)

2017-11-17 [TIP 422] Mark all Tcl_*VA() routines deprecated. (nijtmans)

2017-11-20 (support) Ended use of the obsolete values.h header (culler)

2017-11-30 (bug)[8e1e31] [lsort] ordering of U+0000 (nijtmans)

2017-12-07 [TIP 487] Terminate support for pre-XP Windows (nijtmans)

2017-12-08 [TIP 477] Reform of nmake build (nadkarni)

2017-12-20 (bug)[ba1419] Crash: complex ensemble delete, namespace-7.8 (coulter)

2018-01-17 [TIP 485] Removal of many deprecated features (nijtmans)

2018-01-27 (bug) Crash in [join $l $l], join-4.1 (porter)

2018-02-06 [TIP 493] Cease Distribution of http 1.0 (porter)

2018-02-06 [TIP 484] internal rep for native ints are all 64-bit (nijtmans)

2018-02-14 [TIP 476] Scan/Printf consistency (nijtmans)

2018-03-05 [TIP 351] [lsearch] striding

2018-03-05 [TIPs 330,336] tighten access to Interp fields (porter)

2018-03-12 [TIP 462] [::tcl::process]

2018-03-12 [TIP 490] add oo support for msgcat => msgcat 1.7.0 (oehlmann)

2018-03-12 [TIP 499] custom locale preference list (oehlmann)
=> msgcat 1.7.0

2018-03-20 [TIP 503] End CONST84 support for Tcl 8.3 (porter)

2018-03-30 Refactored [lrange] (spjuth)

2018-04-20 [TIP 389] Unicode beyond BMP (nijtmans)

2018-04-20 [TIP 421] [array for]

2018-05-11 [TIP 425] Windows panic callback use of UTF-8

2018-05-17 [TIP 491] Phase out --disable-threads support

2018-06-03 [TIP 500] TclOO Private Methods and Variables

2018-07-26 (bug)[ba921a] [string cat] of bytearrays (coulter,porter)

2018-09-02 [TIP 478] Many new features in TclOO (lester,fellows)

2018-09-04 (bug)[540bed] [binary format w] from bignum (nijtmans)

2018-09-12 [TIP 430] zipfs and embedded script library (woods)

2018-09-26 [TIP 508] [array default] (bonnet,fellows)

2018-09-27 [TIP 515] level value reform (nijtmans)

2018-09-27 [TIP 516] More OO slot operations (fellows)

2018-09-27 [TIP 426] [info cmdtype] (fellows)

2018-09-28 [TIP 509] Cross platform reentrant mutex

2018-10-08 [TIP 514] native integers are 64-bit

2018-10-12 [TIP 502] index value reform (porter)

2018-11-06 [TIP 406] http cookies (fellows)

2018-11-06 [TIP 445] Tcl_ObjType utilities (migrate to Tcl 9) (porter)

2018-11-06 [TIP 501] [string is dict]

2018-11-06 [TIP 519] inline export/unexport option for [oo::define]

2018-11-06 [TIP 523] [lpop]

2018-11-06 [TIP 524] TclOO custom dialects

2018-11-06 [TIP 506] Tcl_(Incr|Decr)RefCount macros -> functions (porter)

2018-11-15 [TIP 512] No stub for Tcl_SetExitProc()

2019-04-08 (bug)[45b9fa] crash in [try] (coulter)

2019-04-14 [TIP 160] terminal and serial channel controls

2019-04-14 [TIP 312] more types for Tcl_LinkVar

2019-04-14 [TIP 367] [lremove]

2019-04-14 [TIP 504] [string insert]

2019-04-16 [TIP 342] [dict getwithdefault]

2019-05-25 [TIP 431] [file tempdir]

2019-05-25 [TIP 383] [coroinject], [coroprobe]

2019-05-31 [TIP 544] Tcl_GetIntForIndex()

2019-06-12 Replace TclOffset() with offsetof()

2019-06-15 [TIP 461] string compare operators for [expr]

2019-06-16 [TIP 521] floating point classification functions for [expr]

2019-06-20 (bug)[6bdadf] crash multi-arg traced [lappend] (fellows)

2019-06-28 [TIP 547] New encodings utf-16, ucs-2

2019-09-14 [TIP 414] Tcl_InitSubsystems()

2019-09-14 [TIP 548] wchar_t conversion functions

- Released 8.7a3, Nov 21, 2019 --- http://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details -

Changes to compat/fake-rfc2553.c.

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int fake_getnameinfo(const struct sockaddr *sa, size_t salen, char *host,
                size_t hostlen, char *serv, size_t servlen, int flags)
{
	struct sockaddr_in *sin = (struct sockaddr_in *)sa;
	struct hostent *hp;
	char tmpserv[16];


	if (sa->sa_family != AF_UNSPEC && sa->sa_family != AF_INET)
		return (EAI_FAMILY);
	if (serv != NULL) {
		snprintf(tmpserv, sizeof(tmpserv), "%d", ntohs(sin->sin_port));
		if (strlcpy(serv, tmpserv, servlen) >= servlen)
			return (EAI_MEMORY);
................................................................................

#ifndef HAVE_GETADDRINFO
static struct
addrinfo *malloc_ai(int port, u_long addr, const struct addrinfo *hints)
{
	struct addrinfo *ai;

	ai = malloc(sizeof(*ai) + sizeof(struct sockaddr_in));
	if (ai == NULL)
		return (NULL);

	memset(ai, '\0', sizeof(*ai) + sizeof(struct sockaddr_in));

	ai->ai_addr = (struct sockaddr *)(ai + 1);
	/* XXX -- ssh doesn't use sa_len */






>







 







|







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int fake_getnameinfo(const struct sockaddr *sa, size_t salen, char *host,
                size_t hostlen, char *serv, size_t servlen, int flags)
{
	struct sockaddr_in *sin = (struct sockaddr_in *)sa;
	struct hostent *hp;
	char tmpserv[16];
	(void)salen;

	if (sa->sa_family != AF_UNSPEC && sa->sa_family != AF_INET)
		return (EAI_FAMILY);
	if (serv != NULL) {
		snprintf(tmpserv, sizeof(tmpserv), "%d", ntohs(sin->sin_port));
		if (strlcpy(serv, tmpserv, servlen) >= servlen)
			return (EAI_MEMORY);
................................................................................

#ifndef HAVE_GETADDRINFO
static struct
addrinfo *malloc_ai(int port, u_long addr, const struct addrinfo *hints)
{
	struct addrinfo *ai;

	ai = (struct addrinfo *)malloc(sizeof(*ai) + sizeof(struct sockaddr_in));
	if (ai == NULL)
		return (NULL);

	memset(ai, '\0', sizeof(*ai) + sizeof(struct sockaddr_in));

	ai->ai_addr = (struct sockaddr *)(ai + 1);
	/* XXX -- ssh doesn't use sa_len */

Deleted compat/fixstrtod.c.

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/*
 * fixstrtod.c --
 *
 *	Source code for the "fixstrtod" procedure.  This procedure is
 *	used in place of strtod under Solaris 2.4, in order to fix
 *	a bug where the "end" pointer gets set incorrectly.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1995 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
 * of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */

#include <stdio.h>

#undef strtod

/*
 * Declare strtod explicitly rather than including stdlib.h, since in
 * somes systems (e.g. SunOS 4.1.4) stdlib.h doesn't declare strtod.
 */

extern double strtod(char *, char **);

double
fixstrtod(
    char *string,
    char **endPtr)
{
    double d;
    d = strtod(string, endPtr);
    if ((endPtr != NULL) && (*endPtr != string) && ((*endPtr)[-1] == 0)) {
	*endPtr -= 1;
    }
    return d;
}
<
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Deleted compat/float.h.

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/*
 * float.h --
 *
 *	This is a dummy header file to #include in Tcl when there
 *	is no float.h in /usr/include.  Right now this file is empty:
 *	Tcl contains #ifdefs to deal with the lack of definitions;
 *	all it needs is for the #include statement to work.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
 * Copyright (c) 1994 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
 * of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */
<
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Changes to compat/gettod.c.

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int
gettimeofday(
    struct timeval *tp,
    struct timezone *tz)
{
    struct timeb t;


    ftime(&t);
    tp->tv_sec = t.time;
    tp->tv_usec = t. millitm * 1000;
    return 0;
}







>



|



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int
gettimeofday(
    struct timeval *tp,
    struct timezone *tz)
{
    struct timeb t;
    (void)tz;

    ftime(&t);
    tp->tv_sec = t.time;
    tp->tv_usec = t.millitm * 1000;
    return 0;
}

Changes to compat/mkstemp.c.

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 * this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */

#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>


/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * mkstemp --
 *
 *	Create an open temporary file from a template.
................................................................................
 *	The template is updated to contain the real filename.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
mkstemp(
    char *template)		/* Template for filename. */
{
    static const char alphanumerics[] =
	"abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789";
    register char *a, *b;
    int fd, count, alphanumericsLen = strlen(alphanumerics); /* == 62 */

    a = template + strlen(template);
    while (a > template && *(a-1) == 'X') {
	a--;
    }

    if (a == template) {
	errno = ENOENT;
	return -1;
    }

    /*
     * We'll only try up to 10 times; after that, we're suffering from enemy
     * action and should let the caller know.
................................................................................
	    *b = alphanumerics[(int)(r * alphanumericsLen)];
	}

	/*
	 * Template is now realized; try to open (with correct options).
	 */

	fd = open(template, O_RDWR|O_CREAT|O_EXCL, 0600);
    } while (fd == -1 && errno == EEXIST && --count > 0);

    return fd;
}






>







 







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 * this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */

#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <string.h>

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * mkstemp --
 *
 *	Create an open temporary file from a template.
................................................................................
 *	The template is updated to contain the real filename.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
mkstemp(
    char *tmpl)		/* Template for filename. */
{
    static const char alphanumerics[] =
	"abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789";
    char *a, *b;
    int fd, count, alphanumericsLen = strlen(alphanumerics); /* == 62 */

    a = tmpl + strlen(tmpl);
    while (a > tmpl && *(a-1) == 'X') {
	a--;
    }

    if (a == tmpl) {
	errno = ENOENT;
	return -1;
    }

    /*
     * We'll only try up to 10 times; after that, we're suffering from enemy
     * action and should let the caller know.
................................................................................
	    *b = alphanumerics[(int)(r * alphanumericsLen)];
	}

	/*
	 * Template is now realized; try to open (with correct options).
	 */

	fd = open(tmpl, O_RDWR|O_CREAT|O_EXCL, 0600);
    } while (fd == -1 && errno == EEXIST && --count > 0);

    return fd;
}

Changes to compat/opendir.c.

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 * open a directory.
 */

DIR *
opendir(
    char *name)
{
    register DIR *dirp;
    register int fd;
    char *myname;

    myname = ((*name == '\0') ? "." : name);
    if ((fd = open(myname, 0, 0)) == -1) {
	return NULL;
    }
    dirp = (DIR *) ckalloc(sizeof(DIR));
    if (dirp == NULL) {
................................................................................

/*
 * get next entry in a directory.
 */

struct dirent *
readdir(
    register DIR *dirp)
{
    register struct olddirect *dp;
    static struct dirent dir;

    for (;;) {
	if (dirp->dd_loc == 0) {
	    dirp->dd_size = read(dirp->dd_fd, dirp->dd_buf, DIRBLKSIZ);
	    if (dirp->dd_size <= 0) {
		return NULL;
................................................................................

/*
 * close a directory.
 */

void
closedir(
    register DIR *dirp)
{
    close(dirp->dd_fd);
    dirp->dd_fd = -1;
    dirp->dd_loc = 0;
    ckfree(dirp);
}






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 * open a directory.
 */

DIR *
opendir(
    char *name)
{
    DIR *dirp;
    int fd;
    const char *myname;

    myname = ((*name == '\0') ? "." : name);
    if ((fd = open(myname, 0, 0)) == -1) {
	return NULL;
    }
    dirp = (DIR *) ckalloc(sizeof(DIR));
    if (dirp == NULL) {
................................................................................

/*
 * get next entry in a directory.
 */

struct dirent *
readdir(
    DIR *dirp)
{
    struct olddirect *dp;
    static struct dirent dir;

    for (;;) {
	if (dirp->dd_loc == 0) {
	    dirp->dd_size = read(dirp->dd_fd, dirp->dd_buf, DIRBLKSIZ);
	    if (dirp->dd_size <= 0) {
		return NULL;
................................................................................

/*
 * close a directory.
 */

void
closedir(
    DIR *dirp)
{
    close(dirp->dd_fd);
    dirp->dd_fd = -1;
    dirp->dd_loc = 0;
    ckfree(dirp);
}

Changes to compat/stdlib.h.

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/*
 * stdlib.h --
 *
 *	Declares facilities exported by the "stdlib" portion of the C library.
 *	This file isn't complete in the ANSI-C sense; it only declares things
 *	that are needed by Tcl. This file is needed even on many systems with
 *	their own stdlib.h (e.g. SunOS) because not all stdlib.h files declare
 *	all the procedures needed here (such as strtod).
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1991 The Regents of the University of California.
 * Copyright (c) 1994-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution of
 * this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */
................................................................................
extern void		exit(int status);
extern int		free(char *blockPtr);
extern char *		getenv(const char *name);
extern char *		malloc(unsigned int numBytes);
extern void		qsort(void *base, int n, int size, int (*compar)(
			    const void *element1, const void *element2));
extern char *		realloc(char *ptr, unsigned int numBytes);
extern double		strtod(const char *string, char **endPtr);
extern long		strtol(const char *string, char **endPtr, int base);
extern unsigned long	strtoul(const char *string, char **endPtr, int base);

#endif /* _STDLIB */






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/*
 * stdlib.h --
 *
 *	Declares facilities exported by the "stdlib" portion of the C library.
 *	This file isn't complete in the ANSI-C sense; it only declares things
 *	that are needed by Tcl. This file is needed even on many systems with
 *	their own stdlib.h (e.g. SunOS) because not all stdlib.h files declare
 *	all the procedures needed here (such as strtol/strtoul).
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1991 The Regents of the University of California.
 * Copyright (c) 1994-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution of
 * this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */
................................................................................
extern void		exit(int status);
extern int		free(char *blockPtr);
extern char *		getenv(const char *name);
extern char *		malloc(unsigned int numBytes);
extern void		qsort(void *base, int n, int size, int (*compar)(
			    const void *element1, const void *element2));
extern char *		realloc(char *ptr, unsigned int numBytes);

extern long		strtol(const char *string, char **endPtr, int base);
extern unsigned long	strtoul(const char *string, char **endPtr, int base);

#endif /* _STDLIB */

Changes to compat/strstr.c.

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 *	None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

char *
strstr(
    register char *string,	/* String to search. */
    char *substring)		/* Substring to try to find in string. */
{
    register char *a, *b;

    /*
     * First scan quickly through the two strings looking for a
     * single-character match. When it's found, then compare the rest of the
     * substring.
     */







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 *	None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

char *
strstr(
    char *string,		/* String to search. */
    char *substring)		/* Substring to try to find in string. */
{
    char *a, *b;

    /*
     * First scan quickly through the two strings looking for a
     * single-character match. When it's found, then compare the rest of the
     * substring.
     */

Deleted compat/strtod.c.

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/*
 * strtod.c --
 *
 *	Source code for the "strtod" library procedure.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1988-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
 * Copyright (c) 1994 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
 * of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */

#include "tclInt.h"

#ifndef TRUE
#define TRUE 1
#define FALSE 0
#endif
#ifndef NULL
#define NULL 0
#endif

static const int maxExponent = 511;	/* Largest possible base 10 exponent.  Any
				 * exponent larger than this will already
				 * produce underflow or overflow, so there's
				 * no need to worry about additional digits.
				 */
static const double powersOf10[] = {	/* Table giving binary powers of 10.  Entry */
    10.,			/* is 10^2^i.  Used to convert decimal */
    100.,			/* exponents into floating-point numbers. */
    1.0e4,
    1.0e8,
    1.0e16,
    1.0e32,
    1.0e64,
    1.0e128,
    1.0e256
};
 
/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * strtod --
 *
 *	This procedure converts a floating-point number from an ASCII
 *	decimal representation to internal double-precision format.
 *
 * Results:
 *	The return value is the double-precision floating-point
 *	representation of the characters in string.  If endPtr isn't
 *	NULL, then *endPtr is filled in with the address of the
 *	next character after the last one that was part of the
 *	floating-point number.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

double
strtod(
    const char *string,		/* A decimal ASCII floating-point number,
				 * optionally preceded by white space. Must
				 * have form "-I.FE-X", where I is the integer
				 * part of the mantissa, F is the fractional
				 * part of the mantissa, and X is the
				 * exponent. Either of the signs may be "+",
				 * "-", or omitted. Either I or F may be
				 * omitted, or both. The decimal point isn't
				 * necessary unless F is present. The "E" may
				 * actually be an "e". E and X may both be
				 * omitted (but not just one). */
    char **endPtr)		/* If non-NULL, store terminating character's
				 * address here. */
{
    int sign, expSign = FALSE;
    double fraction, dblExp;
    const double *d;
    register const char *p;
    register int c;
    int exp = 0;		/* Exponent read from "EX" field. */
    int fracExp = 0;		/* Exponent that derives from the fractional
				 * part. Under normal circumstatnces, it is
				 * the negative of the number of digits in F.
				 * However, if I is very long, the last digits
				 * of I get dropped (otherwise a long I with a
				 * large negative exponent could cause an
				 * unnecessary overflow on I alone). In this
				 * case, fracExp is incremented one for each
				 * dropped digit. */
    int mantSize;		/* Number of digits in mantissa. */
    int decPt;			/* Number of mantissa digits BEFORE decimal
				 * point. */
    const char *pExp;		/* Temporarily holds location of exponent in
				 * string. */

    /*
     * Strip off leading blanks and check for a sign.
     */

    p = string;
    while (isspace(UCHAR(*p))) {
	p += 1;
    }
    if (*p == '-') {
	sign = TRUE;
	p += 1;
    } else {
	if (*p == '+') {
	    p += 1;
	}
	sign = FALSE;
    }

    /*
     * Count the number of digits in the mantissa (including the decimal
     * point), and also locate the decimal point.
     */

    decPt = -1;
    for (mantSize = 0; ; mantSize += 1)
    {
	c = *p;
	if (!isdigit(c)) {
	    if ((c != '.') || (decPt >= 0)) {
		break;
	    }
	    decPt = mantSize;
	}
	p += 1;
    }

    /*
     * Now suck up the digits in the mantissa. Use two integers to collect 9
     * digits each (this is faster than using floating-point). If the mantissa
     * has more than 18 digits, ignore the extras, since they can't affect the
     * value anyway.
     */

    pExp  = p;
    p -= mantSize;
    if (decPt < 0) {
	decPt = mantSize;
    } else {
	mantSize -= 1;		/* One of the digits was the point. */
    }
    if (mantSize > 18) {
	fracExp = decPt - 18;
	mantSize = 18;
    } else {
	fracExp = decPt - mantSize;
    }
    if (mantSize == 0) {
	fraction = 0.0;
	p = string;
	goto done;
    } else {
	int frac1, frac2;

	frac1 = 0;
	for ( ; mantSize > 9; mantSize -= 1) {
	    c = *p;
	    p += 1;
	    if (c == '.') {
		c = *p;
		p += 1;
	    }
	    frac1 = 10*frac1 + (c - '0');
	}
	frac2 = 0;
	for (; mantSize > 0; mantSize -= 1) {
	    c = *p;
	    p += 1;
	    if (c == '.') {
		c = *p;
		p += 1;
	    }
	    frac2 = 10*frac2 + (c - '0');
	}
	fraction = (1.0e9 * frac1) + frac2;
    }

    /*
     * Skim off the exponent.
     */

    p = pExp;
    if ((*p == 'E') || (*p == 'e')) {
	p += 1;
	if (*p == '-') {
	    expSign = TRUE;
	    p += 1;
	} else {
	    if (*p == '+') {
		p += 1;
	    }
	    expSign = FALSE;
	}
	if (!isdigit(UCHAR(*p))) {
	    p = pExp;
	    goto done;
	}
	while (isdigit(UCHAR(*p))) {
	    exp = exp * 10 + (*p - '0');
	    p += 1;
	}
    }
    if (expSign) {
	exp = fracExp - exp;
    } else {
	exp = fracExp + exp;
    }

    /*
     * Generate a floating-point number that represents the exponent. Do this
     * by processing the exponent one bit at a time to combine many powers of
     * 2 of 10. Then combine the exponent with the fraction.
     */

    if (exp < 0) {
	expSign = TRUE;
	exp = -exp;
    } else {
	expSign = FALSE;
    }
    if (exp > maxExponent) {
	exp = maxExponent;
	errno = ERANGE;
    }
    dblExp = 1.0;
    for (d = powersOf10; exp != 0; exp >>= 1, ++d) {
	if (exp & 01) {
	    dblExp *= *d;
	}
    }
    if (expSign) {
	fraction /= dblExp;
    } else {
	fraction *= dblExp;
    }

  done:
    if (endPtr != NULL) {
	*endPtr = (char *) p;
    }

    if (sign) {
	return -fraction;
    }
    return fraction;
}
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Changes to compat/strtol.c.

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				 * character, or NULL. */
    int base)			/* Base for conversion. Must be less than 37.
				 * If 0, then the base is chosen from the
				 * leading characters of string: "0x" means
				 * hex, "0" means octal, anything else means
				 * decimal. */
{
    register const char *p;
    long result;

    /*
     * Skip any leading blanks.
     */

    p = string;
    while (isspace(UCHAR(*p))) {
	p += 1;
    }

    /*
     * Check for a sign.
     */







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				 * character, or NULL. */
    int base)			/* Base for conversion. Must be less than 37.
				 * If 0, then the base is chosen from the
				 * leading characters of string: "0x" means
				 * hex, "0" means octal, anything else means
				 * decimal. */
{
    const char *p;
    long result;

    /*
     * Skip any leading blanks.
     */

    p = string;
    while (TclIsSpaceProc(*p)) {
	p += 1;
    }

    /*
     * Check for a sign.
     */

Changes to compat/strtoul.c.

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				 * character, or NULL. */
    int base)			/* Base for conversion.  Must be less than 37.
				 * If 0, then the base is chosen from the
				 * leading characters of string: "0x" means
				 * hex, "0" means octal, anything else means
				 * decimal. */
{
    register const char *p;
    register unsigned long int result = 0;
    register unsigned digit;
    int anyDigits = 0;
    int negative=0;
    int overflow=0;

    /*
     * Skip any leading blanks.
     */

    p = string;
    while (isspace(UCHAR(*p))) {
	p += 1;
    }
    if (*p == '-') {
        negative = 1;
        p += 1;
    } else {
        if (*p == '+') {






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				 * character, or NULL. */
    int base)			/* Base for conversion.  Must be less than 37.
				 * If 0, then the base is chosen from the
				 * leading characters of string: "0x" means
				 * hex, "0" means octal, anything else means
				 * decimal. */
{
    const char *p;
    unsigned long int result = 0;
    unsigned digit;
    int anyDigits = 0;
    int negative=0;
    int overflow=0;

    /*
     * Skip any leading blanks.
     */

    p = string;
    while (TclIsSpaceProc(*p)) {
	p += 1;
    }
    if (*p == '-') {
        negative = 1;
        p += 1;
    } else {
        if (*p == '+') {

Deleted compat/unistd.h.

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/*
 * unistd.h --
 *
 *      Macros, constants and prototypes for Posix conformance.
 *
 * Copyright 1989 Regents of the University of California Permission to use,
 * copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any
 * purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
 * copyright notice appear in all copies. The University of California makes
 * no representations about the suitability of this software for any purpose.
 * It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty.
 */

#ifndef _UNISTD
#define _UNISTD

#include <sys/types.h>

#ifndef NULL
#define NULL    0
#endif

/*
 * Strict POSIX stuff goes here. Extensions go down below, in the ifndef
 * _POSIX_SOURCE section.
 */

extern void		_exit(int status);
extern int		access(const char *path, int mode);
extern int		chdir(const char *path);
extern int		chown(const char *path, uid_t owner, gid_t group);
extern int		close(int fd);
extern int		dup(int oldfd);
extern int		dup2(int oldfd, int newfd);
extern int		execl(const char *path, ...);
extern int		execle(const char *path, ...);
extern int		execlp(const char *file, ...);
extern int		execv(const char *path, char **argv);
extern int		execve(const char *path, char **argv, char **envp);
extern int		execvpw(const char *file, char **argv);
extern pid_t		fork(void);
extern char *		getcwd(char *buf, size_t size);
extern gid_t		getegid(void);
extern uid_t		geteuid(void);
extern gid_t		getgid(void);
extern int		getgroups(int bufSize, int *buffer);
extern pid_t		getpid(void);
extern uid_t		getuid(void);
extern int		isatty(int fd);
extern long		lseek(int fd, long offset, int whence);
extern int		pipe(int *fildes);
extern int		read(int fd, char *buf, size_t size);
extern int		setgid(gid_t group);
extern int		setuid(uid_t user);
extern unsigned		sleep(unsigned seconds);
extern char *		ttyname(int fd);
extern int		unlink(const char *path);
extern int		write(int fd, const char *buf, size_t size);

#ifndef	_POSIX_SOURCE
extern char *		crypt(const char *, const char *);
extern int		fchown(int fd, uid_t owner, gid_t group);
extern int		flock(int fd, int operation);
extern int		ftruncate(int fd, unsigned long length);
extern int		ioctl(int fd, int request, ...);
extern int		readlink(const char *path, char *buf, int bufsize);
extern int		setegid(gid_t group);
extern int		seteuidw(uid_t user);
extern int		setreuid(int ruid, int euid);
extern int		symlink(const char *, const char *);
extern int		ttyslot(void);
extern int		truncate(const char *path, unsigned long length);
extern int		vfork(void);
#endif /* _POSIX_SOURCE */

#endif /* _UNISTD */
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Changes to compat/waitpid.c.

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    pid_t pid,			/* The pid to wait on. Must be -1 or greater
				 * than zero. */
    int *statusPtr,		/* Where to store wait status for the
				 * process. */
    int options)		/* OR'ed combination of WNOHANG and
				 * WUNTRACED. */
{
    register WaitInfo *waitPtr, *prevPtr;
    pid_t result;
    WAIT_STATUS_TYPE status;

    if ((pid < -1) || (pid == 0)) {
	errno = EINVAL;
	return -1;
    }






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    pid_t pid,			/* The pid to wait on. Must be -1 or greater
				 * than zero. */
    int *statusPtr,		/* Where to store wait status for the
				 * process. */
    int options)		/* OR'ed combination of WNOHANG and
				 * WUNTRACED. */
{
    WaitInfo *waitPtr, *prevPtr;
    pid_t result;
    WAIT_STATUS_TYPE status;

    if ((pid < -1) || (pid == 0)) {
	errno = EINVAL;
	return -1;
    }

Changes to compat/zlib/contrib/minizip/crypt.h.

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   The new AES encryption added on Zip format by Winzip (see the page
   http://www.winzip.com/aes_info.htm ) and PKWare PKZip 5.x Strong
   Encryption is not supported.
*/

#define CRC32(c, b) ((*(pcrc_32_tab+(((int)(c) ^ (b)) & 0xff))) ^ ((c) >> 8))







/***********************************************************************
 * Return the next byte in the pseudo-random sequence
 */
static int decrypt_byte(unsigned long* pkeys, const z_crc_t* pcrc_32_tab)
{
    unsigned temp;  /* POTENTIAL BUG:  temp*(temp^1) may overflow in an
................................................................................
 */
static int update_keys(unsigned long* pkeys,const z_crc_t* pcrc_32_tab,int c)
{
    (*(pkeys+0)) = CRC32((*(pkeys+0)), c);
    (*(pkeys+1)) += (*(pkeys+0)) & 0xff;
    (*(pkeys+1)) = (*(pkeys+1)) * 134775813L + 1;
    {
      register int keyshift = (int)((*(pkeys+1)) >> 24);
      (*(pkeys+2)) = CRC32((*(pkeys+2)), keyshift);
    }
    return c;
}


/***********************************************************************






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   The new AES encryption added on Zip format by Winzip (see the page
   http://www.winzip.com/aes_info.htm ) and PKWare PKZip 5.x Strong
   Encryption is not supported.
*/

#define CRC32(c, b) ((*(pcrc_32_tab+(((int)(c) ^ (b)) & 0xff))) ^ ((c) >> 8))

#ifdef Z_U4
   typedef Z_U4 z_crc_t;
#else
   typedef unsigned long z_crc_t;
#endif

/***********************************************************************
 * Return the next byte in the pseudo-random sequence
 */
static int decrypt_byte(unsigned long* pkeys, const z_crc_t* pcrc_32_tab)
{
    unsigned temp;  /* POTENTIAL BUG:  temp*(temp^1) may overflow in an
................................................................................
 */
static int update_keys(unsigned long* pkeys,const z_crc_t* pcrc_32_tab,int c)
{
    (*(pkeys+0)) = CRC32((*(pkeys+0)), c);
    (*(pkeys+1)) += (*(pkeys+0)) & 0xff;
    (*(pkeys+1)) = (*(pkeys+1)) * 134775813L + 1;
    {
      int keyshift = (int)((*(pkeys+1)) >> 24);
      (*(pkeys+2)) = CRC32((*(pkeys+2)), keyshift);
    }
    return c;
}


/***********************************************************************

Changes to compat/zlib/contrib/minizip/ioapi.c.

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*/

#if defined(_WIN32) && (!(defined(_CRT_SECURE_NO_WARNINGS)))
        #define _CRT_SECURE_NO_WARNINGS
#endif





#if defined(__APPLE__) || defined(IOAPI_NO_64)
// In darwin and perhaps other BSD variants off_t is a 64 bit value, hence no need for specific 64 bit functions
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko(stream, offset, origin)
#else
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen64(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello64(stream)






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*/

#if defined(_WIN32) && (!(defined(_CRT_SECURE_NO_WARNINGS)))
        #define _CRT_SECURE_NO_WARNINGS
#endif

#if defined(_WIN32)
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) _ftelli64(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) _fseeki64(stream, offset, origin)
#elif defined(__APPLE__) || defined(IOAPI_NO_64)
// In darwin and perhaps other BSD variants off_t is a 64 bit value, hence no need for specific 64 bit functions
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko(stream, offset, origin)
#else
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen64(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello64(stream)

Changes to compat/zlib/contrib/minizip/miniunz.c.

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                      0,NULL,OPEN_EXISTING,0,NULL);
  GetFileTime(hFile,&ftCreate,&ftLastAcc,&ftLastWrite);
  DosDateTimeToFileTime((WORD)(dosdate>>16),(WORD)dosdate,&ftLocal);
  LocalFileTimeToFileTime(&ftLocal,&ftm);
  SetFileTime(hFile,&ftm,&ftLastAcc,&ftm);
  CloseHandle(hFile);
#else
#ifdef unix || __APPLE__
  struct utimbuf ut;
  struct tm newdate;
  newdate.tm_sec = tmu_date.tm_sec;
  newdate.tm_min=tmu_date.tm_min;
  newdate.tm_hour=tmu_date.tm_hour;
  newdate.tm_mday=tmu_date.tm_mday;
  newdate.tm_mon=tmu_date.tm_mon;






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                      0,NULL,OPEN_EXISTING,0,NULL);
  GetFileTime(hFile,&ftCreate,&ftLastAcc,&ftLastWrite);
  DosDateTimeToFileTime((WORD)(dosdate>>16),(WORD)dosdate,&ftLocal);
  LocalFileTimeToFileTime(&ftLocal,&ftm);
  SetFileTime(hFile,&ftm,&ftLastAcc,&ftm);
  CloseHandle(hFile);
#else
#if defined(unix) || defined(__APPLE__)
  struct utimbuf ut;
  struct tm newdate;
  newdate.tm_sec = tmu_date.tm_sec;
  newdate.tm_min=tmu_date.tm_min;
  newdate.tm_hour=tmu_date.tm_hour;
  newdate.tm_mday=tmu_date.tm_mday;
  newdate.tm_mon=tmu_date.tm_mon;

Changes to compat/zlib/contrib/minizip/minizip.c.

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         Modifications of Unzip for Zip64
         Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Even Rouault

         Modifications for Zip64 support on both zip and unzip
         Copyright (C) 2009-2010 Mathias Svensson ( http://result42.com )
*/


#if (!defined(_WIN32)) && (!defined(WIN32)) && (!defined(__APPLE__))
        #ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
                #define __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
        #endif
        #ifndef __USE_LARGEFILE64
                #define __USE_LARGEFILE64
        #endif
................................................................................
                #define _LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
        #endif
        #ifndef _FILE_OFFSET_BIT
                #define _FILE_OFFSET_BIT 64
        #endif
#endif

#ifdef __APPLE__




// In darwin and perhaps other BSD variants off_t is a 64 bit value, hence no need for specific 64 bit functions
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko(stream, offset, origin)
#else
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen64(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello64(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko64(stream, offset, origin)
#endif



#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

................................................................................


#define WRITEBUFFERSIZE (16384)
#define MAXFILENAME (256)

#ifdef _WIN32
uLong filetime(f, tmzip, dt)
    char *f;                /* name of file to get info on */
    tm_zip *tmzip;             /* return value: access, modific. and creation times */
    uLong *dt;             /* dostime */
{
  int ret = 0;
  {
      FILETIME ftLocal;
      HANDLE hFind;
      WIN32_FIND_DATAA ff32;
................................................................................
        FindClose(hFind);
        ret = 1;
      }
  }
  return ret;
}
#else
#ifdef unix || __APPLE__
uLong filetime(f, tmzip, dt)
    char *f;               /* name of file to get info on */
    tm_zip *tmzip;         /* return value: access, modific. and creation times */
    uLong *dt;             /* dostime */
{
  int ret=0;
  struct stat s;        /* results of stat() */
  struct tm* filedate;
  time_t tm_t=0;
................................................................................
  tmzip->tm_mon  = filedate->tm_mon ;
  tmzip->tm_year = filedate->tm_year;

  return ret;
}
#else
uLong filetime(f, tmzip, dt)
    char *f;                /* name of file to get info on */
    tm_zip *tmzip;             /* return value: access, modific. and creation times */
    uLong *dt;             /* dostime */
{
    return 0;
}
#endif
#endif

................................................................................
    printf("MiniZip 1.1, demo of zLib + MiniZip64 package, written by Gilles Vollant\n");
    printf("more info on MiniZip at http://www.winimage.com/zLibDll/minizip.html\n\n");
}

void do_help()
{
    printf("Usage : minizip [-o] [-a] [-0 to -9] [-p password] [-j] file.zip [files_to_add]\n\n" \

           "  -o  Overwrite existing file.zip\n" \
           "  -a  Append to existing file.zip\n" \
           "  -0  Store only\n" \
           "  -1  Compress faster\n" \
           "  -9  Compress better\n\n" \
           "  -j  exclude path. store only the file name.\n\n");
}
................................................................................
     largeFile = 1;

                fclose(pFile);
  }

 return largeFile;
}













































































































































int main(argc,argv)
    int argc;
    char *argv[];
{
    int i;

    int opt_overwrite=0;
    int opt_compress_level=Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION;
    int opt_exclude_path=0;
    int zipfilenamearg = 0;
    char filename_try[MAXFILENAME+16];
    int zipok;
    int err=0;
    int size_buf=0;
................................................................................
                        opt_overwrite = 1;
                    if ((c=='a') || (c=='A'))
                        opt_overwrite = 2;
                    if ((c>='0') && (c<='9'))
                        opt_compress_level = c-'0';
                    if ((c=='j') || (c=='J'))
                        opt_exclude_path = 1;


                    if (((c=='p') || (c=='P')) && (i+1<argc))
                    {
                        password=argv[i+1];
                        i++;
                    }
                }
            }
................................................................................

        for (i=zipfilenamearg+1;(i<argc) && (err==ZIP_OK);i++)
        {
            if (!((((*(argv[i]))=='-') || ((*(argv[i]))=='/')) &&
                  ((argv[i][1]=='o') || (argv[i][1]=='O') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='a') || (argv[i][1]=='A') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='p') || (argv[i][1]=='P') ||

                   ((argv[i][1]>='0') || (argv[i][1]<='9'))) &&
                  (strlen(argv[i]) == 2)))
            {
                FILE * fin;
                int size_read;
                const char* filenameinzip = argv[i];
                const char *savefilenameinzip;
                zip_fileinfo zi;
                unsigned long crcFile=0;
                int zip64 = 0;

                zi.tmz_date.tm_sec = zi.tmz_date.tm_min = zi.tmz_date.tm_hour =
                zi.tmz_date.tm_mday = zi.tmz_date.tm_mon = zi.tmz_date.tm_year = 0;
                zi.dosDate = 0;
                zi.internal_fa = 0;
                zi.external_fa = 0;
                filetime(filenameinzip,&zi.tmz_date,&zi.dosDate);

/*
                err = zipOpenNewFileInZip(zf,filenameinzip,&zi,
                                 NULL,0,NULL,0,NULL / * comment * /,
                                 (opt_compress_level != 0) ? Z_DEFLATED : 0,
                                 opt_compress_level);
*/
                if ((password != NULL) && (err==ZIP_OK))
                    err = getFileCrc(filenameinzip,buf,size_buf,&crcFile);

                zip64 = isLargeFile(filenameinzip);

                                                         /* The path name saved, should not include a leading slash. */
               /*if it did, windows/xp and dynazip couldn't read the zip file. */
                 savefilenameinzip = filenameinzip;
                 while( savefilenameinzip[0] == '\\' || savefilenameinzip[0] == '/' )
                 {
                     savefilenameinzip++;
                 }

                 /*should the zip file contain any path at all?*/
                 if( opt_exclude_path )
                 {
                     const char *tmpptr;
                     const char *lastslash = 0;
                     for( tmpptr = savefilenameinzip; *tmpptr; tmpptr++)
                     {
                         if( *tmpptr == '\\' || *tmpptr == '/')
                         {
                             lastslash = tmpptr;
                         }
                     }
                     if( lastslash != NULL )
                     {
                         savefilenameinzip = lastslash+1; // base filename follows last slash.
                     }
                 }

                 /**/
                err = zipOpenNewFileInZip3_64(zf,savefilenameinzip,&zi,
                                 NULL,0,NULL,0,NULL /* comment*/,
                                 (opt_compress_level != 0) ? Z_DEFLATED : 0,
                                 opt_compress_level,0,
                                 /* -MAX_WBITS, DEF_MEM_LEVEL, Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY, */
                                 -MAX_WBITS, DEF_MEM_LEVEL, Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY,
                                 password,crcFile, zip64);

                if (err != ZIP_OK)
                    printf("error in opening %s in zipfile\n",filenameinzip);
                else
                {
                    fin = FOPEN_FUNC(filenameinzip,"rb");
                    if (fin==NULL)
                    {
                        err=ZIP_ERRNO;
                        printf("error in opening %s for reading\n",filenameinzip);
                    }
                }

                if (err == ZIP_OK)
                    do
                    {
                        err = ZIP_OK;
                        size_read = (int)fread(buf,1,size_buf,fin);
                        if (size_read < size_buf)
                            if (feof(fin)==0)
                        {
                            printf("error in reading %s\n",filenameinzip);
                            err = ZIP_ERRNO;
                        }

                        if (size_read>0)
                        {
                            err = zipWriteInFileInZip (zf,buf,size_read);
                            if (err<0)
                            {
                                printf("error in writing %s in the zipfile\n",
                                                 filenameinzip);
                            }

                        }
                    } while ((err == ZIP_OK) && (size_read>0));

                if (fin)
                    fclose(fin);

                if (err<0)
                    err=ZIP_ERRNO;
                else
                {
                    err = zipCloseFileInZip(zf);
                    if (err!=ZIP_OK)
                        printf("error in closing %s in the zipfile\n",
                                    filenameinzip);

                }
            }
        }
        errclose = zipClose(zf,NULL);
        if (errclose != ZIP_OK)
            printf("error in closing %s\n",filename_try);
    }






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         Modifications of Unzip for Zip64
         Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Even Rouault

         Modifications for Zip64 support on both zip and unzip
         Copyright (C) 2009-2010 Mathias Svensson ( http://result42.com )
*/


#if (!defined(_WIN32)) && (!defined(WIN32)) && (!defined(__APPLE__))
        #ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
                #define __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
        #endif
        #ifndef __USE_LARGEFILE64
                #define __USE_LARGEFILE64
        #endif
................................................................................
                #define _LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
        #endif
        #ifndef _FILE_OFFSET_BIT
                #define _FILE_OFFSET_BIT 64
        #endif
#endif

#if defined(_WIN32)
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) _ftelli64(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) _fseeki64(stream, offset, origin)
#elif defined(__APPLE__) || defined(IOAPI_NO_64)
// In darwin and perhaps other BSD variants off_t is a 64 bit value, hence no need for specific 64 bit functions
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko(stream, offset, origin)
#else
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen64(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello64(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko64(stream, offset, origin)
#endif

#include "tinydir.h"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

................................................................................


#define WRITEBUFFERSIZE (16384)
#define MAXFILENAME (256)

#ifdef _WIN32
uLong filetime(f, tmzip, dt)
    const char *f;         /* name of file to get info on */
    tm_zip *tmzip;         /* return value: access, modific. and creation times */
    uLong *dt;             /* dostime */
{
  int ret = 0;
  {
      FILETIME ftLocal;
      HANDLE hFind;
      WIN32_FIND_DATAA ff32;
................................................................................
        FindClose(hFind);
        ret = 1;
      }
  }
  return ret;
}
#else
#if defined(unix) || defined(__APPLE__)
uLong filetime(f, tmzip, dt)
    const char *f;         /* name of file to get info on */
    tm_zip *tmzip;         /* return value: access, modific. and creation times */
    uLong *dt;             /* dostime */
{
  int ret=0;
  struct stat s;        /* results of stat() */
  struct tm* filedate;
  time_t tm_t=0;
................................................................................
  tmzip->tm_mon  = filedate->tm_mon ;
  tmzip->tm_year = filedate->tm_year;

  return ret;
}
#else
uLong filetime(f, tmzip, dt)
    const char *f;         /* name of file to get info on */
    tm_zip *tmzip;         /* return value: access, modific. and creation times */
    uLong *dt;             /* dostime */
{
    return 0;
}
#endif
#endif

................................................................................
    printf("MiniZip 1.1, demo of zLib + MiniZip64 package, written by Gilles Vollant\n");
    printf("more info on MiniZip at http://www.winimage.com/zLibDll/minizip.html\n\n");
}

void do_help()
{
    printf("Usage : minizip [-o] [-a] [-0 to -9] [-p password] [-j] file.zip [files_to_add]\n\n" \
           "  -r  Scan directories recursively\n" \
           "  -o  Overwrite existing file.zip\n" \
           "  -a  Append to existing file.zip\n" \
           "  -0  Store only\n" \
           "  -1  Compress faster\n" \
           "  -9  Compress better\n\n" \
           "  -j  exclude path. store only the file name.\n\n");
}
................................................................................
     largeFile = 1;

                fclose(pFile);
  }

 return largeFile;
}

void addFileToZip(zipFile zf, const char *filenameinzip, const char *password, int opt_exclude_path,int opt_compress_level) {
    FILE * fin;
    int size_read;
    const char *savefilenameinzip;
    zip_fileinfo zi;
    unsigned long crcFile=0;
    int zip64 = 0;
    int err=0;
    int size_buf=WRITEBUFFERSIZE;
    unsigned char buf[WRITEBUFFERSIZE];
    zi.tmz_date.tm_sec = zi.tmz_date.tm_min = zi.tmz_date.tm_hour =
    zi.tmz_date.tm_mday = zi.tmz_date.tm_mon = zi.tmz_date.tm_year = 0;
    zi.dosDate = 0;
    zi.internal_fa = 0;
    zi.external_fa = 0;
    filetime(filenameinzip,&zi.tmz_date,&zi.dosDate);

/*
    err = zipOpenNewFileInZip(zf,filenameinzip,&zi,
                     NULL,0,NULL,0,NULL / * comment * /,
                     (opt_compress_level != 0) ? Z_DEFLATED : 0,
                     opt_compress_level);
*/
    if ((password != NULL) && (err==ZIP_OK))
        err = getFileCrc(filenameinzip,buf,size_buf,&crcFile);

    zip64 = isLargeFile(filenameinzip);

   /* The path name saved, should not include a leading slash. */
   /*if it did, windows/xp and dynazip couldn't read the zip file. */
     savefilenameinzip = filenameinzip;
     while( savefilenameinzip[0] == '\\' || savefilenameinzip[0] == '/' )
     {
         savefilenameinzip++;
     }

     /*should the zip file contain any path at all?*/
     if( opt_exclude_path )
     {
         const char *tmpptr;
         const char *lastslash = 0;
         for( tmpptr = savefilenameinzip; *tmpptr; tmpptr++)
         {
             if( *tmpptr == '\\' || *tmpptr == '/')
             {
                 lastslash = tmpptr;
             }
         }
         if( lastslash != NULL )
         {
             savefilenameinzip = lastslash+1; // base filename follows last slash.
         }
     }

     /**/
    err = zipOpenNewFileInZip3_64(zf,savefilenameinzip,&zi,
                     NULL,0,NULL,0,NULL /* comment*/,
                     (opt_compress_level != 0) ? Z_DEFLATED : 0,
                     opt_compress_level,0,
                     /* -MAX_WBITS, DEF_MEM_LEVEL, Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY, */
                     -MAX_WBITS, DEF_MEM_LEVEL, Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY,
                     password,crcFile, zip64);

    if (err != ZIP_OK)
        printf("error in opening %s in zipfile\n",filenameinzip);
    else
    {
        fin = FOPEN_FUNC(filenameinzip,"rb");
        if (fin==NULL)
        {
            err=ZIP_ERRNO;
            printf("error in opening %s for reading\n",filenameinzip);
        }
    }

    if (err == ZIP_OK)
        do
        {
            err = ZIP_OK;
            size_read = (int)fread(buf,1,size_buf,fin);
            if (size_read < size_buf)
                if (feof(fin)==0)
            {
                printf("error in reading %s\n",filenameinzip);
                err = ZIP_ERRNO;
            }

            if (size_read>0)
            {
                err = zipWriteInFileInZip (zf,buf,size_read);
                if (err<0)
                {
                    printf("error in writing %s in the zipfile\n",
                                     filenameinzip);
                }

            }
        } while ((err == ZIP_OK) && (size_read>0));

    if (fin)
        fclose(fin);

    if (err<0)
        err=ZIP_ERRNO;
    else
    {
        err = zipCloseFileInZip(zf);
        if (err!=ZIP_OK)
            printf("error in closing %s in the zipfile\n",
                        filenameinzip);
    }
}


void addPathToZip(zipFile zf, const char *filenameinzip, const char *password, int opt_exclude_path,int opt_compress_level) {
    tinydir_dir dir;
    int i;
    char newname[512];

    tinydir_open_sorted(&dir, filenameinzip);

    for (i = 0; i < dir.n_files; i++)
    {
        tinydir_file file;
        tinydir_readfile_n(&dir, &file, i);
        if(strcmp(file.name,".")==0) continue;
        if(strcmp(file.name,"..")==0) continue;
        sprintf(newname,"%s/%s",dir.path,file.name);
        if (file.is_dir)
        {
            addPathToZip(zf,newname,password,opt_exclude_path,opt_compress_level);
        } else {
            addFileToZip(zf,newname,password,opt_exclude_path,opt_compress_level);
        }
    }

    tinydir_close(&dir);
}


int main(argc,argv)
    int argc;
    char *argv[];
{
    int i;
    int opt_recursive=0;
    int opt_overwrite=1;
    int opt_compress_level=Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION;
    int opt_exclude_path=0;
    int zipfilenamearg = 0;
    char filename_try[MAXFILENAME+16];
    int zipok;
    int err=0;
    int size_buf=0;
................................................................................
                        opt_overwrite = 1;
                    if ((c=='a') || (c=='A'))
                        opt_overwrite = 2;
                    if ((c>='0') && (c<='9'))
                        opt_compress_level = c-'0';
                    if ((c=='j') || (c=='J'))
                        opt_exclude_path = 1;
                    if ((c=='r') || (c=='R'))
                        opt_recursive = 1;
                    if (((c=='p') || (c=='P')) && (i+1<argc))
                    {
                        password=argv[i+1];
                        i++;
                    }
                }
            }
................................................................................

        for (i=zipfilenamearg+1;(i<argc) && (err==ZIP_OK);i++)
        {
            if (!((((*(argv[i]))=='-') || ((*(argv[i]))=='/')) &&
                  ((argv[i][1]=='o') || (argv[i][1]=='O') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='a') || (argv[i][1]=='A') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='p') || (argv[i][1]=='P') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='r') || (argv[i][1]=='R') ||
                   ((argv[i][1]>='0') || (argv[i][1]<='9'))) &&
                  (strlen(argv[i]) == 2)))
            {

                if(opt_recursive) {

















                    addPathToZip(zf,argv[i],password,opt_exclude_path,opt_compress_level);











































                } else {












































                    addFileToZip(zf,argv[i],password,opt_exclude_path,opt_compress_level);
                }
            }
        }
        errclose = zipClose(zf,NULL);
        if (errclose != ZIP_OK)
            printf("error in closing %s\n",filename_try);
    }

Added compat/zlib/contrib/minizip/tinydir.h.
































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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/*
Copyright (c) 2013-2017, tinydir authors:
- Cong Xu
- Lautis Sun
- Baudouin Feildel
- Andargor <[email protected]>
All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
   list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
   this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
   and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*/
#ifndef TINYDIR_H
#define TINYDIR_H

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

#if ((defined _UNICODE) && !(defined UNICODE))
#define UNICODE
#endif

#if ((defined UNICODE) && !(defined _UNICODE))
#define _UNICODE
#endif

#include <errno.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
# define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
# include <windows.h>
# include <tchar.h>
# pragma warning(push)
# pragma warning (disable : 4996)
#else
# include <dirent.h>
# include <libgen.h>
# include <sys/stat.h>
# include <stddef.h>
#endif
#ifdef __MINGW32__
# include <tchar.h>
#endif


/* types */

/* Windows UNICODE wide character support */
#if defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__
# define _tinydir_char_t TCHAR
# define TINYDIR_STRING(s) _TEXT(s)
# define _tinydir_strlen _tcslen
# define _tinydir_strcpy _tcscpy
# define _tinydir_strcat _tcscat
# define _tinydir_strcmp _tcscmp
# define _tinydir_strrchr _tcsrchr
# define _tinydir_strncmp _tcsncmp
#else
# define _tinydir_char_t char
# define TINYDIR_STRING(s) s
# define _tinydir_strlen strlen
# define _tinydir_strcpy strcpy
# define _tinydir_strcat strcat
# define _tinydir_strcmp strcmp
# define _tinydir_strrchr strrchr
# define _tinydir_strncmp strncmp
#endif

#if (defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__)
# include <windows.h>
# define _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX MAX_PATH
#elif defined  __linux__
# include <limits.h>
# define _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX PATH_MAX
#elif defined(__unix__) || (defined(__APPLE__) && defined(__MACH__))
# include <sys/param.h>
# if defined(BSD)
#  include <limits.h>
#  define _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX PATH_MAX
# endif
#endif

#ifndef _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX
#define _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX 4096
#endif

#ifdef _MSC_VER
/* extra chars for the "\\*" mask */
# define _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA 2
#else
# define _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA 0
#endif

#define _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX 256

#if (defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__)
#define _TINYDIR_DRIVE_MAX 3
#endif

#ifdef _MSC_VER
# define _TINYDIR_FUNC static __inline
#elif !defined __STDC_VERSION__ || __STDC_VERSION__ < 199901L
# define _TINYDIR_FUNC static __inline__
#else
# define _TINYDIR_FUNC static inline
#endif

/* readdir_r usage; define TINYDIR_USE_READDIR_R to use it (if supported) */
#ifdef TINYDIR_USE_READDIR_R

/* readdir_r is a POSIX-only function, and may not be available under various
 * environments/settings, e.g. MinGW. Use readdir fallback */
#if _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 1 || _XOPEN_SOURCE || _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE ||\
	_POSIX_SOURCE
# define _TINYDIR_HAS_READDIR_R
#endif
#if _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L
# define _TINYDIR_HAS_FPATHCONF
# include <unistd.h>
#endif
#if _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE || \
	(_POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200809L || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 700)
# define _TINYDIR_HAS_DIRFD
# include <sys/types.h>
#endif
#if defined _TINYDIR_HAS_FPATHCONF && defined _TINYDIR_HAS_DIRFD &&\
	defined _PC_NAME_MAX
# define _TINYDIR_USE_FPATHCONF
#endif
#if defined __MINGW32__ || !defined _TINYDIR_HAS_READDIR_R ||\
	!(defined _TINYDIR_USE_FPATHCONF || defined NAME_MAX)
# define _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
#endif

/* Use readdir by default */
#else
# define _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
#endif

/* MINGW32 has two versions of dirent, ASCII and UNICODE*/
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#if (defined __MINGW32__) && (defined _UNICODE)
#define _TINYDIR_DIR _WDIR
#define _tinydir_dirent _wdirent
#define _tinydir_opendir _wopendir
#define _tinydir_readdir _wreaddir
#define _tinydir_closedir _wclosedir
#else
#define _TINYDIR_DIR DIR
#define _tinydir_dirent dirent
#define _tinydir_opendir opendir
#define _tinydir_readdir readdir
#define _tinydir_closedir closedir
#endif
#endif

/* Allow user to use a custom allocator by defining _TINYDIR_MALLOC and _TINYDIR_FREE. */
#if    defined(_TINYDIR_MALLOC) &&  defined(_TINYDIR_FREE)
#elif !defined(_TINYDIR_MALLOC) && !defined(_TINYDIR_FREE)
#else
#error "Either define both alloc and free or none of them!"
#endif

#if !defined(_TINYDIR_MALLOC)
	#define _TINYDIR_MALLOC(_size) malloc(_size)
	#define _TINYDIR_FREE(_ptr)    free(_ptr)
#endif /* !defined(_TINYDIR_MALLOC) */

typedef struct tinydir_file
{
	_tinydir_char_t path[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t name[_TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t *extension;
	int is_dir;
	int is_reg;

#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifdef __MINGW32__
	struct _stat _s;
#else
	struct stat _s;
#endif
#endif
} tinydir_file;

typedef struct tinydir_dir
{
	_tinydir_char_t path[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	int has_next;
	size_t n_files;

	tinydir_file *_files;
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	HANDLE _h;
	WIN32_FIND_DATA _f;
#else
	_TINYDIR_DIR *_d;
	struct _tinydir_dirent *_e;
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	struct _tinydir_dirent *_ep;
#endif
#endif
} tinydir_dir;


/* declarations */

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open(tinydir_dir *dir, const _tinydir_char_t *path);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open_sorted(tinydir_dir *dir, const _tinydir_char_t *path);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
void tinydir_close(tinydir_dir *dir);

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_next(tinydir_dir *dir);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_readfile(const tinydir_dir *dir, tinydir_file *file);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_readfile_n(const tinydir_dir *dir, tinydir_file *file, size_t i);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open_subdir_n(tinydir_dir *dir, size_t i);

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_file_open(tinydir_file *file, const _tinydir_char_t *path);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
void _tinydir_get_ext(tinydir_file *file);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int _tinydir_file_cmp(const void *a, const void *b);
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
_TINYDIR_FUNC
size_t _tinydir_dirent_buf_size(_TINYDIR_DIR *dirp);
#endif
#endif


/* definitions*/

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open(tinydir_dir *dir, const _tinydir_char_t *path)
{
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	int error;
	int size;	/* using int size */
#endif
#else
	_tinydir_char_t path_buf[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
#endif
	_tinydir_char_t *pathp;

	if (dir == NULL || path == NULL || _tinydir_strlen(path) == 0)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (_tinydir_strlen(path) + _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA >= _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX)
	{
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return -1;
	}

	/* initialise dir */
	dir->_files = NULL;
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	dir->_h = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
#else
	dir->_d = NULL;
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	dir->_ep = NULL;
#endif
#endif
	tinydir_close(dir);

	_tinydir_strcpy(dir->path, path);
	/* Remove trailing slashes */
	pathp = &dir->path[_tinydir_strlen(dir->path) - 1];
	while (pathp != dir->path && (*pathp == TINYDIR_STRING('\\') || *pathp == TINYDIR_STRING('/')))
	{
		*pathp = TINYDIR_STRING('\0');
		pathp++;
	}
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	_tinydir_strcpy(path_buf, dir->path);
	_tinydir_strcat(path_buf, TINYDIR_STRING("\\*"));
#if (defined WINAPI_FAMILY) && (WINAPI_FAMILY != WINAPI_FAMILY_DESKTOP_APP)
	dir->_h = FindFirstFileEx(path_buf, FindExInfoStandard, &dir->_f, FindExSearchNameMatch, NULL, 0);
#else
	dir->_h = FindFirstFile(path_buf, &dir->_f);
#endif
	if (dir->_h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
#else
	dir->_d = _tinydir_opendir(path);
	if (dir->_d == NULL)
	{
#endif
		goto bail;
	}

	/* read first file */
	dir->has_next = 1;
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifdef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	dir->_e = _tinydir_readdir(dir->_d);
#else
	/* allocate dirent buffer for readdir_r */
	size = _tinydir_dirent_buf_size(dir->_d); /* conversion to int */
	if (size == -1) return -1;
	dir->_ep = (struct _tinydir_dirent*)_TINYDIR_MALLOC(size);
	if (dir->_ep == NULL) return -1;

	error = readdir_r(dir->_d, dir->_ep, &dir->_e);
	if (error != 0) return -1;
#endif
	if (dir->_e == NULL)
	{
		dir->has_next = 0;
	}
#endif

	return 0;

bail:
	tinydir_close(dir);
	return -1;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open_sorted(tinydir_dir *dir, const _tinydir_char_t *path)
{
	/* Count the number of files first, to pre-allocate the files array */
	size_t n_files = 0;
	if (tinydir_open(dir, path) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}
	while (dir->has_next)
	{
		n_files++;
		if (tinydir_next(dir) == -1)
		{
			goto bail;
		}
	}
	tinydir_close(dir);

	if (tinydir_open(dir, path) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}

	dir->n_files = 0;
	dir->_files = (tinydir_file *)_TINYDIR_MALLOC(sizeof *dir->_files * n_files);
	if (dir->_files == NULL)
	{
		goto bail;
	}
	while (dir->has_next)
	{
		tinydir_file *p_file;
		dir->n_files++;

		p_file = &dir->_files[dir->n_files - 1];
		if (tinydir_readfile(dir, p_file) == -1)
		{
			goto bail;
		}

		if (tinydir_next(dir) == -1)
		{
			goto bail;
		}

		/* Just in case the number of files has changed between the first and
		second reads, terminate without writing into unallocated memory */
		if (dir->n_files == n_files)
		{
			break;
		}
	}

	qsort(dir->_files, dir->n_files, sizeof(tinydir_file), _tinydir_file_cmp);

	return 0;

bail:
	tinydir_close(dir);
	return -1;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
void tinydir_close(tinydir_dir *dir)
{
	if (dir == NULL)
	{
		return;
	}

	memset(dir->path, 0, sizeof(dir->path));
	dir->has_next = 0;
	dir->n_files = 0;
	_TINYDIR_FREE(dir->_files);
	dir->_files = NULL;
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	if (dir->_h != INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
	{
		FindClose(dir->_h);
	}
	dir->_h = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
#else
	if (dir->_d)
	{
		_tinydir_closedir(dir->_d);
	}
	dir->_d = NULL;
	dir->_e = NULL;
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	_TINYDIR_FREE(dir->_ep);
	dir->_ep = NULL;
#endif
#endif
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_next(tinydir_dir *dir)
{
	if (dir == NULL)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (!dir->has_next)
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
		return -1;
	}

#ifdef _MSC_VER
	if (FindNextFile(dir->_h, &dir->_f) == 0)
#else
#ifdef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	dir->_e = _tinydir_readdir(dir->_d);
#else
	if (dir->_ep == NULL)
	{
		return -1;
	}
	if (readdir_r(dir->_d, dir->_ep, &dir->_e) != 0)
	{
		return -1;
	}
#endif
	if (dir->_e == NULL)
#endif
	{
		dir->has_next = 0;
#ifdef _MSC_VER
		if (GetLastError() != ERROR_SUCCESS &&
			GetLastError() != ERROR_NO_MORE_FILES)
		{
			tinydir_close(dir);
			errno = EIO;
			return -1;
		}
#endif
	}

	return 0;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_readfile(const tinydir_dir *dir, tinydir_file *file)
{
	if (dir == NULL || file == NULL)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	if (dir->_h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
#else
	if (dir->_e == NULL)
#endif
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
		return -1;
	}
	if (_tinydir_strlen(dir->path) +
		_tinydir_strlen(
#ifdef _MSC_VER
			dir->_f.cFileName
#else
			dir->_e->d_name
#endif
		) + 1 + _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA >=
		_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX)
	{
		/* the path for the file will be too long */
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return -1;
	}
	if (_tinydir_strlen(
#ifdef _MSC_VER
			dir->_f.cFileName
#else
			dir->_e->d_name
#endif
		) >= _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX)
	{
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return -1;
	}

	_tinydir_strcpy(file->path, dir->path);
	_tinydir_strcat(file->path, TINYDIR_STRING("/"));
	_tinydir_strcpy(file->name,
#ifdef _MSC_VER
		dir->_f.cFileName
#else
		dir->_e->d_name
#endif
	);
	_tinydir_strcat(file->path, file->name);
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifdef __MINGW32__
	if (_tstat(
#else
	if (stat(
#endif
		file->path, &file->_s) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}
#endif
	_tinydir_get_ext(file);

	file->is_dir =
#ifdef _MSC_VER
		!!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY);
#else
		S_ISDIR(file->_s.st_mode);
#endif
	file->is_reg =
#ifdef _MSC_VER
		!!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL) ||
		(
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DEVICE) &&
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY) &&
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED) &&
#ifdef FILE_ATTRIBUTE_INTEGRITY_STREAM
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_INTEGRITY_STREAM) &&
#endif
#ifdef FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NO_SCRUB_DATA
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NO_SCRUB_DATA) &&
#endif
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_OFFLINE) &&
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_TEMPORARY));
#else
		S_ISREG(file->_s.st_mode);
#endif

	return 0;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_readfile_n(const tinydir_dir *dir, tinydir_file *file, size_t i)
{
	if (dir == NULL || file == NULL)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (i >= dir->n_files)
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
		return -1;
	}

	memcpy(file, &dir->_files[i], sizeof(tinydir_file));
	_tinydir_get_ext(file);

	return 0;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open_subdir_n(tinydir_dir *dir, size_t i)
{
	_tinydir_char_t path[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	if (dir == NULL)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (i >= dir->n_files || !dir->_files[i].is_dir)
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
		return -1;
	}

	_tinydir_strcpy(path, dir->_files[i].path);
	tinydir_close(dir);
	if (tinydir_open_sorted(dir, path) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}

	return 0;
}

/* Open a single file given its path */
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_file_open(tinydir_file *file, const _tinydir_char_t *path)
{
	tinydir_dir dir;
	int result = 0;
	int found = 0;
	_tinydir_char_t dir_name_buf[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t file_name_buf[_TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t *dir_name;
	_tinydir_char_t *base_name;
#if (defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__)
	_tinydir_char_t drive_buf[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t ext_buf[_TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX];
#endif

	if (file == NULL || path == NULL || _tinydir_strlen(path) == 0)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (_tinydir_strlen(path) + _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA >= _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX)
	{
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return -1;
	}

	/* Get the parent path */
#if (defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__)
#if ((defined _MSC_VER) && (_MSC_VER >= 1400))
		_tsplitpath_s(
			path,
			drive_buf, _TINYDIR_DRIVE_MAX,
			dir_name_buf, _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX,
			file_name_buf, _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX,
			ext_buf, _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX);
#else
		_tsplitpath(
			path,
			drive_buf,
			dir_name_buf,
			file_name_buf,
			ext_buf);
#endif

/* _splitpath_s not work fine with only filename and widechar support */
#ifdef _UNICODE
		if (drive_buf[0] == L'\xFEFE')
			drive_buf[0] = '\0';
		if (dir_name_buf[0] == L'\xFEFE')
			dir_name_buf[0] = '\0';
#endif

	if (errno)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	/* Emulate the behavior of dirname by returning "." for dir name if it's
	empty */
	if (drive_buf[0] == '\0' && dir_name_buf[0] == '\0')
	{
		_tinydir_strcpy(dir_name_buf, TINYDIR_STRING("."));
	}
	/* Concatenate the drive letter and dir name to form full dir name */
	_tinydir_strcat(drive_buf, dir_name_buf);
	dir_name = drive_buf;
	/* Concatenate the file name and extension to form base name */
	_tinydir_strcat(file_name_buf, ext_buf);
	base_name = file_name_buf;
#else
	_tinydir_strcpy(dir_name_buf, path);
	dir_name = dirname(dir_name_buf);
	_tinydir_strcpy(file_name_buf, path);
	base_name =basename(file_name_buf);
#endif

	/* Open the parent directory */
	if (tinydir_open(&dir, dir_name) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}

	/* Read through the parent directory and look for the file */
	while (dir.has_next)
	{
		if (tinydir_readfile(&dir, file) == -1)
		{
			result = -1;
			goto bail;
		}
		if (_tinydir_strcmp(file->name, base_name) == 0)
		{
			/* File found */
			found = 1;
			break;
		}
		tinydir_next(&dir);
	}
	if (!found)
	{
		result = -1;
		errno = ENOENT;
	}

bail:
	tinydir_close(&dir);
	return result;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
void _tinydir_get_ext(tinydir_file *file)
{
	_tinydir_char_t *period = _tinydir_strrchr(file->name, TINYDIR_STRING('.'));
	if (period == NULL)
	{
		file->extension = &(file->name[_tinydir_strlen(file->name)]);
	}
	else
	{
		file->extension = period + 1;
	}
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int _tinydir_file_cmp(const void *a, const void *b)
{
	const tinydir_file *fa = (const tinydir_file *)a;
	const tinydir_file *fb = (const tinydir_file *)b;
	if (fa->is_dir != fb->is_dir)
	{
		return -(fa->is_dir - fb->is_dir);
	}
	return _tinydir_strncmp(fa->name, fb->name, _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX);
}

#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
/*
The following authored by Ben Hutchings <[email protected]>
from https://womble.decadent.org.uk/readdir_r-advisory.html
*/
/* Calculate the required buffer size (in bytes) for directory      *
* entries read from the given directory handle.  Return -1 if this  *
* this cannot be done.                                              *
*                                                                   *
* This code does not trust values of NAME_MAX that are less than    *
* 255, since some systems (including at least HP-UX) incorrectly    *
* define it to be a smaller value.                                  */
_TINYDIR_FUNC
size_t _tinydir_dirent_buf_size(_TINYDIR_DIR *dirp)
{
	long name_max;
	size_t name_end;
	/* parameter may be unused */
	(void)dirp;

#if defined _TINYDIR_USE_FPATHCONF
	name_max = fpathconf(dirfd(dirp), _PC_NAME_MAX);
	if (name_max == -1)
#if defined(NAME_MAX)
		name_max = (NAME_MAX > 255) ? NAME_MAX : 255;
#else
		return (size_t)(-1);
#endif
#elif defined(NAME_MAX)
 	name_max = (NAME_MAX > 255) ? NAME_MAX : 255;
#else
#error "buffer size for readdir_r cannot be determined"
#endif
	name_end = (size_t)offsetof(struct _tinydir_dirent, d_name) + name_max + 1;
	return (name_end > sizeof(struct _tinydir_dirent) ?
		name_end : sizeof(struct _tinydir_dirent));
}
#endif
#endif

#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif

# if defined (_MSC_VER)
# pragma warning(pop)
# endif

#endif

Changes to doc/Class.3.

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already exist.
.AP int objc in
The number of elements in the \fIobjv\fR array.
.AP "Tcl_Obj *const" *objv in
The arguments to the command to create the instance of the class.
.AP int skip in
The number of arguments at the start of the argument array, \fIobjv\fR, that
are not arguments to any constructors.


.AP Tcl_ObjectMetadataType *metaTypePtr in
The type of \fImetadata\fR being set with \fBTcl_ClassSetMetadata\fR or
retrieved with \fBTcl_ClassGetMetadata\fR.
.AP ClientData metadata in
An item of metadata to attach to the class, or NULL to remove the metadata
associated with a particular \fImetaTypePtr\fR.
.AP "Tcl_ObjectMapMethodNameProc" "methodNameMapper" in
................................................................................
with that name, and then to use \fBTcl_GetObjectAsClass\fR.
.PP
Every object has its own command and namespace associated with it. The command
may be retrieved using the \fBTcl_GetObjectCommand\fR function, the name of
the object (and hence the name of the command) with \fBTcl_GetObjectName\fR,
and the namespace may be retrieved using the \fBTcl_GetObjectNamespace\fR
function. Note that the Tcl_Obj reference returned by \fBTcl_GetObjectName\fR
is a shared reference.


.PP
Instances of classes are created using \fBTcl_NewObjectInstance\fR, which
creates an object from any class (and which is internally called by both
the \fBcreate\fR and \fBnew\fR methods of the \fBoo::class\fR class). It takes
parameters that optionally give the name of the object and namespace to
create, and which describe the arguments to pass to the class's constructor
(if any). The result of the function will be either a reference to the newly
created object, or NULL if the creation failed (when an error message will be
left in the interpreter result). In addition, objects may be copied by using
\fBTcl_CopyObjectInstance\fR which creates a copy of an object without running
any constructors.










.SH "OBJECT AND CLASS METADATA"
.PP
Every object and every class may have arbitrary amounts of metadata attached
to it, which the object or class attaches no meaning to beyond what is
described in a Tcl_ObjectMetadataType structure instance. Metadata to be
attached is described by the type of the metadata (given in the
\fImetaTypePtr\fR argument) and an arbitrary pointer (the \fImetadata\fR






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already exist.
.AP int objc in
The number of elements in the \fIobjv\fR array.
.AP "Tcl_Obj *const" *objv in
The arguments to the command to create the instance of the class.
.AP int skip in
The number of arguments at the start of the argument array, \fIobjv\fR, that
are not arguments to any constructors. This allows the generation of correct
error messages even when complicated calling patterns are used (e.g., via the
\fBnext\fR command).
.AP Tcl_ObjectMetadataType *metaTypePtr in
The type of \fImetadata\fR being set with \fBTcl_ClassSetMetadata\fR or
retrieved with \fBTcl_ClassGetMetadata\fR.
.AP ClientData metadata in
An item of metadata to attach to the class, or NULL to remove the metadata
associated with a particular \fImetaTypePtr\fR.
.AP "Tcl_ObjectMapMethodNameProc" "methodNameMapper" in
................................................................................
with that name, and then to use \fBTcl_GetObjectAsClass\fR.
.PP
Every object has its own command and namespace associated with it. The command
may be retrieved using the \fBTcl_GetObjectCommand\fR function, the name of
the object (and hence the name of the command) with \fBTcl_GetObjectName\fR,
and the namespace may be retrieved using the \fBTcl_GetObjectNamespace\fR
function. Note that the Tcl_Obj reference returned by \fBTcl_GetObjectName\fR
is a shared reference. You can also get whether the object has been marked for
deletion with \fBTcl_ObjectDeleted\fR (it returns true if deletion of the
object has begun); this can be useful during the processing of methods.
.PP
Instances of classes are created using \fBTcl_NewObjectInstance\fR, which
creates an object from any class (and which is internally called by both
the \fBcreate\fR and \fBnew\fR methods of the \fBoo::class\fR class). It takes
parameters that optionally give the name of the object and namespace to
create, and which describe the arguments to pass to the class's constructor
(if any). The result of the function will be either a reference to the newly
created object, or NULL if the creation failed (when an error message will be
left in the interpreter result). In addition, objects may be copied by using
\fBTcl_CopyObjectInstance\fR which creates a copy of an object without running
any constructors.
.PP
Note that the lifetime management of objects is handled internally within
TclOO, and does not use \fBTcl_Preserve\fR. \fIIt is not safe to put a
Tcl_Object handle in a C structure with a lifespan different to the object;\fR
you should use the object's command name (as retrieved with
\fBTcl_GetObjectName\fR) instead. It is safe to use a Tcl_Object handle for
the lifespan of a call of a method on that object; handles do not become
invalid while there is an outstanding call on their object (even if the only
operation guaranteed to be safe on them is \fBTcl_ObjectDeleted\fR; the other
operations are only guaranteed to work on non-deleted objects).
.SH "OBJECT AND CLASS METADATA"
.PP
Every object and every class may have arbitrary amounts of metadata attached
to it, which the object or class attaches no meaning to beyond what is
described in a Tcl_ObjectMetadataType structure instance. Metadata to be
attached is described by the type of the metadata (given in the
\fImetaTypePtr\fR argument) and an arbitrary pointer (the \fImetadata\fR

Changes to doc/CrtObjCmd.3.

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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_CreateObjCommand 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_CreateObjCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommandFromToken, Tcl_GetCommandInfo, Tcl_GetCommandInfoFromToken, Tcl_SetCommandInfo, Tcl_SetCommandInfoFromToken, Tcl_GetCommandName, Tcl_GetCommandFullName, Tcl_GetCommandFromObj \- implement new commands in C
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Command
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(\fIinterp, cmdName, proc, clientData, deleteProc\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
\fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR(\fIinterp, token\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_GetCommandFullName\fR(\fIinterp, token, objPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Command
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr\fR)








.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to create a new command or that contains a command.
.AP char *cmdName in
Name of command.
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
................................................................................
Token for command, returned by previous call to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR.
The command must not have been deleted.
.AP Tcl_CmdInfo *infoPtr in/out
Pointer to structure containing various information about a
Tcl command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
Value containing the name of a Tcl command.



.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR defines a new command in \fIinterp\fR
and associates it with procedure \fIproc\fR
such that whenever \fIname\fR is
invoked as a Tcl command (e.g., via a call to \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR)
................................................................................
The name, including all namespace prefixes,
is appended to the value specified by \fIobjPtr\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR returns a token for the command
specified by the name in a \fBTcl_Obj\fR.
The command name is resolved relative to the current namespace.
Returns NULL if the command is not found.
















.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateCommand(3), Tcl_ResetResult(3), Tcl_SetObjResult(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
bind, command, create, delete, namespace, value






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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_CreateObjCommand 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_CreateObjCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommandFromToken, Tcl_GetCommandInfo, Tcl_GetCommandInfoFromToken, Tcl_SetCommandInfo, Tcl_SetCommandInfoFromToken, Tcl_GetCommandName, Tcl_GetCommandFullName, Tcl_GetCommandFromObj, Tcl_RegisterCommandTypeName, Tcl_GetCommandTypeName \- implement new commands in C
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Command
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(\fIinterp, cmdName, proc, clientData, deleteProc\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
\fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR(\fIinterp, token\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_GetCommandFullName\fR(\fIinterp, token, objPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Command
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr\fR)
.sp
.VS "info cmdtype feature"
void
\fBTcl_RegisterCommandTypeName\fR(\fIproc, typeName\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_GetCommandTypeName\fR(\fItoken\fR)
.VE "info cmdtype feature"
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to create a new command or that contains a command.
.AP char *cmdName in
Name of command.
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
................................................................................
Token for command, returned by previous call to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR.
The command must not have been deleted.
.AP Tcl_CmdInfo *infoPtr in/out
Pointer to structure containing various information about a
Tcl command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
Value containing the name of a Tcl command.
.AP "const char" *typeName in
Indicates the name of the type of command implementation associated
with a particular \fIproc\fR, or NULL to break the association.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR defines a new command in \fIinterp\fR
and associates it with procedure \fIproc\fR
such that whenever \fIname\fR is
invoked as a Tcl command (e.g., via a call to \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR)
................................................................................
The name, including all namespace prefixes,
is appended to the value specified by \fIobjPtr\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR returns a token for the command
specified by the name in a \fBTcl_Obj\fR.
The command name is resolved relative to the current namespace.
Returns NULL if the command is not found.
.PP
.VS "info cmdtype feature"
\fBTcl_RegisterCommandTypeName\fR is used to associate a name (the
\fItypeName\fR argument) with a particular implementation function so that it
can then be looked up with \fBTcl_GetCommandTypeName\fR, which in turn is
called with a command token that information is wanted for and which returns
the name of the type that was registered for the implementation function used
for that command. (The lookup functionality is surfaced virtually directly in Tcl via
\fBinfo cmdtype\fR.) If there is no function registered for a particular
function, the result will be the string literal
.QW \fBnative\fR .
The registration of a name can be undone by registering a mapping to NULL
instead. The result from \fBTcl_GetCommandTypeName\fR will be exactly that
string which was registered, and not a copy; use of a compile-time constant
string is \fIstrongly recommended\fR.
.VE "info cmdtype feature"
.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateCommand(3), Tcl_ResetResult(3), Tcl_SetObjResult(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
bind, command, create, delete, namespace, value

Changes to doc/Encoding.3.

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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_GetEncoding 3 "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_GetEncoding, Tcl_FreeEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingFromObj, Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString, Tcl_ExternalToUtf, Tcl_UtfToExternalDString, Tcl_UtfToExternal, Tcl_WinTCharToUtf, Tcl_WinUtfToTChar, Tcl_GetEncodingName, Tcl_SetSystemEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingNameFromEnvironment, Tcl_GetEncodingNames, Tcl_CreateEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_SetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir, Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir \- procedures for creating and using encodings
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Encoding
\fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR(\fIinterp, name\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
the source buffer and up to \fIdstLen\fR converted bytes are stored in
\fIdst\fR.  In all cases, \fI*srcReadPtr\fR is filled with the number of
bytes that were successfully converted from \fIsrc\fR and \fI*dstWrotePtr\fR
is filled with the corresponding number of bytes that were stored in
\fIdst\fR.  The return values are the same as the return values for
\fBTcl_ExternalToUtf\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_WinUtfToTChar\fR and \fBTcl_WinTCharToUtf\fR are
Windows-only convenience
functions for converting between UTF-8 and Windows strings
based on the TCHAR type which is by convention

a Unicode character on Windows NT.
These functions are essentially wrappers around
\fBTcl_UtfToExternalDString\fR and
\fBTcl_ExternalToUtfDString\fR that convert to and from the
Unicode encoding.


.PP
\fBTcl_GetEncodingName\fR is roughly the inverse of \fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR.
Given an \fIencoding\fR, the return value is the \fIname\fR argument that
was used to create the encoding.  The string returned by
\fBTcl_GetEncodingName\fR is only guaranteed to persist until the
\fIencoding\fR is deleted.  The caller must not modify this string.
.PP






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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_GetEncoding 3 "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_GetEncoding, Tcl_FreeEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingFromObj, Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString, Tcl_ExternalToUtf, Tcl_UtfToExternalDString, Tcl_UtfToExternal, Tcl_GetEncodingName, Tcl_SetSystemEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingNameFromEnvironment, Tcl_GetEncodingNames, Tcl_CreateEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_SetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir, Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir \- procedures for creating and using encodings
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Encoding
\fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR(\fIinterp, name\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
the source buffer and up to \fIdstLen\fR converted bytes are stored in
\fIdst\fR.  In all cases, \fI*srcReadPtr\fR is filled with the number of
bytes that were successfully converted from \fIsrc\fR and \fI*dstWrotePtr\fR
is filled with the corresponding number of bytes that were stored in
\fIdst\fR.  The return values are the same as the return values for
\fBTcl_ExternalToUtf\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_WinUtfToTChar\fR and \fBTcl_WinTCharToUtf\fR are Windows-only

convenience functions for converting between UTF-8 and Windows strings
based on the TCHAR type which is by convention a Unicode character on
Windows NT. Those functions are deprecated. You can use
\fBTcl_UtfToWCharDString\fR resp. \fBTcl_WCharToUtfDString\fR as replacement.
If you want compatibility with earlier Tcl releases than 8.7, use
\fBTcl_UtfToUniCharDString\fR resp. \fBTcl_UniCharToUtfDString\fR as
replacement, and make sure you compile your extension with -DTCL_UTF_MAX=3.
Beware: Those replacement functions don't initialize their Tcl_DString (you'll
have to do that yourself), and \fBTcl_UniCharToUtfDString\fR from Tcl 8.6
doesn't accept -1 as length parameter.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetEncodingName\fR is roughly the inverse of \fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR.
Given an \fIencoding\fR, the return value is the \fIname\fR argument that
was used to create the encoding.  The string returned by
\fBTcl_GetEncodingName\fR is only guaranteed to persist until the
\fIencoding\fR is deleted.  The caller must not modify this string.
.PP

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\fBTCL_EVAL_DIRECT\fR flag is useful in situations where the
contents of a value are going to change immediately, so the
bytecodes will not be reused in a future execution.  In this case,
it is faster to execute the script directly.
.TP 23
\fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR
.
If this flag is set, the script is processed at global level.  This
means that it is evaluated in the global namespace and its variable
context consists of global variables only (it ignores any Tcl
procedures that are active).


.SH "MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS"
.PP
During the processing of a Tcl command it is legal to make nested
calls to evaluate other commands (this is how procedures and
some control structures are implemented).
If a code other than \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned






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\fBTCL_EVAL_DIRECT\fR flag is useful in situations where the
contents of a value are going to change immediately, so the
bytecodes will not be reused in a future execution.  In this case,
it is faster to execute the script directly.
.TP 23
\fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR
.
If this flag is set, the script is evaluated in the global namespace instead of

the current namespace and its variable context consists of global variables
only (it ignores any Tcl procedures that are active).
.\" TODO: document TCL_EVAL_INVOKE and TCL_EVAL_NOERR.

.SH "MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS"
.PP
During the processing of a Tcl command it is legal to make nested
calls to evaluate other commands (this is how procedures and
some control structures are implemented).
If a code other than \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned

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the previously-installed application exit handler or NULL if no
application handler was installed.  If an application exit handler is
installed, that exit handler takes over complete responsibility for
finalization of Tcl's subsystems via \fBTcl_Finalize\fR at an
appropriate time.  The argument passed to \fIproc\fR when it is
invoked will be the exit status code (as passed to \fBTcl_Exit\fR)
cast to a ClientData value.



.SH "SEE ALSO"
exit(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, callback, cleanup, dynamic loading, end application, exit, unloading, thread






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the previously-installed application exit handler or NULL if no
application handler was installed.  If an application exit handler is
installed, that exit handler takes over complete responsibility for
finalization of Tcl's subsystems via \fBTcl_Finalize\fR at an
appropriate time.  The argument passed to \fIproc\fR when it is
invoked will be the exit status code (as passed to \fBTcl_Exit\fR)
cast to a ClientData value.
.PP
\fBTcl_SetExitProc\fR can not be used in stub-enabled extensions. Its symbol
entry in the stub table is deprecated and it will be removed in Tcl 9.0.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
exit(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, callback, cleanup, dynamic loading, end application, exit, unloading, thread

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.PP
\fBTcl_GetNameOfExecutable\fR simply returns a pointer to the
internal full path name of the executable file as computed by
\fBTcl_FindExecutable\fR.  This procedure call is the C API
equivalent to the \fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR command.  NULL
is returned if the internal full path name has not been
computed or unknown.




.SH KEYWORDS
binary, executable file






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.PP
\fBTcl_GetNameOfExecutable\fR simply returns a pointer to the
internal full path name of the executable file as computed by
\fBTcl_FindExecutable\fR.  This procedure call is the C API
equivalent to the \fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR command.  NULL
is returned if the internal full path name has not been
computed or unknown.

.PP
\fBTcl_FindExecutable\fR can not be used in stub-enabled extensions. Its symbol
entry in the stub table is deprecated and it will be removed in Tcl 9.0.
.SH KEYWORDS
binary, executable file

Changes to doc/GetInt.3.

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\fBTcl_GetInt\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a collection
of integer digits, optionally signed and optionally preceded and
followed by white space.  If the first two characters of \fIsrc\fR
after the optional white space and sign are
.QW \fB0x\fR
then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in hexadecimal form;  otherwise,
if the first such characters are



.QW \fB0o\fR
then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in octal form;  otherwise,
if the first such characters are
.QW \fB0b\fR
then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in binary form;  otherwise,
if the first such character is
.QW \fB0\fR
then \fIsrc\fR
is expected to be in octal form;  otherwise, \fIsrc\fR is
expected to be in decimal form.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetDouble\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a floating-point
number, which is:  white space;  a sign; a sequence of digits;  a
decimal point
.QW \fB.\fR ;
a sequence of digits;  the letter
.QW \fBe\fR ;






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\fBTcl_GetInt\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a collection
of integer digits, optionally signed and optionally preceded and
followed by white space.  If the first two characters of \fIsrc\fR
after the optional white space and sign are
.QW \fB0x\fR
then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in hexadecimal form;  otherwise,
if the first such characters are
.QW \fB0d\fR
then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in decimal form; otherwise,
if the first such characters are
.QW \fB0o\fR
then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in octal form;  otherwise,
if the first such characters are
.QW \fB0b\fR
then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in binary form;  otherwise,
if the first such character is
.QW \fB0\fR
then \fIsrc\fR
is expected to be in octal form;  otherwise, \fIsrc\fR
is expected to be in decimal form.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetDouble\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a floating-point
number, which is:  white space;  a sign; a sequence of digits;  a
decimal point
.QW \fB.\fR ;
a sequence of digits;  the letter
.QW \fBe\fR ;

Added doc/InitSubSyst.3.






























































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Tcl Core Team
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_InitSubsystems 3 8.7 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_InitSubsystems \- initialize the Tcl library.
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
void
\fBTcl_InitSubsystems\fR(\fIvoid\fR)
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBTcl_InitSubsystems\fR procedure initializes the Tcl
library. This procedure is typically invoked as the very
first thing in the application's main program.
.PP
\fBTcl_InitSubsystems\fR is very similar in use to
\fBTcl_FindExecutable\fR. It can be used when Tcl is
used as utility library, no other encodings than utf8,
iso8859-1 or unicode are used, and no interest exists in the
value of \fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR. The system encoding will not
be extracted from the environment, but falls back to iso8859-1.
.SH KEYWORDS
binary, executable file

Changes to doc/IntObj.3.

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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_IntObj 3 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_NewIntObj, Tcl_NewLongObj, Tcl_NewWideIntObj, Tcl_SetIntObj, Tcl_SetLongObj, Tcl_SetWideIntObj, Tcl_GetIntFromObj, Tcl_GetLongFromObj, Tcl_GetWideIntFromObj, Tcl_NewBignumObj, Tcl_SetBignumObj, Tcl_GetBignumFromObj, Tcl_TakeBignumFromObj \- manipulate Tcl values as integers
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_NewIntObj\fR(\fIintValue\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
\fBTcl_SetLongObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, longValue\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_SetWideIntObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, wideValue\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, intPtr\fR)
.sp



int
\fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, longPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, widePtr\fR)
.sp
.sp
................................................................................
int
\fBTcl_TakeBignumFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, bigValue\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_InitBignumFromDouble\fR(\fIinterp, doubleValue, bigValue\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_WideInt doubleValue in/out


.AP int intValue in
Integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP long longValue in
Long integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP Tcl_WideInt wideValue in
Wide integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in/out
................................................................................
with which values might be exchanged.  The C integral types for which Tcl
provides value exchange routines are \fBint\fR, \fBlong int\fR,
\fBTcl_WideInt\fR, and \fBmp_int\fR.  The \fBint\fR and \fBlong int\fR types
are provided by the C language standard.  The \fBTcl_WideInt\fR type is a
typedef defined to be whatever signed integral type covers at least the
64-bit integer range (-9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807).  Depending
on the platform and the C compiler, the actual type might be
\fBlong int\fR, \fBlong long int\fR, \fB__int64\fR, or something else.
The \fBmp_int\fR type is a multiple-precision integer type defined
by the LibTomMath multiple-precision integer library.
.PP
The \fBTcl_NewIntObj\fR, \fBTcl_NewLongObj\fR, \fBTcl_NewWideIntObj\fR,
and \fBTcl_NewBignumObj\fR routines each create and return a new
Tcl value initialized to the integral value of the argument.  The
returned Tcl value is unshared.
................................................................................
and \fBTcl_SetBignumObj\fR routines each set the value of an existing
Tcl value pointed to by \fIobjPtr\fR to the integral value provided
by the other argument.  The \fIobjPtr\fR argument must point to an
unshared Tcl value.  Any attempt to set the value of a shared Tcl value
violates Tcl's copy-on-write policy.  Any existing string representation
or internal representation in the unshared Tcl value will be freed
as a consequence of setting the new value.










.PP
The \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR, \fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR,
\fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR, \fBTcl_GetBignumFromObj\fR, and
\fBTcl_TakeBignumFromObj\fR routines attempt to retrieve an integral
value of the appropriate type from the Tcl value \fIobjPtr\fR.  If the
attempt succeeds, then \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned, and the value is
written to the storage provided by the caller.  The attempt might






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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_IntObj 3 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_NewIntObj, Tcl_NewLongObj, Tcl_NewWideIntObj, Tcl_SetIntObj, Tcl_SetLongObj, Tcl_SetWideIntObj, Tcl_GetIntFromObj, Tcl_GetIntForIndex, Tcl_GetLongFromObj, Tcl_GetWideIntFromObj, Tcl_NewBignumObj, Tcl_SetBignumObj, Tcl_GetBignumFromObj, Tcl_TakeBignumFromObj \- manipulate Tcl values as integers
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_NewIntObj\fR(\fIintValue\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
\fBTcl_SetLongObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, longValue\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_SetWideIntObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, wideValue\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, intPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetIntForIndex\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, endValue, intPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, longPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, widePtr\fR)
.sp
.sp
................................................................................
int
\fBTcl_TakeBignumFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, bigValue\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_InitBignumFromDouble\fR(\fIinterp, doubleValue, bigValue\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_WideInt doubleValue in/out
.AP int endValue in
\fBTcl_GetIntForIndex\fR will return this when the input value is "end".
.AP int intValue in
Integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP long longValue in
Long integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP Tcl_WideInt wideValue in
Wide integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in/out
................................................................................
with which values might be exchanged.  The C integral types for which Tcl
provides value exchange routines are \fBint\fR, \fBlong int\fR,
\fBTcl_WideInt\fR, and \fBmp_int\fR.  The \fBint\fR and \fBlong int\fR types
are provided by the C language standard.  The \fBTcl_WideInt\fR type is a
typedef defined to be whatever signed integral type covers at least the
64-bit integer range (-9223372036854775808 to 9223372036854775807).  Depending
on the platform and the C compiler, the actual type might be
\fBlong long int\fR, \fB__int64\fR, or something else.
The \fBmp_int\fR type is a multiple-precision integer type defined
by the LibTomMath multiple-precision integer library.
.PP
The \fBTcl_NewIntObj\fR, \fBTcl_NewLongObj\fR, \fBTcl_NewWideIntObj\fR,
and \fBTcl_NewBignumObj\fR routines each create and return a new
Tcl value initialized to the integral value of the argument.  The
returned Tcl value is unshared.
................................................................................
and \fBTcl_SetBignumObj\fR routines each set the value of an existing
Tcl value pointed to by \fIobjPtr\fR to the integral value provided
by the other argument.  The \fIobjPtr\fR argument must point to an
unshared Tcl value.  Any attempt to set the value of a shared Tcl value
violates Tcl's copy-on-write policy.  Any existing string representation
or internal representation in the unshared Tcl value will be freed
as a consequence of setting the new value.
.PP
The \fBTcl_GetIntForIndex\fR routine attempts to retrieve an index
value from the Tcl value \fIobjPtr\fR.  If the attempt succeeds,
then \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned, and the value is written to the
storage provided by the caller.  The attempt might fail if
\fIobjPtr\fR does not hold an index value.  If the attempt fails,
then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned, and if \fIinterp\fR is non-NULL,
an error message is left in \fIinterp\fR.  The \fBTcl_ObjType\fR
of \fIobjPtr\fR may be changed to make subsequent calls to the
same routine more efficient.
.PP
The \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR, \fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR,
\fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR, \fBTcl_GetBignumFromObj\fR, and
\fBTcl_TakeBignumFromObj\fR routines attempt to retrieve an integral
value of the appropriate type from the Tcl value \fIobjPtr\fR.  If the
attempt succeeds, then \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned, and the value is
written to the storage provided by the caller.  The attempt might

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As part of processing each command, \fBTcl_Eval\fR initializes
\fIinterp->result\fR
and \fIinterp->freeProc\fR just before calling the command procedure for
the command.  The \fIfreeProc\fR field will be initialized to zero,
and \fIinterp->result\fR will point to an empty string.  Commands that
do not return any value can simply leave the fields alone.
Furthermore, the empty string pointed to by \fIresult\fR is actually
part of an array of \fBTCL_RESULT_SIZE\fR characters (approximately 200).
If a command wishes to return a short string, it can simply copy
it to the area pointed to by \fIinterp->result\fR.  Or, it can use
the sprintf procedure to generate a short result string at the location
pointed to by \fIinterp->result\fR.
.PP
It is a general convention in Tcl-based applications that the result
of an interpreter is normally in the initialized state described






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As part of processing each command, \fBTcl_Eval\fR initializes
\fIinterp->result\fR
and \fIinterp->freeProc\fR just before calling the command procedure for
the command.  The \fIfreeProc\fR field will be initialized to zero,
and \fIinterp->result\fR will point to an empty string.  Commands that
do not return any value can simply leave the fields alone.
Furthermore, the empty string pointed to by \fIresult\fR is actually
part of an array of approximately 200 characters.
If a command wishes to return a short string, it can simply copy
it to the area pointed to by \fIinterp->result\fR.  Or, it can use
the sprintf procedure to generate a short result string at the location
pointed to by \fIinterp->result\fR.
.PP
It is a general convention in Tcl-based applications that the result
of an interpreter is normally in the initialized state described

Changes to doc/LinkVar.3.

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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_LinkVar 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_LinkVar, Tcl_UnlinkVar, Tcl_UpdateLinkedVar \- link Tcl variable to C variable
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
int
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName, addr, type\fR)





.sp
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_UpdateLinkedVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_Interp writable
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter that contains \fIvarName\fR.
Also used by \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR to return error messages.
.AP "const char" *varName in
Name of global variable.
.AP char *addr in
Address of C variable that is to be linked to \fIvarName\fR.





.AP int type in

Type of C variable.  Must be one of \fBTCL_LINK_INT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_UINT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_CHAR\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_UCHAR\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_SHORT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_USHORT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_LONG\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_ULONG\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_INT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_UINT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_FLOAT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_DOUBLE\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR, or










\fBTCL_LINK_STRING\fR, optionally OR'ed with \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR
to make Tcl variable read-only.




.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR uses variable traces to keep the Tcl variable
named by \fIvarName\fR in sync with the C variable at the address
given by \fIaddr\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is read the value of the C variable will
be returned, and whenever the Tcl variable is written the C
variable will be updated to have the same value.
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR normally returns \fBTCL_OK\fR;  if an error occurs
while setting up the link (e.g. because \fIvarName\fR is the
name of array) then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned and the interpreter's result
contains an error message.
.PP







The \fItype\fR argument specifies the type of the C variable,

and must have one of the following values, optionally OR'ed with
\fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR:
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_INT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBint\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like the empty
string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_UINT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBunsigned int\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned int\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_CHAR\fR

The C variable is of type \fBchar\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and be in the range of the
\fBchar\fR datatype; attempts to write non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.






.TP







\fBTCL_LINK_UCHAR\fR

The C variable is of type \fBunsigned char\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned char\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.






.TP








\fBTCL_LINK_SHORT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBshort\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and be in the range of the
\fBshort\fR datatype; attempts to write non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_USHORT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBunsigned short\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned short\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_LONG\fR

The C variable is of type \fBlong\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR; attempts to write
non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_ULONG\fR

The C variable is of type \fBunsigned long\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned long\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_DOUBLE\fR

The C variable is of type \fBdouble\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper real
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetDoubleFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-real values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer or real representations (like the
empty string, '.', '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are
accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_FLOAT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBfloat\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper real
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetDoubleFromObj\fR and must be within the
range acceptable for a \fBfloat\fR; attempts to
write non-real values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
or real representations (like the empty string, '.', '+', '-' or
the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_INT\fR


The C variable is of type \fBTcl_WideInt\fR (which is an integer type
at least 64-bits wide on all platforms that can support it.)
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like the empty
string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_UINT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBTcl_WideUInt\fR (which is an unsigned
integer type at least 64-bits wide on all platforms that can support
it.)
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR (it will be
cast to unsigned);
.\" FIXME! Use bignums instead.
attempts to write non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be
rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like
the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR

The C variable is of type \fBint\fR.
If its value is zero then it will read from Tcl as
.QW 0 ;
otherwise it will read from Tcl as
.QW 1 .
Whenever \fIvarName\fR is
modified, the C variable will be set to a 0 or 1 value.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper boolean
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetBooleanFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-boolean values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_STRING\fR

The C variable is of type \fBchar *\fR.
If its value is not NULL then it must be a pointer to a string
allocated with \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or \fBckalloc\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is modified the current C string will be
freed and new memory will be allocated to hold a copy of the variable's
new value.
If the C variable contains a NULL pointer then the Tcl variable
will read as
.QW NULL .

.PP
If the \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR flag is present in \fItype\fR then the
variable will be read-only from Tcl, so that its value can only be
changed by modifying the C variable.
Attempts to write the variable from Tcl will be rejected with errors.
.PP
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR removes the link previously set up for the






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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_LinkVar 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_LinkArray, Tcl_LinkVar, Tcl_UnlinkVar, Tcl_UpdateLinkedVar \- link Tcl variable to C variable
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
int
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName, addr, type\fR)
.sp
.VS "TIP 312"
int
\fBTcl_LinkArray\fR(\fIinterp, varName, addr, type, size\fR)
.VE "TIP 312"
.sp
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_UpdateLinkedVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_Interp varName in
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter that contains \fIvarName\fR.
Also used by \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR to return error messages.
.AP "const char" *varName in
Name of global variable.
.AP void *addr in
Address of C variable that is to be linked to \fIvarName\fR.
.sp
.VS "TIP 312"
In \fBTcl_LinkArray\fR, may be NULL to tell Tcl to create the storage
for the array in the variable.
.VE "TIP 312"
.AP int type in
Type of C variable for \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR or type of array element for
\fBTcl_LinkArray\fR.  Must be one of \fBTCL_LINK_INT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_UINT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_CHAR\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_UCHAR\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_SHORT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_USHORT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_LONG\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_ULONG\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_INT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_UINT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_FLOAT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_DOUBLE\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR, or one of the extra ones listed below.
.sp
In \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR, the additional linked type \fBTCL_LINK_STRING\fR may be
used.
.sp
.VS "TIP 312"
In \fBTcl_LinkArray\fR, the additional linked types \fBTCL_LINK_CHARS\fR and
\fBTCL_LINK_BYTES\fR may be used.
.VE "TIP 312"
.sp
All the above for both functions may be
optionally OR'ed with \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR to make the Tcl
variable read-only.
.AP int size in
.VS "TIP 312"
The number of elements in the C array. Must be greater than zero.
.VE "TIP 312"
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR uses variable traces to keep the Tcl variable
named by \fIvarName\fR in sync with the C variable at the address
given by \fIaddr\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is read the value of the C variable will
be returned, and whenever the Tcl variable is written the C
variable will be updated to have the same value.
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR normally returns \fBTCL_OK\fR;  if an error occurs
while setting up the link (e.g. because \fIvarName\fR is the
name of array) then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned and the interpreter's result
contains an error message.
.PP
.VS "TIP 312"
\fBTcl_LinkArray\fR is similar, but for arrays of fixed size (given by
the \fIsize\fR argument). When asked to allocate the backing C array
storage (via the \fIaddr\fR argument being NULL), it writes the
address that it allocated to the Tcl interpreter result.
.VE "TIP 312"
.PP
The \fItype\fR argument specifies the type of the C variable,
or the type of the elements of the C array,
and must have one of the following values, optionally OR'ed with
\fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR:
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_INT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBint\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like the empty
string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_UINT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBunsigned int\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned int\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_CHAR\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBchar\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and be in the range of the
\fBchar\fR datatype; attempts to write non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.RS
.PP
.VS "TIP 312"
If using an array of these, consider using \fBTCL_LINK_CHARS\fR instead.
.VE "TIP 312"
.RE
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_CHARS\fR
.VS "TIP 312"
The C array is of type \fBchar *\fR and is mapped into Tcl as a string.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have the same length as
the underlying storage. Only supported with \fBTcl_LinkArray\fR.
.VE "TIP 312"
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_UCHAR\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBunsigned char\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned char\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.RS
.PP
.VS "TIP 312"
If using an array of these, consider using \fBTCL_LINK_BYTES\fR instead.
.VE "TIP 312"
.RE
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_BYTES\fR
.VS "TIP 312"
The C array is of type \fBunsigned char *\fR and is mapped into Tcl
as a bytearray.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have the same length as
the underlying storage. Only supported with \fBTcl_LinkArray\fR.
.VE "TIP 312"
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_SHORT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBshort\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and be in the range of the
\fBshort\fR datatype; attempts to write non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_USHORT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBunsigned short\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned short\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_LONG\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBlong\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR; attempts to write
non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_ULONG\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBunsigned long\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned long\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_DOUBLE\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBdouble\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper real
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetDoubleFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-real values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer or real representations (like the
empty string, '.', '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are
accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_FLOAT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBfloat\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper real
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetDoubleFromObj\fR and must be within the
range acceptable for a \fBfloat\fR; attempts to
write non-real values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
or real representations (like the empty string, '.', '+', '-' or
the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_INT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBTcl_WideInt\fR
(which is an integer type
at least 64-bits wide on all platforms that can support it.)
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like the empty
string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_UINT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBTcl_WideUInt\fR
(which is an unsigned integer type at least 64-bits wide on all platforms that
can support it.)
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR (it will be
cast to unsigned);
.\" FIXME! Use bignums instead.
attempts to write non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be
rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like
the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBint\fR.
If its value is zero then it will read from Tcl as
.QW 0 ;
otherwise it will read from Tcl as
.QW 1 .
Whenever \fIvarName\fR is
modified, the C variable will be set to a 0 or 1 value.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper boolean
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetBooleanFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-boolean values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_STRING\fR
.
The C variable is of type \fBchar *\fR.
If its value is not NULL then it must be a pointer to a string
allocated with \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or \fBckalloc\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is modified the current C string will be
freed and new memory will be allocated to hold a copy of the variable's
new value.
If the C variable contains a NULL pointer then the Tcl variable
will read as
.QW NULL .
This is only supported by \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR.
.PP
If the \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR flag is present in \fItype\fR then the
variable will be read-only from Tcl, so that its value can only be
changed by modifying the C variable.
Attempts to write the variable from Tcl will be rejected with errors.
.PP
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR removes the link previously set up for the

Changes to doc/Method.3.

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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Method 3 0.1 TclOO "TclOO Library Functions"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_ClassSetConstructor, Tcl_ClassSetDestructor, Tcl_MethodDeclarerClass, Tcl_MethodDeclarerObject, Tcl_MethodIsPublic, Tcl_MethodIsType, Tcl_MethodName, Tcl_NewInstanceMethod, Tcl_NewMethod, Tcl_ObjectContextInvokeNext, Tcl_ObjectContextIsFiltering, Tcl_ObjectContextMethod, Tcl_ObjectContextObject, Tcl_ObjectContextSkippedArgs \- manipulate methods and method-call contexts
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tclOO.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Method
\fBTcl_NewMethod\fR(\fIinterp, class, nameObj, isPublic,
              methodTypePtr, clientData\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Method
\fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR(\fIinterp, object, nameObj, isPublic,
                      methodTypePtr, clientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetConstructor\fR(\fIinterp, class, method\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetDestructor\fR(\fIinterp, class, method\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Class
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerClass\fR(\fImethod\fR)
................................................................................
.sp
Tcl_Object
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerObject\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_MethodName\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp

int
\fBTcl_MethodIsPublic\fR(\fImethod\fR)




.sp
int
\fBTcl_MethodIsType\fR(\fImethod, methodTypePtr, clientDataPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ObjectContextInvokeNext\fR(\fIinterp, context, objc, objv, skip\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.AP Tcl_Object object in
The object to create the method in.
.AP Tcl_Class class in
The class to create the method in.
.AP Tcl_Obj *nameObj in
The name of the method to create. Should not be NULL unless creating
constructors or destructors.
.AP int isPublic in
A flag saying what the visibility of the method is. The only supported public
values of this flag are 0 for a non-exported method, and 1 for an exported
method.





.AP Tcl_MethodType *methodTypePtr in
A description of the type of the method to create, or the type of method to
compare against.
.AP ClientData clientData in
A piece of data that is passed to the implementation of the method without
interpretation.
.AP ClientData *clientDataPtr out
................................................................................
that class.
.PP
Given a method, the entity that declared it can be found using
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerClass\fR which returns the class that the method is
attached to (or NULL if the method is not attached to any class) and
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerObject\fR which returns the object that the method is
attached to (or NULL if the method is not attached to an object). The name of
the method can be retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodName\fR and whether the method
is exported is retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodIsPublic\fR. The type of the method




can also be introspected upon to a limited degree; the function
\fBTcl_MethodIsType\fR returns whether a method is of a particular type,
assigning the per-method \fIclientData\fR to the variable pointed to by
\fIclientDataPtr\fR if (that is non-NULL) if the type is matched.
.SS "METHOD CREATION"
.PP
Methods are created by \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR and \fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR,
which
create a method attached to a class or an object respectively. In both cases,
the \fInameObj\fR argument gives the name of the method to create, the
\fIisPublic\fR argument states whether the method should be exported




initially, the \fImethodTypePtr\fR argument describes the implementation of
the method (see the \fBMETHOD TYPES\fR section below) and the \fIclientData\fR
argument gives some implementation-specific data that is passed on to the
implementation of the method when it is called.
.PP
When the \fInameObj\fR argument to \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR is NULL, an
unnamed method is created, which is used for constructors and destructors.
Constructors should be installed into their class using the






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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Method 3 0.1 TclOO "TclOO Library Functions"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_ClassSetConstructor, Tcl_ClassSetDestructor, Tcl_MethodDeclarerClass, Tcl_MethodDeclarerObject, Tcl_MethodIsPublic, Tcl_MethodIsPrivate, Tcl_MethodIsType, Tcl_MethodName, Tcl_NewInstanceMethod, Tcl_NewMethod, Tcl_ObjectContextInvokeNext, Tcl_ObjectContextIsFiltering, Tcl_ObjectContextMethod, Tcl_ObjectContextObject, Tcl_ObjectContextSkippedArgs \- manipulate methods and method-call contexts
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tclOO.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Method
\fBTcl_NewMethod\fR(\fIinterp, class, nameObj, flags, methodTypePtr,
              clientData\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Method
\fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR(\fIinterp, object, nameObj, flags, methodTypePtr,
                      clientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetConstructor\fR(\fIinterp, class, method\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetDestructor\fR(\fIinterp, class, method\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Class
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerClass\fR(\fImethod\fR)
................................................................................
.sp
Tcl_Object
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerObject\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_MethodName\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp
.VS TIP500
int
\fBTcl_MethodIsPublic\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.VE TIP500
.sp
int
\fBTcl_MethodIsPrivate\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_MethodIsType\fR(\fImethod, methodTypePtr, clientDataPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ObjectContextInvokeNext\fR(\fIinterp, context, objc, objv, skip\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.AP Tcl_Object object in
The object to create the method in.
.AP Tcl_Class class in
The class to create the method in.
.AP Tcl_Obj *nameObj in
The name of the method to create. Should not be NULL unless creating
constructors or destructors.
.AP int flags in
A flag saying (currently) what the visibility of the method is. The supported
public values of this flag are \fBTCL_OO_METHOD_PUBLIC\fR (which is fixed at 1
for backward compatibility) for an exported method,
\fBTCL_OO_METHOD_UNEXPORTED\fR (which is fixed at 0 for backward
compatibility) for a non-exported method,
.VS TIP500
and \fBTCL_OO_METHOD_PRIVATE\fR for a private method.
.VE TIP500
.AP Tcl_MethodType *methodTypePtr in
A description of the type of the method to create, or the type of method to
compare against.
.AP ClientData clientData in
A piece of data that is passed to the implementation of the method without
interpretation.
.AP ClientData *clientDataPtr out
................................................................................
that class.
.PP
Given a method, the entity that declared it can be found using
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerClass\fR which returns the class that the method is
attached to (or NULL if the method is not attached to any class) and
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerObject\fR which returns the object that the method is
attached to (or NULL if the method is not attached to an object). The name of
the method can be retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodName\fR, whether the method
is exported is retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodIsPublic\fR,
.VS TIP500
and whether the method is private is retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodIsPrivate\fR.
.VE TIP500
The type of the method
can also be introspected upon to a limited degree; the function
\fBTcl_MethodIsType\fR returns whether a method is of a particular type,
assigning the per-method \fIclientData\fR to the variable pointed to by
\fIclientDataPtr\fR if (that is non-NULL) if the type is matched.
.SS "METHOD CREATION"
.PP
Methods are created by \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR and \fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR,
which
create a method attached to a class or an object respectively. In both cases,
the \fInameObj\fR argument gives the name of the method to create, the
\fIflags\fR argument states whether the method should be exported
initially
.VS TIP500
or be marked as a private method,
.VE TIP500
the \fImethodTypePtr\fR argument describes the implementation of
the method (see the \fBMETHOD TYPES\fR section below) and the \fIclientData\fR
argument gives some implementation-specific data that is passed on to the
implementation of the method when it is called.
.PP
When the \fInameObj\fR argument to \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR is NULL, an
unnamed method is created, which is used for constructors and destructors.
Constructors should be installed into their class using the

Changes to doc/NRE.3.

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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny.

.\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH NRE 3 8.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
.sp
void
\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR(\fIinterp, postProcPtr, data0, data1, data2, data3\fR)
.fi
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *interp in
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to create or evaluate a command.
.AP char *cmdName in
Name of a new command to create.
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
Implementation of a command that will be called whenever \fIcmdName\fR
is invoked as a command in the unoptimized way.


.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *nreProc in
Implementation of a command that will be called whenever \fIcmdName\fR
is invoked and requested to conserve the C stack.

.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value that will be passed to \fIproc\fR, \fInreProc\fR,
\fIdeleteProc\fR and \fIobjProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
Procedure to call before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter.
This procedure allows for command-specific cleanup. If \fIdeleteProc\fR
is \fBNULL\fR, then no procedure is called before the command is deleted.
.AP int objc in
Count of parameters provided to the implementation of a command.
.AP Tcl_Obj **objv in
Pointer to an array of Tcl values. Each value holds the value of a
single word in the command to execute.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
Pointer to a Tcl_Obj whose value is a script or expression to execute.
.AP int flags in

ORed combination of flag bits that specify additional options.
\fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR is the only flag that is currently supported.
.\" TODO: This is a lie. But kbk didn't grasp TCL_EVAL_INVOKE and
.\"       TCL_EVAL_NOERR well enough to document them.
.AP Tcl_Command cmd in
Token for a command that is to be used instead of the currently

executing command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *resultPtr out
Pointer to an unshared Tcl_Obj where the result of expression
evaluation is written.

.AP Tcl_NRPostProc *postProcPtr in
Pointer to a function that will be invoked when the command currently
executing in the interpreter designated by \fIinterp\fR completes.

.AP ClientData data0 in
.AP ClientData data1 in
.AP ClientData data2 in
.AP ClientData data3 in
\fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR are four one-word values that will be passed
to the function designated by \fIpostProcPtr\fR when it is invoked.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This series of C functions provides an interface whereby commands that
are implemented in C can be evaluated, and invoke Tcl commands scripts
and scripts, without consuming space on the C stack. The non-recursive
evaluation is done by installing a \fItrampoline\fR, a small piece of
code that invokes a command or script, and then executes a series of
callbacks when the command or script returns.





.PP
The \fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR function creates a Tcl command in the
interpreter designated by \fIinterp\fR that is prepared to handle
nonrecursive evaluation with a trampoline. The \fIcmdName\fR argument
gives the name of the new command. If \fIcmdName\fR contains any
namespace qualifiers, then the new command is added to the specified
namespace; otherwise, it is added to the global namespace. \fIproc\fR
gives the procedure that will be called when the interpreter wishes to
evaluate the command in an unoptimized manner, and \fInreProc\fR is
the procedure that will be called when the interpreter wishes to
evaluate the command using a trampoline. \fIdeleteProc\fR is a
function that will be called before the command is deleted from the
interpreter. When any of the three functions is invoked, it is passed
the \fIclientData\fR parameter.
.PP
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR deletes any existing command
\fIname\fR already associated with the interpreter
(however see below for an exception where the existing command
is not deleted).
It returns a token that may be used to refer


to the command in subsequent calls to \fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR.
If \fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR is called for an interpreter that is in

the process of being deleted, then it does not create a new command,

does not delete any existing command of the same name, and returns NULL.
.PP
The \fIproc\fR and \fInreProc\fR function are expected to conform to
all the rules set forth for the \fIproc\fR argument to
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(3) (\fIq.v.\fR).


.PP
When a command that is written to cope with evaluation via trampoline
is invoked without a trampoline on the stack, it will usually respond
to the invocation by creating a trampoline and calling the
trampoline-enabled implementation of the same command. This call is done by
means of \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR. In the call to
\fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR, the \fIinterp\fR, \fIclientData\fR,
\fIobjc\fR and \fIobjv\fR parameters should be the same ones that were
passed to \fIproc\fR. The \fInreProc\fR parameter should designate the
trampoline-enabled implementation of the command.
.PP
\fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR arranges for the script contained in \fIobjPtr\fR
to be evaluated in the interpreter designated by \fIinterp\fR after
the current command (which must be trampoline-enabled) returns. It is
the method by which a command may invoke a script without consuming

space on the C stack. Similarly, \fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR arranges to
invoke a single Tcl command whose words have already been separated
and substituted. The \fIobjc\fR and \fIobjv\fR parameters give the
words of the command to be evaluated when execution reaches the
trampoline.
.PP
\fBTcl_NRCmdSwap\fR allows for trampoline evaluation of a command whose
resolution is already known.  The \fIcmd\fR parameter gives a

\fBTcl_Command\fR token (returned from \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR or
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR) identifying the command to be invoked in
the trampoline; this command must match the word in \fIobjv[0]\fR.
The remaining arguments are as for \fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR.

.PP
\fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR, \fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR and \fBTcl_NRCmdSwap\fR
all accept a \fIflags\fR parameter, which is an OR-ed-together set of
bits to control evaluation. At the present time, the only supported flag
available to callers is \fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR.
.\" TODO: Again, this is a lie. Do we want to explain TCL_EVAL_INVOKE
.\"       and TCL_EVAL_NOERR?
If the \fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR flag is set, the script or command is
evaluated in the global namespace. If it is not set, it is evaluated
in the current namespace.



.PP
\fBTcl_NRExprObj\fR arranges for the expression contained in \fIobjPtr\fR
to be evaluated in the interpreter designated by \fIinterp\fR after
the current command (which must be trampoline-enabled) returns. It is
the method by which a command may evaluate a Tcl expression without consuming
space on the C stack.  The argument \fIresultPtr\fR is a pointer to an
unshared Tcl_Obj where the result of expression evaluation is to be written.
If expression evaluation returns any code other than TCL_OK, the
\fIresultPtr\fR value is left untouched.
.PP
All of the routines return \fBTCL_OK\fR if command or expression invocation

has been scheduled successfully. If for any reason the scheduling cannot
be completed (for example, if the interpreter is unable to find
the requested command), they return \fBTCL_ERROR\fR with an
appropriate message left in the interpreter's result.
.PP
\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR arranges to have a C function called when the
current trampoline-enabled command in the Tcl interpreter designated
by \fIinterp\fR returns.  The \fIpostProcPtr\fR argument is a pointer
to the callback function, which must have arguments and return value

consistent with the \fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR data type:
.PP
.CS
typedef int
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR(
        \fBClientData\fR \fIdata\fR[],
        \fBTcl_Interp\fR *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIresult\fR);
.CE
.PP
When the trampoline invokes the callback function, the \fIdata\fR
parameter will point to an array containing the four one-word
quantities that were passed to \fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR in the
\fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR parameters. The Tcl interpreter will
be designated by the \fIinterp\fR parameter, and the \fIresult\fR
parameter will contain the result (\fBTCL_OK\fR, \fBTCL_ERROR\fR,
\fBTCL_RETURN\fR, \fBTCL_BREAK\fR or \fBTCL_CONTINUE\fR) that was
returned by the command evaluation. The callback function is expected,
in turn, either to return a \fIresult\fR to control further evaluation.
.PP
Multiple \fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR invocations may request multiple
callbacks, which may be to the same or different callback
functions. If multiple callbacks are requested, they are executed in
last-in, first-out order, that is, the most recently requested
callback is executed first.
.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
The usual pattern for Tcl commands that invoke other Tcl commands
is something like:


.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
................................................................................

    return result;
}
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(interp, "theCommand",
        \fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR, clientData, TheCmdDeleteProc);
.CE
.PP
To enable a command like this one for trampoline-based evaluation,
it must be split into three pieces:
.IP \(bu
A non-trampoline implementation, \fITheCmdNewObjProc\fR,
which will simply create a trampoline
and invoke the trampoline-based implementation.
.IP \(bu
A trampoline-enabled implementation, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR.  This
function will perform the initialization, request that the trampoline
call the postprocessing routine after command evaluation, and finally,
request that the trampoline call the inner command.
.IP \(bu
A postprocessing routine, \fITheCmdPostProc\fR. This function will
perform the postprocessing formerly done after the return from the
inner command in \fITheCmdObjProc\fR.
.PP
The non-trampoline implementation is simple and stylized, containing
a single statement:
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNewObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    return \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR(interp, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR,
            clientData, objc, objv);
}
.CE
.PP
The trampoline-enabled implementation requests postprocessing,
and returns to the trampoline requesting command evaluation.
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
................................................................................
    /* \fIdata0 .. data3\fR are up to four one-word items to
     * pass to the postprocessing procedure */

    return \fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR(interp, objPtr, 0);
}
.CE
.PP
The postprocessing procedure does whatever the original command did
upon return from the inner evaluation.
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRPostProc\fR(
    ClientData data[],
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int result)
{
................................................................................

    \fI... postprocessing ...\fR

    return result;
}
.CE
.PP
If \fItheCommand\fR is a command that results in multiple commands or
scripts being evaluated, its postprocessing routine may schedule
additional postprocessing and then request another command evaluation
by means of \fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR or one of the other evaluation
routines. Looping and sequencing constructs may be implemented in this way.
.PP
Finally, to install a trampoline-enabled command in the interpreter,
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR is used in place of
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR.  It accepts two command procedures instead
of one. The first is for use when no trampoline is yet on the stack,
and the second is for use when there is already a trampoline in place.
.PP
.CS
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR(interp, "theCommand",
        \fITheCmdNewObjProc\fR, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR, clientData,
        TheCmdDeleteProc);
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateCommand(3), Tcl_CreateObjCommand(3), Tcl_EvalObjEx(3), Tcl_GetCommandFromObj(3), Tcl_ExprObj(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
stackless, nonrecursive, execute, command, global, value, result, script
.SH COPYRIGHT
Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny


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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny.
.\" Copyright (c) 2018 by Nathan Coulter.
.\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH NRE 3 8.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
.sp
void
\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR(\fIinterp, postProcPtr, data0, data1, data2, data3\fR)
.fi
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *interp in
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
The relevant Interpreter.
.AP char *cmdName in
Name of the command to create.
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
Called in order to evaluate a command.  Is often just a small wrapper that uses
\fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR to call \fInreProc\fR using a new trampoline.  Behaves
in the same way as the \fIproc\fR argument to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(3)
(\fIq.v.\fR).
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *nreProc in


Called instead of \fIproc\fR when a trampoline is already in use.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value passed to \fIproc\fR, \fInreProc\fR, \fIdeleteProc\fR
and \fIobjProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
Called before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter, allowing for
command-specific cleanup. May be NULL.

.AP int objc in
Number of items in \fIobjv\fR.
.AP Tcl_Obj **objv in

Words in the command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
A script or expression to evaluate.
.AP int flags in
As described for \fITcl_EvalObjv\fR.
.PP



.AP Tcl_Command cmd in

Token to use instead of one derived from the first word of \fIobjv\fR in order
to evaluate a command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *resultPtr out
Pointer to an unshared Tcl_Obj where the result of the evaluation is stored if

the return code is TCL_OK.
.AP Tcl_NRPostProc *postProcPtr in


A function to push.
.AP ClientData data0 in
.AP ClientData data1 in
.AP ClientData data2 in
.AP ClientData data3 in
\fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR are four one-word values that will be passed
to the function designated by \fIpostProcPtr\fR when it is invoked.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These functions provide an interface to the function stack that an interpreter
iterates through to evaluate commands.  The routine behind a command is
implemented by an initial function and any additional functions that the
routine pushes onto the stack as it progresses.  The interpreter itself pushes
functions onto the stack to react to the end of a routine and to exercise other
forms of control such as switching between in-progress stacks and the
evaluation of other scripts at additional levels without adding frames to the C
stack.  To execute a routine, the initial function for the routine is called
and then a small bit of code called a \fItrampoline\fR iteratively takes
functions off the stack and calls them, using the value of the last call as the
value of the routine.
.PP





\fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR calls \fInreProc\fR using a new trampoline.







.PP
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR, an alternative to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR,




resolves \fIcmdName\fR, which may contain namespace qualifiers, relative to the
current namespace, creates a command by that name, and returns a token for the
command which may be used in subsequent calls to \fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR.

Except for a few cases noted below any existing command by the same name is
first deleted.  If \fIinterp\fR is in the process of being deleted
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR does not create any command, does not delete any
command, and returns NULL.
.PP



\fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR pushes a function that is like \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR but
consumes no space on the C stack.
.PP














\fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR pushes a function that is like \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR but
consumes no space on the C stack.




.PP


\fBTcl_NRCmdSwap\fR is like \fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR, but uses \fIcmd\fR, a token
previously returned by \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR or
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR, instead of resolving the first word of \fIobjv\fR.


.  The name of this command must be the same as \fIobjv[0]\fR.
.PP









\fBTcl_NRExprObj\fR pushes a function that evaluates \fIobjPtr\fR as an
expression in the same manner as \fBTcl_ExprObj\fR but without consuming space
on the C stack.
.PP










All of the functions return \fBTCL_OK\fR if the evaluation of the script,
command, or expression has been scheduled successfully.  Otherwise (for example

if the command name cannot be resolved), they return \fBTCL_ERROR\fR and store
a message as the interpreter's result.
.PP




\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR pushes \fIpostProcPtr\fR.  The signature for
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR is:
.PP
.CS
typedef int
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR(
        \fBClientData\fR \fIdata\fR[],
        \fBTcl_Interp\fR *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIresult\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIdata\fR is a pointer to an array containing \fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR.
\fIresult\fR is the value returned by the previous function implementing part
the routine.












.SH EXAMPLE
.PP


The following command uses \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR, which consumes space on the C
stack, to evalute a script:
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
................................................................................

    return result;
}
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(interp, "theCommand",
        \fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR, clientData, TheCmdDeleteProc);
.CE
.PP
To avoid consuming space on the C stack, \fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR is renamed to
\fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR and the postprocessing step is split into a separate
function, \fITheCmdPostProc\fR, which is pushed onto the function stack.
\fITcl_EvalObjEx\fR is replaced with \fITcl_NREvalObj\fR, which uses a
trampoline instead of consuming space on the C stack.  A new version of
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR is just a a wrapper that uses \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR to

call \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR:







.PP



.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    return \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR(interp, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR,
            clientData, objc, objv);
}
.CE
.PP



.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
................................................................................
    /* \fIdata0 .. data3\fR are up to four one-word items to
     * pass to the postprocessing procedure */

    return \fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR(interp, objPtr, 0);
}
.CE
.PP



.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRPostProc\fR(
    ClientData data[],
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int result)
{
................................................................................

    \fI... postprocessing ...\fR

    return result;
}
.CE
.PP
Any function comprising a routine can push other functions, making it possible



implement looping and sequencing constructs using the function stack.
.PP











.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateCommand(3), Tcl_CreateObjCommand(3), Tcl_EvalObjEx(3), Tcl_GetCommandFromObj(3), Tcl_ExprObj(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
stackless, nonrecursive, execute, command, global, value, result, script
.SH COPYRIGHT
Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny.
Copyright (c) 2018 by Nathan Coulter.

Changes to doc/Notifier.3.

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source must work with the notifier to detect events at the right
times, record them on the event queue, and eventually notify
higher-level software that they have occurred.  The procedures
\fBTcl_CreateEventSource\fR, \fBTcl_DeleteEventSource\fR,
and \fBTcl_SetMaxBlockTime\fR, \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR, and
\fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR are used primarily by event sources.
.IP [2]
The event queue: for non-threaded applications,
there is a single queue for the whole application,
containing events that have been detected but not yet serviced.  Event
sources place events onto the queue so that they may be processed in
order at appropriate times during the event loop. The event queue
guarantees a fair discipline of event handling, so that no event
source can starve the others.  It also allows events to be saved for
servicing at a future time.  Threaded applications work in a
similar manner, except that there is a separate event queue for
each thread containing a Tcl interpreter.
\fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR is used (primarily
by event sources) to add events to the event queue and
\fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR is used to remove events from the queue without
processing them.  In a threaded application, \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR adds
an event to the current thread's queue, and \fBTcl_ThreadQueueEvent\fR
adds an event to a queue in a specific thread.
.IP [3]
The event loop: in order to detect and process events, the application
enters a loop that waits for events to occur, places them on the event
queue, and then processes them.  Most applications will do this by
calling the procedure \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR, which is described in a
separate manual entry.
.PP
................................................................................
When \fIproc\fR returns 1, \fBTcl_ServiceEvent\fR will remove the
event from the event queue and free its storage.
Note that the storage for an event must be allocated by
the event source (using \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or the Tcl macro \fBckalloc\fR)
before calling \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR, but it
will be freed by \fBTcl_ServiceEvent\fR, not by the event source.
.PP
Threaded applications work in a
similar manner, except that there is a separate event queue for
each thread containing a Tcl interpreter.
Calling \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR in a multithreaded application adds
an event to the current thread's queue.
To add an event to another thread's queue, use \fBTcl_ThreadQueueEvent\fR.
\fBTcl_ThreadQueueEvent\fR accepts as an argument a Tcl_ThreadId argument,
which uniquely identifies a thread in a Tcl application.  To obtain the
Tcl_ThreadId for the current thread, use the \fBTcl_GetCurrentThread\fR
procedure.  (A thread would then need to pass this identifier to other
threads for those threads to be able to add events to its queue.)
After adding an event to another thread's queue, you then typically
................................................................................
elapsed).  Finally, a return value of \-1 means that the event loop is
no longer operational and the application should probably unwind and
terminate.  Under Windows this happens when a WM_QUIT message is received;
under Unix it happens when \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR would have waited
forever because there were no active event sources and the timeout was
infinite.
.PP
\fBTcl_AlertNotifier\fR is used in multithreaded applications to allow
any thread to
.QW "wake up"
the notifier to alert it to new events on its
queue.  \fBTcl_AlertNotifier\fR requires as an argument the notifier
handle returned by \fBTcl_InitNotifier\fR.
.PP
If the notifier will be used with an external event loop, then it must
also support the \fBTcl_SetTimer\fR interface.  \fBTcl_SetTimer\fR is






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source must work with the notifier to detect events at the right
times, record them on the event queue, and eventually notify
higher-level software that they have occurred.  The procedures
\fBTcl_CreateEventSource\fR, \fBTcl_DeleteEventSource\fR,
and \fBTcl_SetMaxBlockTime\fR, \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR, and
\fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR are used primarily by event sources.
.IP [2]

The event queue: there is a single queue for each thread containing
a Tcl interpreter, containing events that have been detected but not
yet serviced.  Event sources place events onto the queue so that they
may be processed in order at appropriate times during the event loop.
The event queue guarantees a fair discipline of event handling, so that
no event source can starve the others.  It also allows events to be
saved for servicing at a future time.


\fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR is used (primarily
by event sources) to add events to the current thread's event queue and
\fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR is used to remove events from the queue without
processing them.


.IP [3]
The event loop: in order to detect and process events, the application
enters a loop that waits for events to occur, places them on the event
queue, and then processes them.  Most applications will do this by
calling the procedure \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR, which is described in a
separate manual entry.
.PP
................................................................................
When \fIproc\fR returns 1, \fBTcl_ServiceEvent\fR will remove the
event from the event queue and free its storage.
Note that the storage for an event must be allocated by
the event source (using \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or the Tcl macro \fBckalloc\fR)
before calling \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR, but it
will be freed by \fBTcl_ServiceEvent\fR, not by the event source.
.PP




Calling \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR adds an event to the current thread's queue.
To add an event to another thread's queue, use \fBTcl_ThreadQueueEvent\fR.
\fBTcl_ThreadQueueEvent\fR accepts as an argument a Tcl_ThreadId argument,
which uniquely identifies a thread in a Tcl application.  To obtain the
Tcl_ThreadId for the current thread, use the \fBTcl_GetCurrentThread\fR
procedure.  (A thread would then need to pass this identifier to other
threads for those threads to be able to add events to its queue.)
After adding an event to another thread's queue, you then typically
................................................................................
elapsed).  Finally, a return value of \-1 means that the event loop is
no longer operational and the application should probably unwind and
terminate.  Under Windows this happens when a WM_QUIT message is received;
under Unix it happens when \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR would have waited
forever because there were no active event sources and the timeout was
infinite.
.PP
\fBTcl_AlertNotifier\fR is used to allow any thread to

.QW "wake up"
the notifier to alert it to new events on its
queue.  \fBTcl_AlertNotifier\fR requires as an argument the notifier
handle returned by \fBTcl_InitNotifier\fR.
.PP
If the notifier will be used with an external event loop, then it must
also support the \fBTcl_SetTimer\fR interface.  \fBTcl_SetTimer\fR is

Changes to doc/Object.3.

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\fBincr x\fR
.CE
.PP
The \fBincr\fR command first gets an integer from \fIx\fR's value
by calling \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR.
This procedure checks whether the value is already an integer value.
Since it is not, it converts the value
by setting the value's \fIinternalRep.longValue\fR member
to the integer \fB123\fR
and setting the value's \fItypePtr\fR
to point to the integer Tcl_ObjType structure.
Both representations are now valid.
\fBincr\fR increments the value's integer internal representation
then invalidates its string representation
(by calling \fBTcl_InvalidateStringRep\fR)






|







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\fBincr x\fR
.CE
.PP
The \fBincr\fR command first gets an integer from \fIx\fR's value
by calling \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR.
This procedure checks whether the value is already an integer value.
Since it is not, it converts the value
by setting the value's internal representation
to the integer \fB123\fR
and setting the value's \fItypePtr\fR
to point to the integer Tcl_ObjType structure.
Both representations are now valid.
\fBincr\fR increments the value's integer internal representation
then invalidates its string representation
(by calling \fBTcl_InvalidateStringRep\fR)

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error for argc and argv to override stdio channels for which
\fBTCL_STDIN\fR, \fBTCL_STDOUT\fR, and \fBTCL_STDERR\fR have been set.
.PP
If an error occurs while opening the channel, \fBTcl_OpenCommandChannel\fR
returns NULL and records a POSIX error code that can be retrieved with
\fBTcl_GetErrno\fR.
In addition, \fBTcl_OpenCommandChannel\fR leaves an error message in
the interpreter's result if \fIinterp\fR is not NULL.
.PP
The newly created channel is not registered in the supplied interpreter; to
register it, use \fBTcl_RegisterChannel\fR, described below.
If one of the standard channels, \fBstdin\fR, \fBstdout\fR or \fBstderr\fR was
previously closed, the act of creating the new channel also assigns it as a
replacement for the standard channel.
.SH TCL_MAKEFILECHANNEL






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error for argc and argv to override stdio channels for which
\fBTCL_STDIN\fR, \fBTCL_STDOUT\fR, and \fBTCL_STDERR\fR have been set.
.PP
If an error occurs while opening the channel, \fBTcl_OpenCommandChannel\fR
returns NULL and records a POSIX error code that can be retrieved with
\fBTcl_GetErrno\fR.
In addition, \fBTcl_OpenCommandChannel\fR leaves an error message in
the interpreter's result. \fIinterp\fR cannot be NULL.
.PP
The newly created channel is not registered in the supplied interpreter; to
register it, use \fBTcl_RegisterChannel\fR, described below.
If one of the standard channels, \fBstdin\fR, \fBstdout\fR or \fBstderr\fR was
previously closed, the act of creating the new channel also assigns it as a
replacement for the standard channel.
.SH TCL_MAKEFILECHANNEL

Changes to doc/Panic.3.

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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Panic 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\"  Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_Panic, Tcl_PanicVA, Tcl_SetPanicProc \- report fatal error and abort
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
void
\fBTcl_Panic\fR(\fIformat\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fI...\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_PanicVA\fR(\fIformat\fR, \fIargList\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR(\fIpanicProc\fR)
.sp



.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_PanicProc *panicProc
.AP "const char*" format in
A printf-style format string.
.AP "" arg in
Arguments matching the format string.
.AP va_list argList in
................................................................................
In a freshly loaded Tcl library, \fBTcl_Panic\fR prints the formatted
error message to the standard error file of the process, and then
calls \fBabort\fR to terminate the process.  \fBTcl_Panic\fR does not
return. On Windows, when a debugger is running, the formatted error
message is sent to the debugger in stead. If the windows executable
does not have a stderr channel (e.g. \fBwish.exe\fR), then a
system dialog box is used to display the panic message.








.PP
\fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR may be used to modify the behavior of
\fBTcl_Panic\fR.  The \fIpanicProc\fR argument should match the
type \fBTcl_PanicProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_PanicProc\fR(
................................................................................
Although the primary callers of \fBTcl_Panic\fR are the procedures of
the Tcl library, \fBTcl_Panic\fR is a public function and may be called
by any extension or application that wishes to abort the process and
have a panic message displayed the same way that panic messages from Tcl
will be displayed.
.PP
\fBTcl_PanicVA\fR is the same as \fBTcl_Panic\fR except that instead of
taking a variable number of arguments it takes an argument list.




.SH "SEE ALSO"
abort(3), printf(3), exec(n), format(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, fatal, error






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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Panic 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\"  Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_Panic, Tcl_PanicVA, Tcl_SetPanicProc, Tcl_ConsolePanic \- report fatal error and abort
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
void
\fBTcl_Panic\fR(\fIformat\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fI...\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_PanicVA\fR(\fIformat\fR, \fIargList\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR(\fIpanicProc\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_ConsolePanic\fR(\fIformat\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fI...\fR)
.sp
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_PanicProc *panicProc
.AP "const char*" format in
A printf-style format string.
.AP "" arg in
Arguments matching the format string.
.AP va_list argList in
................................................................................
In a freshly loaded Tcl library, \fBTcl_Panic\fR prints the formatted
error message to the standard error file of the process, and then
calls \fBabort\fR to terminate the process.  \fBTcl_Panic\fR does not
return. On Windows, when a debugger is running, the formatted error
message is sent to the debugger in stead. If the windows executable
does not have a stderr channel (e.g. \fBwish.exe\fR), then a
system dialog box is used to display the panic message.
.PP
If your application doesn't use \fBTcl_Main\fR or \fBTk_Main\fR
and you want to implicitly use the stderr channel of your
application's C runtime (in stead of the stderr channel of the
C runtime used by Tcl), you can call \fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR
with \fBTcl_ConsolePanic\fR as its argument. On platforms which
only have one C runtime (almost all platforms except Windows)
\fBTcl_ConsolePanic\fR is equivalent to NULL.
.PP
\fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR may be used to modify the behavior of
\fBTcl_Panic\fR.  The \fIpanicProc\fR argument should match the
type \fBTcl_PanicProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_PanicProc\fR(
................................................................................
Although the primary callers of \fBTcl_Panic\fR are the procedures of
the Tcl library, \fBTcl_Panic\fR is a public function and may be called
by any extension or application that wishes to abort the process and
have a panic message displayed the same way that panic messages from Tcl
will be displayed.
.PP
\fBTcl_PanicVA\fR is the same as \fBTcl_Panic\fR except that instead of
taking a variable number of arguments it takes an argument list. This
function is deprecated and will be removed in Tcl 9.0.
.PP
This function can not be used in stub-enabled extensions. Its symbol
entry in the stub table is deprecated and it will be removed in Tcl 9.0.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
abort(3), printf(3), exec(n), format(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, fatal, error

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As noted above, the \fItype\fR field is used to describe the interpretation of
the argument's value. The following values are acceptable values for
\fItype\fR:
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_CONSTANT\fR
.
The argument does not take any following value argument. If this argument is
present, the int pointed to by the \fIsrcPtr\fR field is copied to the
\fIdstPtr\fR field. The \fIclientData\fR field is ignored.
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_END\fR
.
This value marks the end of all option descriptors in the table. All other
fields are ignored.
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_FLOAT\fR






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As noted above, the \fItype\fR field is used to describe the interpretation of
the argument's value. The following values are acceptable values for
\fItype\fR:
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_CONSTANT\fR
.
The argument does not take any following value argument. If this argument is
present, the (integer) value of the \fIsrcPtr\fR field is copied to the variable
pointed to by the \fIdstPtr\fR field. The \fIclientData\fR field is ignored.
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_END\fR
.
This value marks the end of all option descriptors in the table. All other
fields are ignored.
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_FLOAT\fR

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2004. (not subject to US copyright)

'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_SaveResult 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SaveInterpState, Tcl_RestoreInterpState, Tcl_DiscardInterpState, Tcl_SaveResult, Tcl_RestoreResult, Tcl_DiscardResult \- save and restore an interpreter's state


.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_InterpState
\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR(\fIinterp, status\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
\fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR(\fIinterp, savedPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR(\fIsavedPtr\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_InterpState savedPtr
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter for which state should be saved.
.AP int status in
Return code value to save as part of interpreter state.
.AP Tcl_InterpState state in
Saved state token to be restored or discarded.
.AP Tcl_SavedResult *savedPtr in
Pointer to location where interpreter result should be saved or restored.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These routines allows a C procedure to take a snapshot of the current
state of an interpreter so that it can be restored after a call
to \fBTcl_Eval\fR or some other routine that modifies the interpreter
state.  There are two triplets of routines meant to work together.
.PP
The first triplet stores the snapshot of interpreter state in
an opaque token returned by \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR.  That token
value may then be passed back to one of \fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR
or \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR, depending on whether the interp
state is to be restored.  So long as one of the latter two routines
is called, Tcl will take care of memory management.
.PP
The second triplet stores the snapshot of only the interpreter
result (not its complete state) in memory allocated by the caller.
These routines are passed a pointer to a \fBTcl_SavedResult\fR structure
that is used to store enough information to restore the interpreter result.
This structure can be allocated on the stack of the calling
procedure.  These routines do not save the state of any error
information in the interpreter (e.g. the \fB\-errorcode\fR or
\fB\-errorinfo\fR return options, when an error is in progress).
.PP
Because the routines \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR,
\fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR, and \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR perform
a superset of the functions provided by the other routines,
any new code should only make use of the more powerful routines.
The older, weaker routines \fBTcl_SaveResult\fR, \fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR,
and \fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR continue to exist only for the sake
of existing programs that may already be using them.
.PP
\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR takes a snapshot of those portions of
interpreter state that make up the full result of script evaluation.
This include the interpreter result, the return code (passed in
as the \fIstatus\fR argument, and any return options, including

\fB\-errorinfo\fR and \fB\-errorcode\fR when an error is in progress.
This snapshot is returned as an opaque token of type \fBTcl_InterpState\fR.
The call to \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR does not itself change the
state of the interpreter.  Unlike \fBTcl_SaveResult\fR, it does
not reset the interpreter.


.PP
\fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR accepts a \fBTcl_InterpState\fR token
previously returned by \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR and restores the
state of the interp to the state held in that snapshot.  The return
value of \fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR is the status value originally

passed to \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR when the snapshot token was
created.
.PP
\fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR is called to release a \fBTcl_InterpState\fR
token previously returned by \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR when that
snapshot is not to be restored to an interp.


.PP

The \fBTcl_InterpState\fR token returned by \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR
must eventually be passed to either \fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR
or \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR to avoid a memory leak.  Once
the \fBTcl_InterpState\fR token is passed to one of them, the
token is no longer valid and should not be used anymore.

.PP
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR moves the string and value results
of \fIinterp\fR into the location specified by \fIstatePtr\fR.
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR clears the result for \fIinterp\fR and
leaves the result in its normal empty initialized state.



.PP
\fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR moves the string and value results from
\fIstatePtr\fR back into \fIinterp\fR.  Any result or error that was
already in the interpreter will be cleared.  The \fIstatePtr\fR is left
in an uninitialized state and cannot be used until another call to



\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR releases the saved interpreter state
stored at \fBstatePtr\fR.  The state structure is left in an
uninitialized state and cannot be used until another call to

\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR.
.PP
Once \fBTcl_SaveResult\fR is called to save the interpreter
result, either \fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR or
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR must be called to properly clean up the
memory associated with the saved state.

.SH KEYWORDS
result, state, interp


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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2004. (not subject to US copyright)
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Nathan Coulter.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_SaveResult 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SaveInterpState, Tcl_RestoreInterpState, Tcl_DiscardInterpState,
Tcl_SaveResult, Tcl_RestoreResult, Tcl_DiscardResult \- Save and restore the
state of an an interpreter.
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_InterpState
\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR(\fIinterp, status\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
\fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR(\fIinterp, savedPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR(\fIsavedPtr\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_InterpState savedPtr
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
The interpreter for the operation.
.AP int status in
The return code for the state.
.AP Tcl_InterpState state in
A token for saved state.
.AP Tcl_SavedResult *savedPtr in
A pointer to storage for saved state.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These routines save the state of an interpreter before a call to a routine such
as \fBTcl_Eval\fR, and restore the state afterwards.


.PP
















\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR saves the parts of \fIinterp\fR that comprise the











result of a script, including the resulting value, the return code passed as
\fIstatus\fR, and any options such as \fB\-errorinfo\fR and \fB\-errorcode\fR.




It returns a token for the saved state.  The interpreter result is not reset
and no interpreter state is changed.
.PP
\fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR restores the state indicated by \fIstate\fR and



returns the \fIstatus\fR originally passed in the corresponding call to
\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR.

.PP
If a saved state is not restored, \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR must be called


to release it.  A token used to discard or restore state must not be used
again.
.PP
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR, \fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR, and \fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR are
deprecated.  Instead use \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR,
\fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR, and \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR, which are more



capable.
.PP
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR moves the result of \fIinterp\fR to the location



\fIstatePtr\fR points to and returns the interpreter result to its initial
state.  It does not save options such as \fB\-errorcode\fR or
\fB\-errorinfo\fR.
.PP




\fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR clears any existing result or error in \fIinterp\fR and
moves the result from \fIstatePtr\fR back to \fIinterp\fR.  \fIstatePtr\fR is
then in an undefined state and must not be used until passed again to
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR releases the state stored at \fBstatePtr\fR, which is


then in an undefined state and must not be used until passed again to
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR.
.PP


If a saved result is not restored, \fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR must be called to

release it.
.SH KEYWORDS
result, state, interp

Changes to doc/StaticPkg.3.

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The \fIinterp\fR argument identifies the interpreter in which the package
is to be loaded.  The initialization procedure must return \fBTCL_OK\fR or
\fBTCL_ERROR\fR to indicate whether or not it completed successfully; in
the event of an error it should set the interpreter's result to point to an
error message.  The result or error from the initialization procedure will
be returned as the result of the \fBload\fR command that caused the
initialization procedure to be invoked.



.SH KEYWORDS
initialization procedure, package, static linking
.SH "SEE ALSO"
load(n), package(n), Tcl_PkgRequire(3)






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The \fIinterp\fR argument identifies the interpreter in which the package
is to be loaded.  The initialization procedure must return \fBTCL_OK\fR or
\fBTCL_ERROR\fR to indicate whether or not it completed successfully; in
the event of an error it should set the interpreter's result to point to an
error message.  The result or error from the initialization procedure will
be returned as the result of the \fBload\fR command that caused the
initialization procedure to be invoked.
.PP
This function can not be used in stub-enabled extensions. Its symbol
entry in the stub table is deprecated and it will be removed in Tcl 9.0.
.SH KEYWORDS
initialization procedure, package, static linking
.SH "SEE ALSO"
load(n), package(n), Tcl_PkgRequire(3)

Changes to doc/StringObj.3.

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.sp
Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_GetUnicodeFromObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, lengthPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_GetUnicode\fR(\fIobjPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_GetUniChar\fR(\fIobjPtr, index\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetCharLength\fR(\fIobjPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_GetRange\fR(\fIobjPtr, first, last\fR)
................................................................................
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const Tcl_UniChar" *appendObjPtr in/out
.AP "const char" *bytes in
Points to the first byte of an array of UTF-8-encoded bytes
used to set or append to a string value.
This byte array may contain embedded null characters
unless \fInumChars\fR is negative.  (Applications needing null bytes
should represent them as the two-byte sequence \fI\e700\e600\fR, use
\fBTcl_ExternalToUtf\fR to convert, or \fBTcl_NewByteArrayObj\fR if
the string is a collection of uninterpreted bytes.)
.AP int length in
The number of bytes to copy from \fIbytes\fR when
initializing, setting, or appending to a string value.
If negative, all bytes up to the first null are used.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *unicode in
................................................................................
\fIlengthPtr\fR if it is non-NULL.  The storage referenced by the returned
byte pointer is owned by the value manager and should not be modified by
the caller.  The procedure \fBTcl_GetUnicode\fR is used in the common case
where the caller does not need the length of the unicode string
representation.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetUniChar\fR returns the \fIindex\fR'th character in the
value's Unicode representation.

.PP
\fBTcl_GetRange\fR returns a newly created value comprised of the
characters between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR (inclusive) in the
value's Unicode representation.  If the value's Unicode
representation is invalid, the Unicode representation is regenerated
from the value's string representation.
.PP






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.sp
Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_GetUnicodeFromObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, lengthPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_GetUnicode\fR(\fIobjPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetUniChar\fR(\fIobjPtr, index\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetCharLength\fR(\fIobjPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_GetRange\fR(\fIobjPtr, first, last\fR)
................................................................................
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const Tcl_UniChar" *appendObjPtr in/out
.AP "const char" *bytes in
Points to the first byte of an array of UTF-8-encoded bytes
used to set or append to a string value.
This byte array may contain embedded null characters
unless \fInumChars\fR is negative.  (Applications needing null bytes
should represent them as the two-byte sequence \fI\e300\e200\fR, use
\fBTcl_ExternalToUtf\fR to convert, or \fBTcl_NewByteArrayObj\fR if
the string is a collection of uninterpreted bytes.)
.AP int length in
The number of bytes to copy from \fIbytes\fR when
initializing, setting, or appending to a string value.
If negative, all bytes up to the first null are used.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *unicode in
................................................................................
\fIlengthPtr\fR if it is non-NULL.  The storage referenced by the returned
byte pointer is owned by the value manager and should not be modified by
the caller.  The procedure \fBTcl_GetUnicode\fR is used in the common case
where the caller does not need the length of the unicode string
representation.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetUniChar\fR returns the \fIindex\fR'th character in the
value's Unicode representation. If the index is out of range or
it references a low surrogate preceded by a high surrogate, it returns -1;
.PP
\fBTcl_GetRange\fR returns a newly created value comprised of the
characters between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR (inclusive) in the
value's Unicode representation.  If the value's Unicode
representation is invalid, the Unicode representation is regenerated
from the value's string representation.
.PP

Changes to doc/Tcl.n.

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(see below) unless quoted.
.IP "[2] \fBEvaluation.\fR"
A command is evaluated in two steps.
First, the Tcl interpreter breaks the command into \fIwords\fR
and performs substitutions as described below.
These substitutions are performed in the same way for all
commands.
Secondly, the first word is used to locate a command procedure to
carry out the command, then all of the words of the command are
passed to the command procedure.
The command procedure is free to interpret each of its words
in any way it likes, such as an integer, variable name, list,
or Tcl script.
Different commands interpret their words differently.
.IP "[3] \fBWords.\fR"
Words of a command are separated by white space (except for
newlines, which are command separators).
.IP "[4] \fBDouble quotes.\fR"






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(see below) unless quoted.
.IP "[2] \fBEvaluation.\fR"
A command is evaluated in two steps.
First, the Tcl interpreter breaks the command into \fIwords\fR
and performs substitutions as described below.
These substitutions are performed in the same way for all
commands.
Secondly, the first word is used to locate a routine to
carry out the command, and the remaining words of the command are
passed to that routine.
The routine is free to interpret each of its words
in any way it likes, such as an integer, variable name, list,
or Tcl script.
Different commands interpret their words differently.
.IP "[3] \fBWords.\fR"
Words of a command are separated by white space (except for
newlines, which are command separators).
.IP "[4] \fBDouble quotes.\fR"

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evaluated.  In interactive mode, if an EOF or channel error
is encountered on the standard input channel, then \fBTcl_Main\fR
itself will evaluate the \fBexit\fR command after the main loop
procedure (if any) returns.  In non-interactive mode, after
\fBTcl_Main\fR evaluates the startup script, and the main loop
procedure (if any) returns, \fBTcl_Main\fR will also evaluate
the \fBexit\fR command.


.SH "SEE ALSO"
tclsh(1), Tcl_GetStdChannel(3), Tcl_StandardChannels(3), Tcl_AppInit(3),
exit(n), encoding(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
application-specific initialization, command-line arguments, main program






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evaluated.  In interactive mode, if an EOF or channel error
is encountered on the standard input channel, then \fBTcl_Main\fR
itself will evaluate the \fBexit\fR command after the main loop
procedure (if any) returns.  In non-interactive mode, after
\fBTcl_Main\fR evaluates the startup script, and the main loop
procedure (if any) returns, \fBTcl_Main\fR will also evaluate
the \fBexit\fR command.
.PP
This function can not be used in stub-enabled extensions.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
tclsh(1), Tcl_GetStdChannel(3), Tcl_StandardChannels(3), Tcl_AppInit(3),
exit(n), encoding(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
application-specific initialization, command-line arguments, main program

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int
\fBTcl_JoinThread\fR(\fIid, result\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CreateThreadProc proc out
.AP Tcl_Condition *condPtr in
A condition variable, which must be associated with a mutex lock.
.AP Tcl_Mutex *mutexPtr in

A mutex lock.

.AP "const Tcl_Time" *timePtr in
A time limit on the condition wait.  NULL to wait forever.
Note that a polling value of 0 seconds does not make much sense.
.AP Tcl_ThreadDataKey *keyPtr in
This identifies a block of thread local storage.  The key should be
static and process-wide, yet each thread will end up associating
a different block of storage with this key.
................................................................................
the \fBNotifier\fR manual page for more information on these procedures.
.PP
A mutex is a lock that is used to serialize all threads through a piece
of code by calling \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR and \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR.
If one thread holds a mutex, any other thread calling \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR will
block until \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR is called.
A mutex can be destroyed after its use by calling \fBTcl_MutexFinalize\fR.
The result of locking a mutex twice from the same thread is undefined.
On some platforms it will result in a deadlock.




The \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR, \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR and \fBTcl_MutexFinalize\fR
procedures are defined as empty macros if not compiling with threads enabled.
For declaration of mutexes the \fBTCL_DECLARE_MUTEX\fR macro should be used.
This macro assures correct mutex handling even when the core is compiled
without threads enabled.
.PP
A condition variable is used as a signaling mechanism:






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int
\fBTcl_JoinThread\fR(\fIid, result\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CreateThreadProc proc out
.AP Tcl_Condition *condPtr in
A condition variable, which must be associated with a mutex lock.
.AP Tcl_Mutex *mutexPtr in
.VS TIP509
A recursive mutex lock.
.VE TIP509
.AP "const Tcl_Time" *timePtr in
A time limit on the condition wait.  NULL to wait forever.
Note that a polling value of 0 seconds does not make much sense.
.AP Tcl_ThreadDataKey *keyPtr in
This identifies a block of thread local storage.  The key should be
static and process-wide, yet each thread will end up associating
a different block of storage with this key.
................................................................................
the \fBNotifier\fR manual page for more information on these procedures.
.PP
A mutex is a lock that is used to serialize all threads through a piece
of code by calling \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR and \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR.
If one thread holds a mutex, any other thread calling \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR will
block until \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR is called.
A mutex can be destroyed after its use by calling \fBTcl_MutexFinalize\fR.
.VS TIP509
Mutexes are reentrant: they can be locked several times from the same
thread. However there must be exactly one call to
\fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR for each call to \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR in order
for a thread to release a mutex completely.
.VE TIP509
The \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR, \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR and \fBTcl_MutexFinalize\fR
procedures are defined as empty macros if not compiling with threads enabled.
For declaration of mutexes the \fBTCL_DECLARE_MUTEX\fR macro should be used.
This macro assures correct mutex handling even when the core is compiled
without threads enabled.
.PP
A condition variable is used as a signaling mechanism:

Changes to doc/ToUpper.3.

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.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_UniCharToUpper, Tcl_UniCharToLower, Tcl_UniCharToTitle, Tcl_UtfToUpper, Tcl_UtfToLower, Tcl_UtfToTitle \- routines for manipulating the case of Unicode characters and UTF-8 strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_UniCharToUpper\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_UniCharToLower\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_UniCharToTitle\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR(\fIstr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToLower\fR(\fIstr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToTitle\fR(\fIstr\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS char *str in/out
.AP int ch in
The Tcl_UniChar to be converted.
.AP char *str in/out
Pointer to UTF-8 string to be converted in place.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The first three routines convert the case of individual Unicode characters:
................................................................................
\fBTcl_UtfToLower\fR is the same as \fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR except it
turns each character in the string into its lower-case equivalent.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToTitle\fR is the same as \fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR except it
turns the first character in the string into its title-case equivalent
and all following characters into their lower-case equivalents.

.SH BUGS
.PP
At this time, the case conversions are only defined for the ISO8859-1
characters.  Unicode characters above 0x00ff are not modified by these
routines.

.SH KEYWORDS
utf, unicode, toupper, tolower, totitle, case






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.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_UniCharToUpper, Tcl_UniCharToLower, Tcl_UniCharToTitle, Tcl_UtfToUpper, Tcl_UtfToLower, Tcl_UtfToTitle \- routines for manipulating the case of Unicode characters and UTF-8 strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharToUpper\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharToLower\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharToTitle\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR(\fIstr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToLower\fR(\fIstr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToTitle\fR(\fIstr\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS char *str in/out
.AP int ch in
The Unicode character to be converted.
.AP char *str in/out
Pointer to UTF-8 string to be converted in place.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The first three routines convert the case of individual Unicode characters:
................................................................................
\fBTcl_UtfToLower\fR is the same as \fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR except it
turns each character in the string into its lower-case equivalent.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToTitle\fR is the same as \fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR except it
turns the first character in the string into its title-case equivalent
and all following characters into their lower-case equivalents.







.SH KEYWORDS
utf, unicode, toupper, tolower, totitle, case

Changes to doc/TraceVar.3.

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The return value from \fIproc\fR is only used during read and
write tracing.
During unset traces, the return value is ignored and all relevant
trace procedures will always be invoked.
.SH "RESTRICTIONS"
.PP
A trace procedure can be called at any time, even when there
is a partially formed result in the interpreter's result area.  If
the trace procedure does anything that could damage this result (such
as calling \fBTcl_Eval\fR) then it must save the original values of
the interpreter's \fBresult\fR and \fBfreeProc\fR fields and restore
them before it returns.
.SH "UNDEFINED VARIABLES"
.PP
It is legal to set a trace on an undefined variable.
The variable will still appear to be undefined until the
first time its value is set.
If an undefined variable is traced and then unset, the unset will fail
with an error






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The return value from \fIproc\fR is only used during read and
write tracing.
During unset traces, the return value is ignored and all relevant
trace procedures will always be invoked.
.SH "RESTRICTIONS"
.PP
A trace procedure can be called at any time, even when there
are partially formed results stored in the interpreter.  If
the trace procedure does anything that could damage this result (such
as calling \fBTcl_Eval\fR) then it must use the \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR
and related routines to save and restore the original state of
the interpreter before it returns.
.SH "UNDEFINED VARIABLES"
.PP
It is legal to set a trace on an undefined variable.
The variable will still appear to be undefined until the
first time its value is set.
If an undefined variable is traced and then unset, the unset will fail
with an error

Changes to doc/UniCharIsAlpha.3.

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\fBTcl_UniCharIsUpper\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharIsWordChar\fR(\fIch\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS int ch
.AP int ch in
The Tcl_UniChar to be examined.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
All of the routines described examine Tcl_UniChars and return a
boolean value. A non-zero return value means that the character does
belong to the character class associated with the called routine. The
rest of this document just describes the character classes associated
with the various routines.
.PP
Note: A Tcl_UniChar is a Unicode character represented as an unsigned,
fixed-size quantity.

.SH "CHARACTER CLASSES"
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharIsAlnum\fR tests if the character is an alphanumeric Unicode character.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharIsAlpha\fR tests if the character is an alphabetic Unicode character.
.PP






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\fBTcl_UniCharIsUpper\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharIsWordChar\fR(\fIch\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS int ch
.AP int ch in
The Unicode character to be examined.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
All of the routines described examine Unicode characters and return a
boolean value. A non-zero return value means that the character does
belong to the character class associated with the called routine. The
rest of this document just describes the character classes associated
with the various routines.




.SH "CHARACTER CLASSES"
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharIsAlnum\fR tests if the character is an alphanumeric Unicode character.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharIsAlpha\fR tests if the character is an alphabetic Unicode character.
.PP

Changes to doc/Utf.3.

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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Utf 3 "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_UniChar, Tcl_UniCharToUtf, Tcl_UtfToUniChar, Tcl_UniCharToUtfDString, Tcl_UtfToUniCharDString, Tcl_UniCharLen, Tcl_UniCharNcmp, Tcl_UniCharNcasecmp, Tcl_UniCharCaseMatch, Tcl_UtfNcmp, Tcl_UtfNcasecmp, Tcl_UtfCharComplete, Tcl_NumUtfChars, Tcl_UtfFindFirst, Tcl_UtfFindLast, Tcl_UtfNext, Tcl_UtfPrev, Tcl_UniCharAtIndex, Tcl_UtfAtIndex, Tcl_UtfBackslash \- routines for manipulating UTF-8 strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
typedef ... \fBTcl_UniChar\fR;
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtf\fR(\fIch, buf\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR(\fIsrc, chPtr\fR)
.sp






char *
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtfDString\fR(\fIuniStr, uniLength, dsPtr\fR)
.sp






Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_UtfToUniCharDString\fR(\fIsrc, length, dsPtr\fR)
.sp






int
\fBTcl_UniCharLen\fR(\fIuniStr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharNcmp\fR(\fIucs, uct, numChars\fR)
.sp
int
................................................................................
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR(\fIsrc\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfPrev\fR(\fIsrc, start\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_UniCharAtIndex\fR(\fIsrc, index\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfAtIndex\fR(\fIsrc, index\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR(\fIsrc, readPtr, dst\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniPattern in/out
.AP char *buf out
Buffer in which the UTF-8 representation of the Tcl_UniChar is stored.  At most
\fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes are stored in the buffer.
.AP int ch in
The Tcl_UniChar to be converted or examined.
.AP Tcl_UniChar *chPtr out
Filled with the Tcl_UniChar represented by the head of the UTF-8 string.




.AP "const char" *src in
Pointer to a UTF-8 string.
.AP "const char" *cs in
Pointer to a UTF-8 string.
.AP "const char" *ct in
Pointer to a UTF-8 string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniStr in
................................................................................
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *ucs in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uct in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniPattern in
A null-terminated Unicode string.




.AP int length in
The length of the UTF-8 string in bytes (not UTF-8 characters).  If
negative, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.AP int uniLength in
The length of the Unicode string in characters.  Must be greater than or
equal to 0.
.AP "Tcl_DString" *dsPtr in/out
A pointer to a previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.
.AP "unsigned long" numChars in
The number of characters to compare.
.AP "const char" *start in
Pointer to the beginning of a UTF-8 string.
.AP int index in
The index of a character (not byte) in the UTF-8 string.
.AP int *readPtr out
If non-NULL, filled with the number of bytes in the backslash sequence,
including the backslash character.
.AP char *dst out
Buffer in which the bytes represented by the backslash sequence are stored.
At most \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes are stored in the buffer.
.AP int nocase in
Specifies whether the match should be done case-sensitive (0) or
case-insensitive (1).
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These routines convert between UTF-8 strings and Tcl_UniChars.  A
Tcl_UniChar is a Unicode character represented as an unsigned, fixed-size
quantity.  A UTF-8 character is a Unicode character represented as
a varying-length sequence of up to \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes.  A multibyte UTF-8
sequence consists of a lead byte followed by some number of trail bytes.
.PP
\fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR is the maximum number of bytes that it takes to
represent one Unicode character in the UTF-8 representation.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtf\fR stores the Tcl_UniChar \fIch\fR as a UTF-8 string
in starting at \fIbuf\fR.  The return value is the number of bytes stored
in \fIbuf\fR.




.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR reads one UTF-8 character starting at \fIsrc\fR
and stores it as a Tcl_UniChar in \fI*chPtr\fR.  The return value is the
number of bytes read from \fIsrc\fR.  The caller must ensure that the
source buffer is long enough such that this routine does not run off the
end and dereference non-existent or random memory; if the source buffer
is known to be null-terminated, this will not happen.  If the input is



not in proper UTF-8 format, \fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR will store the first
byte of \fIsrc\fR in \fI*chPtr\fR as a Tcl_UniChar between 0x0000 and
0x00ff and return 1.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtfDString\fR converts the given Unicode string
to UTF-8, storing the result in a previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.
You must specify \fIuniLength\fR, the length of the given Unicode string.
The return value is a pointer to the UTF-8 representation of the
Unicode string.  Storage for the return value is appended to the
end of the \fBTcl_DString\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToUniCharDString\fR converts the given UTF-8 string to Unicode,
storing the result in the previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.
In the argument \fIlength\fR, you may either specify the length of
................................................................................
characters.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfCharComplete\fR returns 1 if the source UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR
of \fIlength\fR bytes is long enough to be decoded by
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR, or 0 otherwise.  This function does not guarantee
that the UTF-8 string is properly formed.  This routine is used by
procedures that are operating on a byte at a time and need to know if a
full Tcl_UniChar has been seen.
.PP
\fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR corresponds to \fBstrlen\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns the number of Tcl_UniChars that are represented by the UTF-8 string
\fIsrc\fR.  The length of the source string is \fIlength\fR bytes.  If the
length is negative, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfFindFirst\fR corresponds to \fBstrchr\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns a pointer to the first occurrence of the Tcl_UniChar \fIch\fR
in the null-terminated UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The null terminator is
considered part of the UTF-8 string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfFindLast\fR corresponds to \fBstrrchr\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the Tcl_UniChar \fIch\fR
in the null-terminated UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The null terminator is
considered part of the UTF-8 string.
.PP
Given \fIsrc\fR, a pointer to some location in a UTF-8 string,
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR returns a pointer to the next UTF-8 character in the
string.  The caller must not ask for the next character after the last
character in the string if the string is not terminated by a null
................................................................................
contain at least \fIindex\fR characters.  This is equivalent to calling
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR \fIindex\fR times.  If a negative \fIindex\fR is given,
the return pointer points to the first character in the source string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR is a utility procedure used by several of the Tcl
commands.  It parses a backslash sequence and stores the properly formed
UTF-8 character represented by the backslash sequence in the output
buffer \fIdst\fR.  At most \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes are stored in the buffer.
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR modifies \fI*readPtr\fR to contain the number
of bytes in the backslash sequence, including the backslash character.
The return value is the number of bytes stored in the output buffer.
.PP
See the \fBTcl\fR manual entry for information on the valid backslash
sequences.  All of the sequences described in the Tcl manual entry are
supported by \fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR.

.SH KEYWORDS
utf, unicode, backslash






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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Utf 3 "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_UniChar, Tcl_UniCharToUtf, Tcl_UtfToUniChar, Tcl_UtfToChar16, Tcl_UtfToWChar, Tcl_UniCharToUtfDString, Tcl_UtfToUniCharDString, Tcl_WCharToUtfDString, Tcl_UtfToWCharDString, Tcl_Char16ToUtfDString, Tcl_UtfToChar16DString, Tcl_UniCharLen, Tcl_UniCharNcmp, Tcl_UniCharNcasecmp, Tcl_UniCharCaseMatch, Tcl_UtfNcmp, Tcl_UtfNcasecmp, Tcl_UtfCharComplete, Tcl_NumUtfChars, Tcl_UtfFindFirst, Tcl_UtfFindLast, Tcl_UtfNext, Tcl_UtfPrev, Tcl_UniCharAtIndex, Tcl_UtfAtIndex, Tcl_UtfBackslash \- routines for manipulating UTF-8 strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
typedef ... \fBTcl_UniChar\fR;
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtf\fR(\fIch, buf\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR(\fIsrc, chPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToChar16\fR(\fIsrc, uPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToWChar\fR(\fIsrc, wPtr\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtfDString\fR(\fIuniStr, uniLength, dsPtr\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_Char16ToUtfDString\fR(\fIuStr, uniLength, dsPtr\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_WCharToUtfDString\fR(\fIwStr, uniLength, dsPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_UtfToUniCharDString\fR(\fIsrc, length, dsPtr\fR)
.sp
unsigned short *
\fBTcl_UtfToChar16DString\fR(\fIsrc, length, dsPtr\fR)
.sp
wchar_t *
\fBTcl_UtfToWCharDString\fR(\fIsrc, length, dsPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharLen\fR(\fIuniStr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharNcmp\fR(\fIucs, uct, numChars\fR)
.sp
int
................................................................................
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR(\fIsrc\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfPrev\fR(\fIsrc, start\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharAtIndex\fR(\fIsrc, index\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfAtIndex\fR(\fIsrc, index\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR(\fIsrc, readPtr, dst\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniPattern in/out
.AP char *buf out
Buffer in which the UTF-8 representation of the Tcl_UniChar is stored.  At most
4 bytes are stored in the buffer.
.AP int ch in
The Unicode character to be converted or examined.
.AP Tcl_UniChar *chPtr out
Filled with the Tcl_UniChar represented by the head of the UTF-8 string.
.AP unsigned short *uPtr out
Filled with the utf-16 represented by the head of the UTF-8 string.
.AP wchar_t *wPtr out
Filled with the wchar_t represented by the head of the UTF-8 string.
.AP "const char" *src in
Pointer to a UTF-8 string.
.AP "const char" *cs in
Pointer to a UTF-8 string.
.AP "const char" *ct in
Pointer to a UTF-8 string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniStr in
................................................................................
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *ucs in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uct in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniPattern in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const unsigned short" *uStr in
A null-terminated UTF-16 string.
.AP "const wchar_t" *wStr in
A null-terminated wchar_t string.
.AP int length in
The length of the UTF-8 string in bytes (not UTF-8 characters).  If
negative, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.AP int uniLength in
The length of the Unicode string in characters.

.AP "Tcl_DString" *dsPtr in/out
A pointer to a previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.
.AP "unsigned long" numChars in
The number of characters to compare.
.AP "const char" *start in
Pointer to the beginning of a UTF-8 string.
.AP int index in
The index of a character (not byte) in the UTF-8 string.
.AP int *readPtr out
If non-NULL, filled with the number of bytes in the backslash sequence,
including the backslash character.
.AP char *dst out
Buffer in which the bytes represented by the backslash sequence are stored.
At most 4 bytes are stored in the buffer.
.AP int nocase in
Specifies whether the match should be done case-sensitive (0) or
case-insensitive (1).
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These routines convert between UTF-8 strings and Unicode/Utf-16 characters.

A UTF-8 character is a Unicode character represented as a varying-length
sequence of up to \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes.  A multibyte UTF-8 sequence
consists of a lead byte followed by some number of trail bytes.
.PP
\fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR is the maximum number of bytes that it takes to
represent one Unicode character in the UTF-8 representation.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtf\fR stores the character \fIch\fR as a UTF-8 string
in starting at \fIbuf\fR.  The return value is the number of bytes stored
in \fIbuf\fR. If ch is a high surrogate (range U+D800 - U+DBFF), then
the return value will be 1 and a single byte in the range 0xF0 - 0xF4
will be stored. If you still want to produce UTF-8 output for it (even
though knowing it's an illegal code-point on its own), just call
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtf\fR again specifying ch = -1.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR reads one UTF-8 character starting at \fIsrc\fR
and stores it as a Tcl_UniChar in \fI*chPtr\fR.  The return value is the
number of bytes read from \fIsrc\fR.  The caller must ensure that the
source buffer is long enough such that this routine does not run off the
end and dereference non-existent or random memory; if the source buffer
is known to be null-terminated, this will not happen.  If the input is
a byte in the range 0x80 - 0x9F, \fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR assumes the
cp1252 encoding, stores the corresponding Tcl_UniChar in \fI*chPtr\fR
and returns 1. If the input is otherwise
not in proper UTF-8 format, \fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR will store the first
byte of \fIsrc\fR in \fI*chPtr\fR as a Tcl_UniChar between 0x00A0 and
0x00FF and return 1.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtfDString\fR converts the given Unicode string
to UTF-8, storing the result in a previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.

The return value is a pointer to the UTF-8 representation of the
Unicode string.  Storage for the return value is appended to the
end of the \fBTcl_DString\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToUniCharDString\fR converts the given UTF-8 string to Unicode,
storing the result in the previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.
In the argument \fIlength\fR, you may either specify the length of
................................................................................
characters.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfCharComplete\fR returns 1 if the source UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR
of \fIlength\fR bytes is long enough to be decoded by
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR, or 0 otherwise.  This function does not guarantee
that the UTF-8 string is properly formed.  This routine is used by
procedures that are operating on a byte at a time and need to know if a
full Unicode character has been seen.
.PP
\fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR corresponds to \fBstrlen\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns the number of Tcl_UniChars that are represented by the UTF-8 string
\fIsrc\fR.  The length of the source string is \fIlength\fR bytes.  If the
length is negative, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfFindFirst\fR corresponds to \fBstrchr\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns a pointer to the first occurrence of the Unicode character \fIch\fR
in the null-terminated UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The null terminator is
considered part of the UTF-8 string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfFindLast\fR corresponds to \fBstrrchr\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the Unicode character \fIch\fR
in the null-terminated UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The null terminator is
considered part of the UTF-8 string.
.PP
Given \fIsrc\fR, a pointer to some location in a UTF-8 string,
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR returns a pointer to the next UTF-8 character in the
string.  The caller must not ask for the next character after the last
character in the string if the string is not terminated by a null
................................................................................
contain at least \fIindex\fR characters.  This is equivalent to calling
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR \fIindex\fR times.  If a negative \fIindex\fR is given,
the return pointer points to the first character in the source string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR is a utility procedure used by several of the Tcl
commands.  It parses a backslash sequence and stores the properly formed
UTF-8 character represented by the backslash sequence in the output
buffer \fIdst\fR.  At most 4 bytes are stored in the buffer.
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR modifies \fI*readPtr\fR to contain the number
of bytes in the backslash sequence, including the backslash character.
The return value is the number of bytes stored in the output buffer.
.PP
See the \fBTcl\fR manual entry for information on the valid backslash
sequences.  All of the sequences described in the Tcl manual entry are
supported by \fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR.

.SH KEYWORDS
utf, unicode, backslash

Added doc/abstract.n.


























































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH abstract n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
oo::abstract \- a class that does not allow direct instances of itself
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBoo::abstract\fI method \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.fi
.SH "CLASS HIERARCHY"
.nf
\fBoo::object\fR
   \(-> \fBoo::class\fR
       \(-> \fBoo::abstract\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
Abstract classes are classes that can contain definitions, but which cannot be
directly manufactured; they are intended to only ever be inherited from and
instantiated indirectly. The characteristic methods of \fBoo::class\fR
(\fBcreate\fR and \fBnew\fR) are not exported by an instance of
\fBoo::abstract\fR.
.PP
Note that \fBoo::abstract\fR is not itself an instance of \fBoo::abstract\fR.
.SS CONSTRUCTOR
The \fBoo::abstract\fR class does not define an explicit constructor; this
means that it is effectively the same as the constructor of the
\fBoo::class\fR class.
.SS DESTRUCTOR
The \fBoo::abstract\fR class does not define an explicit destructor;
destroying an instance of it is just like destroying an ordinary class (and
will destroy all its subclasses).
.SS "EXPORTED METHODS"
The \fBoo::abstract\fR class defines no new exported methods.
.SS "NON-EXPORTED METHODS"
The \fBoo::abstract\fR class explicitly states that \fBcreate\fR,
\fBcreateWithNamespace\fR, and \fBnew\fR are unexported.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example defines a simple class hierarchy and creates a new instance of
it. It then invokes a method of the object before destroying the hierarchy and
showing that the destruction is transitive.
.PP
.CS
\fBoo::abstract\fR create fruit {
    method eat {} {
        puts "yummy!"
    }
}
oo::class create banana {
    superclass fruit
    method peel {} {
        puts "skin now off"
    }
}
set b [banana \fBnew\fR]
$b peel              \fI\(-> prints 'skin now off'\fR
$b eat               \fI\(-> prints 'yummy!'\fR
set f [fruit new]    \fI\(-> error 'unknown method "new"...'\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
oo::define(n), oo::object(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abstract class, class, metaclass, object
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/append.n.

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.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Append all of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to the current value
of variable \fIvarName\fR.  If \fIvarName\fR does not exist,
it is given a value equal to the concatenation of all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments.





The result of this command is the new value stored in variable
\fIvarName\fR.
This command provides an efficient way to build up long
variables incrementally.
For example,
.QW "\fBappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
................................................................................
puts $var
# Prints 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
concat(n), lappend(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
append, variable
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff

'\" End:






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.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Append all of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to the current value
of variable \fIvarName\fR.  If \fIvarName\fR does not exist,
it is given a value equal to the concatenation of all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments.
.VS TIP508
If \fIvarName\fR indicate an element that does not exist of an array that has
a default value set, the concatenation of the default value and all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments will be stored in the array element.
.VE TIP508
The result of this command is the new value stored in variable
\fIvarName\fR.
This command provides an efficient way to build up long
variables incrementally.
For example,
.QW "\fBappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
................................................................................
puts $var
# Prints 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
concat(n), lappend(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
append, variable
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/array.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH array n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
array \- Manipulate array variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBarray \fIoption arrayName\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
................................................................................
\fISearchId\fR indicates which search on \fIarrayName\fR to
check, and must have been the return value from a previous
invocation of \fBarray startsearch\fR.
This option is particularly useful if an array has an element
with an empty name, since the return value from
\fBarray nextelement\fR will not indicate whether the search
has been completed.















































.TP
\fBarray donesearch \fIarrayName searchId\fR
This command terminates an array search and destroys all the
state associated with that search.  \fISearchId\fR indicates
which search on \fIarrayName\fR to destroy, and must have
been the return value from a previous invocation of
\fBarray startsearch\fR.  Returns an empty string.
.TP
\fBarray exists \fIarrayName\fR
Returns 1 if \fIarrayName\fR is an array variable, 0 if there
is no variable by that name or if it is a scalar variable.
.TP









\fBarray get \fIarrayName\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
Returns a list containing pairs of elements.  The first
element in each pair is the name of an element in \fIarrayName\fR
and the second element of each pair is the value of the
array element.  The order of the pairs is undefined.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, then all of the elements of the
array are included in the result.
................................................................................
    number of buckets with 10 or more entries: 0
    average search distance for entry: 1.2
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), string(n), variable(n), trace(n), foreach(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
array, element names, search










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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH array n 8.7 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
array \- Manipulate array variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBarray \fIoption arrayName\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
................................................................................
\fISearchId\fR indicates which search on \fIarrayName\fR to
check, and must have been the return value from a previous
invocation of \fBarray startsearch\fR.
This option is particularly useful if an array has an element
with an empty name, since the return value from
\fBarray nextelement\fR will not indicate whether the search
has been completed.
.TP
\fBarray default \fIsubcommand arrayName args...\fR
.VS TIP508
Manages the default value of the array. Arrays initially have no default
value, but this command allows you to set one; the default value will be
returned when reading from an element of the array \fIarrayName\fR if the read
would otherwise result in an error. Note that this may cause the \fBappend\fR,
\fBdict\fR, \fBincr\fR and \fBlappend\fR commands to change their behavior in
relation to non-existing array elements.
.RS
.PP
The \fIsubcommand\fR argument controls what exact operation will be performed
on the default value of \fIarrayName\fR. Supported \fIsubcommand\fRs are:
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBarray default exists \fIarrayName\fR
.VS TIP508
This returns a boolean value indicating whether a default value has been set
for the array \fIarrayName\fR. Returns a false value if \fIarrayName\fR does
not exist. Raises an error if \fIarrayName\fR is an existing variable that is
not an array.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBarray default get \fIarrayName\fR
.VS TIP508
This returns the current default value for the array \fIarrayName\fR.  Raises
an error if \fIarrayName\fR is an existing variable that is not an array, or
if \fIarrayName\fR is an array without a default value.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBarray default set \fIarrayName value\fR
.VS TIP508
This sets the default value for the array \fIarrayName\fR to \fIvalue\fR.
Returns the empty string. Raises an error if \fIarrayName\fR is an existing
variable that is not an array, or if \fIarrayName\fR is an illegal name for an
array. If \fIarrayName\fR does not currently exist, it is created as an empty
array as well as having its default value set.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBarray default unset \fIarrayName\fR
.VS TIP508
This removes the default value for the array \fIarrayName\fR and returns the
empty string. Does nothing if \fIarrayName\fR does not have a default
value. Raises an error if \fIarrayName\fR is an existing variable that is not
an array.
.VE TIP508
.RE
.TP
\fBarray donesearch \fIarrayName searchId\fR
This command terminates an array search and destroys all the
state associated with that search.  \fISearchId\fR indicates
which search on \fIarrayName\fR to destroy, and must have
been the return value from a previous invocation of
\fBarray startsearch\fR.  Returns an empty string.
.TP
\fBarray exists \fIarrayName\fR
Returns 1 if \fIarrayName\fR is an array variable, 0 if there
is no variable by that name or if it is a scalar variable.
.TP
\fBarray for {\fIkeyVariable valueVariable\fB} \fIarrayName body\fP
The first argument is a two element list of variable names for the
key and value of each entry in the array.  The second argument is the
array name to iterate over.  The third argument is the body to execute
for each key and value returned.
The ordering of the returned keys is undefined.
If an array element is deleted or a new array element is inserted during
the \fIarray for\fP process, the command will terminate with an error.
.TP
\fBarray get \fIarrayName\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
Returns a list containing pairs of elements.  The first
element in each pair is the name of an element in \fIarrayName\fR
and the second element of each pair is the value of the
array element.  The order of the pairs is undefined.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, then all of the elements of the
array are included in the result.
................................................................................
    number of buckets with 10 or more entries: 0
    average search distance for entry: 1.2
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), string(n), variable(n), trace(n), foreach(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
array, element names, search
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/binary.n.

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.TH binary n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
binary \- Insert and extract fields from binary strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
.VS 8.6
\fBbinary decode \fIformat\fR ?\fI\-option value ...\fR? \fIdata\fR
.br
\fBbinary encode \fIformat\fR ?\fI\-option value ...\fR? \fIdata\fR
.br
.VE 8.6
\fBbinary format \fIformatString \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.br
\fBbinary scan \fIstring formatString \fR?\fIvarName varName ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command provides facilities for manipulating binary data.  The
subcommand \fBbinary format\fR creates a binary string from normal
Tcl values.  For example, given the values 16 and 22, on a 32-bit
architecture, it might produce an 8-byte binary string consisting of
two 4-byte integers, one for each of the numbers.  The subcommand
\fBbinary scan\fR, does the opposite: it extracts data
from a binary string and returns it as ordinary Tcl string values.
.VS 8.6
The \fBbinary encode\fR and \fBbinary decode\fR subcommands convert
binary data to or from string encodings such as base64 (used in MIME
messages for example).
.VE 8.6
.PP
Note that other operations on binary data, such as taking a subsequence of it,
getting its length, or reinterpreting it as a string in some encoding, are
done by other Tcl commands (respectively \fBstring range\fR,
\fBstring length\fR and \fBencoding convertfrom\fR in the example cases).  A
binary string in Tcl is merely one where all the characters it contains are in
the range \eu0000\-\eu00FF.
.SH "BINARY ENCODE AND DECODE"
.VS 8.6
.PP
When encoding binary data as a readable string, the starting binary data is
passed to the \fBbinary encode\fR command, together with the name of the
encoding to use and any encoding-specific options desired. Data which has been
encoded can be converted back to binary form using \fBbinary decode\fR. The
following formats and options are supported.
.TP
................................................................................
.
Instructs the decoder to throw an error if it encounters unexpected whitespace
characters. Otherwise it ignores them.
.PP
Note that neither the encoder nor the decoder handle the header and footer of
the uuencode format.
.RE
.VE 8.6
.SH "BINARY FORMAT"
.PP
The \fBbinary format\fR command generates a binary string whose layout
is specified by the \fIformatString\fR and whose contents come from
the additional arguments.  The resulting binary value is returned.
.PP
The \fIformatString\fR consists of a sequence of zero or more field
................................................................................
specifiers separated by zero or more spaces.  Each field specifier is
a single type character followed by an optional flag character followed
by an optional numeric \fIcount\fR.
Most field specifiers consume one argument to obtain the value to be
formatted.  The type character specifies how the value is to be
formatted.  The \fIcount\fR typically indicates how many items of the
specified type are taken from the value.  If present, the \fIcount\fR
is a non-negative decimal integer or \fB*\fR, which normally indicates


that all of the items in the value are to be used.  If the number of
arguments does not match the number of fields in the format string
that consume arguments, then an error is generated. The flag character
is ignored for \fBbinary format\fR.
.PP
Here is a small example to clarify the relation between the field
specifiers and the arguments:

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR d3d {1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0} 0.1
.CE
.PP
The first argument is a list of four numbers, but because of the count
of 3 for the associated field specifier, only the first three will be
used. The second argument is associated with the second field
................................................................................
the \fBencoding convertto\fR command should be used first to change
the string into an external representation
if this truncation is not desired (i.e. if the characters are
not part of the ISO 8859\-1 character set.)
If \fIarg\fR has fewer than \fIcount\fR bytes, then additional zero
bytes are used to pad out the field.  If \fIarg\fR is longer than the
specified length, the extra characters will be ignored.  If


\fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then all of the bytes in \fIarg\fR will be
formatted.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one character will be
formatted.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a7a*a alpha bravo charlie
.CE




will return a string equivalent to \fBalpha\e000\e000bravoc\fR,




.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a* [encoding convertto utf-8 \eu20ac]
.CE




will return a string equivalent to \fB\e342\e202\e254\fR (which is the



UTF-8 byte sequence for a Euro-currency character) and

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a* [encoding convertto iso8859-15 \eu20ac]
.CE







will return a string equivalent to \fB\e244\fR (which is the ISO
8859\-15 byte sequence for a Euro-currency character). Contrast these
last two with:

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a* \eu20ac
.CE







which returns a string equivalent to \fB\e254\fR (i.e. \fB\exac\fR) by
truncating the high-bits of the character, and which is probably not
what is desired.
.RE
.IP \fBA\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBa\fR except that spaces are used for
padding instead of nulls.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR A6A*A alpha bravo charlie
.CE




will return \fBalpha bravoc\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBb\fR 5
Stores a string of \fIcount\fR binary digits in low-to-high order
within each byte in the output string.  \fIArg\fR must contain a
sequence of \fB1\fR and \fB0\fR characters.  The resulting bytes are
emitted in first to last order with the bits being formatted in
low-to-high order within each byte.  If \fIarg\fR has fewer than
\fIcount\fR digits, then zeros will be used for the remaining bits.
If \fIarg\fR has more than the specified number of digits, the extra
digits will be ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then all of the


digits in \fIarg\fR will be formatted.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted,
then one digit will be formatted.  If the number of bits formatted
does not end at a byte boundary, the remaining bits of the last byte
will be zeros.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR b5b* 11100 111000011010
.CE




will return a string equivalent to \fB\ex07\ex87\ex05\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBB\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBb\fR except that the bits are stored in
high-to-low order within each byte.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR B5B* 11100 111000011010
.CE




will return a string equivalent to \fB\exe0\exe1\exa0\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBH\fR 5
Stores a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in high-to-low
within each byte in the output string.  \fIArg\fR must contain a
sequence of characters in the set
.QW 0123456789abcdefABCDEF .
The resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the hex digits
being formatted in high-to-low order within each byte.  If \fIarg\fR
has fewer than \fIcount\fR digits, then zeros will be used for the
remaining digits.  If \fIarg\fR has more than the specified number of
digits, the extra digits will be ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is

\fB*\fR, then all of the digits in \fIarg\fR will be formatted.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one digit will be formatted.  If the
number of digits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the
remaining bits of the last byte will be zeros.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR H3H*H2 ab DEF 987
.CE




will return a string equivalent to \fB\exab\ex00\exde\exf0\ex98\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBh\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBH\fR except that the digits are stored in
low-to-high order within each byte. This is seldom required. For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR h3h*h2 AB def 987
.CE




will return a string equivalent to \fB\exba\ex00\exed\ex0f\ex89\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBc\fR 5
Stores one or more 8-bit integer values in the output string.  If no
\fIcount\fR is specified, then \fIarg\fR must consist of an integer
value. If \fIcount\fR is specified, \fIarg\fR must consist of a list
containing at least that many integers. The low-order 8 bits of each integer
are stored as a one-byte value at the cursor position.  If \fIcount\fR

is \fB*\fR, then all of the integers in the list are formatted. If the
number of elements in the list is greater
than \fIcount\fR, then the extra elements are ignored.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR c3cc* {3 -3 128 1} 260 {2 5}
.CE

will return a string equivalent to


\fB\ex03\exfd\ex80\ex04\ex02\ex05\fR, whereas




.CS
\fBbinary format\fR c {2 5}
.CE

will generate an error.
.RE
.IP \fBs\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBc\fR except that it stores one or more
16-bit integers in little-endian byte order in the output string.  The
low-order 16-bits of each integer are stored as a two-byte value at
the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first.  For
example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR s3 {3 -3 258 1}
.CE

will return a string equivalent to


\fB\ex03\ex00\exfd\exff\ex02\ex01\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBS\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBs\fR except that it stores one or more
16-bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string.  For
example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR S3 {3 -3 258 1}
.CE

will return a string equivalent to


\fB\ex00\ex03\exff\exfd\ex01\ex02\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBt\fR 5
This form (mnemonically \fItiny\fR) is the same as \fBs\fR and \fBS\fR
except that it stores the 16-bit integers in the output string in the
native byte order of the machine where the Tcl script is running.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
the \fBbyteOrder\fR element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
................................................................................
.IP \fBi\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBc\fR except that it stores one or more
32-bit integers in little-endian byte order in the output string.  The
low-order 32-bits of each integer are stored as a four-byte value at
the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first.  For
example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR i3 {3 -3 65536 1}
.CE

will return a string equivalent to


\fB\ex03\ex00\ex00\ex00\exfd\exff\exff\exff\ex00\ex00\ex01\ex00\fR

.RE
.IP \fBI\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBi\fR except that it stores one or more one
or more 32-bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string.
For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR I3 {3 -3 65536 1}
.CE

will return a string equivalent to


\fB\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex03\exff\exff\exff\exfd\ex00\ex01\ex00\ex00\fR

.RE
.IP \fBn\fR 5
This form (mnemonically \fInumber\fR or \fInormal\fR) is the same as
\fBi\fR and \fBI\fR except that it stores the 32-bit integers in the
output string in the native byte order of the machine where the Tcl
script is running.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
................................................................................
.IP \fBw\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBc\fR except that it stores one or more
64-bit integers in little-endian byte order in the output string.  The
low-order 64-bits of each integer are stored as an eight-byte value at
the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first.  For
example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR w 7810179016327718216
.CE

will return the string \fBHelloTcl\fR
.RE
.IP \fBW\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBw\fR except that it stores one or more one
or more 64-bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string.
For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR Wc 4785469626960341345 110
.CE

will return the string \fBBigEndian\fR
.RE
.IP \fBm\fR 5
This form (mnemonically the mirror of \fBw\fR) is the same as \fBw\fR
and \fBW\fR except that it stores the 64-bit integers in the output
string in the native byte order of the machine where the Tcl script is
running.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
................................................................................
that are generated may vary.  If the value overflows the
machine's native representation, then the value of FLT_MAX
as defined by the system will be used instead.  Because Tcl uses
double-precision floating point numbers internally, there may be some
loss of precision in the conversion to single-precision.  For example,
on a Windows system running on an Intel Pentium processor,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR f2 {1.6 3.4}
.CE

will return a string equivalent to


\fB\excd\excc\excc\ex3f\ex9a\ex99\ex59\ex40\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBr\fR 5
This form (mnemonically \fIreal\fR) is the same as \fBf\fR except that
it stores the single-precision floating point numbers in little-endian
order.  This conversion only produces meaningful output when used on
machines which use the IEEE floating point representation (very
common, but not universal.)
................................................................................
single-precision floating point numbers in big-endian order.
.IP \fBd\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBf\fR except that it stores one or more one
or more double-precision floating point numbers in the machine's native
representation in the output string.  For example, on a
Windows system running on an Intel Pentium processor,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR d1 {1.6}
.CE

will return a string equivalent to


\fB\ex9a\ex99\ex99\ex99\ex99\ex99\exf9\ex3f\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBq\fR 5
This form (mnemonically the mirror of \fBd\fR) is the same as \fBd\fR
except that it stores the double-precision floating point numbers in
little-endian order.  This conversion only produces meaningful output
when used on machines which use the IEEE floating point representation
(very common, but not universal.)
.IP \fBQ\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBq\fR except that it stores the
double-precision floating point numbers in big-endian order.
.IP \fBx\fR 5
Stores \fIcount\fR null bytes in the output string.  If \fIcount\fR is
not specified, stores one null byte.  If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR,

generates an error.  This type does not consume an argument.  For
example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a3xa3x2a3 abc def ghi
.CE




will return a string equivalent to \fBabc\e000def\e000\e000ghi\fR.

.RE
.IP \fBX\fR 5
Moves the cursor back \fIcount\fR bytes in the output string.  If


\fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR or is larger than the current cursor position,
then the cursor is positioned at location 0 so that the next byte
stored will be the first byte in the result string.  If \fIcount\fR is
omitted then the cursor is moved back one byte.  This type does not
consume an argument.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a3X*a3X2a3 abc def ghi
.CE

will return \fBdghi\fR.
.RE
.IP \[email protected]\fR 5
Moves the cursor to the absolute location in the output string
specified by \fIcount\fR.  Position 0 refers to the first byte in the
output string.  If \fIcount\fR refers to a position beyond the last
byte stored so far, then null bytes will be placed in the uninitialized
locations and the cursor will be placed at the specified location.  If


\fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then the cursor is moved to the current end of
the output string.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then an error will be
generated.  This type does not consume an argument. For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary format\fR [email protected]@*a[email protected] abcde f ghi j
.CE




will return \fBabfdeghi\e000\e000j\fR.

.RE
.SH "BINARY SCAN"
.PP
The \fBbinary scan\fR command parses fields from a binary string,
returning the number of conversions performed.  \fIString\fR gives the
input bytes to be parsed (one byte per character, and characters not
representable as a byte have their high bits chopped)
................................................................................
spaces.  Each field specifier is a single type character followed by
an optional flag character followed by an optional numeric \fIcount\fR.
Most field specifiers consume one
argument to obtain the variable into which the scanned values should
be placed.  The type character specifies how the binary data is to be
interpreted.  The \fIcount\fR typically indicates how many items of
the specified type are taken from the data.  If present, the
\fIcount\fR is a non-negative decimal integer or \fB*\fR, which

normally indicates that all of the remaining items in the data are to
be used.  If there are not enough bytes left after the current cursor
position to satisfy the current field specifier, then the
corresponding variable is left untouched and \fBbinary scan\fR returns
immediately with the number of variables that were set.  If there are
not enough arguments for all of the fields in the format string that
consume arguments, then an error is generated. The flag character
.QW u
may be given to cause some types to be read as unsigned values. The flag
is accepted for all field types but is ignored for non-integer fields.
.PP
A similar example as with \fBbinary format\fR should explain the
relation between field specifiers and arguments in case of the binary
scan subcommand:

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR $bytes s3s first second
.CE
.PP
This command (provided the binary string in the variable \fIbytes\fR
is long enough) assigns a list of three integers to the variable
\fIfirst\fR and assigns a single value to the variable \fIsecond\fR.
If \fIbytes\fR contains fewer than 8 bytes (i.e. four 2-byte
integers), no assignment to \fIsecond\fR will be made, and if
\fIbytes\fR contains fewer than 6 bytes (i.e. three 2-byte integers),
no assignment to \fIfirst\fR will be made.  Hence:

.CS
puts [\fBbinary scan\fR abcdefg s3s first second]
puts $first
puts $second
.CE

will print (assuming neither variable is set previously):

.CS
1
25185 25699 26213
can't read "second": no such variable
.CE
.PP
It is \fIimportant\fR to note that the \fBc\fR, \fBs\fR, and \fBS\fR
(and \fBi\fR and \fBI\fR on 64bit systems) will be scanned into
long data size values.  In doing this, values that have their high
bit set (0x80 for chars, 0x8000 for shorts, 0x80000000 for ints),
will be sign extended.  Thus the following will occur:

.CS
set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000]
\fBbinary scan\fR $signShort s1 val; \fI# val == 0xFFFF8000\fR
.CE

If you require unsigned values you can include the
.QW u
flag character following
the field type. For example, to read an unsigned short value:

.CS
set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000]
\fBbinary scan\fR $signShort su1 val; \fI# val == 0x00008000\fR
.CE
.PP
Each type-count pair moves an imaginary cursor through the binary data,
reading bytes from the current position.  The cursor is initially
at position 0 at the beginning of the data.  The type may be any one of
the following characters:
.IP \fBa\fR 5
The data is a byte string of length \fIcount\fR.  If \fIcount\fR

is \fB*\fR, then all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be
scanned into the variable.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one
byte will be scanned.
All bytes scanned will be interpreted as being characters in the
range \eu0000-\eu00ff so the \fBencoding convertfrom\fR command will be
needed if the string is not a binary string or a string encoded in ISO
8859\-1.
For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR abcde\e000fghi a6a10 var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB1\fR with the string equivalent to \fBabcde\e000\fR
stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fIvar2\fR left unmodified, and

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \e342\e202\e254 a* var1
set var2 [encoding convertfrom utf-8 $var1]
.CE

will store a Euro-currency character in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBA\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBa\fR, except trailing blanks and nulls are stripped from
the scanned value before it is stored in the variable.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR "abc efghi  \e000" A* var1
.CE

will return \fB1\fR with \fBabc efghi\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBb\fR 5
The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR binary digits in
low-to-high order represented as a sequence of
.QW 1
and
.QW 0
characters.  The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with
the bits being taken in low-to-high order within each byte.  Any extra
bits in the last byte are ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then

all of the remaining bits in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one bit will be scanned.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex07\ex87\ex05 b5b* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB11100\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB1110000110100000\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBB\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBb\fR, except the bits are taken in
high-to-low order within each byte.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex70\ex87\ex05 B5B* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB01110\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB1000011100000101\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBH\fR 5
The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in
high-to-low order represented as a sequence of characters in the set
.QW 0123456789abcdef .
The data bytes are scanned in first to last
order with the hex digits being taken in high-to-low order within each
byte. Any extra bits in the last byte are ignored. If \fIcount\fR is

\fB*\fR, then all of the remaining hex digits in \fIstring\fR will be
scanned. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one hex digit will be
scanned. For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex07\exC6\ex05\ex1f\ex34 H3H* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB07c\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB051f34\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBh\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBH\fR, except the digits are taken in
reverse (low-to-high) order within each byte. For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex07\ex86\ex05\ex12\ex34 h3h* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB706\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB502143\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.PP
Note that most code that wishes to parse the hexadecimal digits from
multiple bytes in order should use the \fBH\fR format.
.RE
.IP \fBc\fR 5
The data is turned into \fIcount\fR 8-bit signed integers and stored
in the corresponding variable as a list. If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR,


then all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one 8-bit integer will be scanned.  For
example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex07\ex86\ex05 c2c* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB7 -122\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB5\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.  Note that the integers returned are signed, but
they can be converted to unsigned 8-bit quantities using an expression
like:
.CS
set num [expr { $num & 0xff }]
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBs\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 16-bit signed integers
represented in little-endian byte order.  The integers are stored in

the corresponding variable as a list.  If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then

all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one 16-bit integer will be scanned.  For
example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex05\ex00\ex07\ex00\exf0\exff s2s* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB5 7\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.  Note that the integers returned are signed, but
they can be converted to unsigned 16-bit quantities using an expression
like:
.CS
set num [expr { $num & 0xffff }]
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBS\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBs\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR 16-bit signed integers represented in big-endian byte
order.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex00\ex05\ex00\ex07\exff\exf0 S2S* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB5 7\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBt\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 16-bit signed integers
represented in the native byte order of the machine running the Tcl

script.  It is otherwise identical to \fBs\fR and \fBS\fR.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
the \fBbyteOrder\fR element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
.IP \fBi\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 32-bit signed integers
represented in little-endian byte order.  The integers are stored in

the corresponding variable as a list.  If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then

all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one 32-bit integer will be scanned.  For
example,
.RS

.CS
set str \ex05\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex07\ex00\ex00\ex00\exf0\exff\exff\exff
\fBbinary scan\fR $str i2i* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB5 7\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.  Note that the integers returned are signed, but
they can be converted to unsigned 32-bit quantities using an expression
like:
.CS
set num [expr { $num & 0xffffffff }]
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBI\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBI\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR 32-bit signed integers represented in big-endian byte

order.  For example,
.RS

.CS
set str \ex00\ex00\ex00\ex05\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex07\exff\exff\exff\exf0
\fBbinary scan\fR $str I2I* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB5 7\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBn\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 32-bit signed integers
represented in the native byte order of the machine running the Tcl

script.  It is otherwise identical to \fBi\fR and \fBI\fR.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
the \fBbyteOrder\fR element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
.IP \fBw\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 64-bit signed integers
represented in little-endian byte order.  The integers are stored in

the corresponding variable as a list.  If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then

all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one 64-bit integer will be scanned.  For
example,
.RS

.CS
set str \ex05\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex07\ex00\ex00\ex00\exf0\exff\exff\exff
\fBbinary scan\fR $str wi* var1 var2
.CE
will return \fB2\fR with \fB30064771077\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB\-16\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.  Note that the integers returned are
signed and cannot be represented by Tcl as unsigned values.
.RE
.IP \fBW\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBw\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR 64-bit signed integers represented in big-endian byte

order.  For example,
.RS

.CS
set str \ex00\ex00\ex00\ex05\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex07\exff\exff\exff\exf0
\fBbinary scan\fR $str WI* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB21474836487\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBm\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 64-bit signed integers
represented in the native byte order of the machine running the Tcl

script.  It is otherwise identical to \fBw\fR and \fBW\fR.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
the \fBbyteOrder\fR element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
.IP \fBf\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR single-precision floating point
numbers in the machine's native representation.  The floating point
numbers are stored in the corresponding variable as a list.  If


\fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then all of the remaining bytes in
\fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one
single-precision floating point number will be scanned.  The size of a
floating point number may vary across architectures, so the number of
bytes that are scanned may vary.  If the data does not represent a
valid floating point number, the resulting value is undefined and
compiler dependent.  For example, on a Windows system running on an
Intel Pentium processor,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex3f\excc\excc\excd f var1
.CE

will return \fB1\fR with \fB1.6000000238418579\fR stored in
\fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBr\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBf\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR single-precision floating point number in little-endian
order.  This conversion is not portable to the minority of systems not
................................................................................
using IEEE floating point representations.
.IP \fBd\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBf\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR double-precision floating point numbers in the
machine's native representation. For example, on a Windows system
running on an Intel Pentium processor,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex9a\ex99\ex99\ex99\ex99\ex99\exf9\ex3f d var1
.CE

will return \fB1\fR with \fB1.6000000000000001\fR
stored in \fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBq\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBd\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR double-precision floating point number in little-endian
order.  This conversion is not portable to the minority of systems not
................................................................................
.IP \fBQ\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBd\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR double-precision floating point number in big-endian
order.  This conversion is not portable to the minority of systems not
using IEEE floating point representations.
.IP \fBx\fR 5
Moves the cursor forward \fIcount\fR bytes in \fIstring\fR.  If


\fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR or is larger than the number of bytes after the
current cursor position, then the cursor is positioned after
the last byte in \fIstring\fR.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then the
cursor is moved forward one byte.  Note that this type does not
consume an argument.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex01\ex02\ex03\ex04 x2H* var1
.CE

will return \fB1\fR with \fB0304\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBX\fR 5
Moves the cursor back \fIcount\fR bytes in \fIstring\fR.  If


\fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR or is larger than the current cursor position,
then the cursor is positioned at location 0 so that the next byte
scanned will be the first byte in \fIstring\fR.  If \fIcount\fR
is omitted then the cursor is moved back one byte.  Note that this
type does not consume an argument.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex01\ex02\ex03\ex04 c2XH* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB1 2\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB020304\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \[email protected]\fR 5
Moves the cursor to the absolute location in the data string specified
by \fIcount\fR.  Note that position 0 refers to the first byte in
\fIstring\fR.  If \fIcount\fR refers to a position beyond the end of
\fIstring\fR, then the cursor is positioned after the last byte.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then an error will be generated.  For example,
.RS

.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex01\ex02\ex03\ex04 [email protected]* var1 var2
.CE

will return \fB2\fR with \fB1 2\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB020304\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.PP
The \fBr\fR, \fBR\fR, \fBq\fR and \fBQ\fR conversions will only work
reliably for transferring data between computers which are all using






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.TH binary n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
binary \- Insert and extract fields from binary strings
.SH SYNOPSIS

\fBbinary decode \fIformat\fR ?\fI\-option value ...\fR? \fIdata\fR
.br
\fBbinary encode \fIformat\fR ?\fI\-option value ...\fR? \fIdata\fR
.br

\fBbinary format \fIformatString \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.br
\fBbinary scan \fIstring formatString \fR?\fIvarName varName ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command provides facilities for manipulating binary data.  The
subcommand \fBbinary format\fR creates a binary string from normal
Tcl values.  For example, given the values 16 and 22, on a 32-bit
architecture, it might produce an 8-byte binary string consisting of
two 4-byte integers, one for each of the numbers.  The subcommand
\fBbinary scan\fR, does the opposite: it extracts data
from a binary string and returns it as ordinary Tcl string values.

The \fBbinary encode\fR and \fBbinary decode\fR subcommands convert
binary data to or from string encodings such as base64 (used in MIME
messages for example).

.PP
Note that other operations on binary data, such as taking a subsequence of it,
getting its length, or reinterpreting it as a string in some encoding, are
done by other Tcl commands (respectively \fBstring range\fR,
\fBstring length\fR and \fBencoding convertfrom\fR in the example cases).  A
binary string in Tcl is merely one where all the characters it contains are in
the range \eu0000\-\eu00FF.
.SH "BINARY ENCODE AND DECODE"

.PP
When encoding binary data as a readable string, the starting binary data is
passed to the \fBbinary encode\fR command, together with the name of the
encoding to use and any encoding-specific options desired. Data which has been
encoded can be converted back to binary form using \fBbinary decode\fR. The
following formats and options are supported.
.TP
................................................................................
.
Instructs the decoder to throw an error if it encounters unexpected whitespace
characters. Otherwise it ignores them.
.PP
Note that neither the encoder nor the decoder handle the header and footer of
the uuencode format.
.RE

.SH "BINARY FORMAT"
.PP
The \fBbinary format\fR command generates a binary string whose layout
is specified by the \fIformatString\fR and whose contents come from
the additional arguments.  The resulting binary value is returned.
.PP
The \fIformatString\fR consists of a sequence of zero or more field
................................................................................
specifiers separated by zero or more spaces.  Each field specifier is
a single type character followed by an optional flag character followed
by an optional numeric \fIcount\fR.
Most field specifiers consume one argument to obtain the value to be
formatted.  The type character specifies how the value is to be
formatted.  The \fIcount\fR typically indicates how many items of the
specified type are taken from the value.  If present, the \fIcount\fR
is a non-negative decimal integer or
.QW \fB*\fR ,
which normally indicates
that all of the items in the value are to be used.  If the number of
arguments does not match the number of fields in the format string
that consume arguments, then an error is generated. The flag character
is ignored for \fBbinary format\fR.
.PP
Here is a small example to clarify the relation between the field
specifiers and the arguments:
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR d3d {1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0} 0.1
.CE
.PP
The first argument is a list of four numbers, but because of the count
of 3 for the associated field specifier, only the first three will be
used. The second argument is associated with the second field
................................................................................
the \fBencoding convertto\fR command should be used first to change
the string into an external representation
if this truncation is not desired (i.e. if the characters are
not part of the ISO 8859\-1 character set.)
If \fIarg\fR has fewer than \fIcount\fR bytes, then additional zero
bytes are used to pad out the field.  If \fIarg\fR is longer than the
specified length, the extra characters will be ignored.  If
\fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the bytes in \fIarg\fR will be
formatted.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one character will be
formatted.  For example, the command:
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a7a*a alpha bravo charlie
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fBalpha\e000\e000bravoc\fR
.CE
.PP
the command:
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a* [encoding convertto utf-8 \eu20ac]
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\e342\e202\e254\fR
.CE
.PP
(which is the
UTF-8 byte sequence for a Euro-currency character), and the command:
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a* [encoding convertto iso8859-15 \eu20ac]
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\e244\fR
.CE
.PP
(which is the ISO
8859\-15 byte sequence for a Euro-currency character). Contrast these
last two with:
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a* \eu20ac
.CE
.PP
which returns a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\e254\fR
.CE
.PP
(i.e. \fB\exac\fR) by
truncating the high-bits of the character, and which is probably not
what is desired.
.RE
.IP \fBA\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBa\fR except that spaces are used for
padding instead of nulls.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR A6A*A alpha bravo charlie
.CE
.PP
will return
.PP
.CS
\fBalpha bravoc\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBb\fR 5
Stores a string of \fIcount\fR binary digits in low-to-high order
within each byte in the output binary string.  \fIArg\fR must contain a
sequence of \fB1\fR and \fB0\fR characters.  The resulting bytes are
emitted in first to last order with the bits being formatted in
low-to-high order within each byte.  If \fIarg\fR has fewer than
\fIcount\fR digits, then zeros will be used for the remaining bits.
If \fIarg\fR has more than the specified number of digits, the extra
digits will be ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the
digits in \fIarg\fR will be formatted.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted,
then one digit will be formatted.  If the number of bits formatted
does not end at a byte boundary, the remaining bits of the last byte
will be zeros.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR b5b* 11100 111000011010
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\ex07\ex87\ex05\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBB\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBb\fR except that the bits are stored in
high-to-low order within each byte.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR B5B* 11100 111000011010
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\exe0\exe1\exa0\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBH\fR 5
Stores a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in high-to-low
within each byte in the output binary string.  \fIArg\fR must contain a
sequence of characters in the set
.QW 0123456789abcdefABCDEF .
The resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the hex digits
being formatted in high-to-low order within each byte.  If \fIarg\fR
has fewer than \fIcount\fR digits, then zeros will be used for the
remaining digits.  If \fIarg\fR has more than the specified number of
digits, the extra digits will be ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the digits in \fIarg\fR will be formatted.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one digit will be formatted.  If the
number of digits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the
remaining bits of the last byte will be zeros.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR H3H*H2 ab DEF 987
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\exab\ex00\exde\exf0\ex98\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBh\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBH\fR except that the digits are stored in
low-to-high order within each byte. This is seldom required. For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR h3h*h2 AB def 987
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\exba\ex00\exed\ex0f\ex89\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBc\fR 5
Stores one or more 8-bit integer values in the output string.  If no
\fIcount\fR is specified, then \fIarg\fR must consist of an integer
value. If \fIcount\fR is specified, \fIarg\fR must consist of a list
containing at least that many integers. The low-order 8 bits of each integer
are stored as a one-byte value at the cursor position.  If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the integers in the list are formatted. If the
number of elements in the list is greater
than \fIcount\fR, then the extra elements are ignored.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR c3cc* {3 -3 128 1} 260 {2 5}
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\ex03\exfd\ex80\ex04\ex02\ex05\fR
.CE
.PP
whereas:
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR c {2 5}
.CE
.PP
will generate an error.
.RE
.IP \fBs\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBc\fR except that it stores one or more
16-bit integers in little-endian byte order in the output string.  The
low-order 16-bits of each integer are stored as a two-byte value at
the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first.  For
example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR s3 {3 -3 258 1}
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\ex03\ex00\exfd\exff\ex02\ex01\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBS\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBs\fR except that it stores one or more
16-bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string.  For
example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR S3 {3 -3 258 1}
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\ex00\ex03\exff\exfd\ex01\ex02\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBt\fR 5
This form (mnemonically \fItiny\fR) is the same as \fBs\fR and \fBS\fR
except that it stores the 16-bit integers in the output string in the
native byte order of the machine where the Tcl script is running.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
the \fBbyteOrder\fR element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
................................................................................
.IP \fBi\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBc\fR except that it stores one or more
32-bit integers in little-endian byte order in the output string.  The
low-order 32-bits of each integer are stored as a four-byte value at
the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first.  For
example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR i3 {3 -3 65536 1}
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\ex03\ex00\ex00\ex00\exfd\exff\exff\exff\ex00\ex00\ex01\ex00\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBI\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBi\fR except that it stores one or more one
or more 32-bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string.
For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR I3 {3 -3 65536 1}
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex03\exff\exff\exff\exfd\ex00\ex01\ex00\ex00\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBn\fR 5
This form (mnemonically \fInumber\fR or \fInormal\fR) is the same as
\fBi\fR and \fBI\fR except that it stores the 32-bit integers in the
output string in the native byte order of the machine where the Tcl
script is running.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
................................................................................
.IP \fBw\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBc\fR except that it stores one or more
64-bit integers in little-endian byte order in the output string.  The
low-order 64-bits of each integer are stored as an eight-byte value at
the cursor position with the least significant byte stored first.  For
example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR w 7810179016327718216
.CE
.PP
will return the binary string \fBHelloTcl\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBW\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBw\fR except that it stores one or more one
or more 64-bit integers in big-endian byte order in the output string.
For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR Wc 4785469626960341345 110
.CE
.PP
will return the binary string \fBBigEndian\fR
.RE
.IP \fBm\fR 5
This form (mnemonically the mirror of \fBw\fR) is the same as \fBw\fR
and \fBW\fR except that it stores the 64-bit integers in the output
string in the native byte order of the machine where the Tcl script is
running.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
................................................................................
that are generated may vary.  If the value overflows the
machine's native representation, then the value of FLT_MAX
as defined by the system will be used instead.  Because Tcl uses
double-precision floating point numbers internally, there may be some
loss of precision in the conversion to single-precision.  For example,
on a Windows system running on an Intel Pentium processor,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR f2 {1.6 3.4}
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\excd\excc\excc\ex3f\ex9a\ex99\ex59\ex40\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBr\fR 5
This form (mnemonically \fIreal\fR) is the same as \fBf\fR except that
it stores the single-precision floating point numbers in little-endian
order.  This conversion only produces meaningful output when used on
machines which use the IEEE floating point representation (very
common, but not universal.)
................................................................................
single-precision floating point numbers in big-endian order.
.IP \fBd\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBf\fR except that it stores one or more one
or more double-precision floating point numbers in the machine's native
representation in the output string.  For example, on a
Windows system running on an Intel Pentium processor,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR d1 {1.6}
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fB\ex9a\ex99\ex99\ex99\ex99\ex99\exf9\ex3f\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBq\fR 5
This form (mnemonically the mirror of \fBd\fR) is the same as \fBd\fR
except that it stores the double-precision floating point numbers in
little-endian order.  This conversion only produces meaningful output
when used on machines which use the IEEE floating point representation
(very common, but not universal.)
.IP \fBQ\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBq\fR except that it stores the
double-precision floating point numbers in big-endian order.
.IP \fBx\fR 5
Stores \fIcount\fR null bytes in the output string.  If \fIcount\fR is
not specified, stores one null byte.  If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
generates an error.  This type does not consume an argument.  For
example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a3xa3x2a3 abc def ghi
.CE
.PP
will return a binary string equivalent to:
.PP
.CS
\fBabc\e000def\e000\e000ghi\fR
.CE
.RE
.IP \fBX\fR 5
Moves the cursor back \fIcount\fR bytes in the output string.  If
\fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR
or is larger than the current cursor position,
then the cursor is positioned at location 0 so that the next byte
stored will be the first byte in the result string.  If \fIcount\fR is
omitted then the cursor is moved back one byte.  This type does not
consume an argument.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR a3X*a3X2a3 abc def ghi
.CE
.PP
will return \fBdghi\fR.
.RE
.IP \[email protected]\fR 5
Moves the cursor to the absolute location in the output string
specified by \fIcount\fR.  Position 0 refers to the first byte in the
output string.  If \fIcount\fR refers to a position beyond the last
byte stored so far, then null bytes will be placed in the uninitialized
locations and the cursor will be placed at the specified location.  If
\fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then the cursor is moved to the current end of
the output string.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then an error will be
generated.  This type does not consume an argument. For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary format\fR [email protected]@*[email protected] abcde f ghi j
.CE
.PP
will return
.PP
.CS
\fBabfdeghi\e000\e000j\fR
.CE
.RE
.SH "BINARY SCAN"
.PP
The \fBbinary scan\fR command parses fields from a binary string,
returning the number of conversions performed.  \fIString\fR gives the
input bytes to be parsed (one byte per character, and characters not
representable as a byte have their high bits chopped)
................................................................................
spaces.  Each field specifier is a single type character followed by
an optional flag character followed by an optional numeric \fIcount\fR.
Most field specifiers consume one
argument to obtain the variable into which the scanned values should
be placed.  The type character specifies how the binary data is to be
interpreted.  The \fIcount\fR typically indicates how many items of
the specified type are taken from the data.  If present, the
\fIcount\fR is a non-negative decimal integer or
.QW \fB*\fR ,
which normally indicates that all of the remaining items in the data are to
be used.  If there are not enough bytes left after the current cursor
position to satisfy the current field specifier, then the
corresponding variable is left untouched and \fBbinary scan\fR returns
immediately with the number of variables that were set.  If there are
not enough arguments for all of the fields in the format string that
consume arguments, then an error is generated. The flag character
.QW u
may be given to cause some types to be read as unsigned values. The flag
is accepted for all field types but is ignored for non-integer fields.
.PP
A similar example as with \fBbinary format\fR should explain the
relation between field specifiers and arguments in case of the binary
scan subcommand:
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR $bytes s3s first second
.CE
.PP
This command (provided the binary string in the variable \fIbytes\fR
is long enough) assigns a list of three integers to the variable
\fIfirst\fR and assigns a single value to the variable \fIsecond\fR.
If \fIbytes\fR contains fewer than 8 bytes (i.e. four 2-byte
integers), no assignment to \fIsecond\fR will be made, and if
\fIbytes\fR contains fewer than 6 bytes (i.e. three 2-byte integers),
no assignment to \fIfirst\fR will be made.  Hence:
.PP
.CS
puts [\fBbinary scan\fR abcdefg s3s first second]
puts $first
puts $second
.CE
.PP
will print (assuming neither variable is set previously):
.PP
.CS
1
25185 25699 26213
can't read "second": no such variable
.CE
.PP
It is \fIimportant\fR to note that the \fBc\fR, \fBs\fR, and \fBS\fR
(and \fBi\fR and \fBI\fR on 64bit systems) will be scanned into
long data size values.  In doing this, values that have their high
bit set (0x80 for chars, 0x8000 for shorts, 0x80000000 for ints),
will be sign extended.  Thus the following will occur:
.PP
.CS
set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000]
\fBbinary scan\fR $signShort s1 val; \fI# val == 0xFFFF8000\fR
.CE
.PP
If you require unsigned values you can include the
.QW u
flag character following
the field type. For example, to read an unsigned short value:
.PP
.CS
set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000]
\fBbinary scan\fR $signShort su1 val; \fI# val == 0x00008000\fR
.CE
.PP
Each type-count pair moves an imaginary cursor through the binary data,
reading bytes from the current position.  The cursor is initially
at position 0 at the beginning of the data.  The type may be any one of
the following characters:
.IP \fBa\fR 5
The data is a byte string of length \fIcount\fR.  If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be
scanned into the variable.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one
byte will be scanned.
All bytes scanned will be interpreted as being characters in the
range \eu0000-\eu00ff so the \fBencoding convertfrom\fR command will be
needed if the string is not a binary string or a string encoded in ISO
8859\-1.
For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR abcde\e000fghi a6a10 var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB1\fR with the string equivalent to \fBabcde\e000\fR
stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fIvar2\fR left unmodified, and
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \e342\e202\e254 a* var1
set var2 [encoding convertfrom utf-8 $var1]
.CE
.PP
will store a Euro-currency character in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBA\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBa\fR, except trailing blanks and nulls are stripped from
the scanned value before it is stored in the variable.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR "abc efghi  \e000" A* var1
.CE
.PP
will return \fB1\fR with \fBabc efghi\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBb\fR 5
The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR binary digits in
low-to-high order represented as a sequence of
.QW 1
and
.QW 0
characters.  The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with
the bits being taken in low-to-high order within each byte.  Any extra
bits in the last byte are ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the remaining bits in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one bit will be scanned.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex07\ex87\ex05 b5b* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB11100\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB1110000110100000\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBB\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBb\fR, except the bits are taken in
high-to-low order within each byte.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex70\ex87\ex05 B5B* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB01110\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB1000011100000101\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBH\fR 5
The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in
high-to-low order represented as a sequence of characters in the set
.QW 0123456789abcdef .
The data bytes are scanned in first to last
order with the hex digits being taken in high-to-low order within each
byte. Any extra bits in the last byte are ignored. If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the remaining hex digits in \fIstring\fR will be
scanned. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one hex digit will be
scanned. For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex07\exC6\ex05\ex1f\ex34 H3H* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB07c\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB051f34\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBh\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBH\fR, except the digits are taken in
reverse (low-to-high) order within each byte. For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex07\ex86\ex05\ex12\ex34 h3h* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB706\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB502143\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.PP
Note that most code that wishes to parse the hexadecimal digits from
multiple bytes in order should use the \fBH\fR format.
.RE
.IP \fBc\fR 5
The data is turned into \fIcount\fR 8-bit signed integers and stored
in the corresponding variable as a list, or as unsigned if \fBu\fR is placed
immediately after the \fBc\fR. If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one 8-bit integer will be scanned.  For
example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex07\ex86\ex05 c2c* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB7 -122\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB5\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.  Note that the integers returned are signed unless

\fBcu\fR in place of \fBc\fR.



.RE
.IP \fBs\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 16-bit signed integers
represented in little-endian byte order, or as unsigned if \fBu\fR is placed
immediately after the \fBs\fR.  The integers are stored in
the corresponding variable as a list.  If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one 16-bit integer will be scanned.  For
example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex05\ex00\ex07\ex00\exf0\exff s2s* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB5 7\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.  Note that the integers returned are signed unless

\fBsu\fR is used in place of \fBs\fR.



.RE
.IP \fBS\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBs\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR 16-bit integers represented in big-endian byte
order.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex00\ex05\ex00\ex07\exff\exf0 S2S* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB5 7\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBt\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 16-bit signed integers
represented in the native byte order of the machine running the Tcl
script, or as unsigned if \fBu\fR is placed
immediately after the \fBt\fR.  It is otherwise identical to \fBs\fR and \fBS\fR.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
the \fBbyteOrder\fR element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
.IP \fBi\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 32-bit signed integers
represented in little-endian byte order, or as unsigned if \fBu\fR is placed
immediately after the \fBi\fR.  The integers are stored in
the corresponding variable as a list.  If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one 32-bit integer will be scanned.  For
example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
set str \ex05\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex07\ex00\ex00\ex00\exf0\exff\exff\exff
\fBbinary scan\fR $str i2i* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB5 7\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.  Note that the integers returned are signed unless

\fBiu\fR is used in place of \fBi\fR.



.RE
.IP \fBI\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBI\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR 32-bit signed integers represented in big-endian byte
order, or as unsigned if \fBu\fR is placed
immediately after the \fBI\fR.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
set str \ex00\ex00\ex00\ex05\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex07\exff\exff\exff\exf0
\fBbinary scan\fR $str I2I* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB5 7\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBn\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 32-bit signed integers
represented in the native byte order of the machine running the Tcl
script, or as unsigned if \fBu\fR is placed
immediately after the \fBn\fR.  It is otherwise identical to \fBi\fR and \fBI\fR.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
the \fBbyteOrder\fR element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
.IP \fBw\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 64-bit signed integers
represented in little-endian byte order, or as unsigned if \fBu\fR is placed
immediately after the \fBw\fR.  The integers are stored in
the corresponding variable as a list.  If \fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the remaining bytes in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one 64-bit integer will be scanned.  For
example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
set str \ex05\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex07\ex00\ex00\ex00\exf0\exff\exff\exff
\fBbinary scan\fR $str wi* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB30064771077\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB\-16\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBW\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBw\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR 64-bit signed integers represented in big-endian byte
order, or as unsigned if \fBu\fR is placed
immediately after the \fBW\fR.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
set str \ex00\ex00\ex00\ex05\ex00\ex00\ex00\ex07\exff\exff\exff\exf0
\fBbinary scan\fR $str WI* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB21474836487\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB\-16\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBm\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR 64-bit signed integers
represented in the native byte order of the machine running the Tcl
script, or as unsigned if \fBu\fR is placed
immediately after the \fBm\fR.  It is otherwise identical to \fBw\fR and \fBW\fR.
To determine what the native byte order of the machine is, refer to
the \fBbyteOrder\fR element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
.IP \fBf\fR 5
The data is interpreted as \fIcount\fR single-precision floating point
numbers in the machine's native representation.  The floating point
numbers are stored in the corresponding variable as a list.  If
\fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR ,
then all of the remaining bytes in
\fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one
single-precision floating point number will be scanned.  The size of a
floating point number may vary across architectures, so the number of
bytes that are scanned may vary.  If the data does not represent a
valid floating point number, the resulting value is undefined and
compiler dependent.  For example, on a Windows system running on an
Intel Pentium processor,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex3f\excc\excc\excd f var1
.CE
.PP
will return \fB1\fR with \fB1.6000000238418579\fR stored in
\fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBr\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBf\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR single-precision floating point number in little-endian
order.  This conversion is not portable to the minority of systems not
................................................................................
using IEEE floating point representations.
.IP \fBd\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBf\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR double-precision floating point numbers in the
machine's native representation. For example, on a Windows system
running on an Intel Pentium processor,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex9a\ex99\ex99\ex99\ex99\ex99\exf9\ex3f d var1
.CE
.PP
will return \fB1\fR with \fB1.6000000000000001\fR
stored in \fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBq\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBd\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR double-precision floating point number in little-endian
order.  This conversion is not portable to the minority of systems not
................................................................................
.IP \fBQ\fR 5
This form is the same as \fBd\fR except that the data is interpreted
as \fIcount\fR double-precision floating point number in big-endian
order.  This conversion is not portable to the minority of systems not
using IEEE floating point representations.
.IP \fBx\fR 5
Moves the cursor forward \fIcount\fR bytes in \fIstring\fR.  If
\fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR
or is larger than the number of bytes after the
current cursor position, then the cursor is positioned after
the last byte in \fIstring\fR.  If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then the
cursor is moved forward one byte.  Note that this type does not
consume an argument.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex01\ex02\ex03\ex04 x2H* var1
.CE
.PP
will return \fB1\fR with \fB0304\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBX\fR 5
Moves the cursor back \fIcount\fR bytes in \fIstring\fR.  If
\fIcount\fR is
.QW \fB*\fR
or is larger than the current cursor position,
then the cursor is positioned at location 0 so that the next byte
scanned will be the first byte in \fIstring\fR.  If \fIcount\fR
is omitted then the cursor is moved back one byte.  Note that this
type does not consume an argument.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex01\ex02\ex03\ex04 c2XH* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB1 2\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB020304\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \[email protected]\fR 5
Moves the cursor to the absolute location in the data string specified
by \fIcount\fR.  Note that position 0 refers to the first byte in
\fIstring\fR.  If \fIcount\fR refers to a position beyond the end of
\fIstring\fR, then the cursor is positioned after the last byte.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then an error will be generated.  For example,
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR \ex01\ex02\ex03\ex04 [email protected]* var1 var2
.CE
.PP
will return \fB2\fR with \fB1 2\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB020304\fR
stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.PP
The \fBr\fR, \fBR\fR, \fBq\fR and \fBQ\fR conversions will only work
reliably for transferring data between computers which are all using

Added doc/callback.n.
















































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH callback n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
callback, mymethod \- generate callbacks to methods
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBcallback\fR \fImethodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?
\fBmymethod\fR \fImethodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
The \fBcallback\fR command,
'\" Based on notes in the tcllib docs, we know the provenance of mymethod
also called \fBmymethod\fR for compatibility with the ooutil and snit packages
of Tcllib,
and which should only be used from within the context of a call to a method
(i.e. inside a method, constructor or destructor body) is used to generate a
script fragment that will invoke the method, \fImethodName\fR, on the current
object (as reported by \fBself\fR) when executed. Any additional arguments
provided will be provided as leading arguments to the callback. The resulting
script fragment shall be a proper list.
.PP
Note that it is up to the caller to ensure that the current object is able to
handle the call of \fImethodName\fR; this command does not check that.
\fImethodName\fR may refer to any exported or unexported method, but may not
refer to a private method as those can only be invoked directly from within
methods. If there is no such method present at the point when the callback is
invoked, the standard \fBunknown\fR method handler will be called.
.SH EXAMPLE
This is a simple echo server class. The \fBcallback\fR command is used in two
places, to arrange for the incoming socket connections to be handled by the
\fIAccept\fR method, and to arrange for the incoming bytes on those
connections to be handled by the \fIReceive\fR method.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create EchoServer {
    variable server clients
    constructor {port} {
        set server [socket -server [\fBcallback\fR Accept] $port]
        set clients {}
    }
    destructor {
        chan close $server
        foreach client [dict keys $clients] {
            chan close $client
        }
    }

    method Accept {channel clientAddress clientPort} {
        dict set clients $channel [dict create \e
                address $clientAddress port $clientPort]
        chan event $channel readable [\fBcallback\fR Receive $channel]
    }
    method Receive {channel} {
        if {[chan gets $channel line] >= 0} {
            my echo $channel $line
        } else {
            chan close $channel
            dict unset clients $channel
        }
    }

    method echo {channel line} {
        dict with clients $channel {
            chan puts $channel \e
                    [format {[%s:%d] %s} $address $port $line]
        }
    }
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
chan(n), fileevent(n), my(n), self(n), socket(n), trace(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
callback, object
.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/cd.n.

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.PP
Change the current working directory to \fIdirName\fR, or to the
home directory (as specified in the HOME environment variable) if
\fIdirName\fR is not given.
Returns an empty string.
Note that the current working directory is a per-process resource; the
\fBcd\fR command changes the working directory for all interpreters
and (in a threaded environment) all threads.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Change to the home directory of the user \fBfred\fR:
.PP
.CS
\fBcd\fR ~fred
.CE
................................................................................
.CS
\fBcd\fR ../lib
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
filename(n), glob(n), pwd(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
working directory










|







 







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.PP
Change the current working directory to \fIdirName\fR, or to the
home directory (as specified in the HOME environment variable) if
\fIdirName\fR is not given.
Returns an empty string.
Note that the current working directory is a per-process resource; the
\fBcd\fR command changes the working directory for all interpreters
and all threads.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Change to the home directory of the user \fBfred\fR:
.PP
.CS
\fBcd\fR ~fred
.CE
................................................................................
.CS
\fBcd\fR ../lib
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
filename(n), glob(n), pwd(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
working directory
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Added doc/classvariable.n.




























































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2011-2015 Andreas Kupries
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH classvariable n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
classvariable \- create link from local variable to variable in class
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBclassvariable\fR \fIvariableName\fR ?\fI...\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
The \fBclassvariable\fR command is available within methods. It takes a series
of one or more variable names and makes them available in the method's scope;
those variable names must not be qualified and must not refer to array
elements. The originating scope for the variables is the namespace of the
class that the method was defined by. In other words, the referenced variables
are shared between all instances of that class.
.PP
Note: This command is equivalent to the command \fBtypevariable\fR provided by
the snit package in tcllib for approximately the same purpose. If used in a
method defined directly on a class instance (e.g., through the
\fBoo::objdefine\fR \fBmethod\fR definition) this is very much like just
using:
.PP
.CS
namespace upvar [namespace current] $var $var
.CE
.PP
for each variable listed to \fBclassvariable\fR.
.SH EXAMPLE
This class counts how many instances of it have been made.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create Counted {
    initialise {
        variable count 0
    }

    variable number
    constructor {} {
        \fBclassvariable\fR count
        set number [incr count]
    }

    method report {} {
        \fBclassvariable\fR count
        puts "This is instance $number of $count"
    }
}

set a [Counted new]
set b [Counted new]
$a report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 1 of 2\fR
set c [Counted new]
$b report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 2 of 3\fR
$c report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 3 of 3\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
global(n), namespace(n), oo::class(n), oo::define(n), upvar(n), variable(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
class, class variable, variable
.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/clock.n.

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If a format string lacks a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group,
it is possible for the time to be ambiguous because it appears twice
in the same day, once without and once with Daylight Saving Time.
If this situation occurs, the first occurrence of the time is chosen.
(For this reason, it is wise to have the input string contain the
time zone when converting local times.  This caveat does not apply to
UTC times.)













.SH "FORMAT GROUPS"
.PP
The following format groups are recognized by the \fBclock scan\fR and
\fBclock format\fR commands.
.TP
\fB%a\fR
On output, receives an abbreviation (\fIe.g.,\fR \fBMon\fR) for the day
................................................................................
time.  This is useful for determining the time on a specific day or
doing other date-relative conversions.
.PP
The \fIinputString\fR argument consists of zero or more specifications of the
following form:
.TP
\fItime\fR

A time of day, which is of the form: \fBhh?:mm?:ss?? ?meridian? ?zone?\fR
or \fBhhmm ?meridian? ?zone?\fR



If no meridian is specified, \fBhh\fR is interpreted on
a 24-hour clock.
.TP
\fIdate\fR
A specific month and day with optional year.  The
acceptable formats are
.QW "\fBmm/dd\fR?\fB/yy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fBmonthname dd\fR?\fB, yy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fBday, dd monthname \fR?\fByy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fBdd monthname yy\fR" ,
.QW "?\fBCC\fR?\fByymmdd\fR" ,
and
.QW "\fBdd-monthname-\fR?\fBCC\fR?\fByy\fR" .

The default year is the current year.  If the year is less
than 100, we treat the years 00-68 as 2000-2068 and the years 69-99
as 1969-1999.  Not all platforms can represent the years 38-70, so
an error may result if these years are used.
.TP
\fIISO 8601 point-in-time\fR

An ISO 8601 point-in-time specification, such as
.QW \fICCyymmdd\fBT\fIhhmmss\fR,
where \fBT\fR is the literal
.QW T ,
.QW "\fICCyymmdd hhmmss\fR" ,
or
.QW \fICCyymmdd\fBT\fIhh:mm:ss\fR .
Note that only these three formats are accepted.
The command does \fInot\fR accept the full range of point-in-time
specifications specified in ISO8601.  Other formats can be recognized by
giving an explicit \fB\-format\fR option to the \fBclock scan\fR command.
.TP
\fIrelative time\fR

A specification relative to the current time.  The format is \fBnumber
unit\fR. Acceptable units are \fByear\fR, \fBfortnight\fR,
\fBmonth\fR, \fBweek\fR, \fBday\fR,
\fBhour\fR, \fBminute\fR (or \fBmin\fR), and \fBsecond\fR (or \fBsec\fR).  The
unit can be specified as a singular or plural, as in \fB3 weeks\fR.
These modifiers may also be specified:
\fBtomorrow\fR, \fByesterday\fR, \fBtoday\fR, \fBnow\fR,






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If a format string lacks a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group,
it is possible for the time to be ambiguous because it appears twice
in the same day, once without and once with Daylight Saving Time.
If this situation occurs, the first occurrence of the time is chosen.
(For this reason, it is wise to have the input string contain the
time zone when converting local times.  This caveat does not apply to
UTC times.)
.PP
If the interpretation of the groups yields an impossible time because
a field is out of range, enough of that field's unit will be added to
or subtracted from the time to bring it in range. Thus, if attempting to
scan or format day 0 of the month, one day will be subtracted from day
1 of the month, yielding the last day of the previous month.
.PP
If the interpretation of the groups yields an impossible time because
a Daylight Saving Time change skips over that time, or an ambiguous
time because a Daylight Saving Time change skips back so that the clock
observes the given time twice, and no time zone specifier (\fB%z\fR
or \fB%Z\fR) is present in the format, the time is interpreted as
if the clock had not changed.
.SH "FORMAT GROUPS"
.PP
The following format groups are recognized by the \fBclock scan\fR and
\fBclock format\fR commands.
.TP
\fB%a\fR
On output, receives an abbreviation (\fIe.g.,\fR \fBMon\fR) for the day
................................................................................
time.  This is useful for determining the time on a specific day or
doing other date-relative conversions.
.PP
The \fIinputString\fR argument consists of zero or more specifications of the
following form:
.TP
\fItime\fR
.
A time of day, which is of the form:

.QW "\fIhh\fR?\fB:\fImm\fR?\fB:\fIss\fR?? ?\fImeridian\fR? ?\fIzone\fR?"
or
.QW "\fBhhmm \fR?\fBmeridian\fR? ?\fBzone\fR?" .
If no \fImeridian\fR is specified, \fIhh\fR is interpreted on
a 24-hour clock.
.TP
\fIdate\fR
.
A specific month and day with optional year.  The
acceptable formats are
.QW "\fImm\fB/\fIdd\fR?\fB/\fIyy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fImonthname dd\fR?\fB, \fIyy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fIday\fB, \fIdd monthname \fR?\fIyy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fIdd monthname yy\fR" ,
.QW "?\fICC\fR?\fIyymmdd\fR" ,
and
.QW "\fIdd\fB-\fImonthname\fB-\fR?\fICC\fR?\fIyy\fR" .
The default year is the current year.  If the year is less
than 100, we treat the years 00-68 as 2000-2068 and the years 69-99
as 1969-1999.  Not all platforms can represent the years 38-70, so
an error may result if these years are used.
.TP
\fIISO 8601 point-in-time\fR
.
An ISO 8601 point-in-time specification, such as
.QW \fICCyymmdd\fBT\fIhhmmss\fR,
where \fBT\fR is the literal
.QW T ,
.QW "\fICCyymmdd hhmmss\fR" ,
or
.QW \fICCyymmdd\fBT\fIhh\fB:\fImm\fB:\fIss\fR .
Note that only these three formats are accepted.
The command does \fInot\fR accept the full range of point-in-time
specifications specified in ISO8601.  Other formats can be recognized by
giving an explicit \fB\-format\fR option to the \fBclock scan\fR command.
.TP
\fIrelative time\fR
.
A specification relative to the current time.  The format is \fBnumber
unit\fR. Acceptable units are \fByear\fR, \fBfortnight\fR,
\fBmonth\fR, \fBweek\fR, \fBday\fR,
\fBhour\fR, \fBminute\fR (or \fBmin\fR), and \fBsecond\fR (or \fBsec\fR).  The
unit can be specified as a singular or plural, as in \fB3 weeks\fR.
These modifiers may also be specified:
\fBtomorrow\fR, \fByesterday\fR, \fBtoday\fR, \fBnow\fR,

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This command is typically invoked inside the body of a looping command
such as \fBfor\fR or \fBforeach\fR or \fBwhile\fR.
It returns a 4 (\fBTCL_CONTINUE\fR) result code, which causes a continue
exception to occur.
The exception causes the current script to be aborted
out to the innermost containing loop command, which then
continues with the next iteration of the loop.
Catch exceptions are also handled in a few other situations, such
as the \fBcatch\fR command and the outermost scripts of procedure
bodies.
.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
Print a line for each of the integers from 0 to 10 \fIexcept\fR 5:
.PP
.CS






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This command is typically invoked inside the body of a looping command
such as \fBfor\fR or \fBforeach\fR or \fBwhile\fR.
It returns a 4 (\fBTCL_CONTINUE\fR) result code, which causes a continue
exception to occur.
The exception causes the current script to be aborted
out to the innermost containing loop command, which then
continues with the next iteration of the loop.
Continue exceptions are also handled in a few other situations, such
as the \fBcatch\fR command and the outermost scripts of procedure
bodies.
.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
Print a line for each of the integers from 0 to 10 \fIexcept\fR 5:
.PP
.CS

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2014-2018 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH "cookiejar" n 0.1 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
cookiejar \- Implementation of the Tcl http package cookie jar protocol
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require\fR \fBcookiejar\fR ?\fB0.1\fR?

\fB::http::cookiejar configure\fR ?\fIoptionName\fR? ?\fIoptionValue\fR?
\fB::http::cookiejar create\fR \fIname\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?
\fB::http::cookiejar new\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?

\fIcookiejar\fR \fBdestroy\fR
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBforceLoadDomainData\fR
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBgetCookies\fR \fIprotocol host path\fR
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBstoreCookie\fR \fIoptions\fR
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBlookup\fR ?\fIhost\fR? ?\fIkey\fR?
.fi
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The cookiejar package provides an implementation of the http package's cookie
jar protocol using an SQLite database. It provides one main command,
\fB::http::cookiejar\fR, which is a TclOO class that should be instantiated to
create a cookie jar that manages a particular HTTP session.
.PP
The database management policy can be controlled at the package level by the
\fBconfigure\fR method on the \fB::http::cookiejar\fR class object:
.TP
\fB::http::cookiejar configure\fR ?\fIoptionName\fR? ?\fIoptionValue\fR?
.
If neither \fIoptionName\fR nor \fIoptionValue\fR are supplied, this returns a
copy of the configuration as a Tcl dictionary. If just \fIoptionName\fR is
supplied, just the value of the named option is returned. If both
\fIoptionName\fR and \fIoptionValue\fR are given, the named option is changed
to be the given value.
.RS
.PP
Supported options are:
.TP
\fB\-domainfile \fIfilename\fR
.
A file (defaulting to within the cookiejar package) with a description of the
list of top-level domains (e.g., \fB.com\fR or \fB.co.jp\fR). Such domains
\fImust not\fR accept cookies set upon them. Note that the list of such
domains is both security-sensitive and \fInot\fR constant and should be
periodically refetched. Cookie jars maintain their own cache of the domain
list.
.TP
\fB\-domainlist \fIurl\fR
.
A URL to fetch the list of top-level domains (e.g., \fB.com\fR or
\fB.co.jp\fR) from.  Such domains \fImust not\fR accept cookies set upon
them. Note that the list of such domains is both security-sensitive and
\fInot\fR constant and should be periodically refetched. Cookie jars maintain
their own cache of the domain list.
.TP
\fB\-domainrefresh \fIintervalMilliseconds\fR
.
The number of milliseconds between checks of the \fI\-domainlist\fR for new
domains.
.TP
\fB\-loglevel \fIlevel\fR
.
The logging level of this package. The logging level must be (in order of
decreasing verbosity) one of \fBdebug\fR, \fBinfo\fR, \fBwarn\fR, or
\fBerror\fR.
.TP
\fB\-offline \fIflag\fR
.
Allows the cookie managment engine to be placed into offline mode. In offline
mode, the list of domains is read immediately from the file configured in the
\fB\-domainfile\fR option, and the \fB\-domainlist\fR option is not used; it
also makes the \fB\-domainrefresh\fR option be effectively ignored.
.TP
\fB\-purgeold \fIintervalMilliseconds\fR
.
The number of milliseconds between checks of the database for expired
cookies; expired cookies are deleted.
.TP
\fB\-retain \fIcookieCount\fR
.
The maximum number of cookies to retain in the database.
.TP
\fB\-vacuumtrigger \fIdeletionCount\fR
.
A count of the number of persistent cookie deletions to go between vacuuming
the database.
.RE
.PP
Cookie jar instances may be made with any of the standard TclOO instance
creation methods (\fBcreate\fR or \fBnew\fR).
.TP
\fB::http::cookiejar new\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?
.
If a \fIfilename\fR argument is provided, it is the name of a file containing
an SQLite database that will contain the persistent cookies maintained by the
cookie jar; the database will be created if the file does not already
exist. If \fIfilename\fR is not supplied, the database will be held entirely within
memory, which effectively forces all cookies within it to be session cookies.
.SS "INSTANCE METHODS"
.PP
The following methods are supported on the instances:
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBdestroy\fR
.
This is the standard TclOO destruction method. It does \fInot\fR delete the
SQLite database if it is written to disk. Callers are responsible for ensuring
that the cookie jar is not in use by the http package at the time of
destruction.
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBforceLoadDomainData\fR
.
This method causes the cookie jar to immediately load (and cache) the domain
list data. The domain list will be loaded from the \fB\-domainlist\fR
configured a the package level if that is enabled, and otherwise will be
obtained from the \fB\-domainfile\fR configured at the package level.
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBgetCookies\fR \fIprotocol host path\fR
.
This method obtains the cookies for a particular HTTP request. \fIThis
implements the http cookie jar protocol.\fR
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBpolicyAllow\fR \fIoperation domain path\fR
.
This method is called by the \fBstoreCookie\fR method to get a decision on
whether to allow \fIoperation\fR to be performed for the \fIdomain\fR and
\fIpath\fR. This is checked immediately before the database is updated but
after the built-in security checks are done, and should return a boolean
value; if the value is false, the operation is rejected and the database is
not modified. The supported \fIoperation\fRs are:
.RS
.TP
\fBdelete\fR
.
The \fIdomain\fR is seeking to delete a cookie.
.TP
\fBsession\fR
.
The \fIdomain\fR is seeking to create or update a session cookie.
.TP
\fBset\fR
.
The \fIdomain\fR is seeking to create or update a persistent cookie (with a
defined lifetime).
.PP
The default implementation of this method just returns true, but subclasses of
this class may impose their own rules.
.RE
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBstoreCookie\fR \fIoptions\fR
.
This method stores a single cookie from a particular HTTP response. Cookies
that fail security checks are ignored. \fIThis implements the http cookie jar
protocol.\fR
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBlookup\fR ?\fIhost\fR? ?\fIkey\fR?
.
This method looks a cookie by exact host (or domain) matching. If neither
\fIhost\fR nor \fIkey\fR are supplied, the list of hosts for which a cookie is
stored is returned. If just \fIhost\fR (which may be a hostname or a domain
name) is supplied, the list of cookie keys stored for that host is returned.
If both \fIhost\fR and \fIkey\fR are supplied, the value for that key is
returned; it is an error if no such host or key match exactly.
.SH "EXAMPLES"
.PP
The simplest way of using a cookie jar is to just permanently configure it at
the start of the application.
.PP
.CS
package require http
\fBpackage require cookiejar\fR

set cookiedb ~/.tclcookies.db
http::configure -cookiejar [\fBhttp::cookiejar new\fR $cookiedb]

# No further explicit steps are required to use cookies
set tok [http::geturl http://core.tcl.tk/]
.CE
.PP
To only allow a particular domain to use cookies, perhaps because you only
want to enable a particular host to create and manipulate sessions, create a
subclass that imposes that policy.
.PP
.CS
package require http
\fBpackage require cookiejar\fR

oo::class create MyCookieJar {
    superclass \fBhttp::cookiejar\fR

    method \fBpolicyAllow\fR {operation domain path} {
        return [expr {$domain eq "my.example.com"}]
    }
}

set cookiedb ~/.tclcookies.db
http::configure -cookiejar [MyCookieJar new $cookiedb]

# No further explicit steps are required to use cookies
set tok [http::geturl http://core.tcl.tk/]
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
http(n), oo::class(n), sqlite3(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
cookie, internet, security policy, www
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/copy.n.

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'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
oo::copy \- create copies of objects and classes
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBoo::copy\fI sourceObject \fR?\fItargetObject\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBoo::copy\fR command creates a copy of an object or class. It takes the
name of the object or class to be copied, \fIsourceObject\fR, and optionally
the name of the object or class to create, \fItargetObject\fR, which will be
resolved relative to the current namespace if not an absolute qualified name.
If \fItargetObject\fR is omitted, a new name is chosen. The copied object will









be of the same class as the source object, and will have all its per-object
methods copied. If it is a class, it will also have all the class methods in
the class copied, but it will not have any of its instances copied.

.PP
.VS
After the \fItargetObject\fR has been created and all definitions of its
configuration (e.g., methods, filters, mixins) copied, the \fB<cloned>\fR
method of \fItargetObject\fR will be invoked, to allow for customization of
the created object such as installing related variable traces. The only
argument given will be \fIsourceObject\fR. The default implementation of this






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'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
oo::copy \- create copies of objects and classes
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBoo::copy\fI sourceObject \fR?\fItargetObject\fR? ?\fItargetNamespace\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBoo::copy\fR command creates a copy of an object or class. It takes the
name of the object or class to be copied, \fIsourceObject\fR, and optionally
the name of the object or class to create, \fItargetObject\fR, which will be
resolved relative to the current namespace if not an absolute qualified name
and
.VS TIP473
\fItargetNamespace\fR which is the name of the namespace that will hold the
internal state of the object (\fBmy\fR command, etc.); it \fImust not\fR
refer to an existing namespace.
If either \fItargetObject\fR or \fItargetNamespace\fR is omitted or is given
as the empty string, a new name is chosen. Names, unless specified, are
chosen with the same algorithm used by the \fBnew\fR method of
\fBoo::class\fR.
.VE TIP473
The copied object will be of the same class as the source object, and will have
all its per-object methods copied. If it is a class, it will also have all the
class methods in the class copied, but it will not have any of its instances
copied.
.PP
.VS
After the \fItargetObject\fR has been created and all definitions of its
configuration (e.g., methods, filters, mixins) copied, the \fB<cloned>\fR
method of \fItargetObject\fR will be invoked, to allow for customization of
the created object such as installing related variable traces. The only
argument given will be \fIsourceObject\fR. The default implementation of this

Changes to doc/coroutine.n.

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'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
coroutine, yield, yieldto \- Create and produce values from coroutines
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBcoroutine \fIname command\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fByield\fR ?\fIvalue\fR?
.VS TIP396
\fByieldto\fR \fIcommand\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fIname\fR ?\fIvalue...\fR?

.VE TIP396



.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBcoroutine\fR command creates a new coroutine context (with associated
command) named \fIname\fR and executes that context by calling \fIcommand\fR,
passing in the other remaining arguments without further interpretation. Once
................................................................................
of the context can then be resumed by calling the context command, optionally
passing in the \fIsingle\fR value to use as the result of the \fByield\fR call
that caused
the context to be suspended. If the coroutine context never yields and instead
returns conventionally, the result of the \fBcoroutine\fR command will be the
result of the evaluation of the context.
.PP
.VS TIP396
The coroutine may also suspend its execution by use of the \fByieldto\fR
command, which instead of returning, cedes execution to some command called
\fIcommand\fR (resolved in the context of the coroutine) and to which \fIany
number\fR of arguments may be passed. Since every coroutine has a context
command, \fByieldto\fR can be used to transfer control directly from one
coroutine to another (this is only advisable if the two coroutines are
expecting this to happen) but \fIany\fR command may be the target. If a
................................................................................
decide what to do with those values.
.PP
The recommended way of writing a version of \fByield\fR that allows resumption
with multiple arguments is by using \fByieldto\fR and the \fBreturn\fR
command, like this:
.PP
.CS
proc yieldm {value} {
    \fByieldto\fR return -level 0 $value
}
.CE
.VE TIP396
.PP
The coroutine can also be deleted by destroying the command \fIname\fR, and
the name of the current coroutine can be retrieved by using
\fBinfo coroutine\fR.
If there are deletion traces on variables in the coroutine's
implementation, they will fire at the point when the coroutine is explicitly
deleted (or, naturally, if the command returns conventionally).
.PP
At the point when \fIcommand\fR is called, the current namespace will be the
global namespace and there will be no stack frames above it (in the sense of
\fBupvar\fR and \fBuplevel\fR). However, which command to call will be
determined in the namespace that the \fBcoroutine\fR command was called from.













































.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example shows a coroutine that will produce an infinite sequence of
even values, and a loop that consumes the first ten of them.
.PP
.CS
proc allNumbers {} {
................................................................................
    }
}} allNumbers
for {set i 1} {$i <= 20} {incr i} {
    puts "prime#$i = [\fIeratosthenes\fR]"
}
.CE
.PP
.VS TIP396
This example shows how a value can be passed around a group of three
coroutines that yield to each other:
.PP
.CS
proc juggler {name target {value ""}} {
    if {$value eq ""} {
        set value [\fByield\fR [info coroutine]]
    }
    while {$value ne ""} {
        puts "$name : $value"
        set value [string range $value 0 end-1]
        lassign [\fByieldto\fR $target $value] value
    }
}
\fBcoroutine\fR j1 juggler Larry [
    \fBcoroutine\fR j2 juggler Curly [
        \fBcoroutine\fR j3 juggler Moe j1]] "Nyuck!Nyuck!Nyuck!"
.CE
.VE TIP396











































.SS "DETAILED SEMANTICS"
.PP
This example demonstrates that coroutines start from the global namespace, and
that \fIcommand\fR resolution happens before the coroutine stack is created.
.PP
.CS
proc report {where level} {






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'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
coroutine, yield, yieldto \- Create and produce values from coroutines
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBcoroutine \fIname command\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fByield\fR ?\fIvalue\fR?

\fByieldto\fR \fIcommand\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fIname\fR ?\fIvalue...\fR?
.sp
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
\fBcoroinject \fIcoroName command\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fBcoroprobe \fIcoroName command\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBcoroutine\fR command creates a new coroutine context (with associated
command) named \fIname\fR and executes that context by calling \fIcommand\fR,
passing in the other remaining arguments without further interpretation. Once
................................................................................
of the context can then be resumed by calling the context command, optionally
passing in the \fIsingle\fR value to use as the result of the \fByield\fR call
that caused
the context to be suspended. If the coroutine context never yields and instead
returns conventionally, the result of the \fBcoroutine\fR command will be the
result of the evaluation of the context.
.PP

The coroutine may also suspend its execution by use of the \fByieldto\fR
command, which instead of returning, cedes execution to some command called
\fIcommand\fR (resolved in the context of the coroutine) and to which \fIany
number\fR of arguments may be passed. Since every coroutine has a context
command, \fByieldto\fR can be used to transfer control directly from one
coroutine to another (this is only advisable if the two coroutines are
expecting this to happen) but \fIany\fR command may be the target. If a
................................................................................
decide what to do with those values.
.PP
The recommended way of writing a version of \fByield\fR that allows resumption
with multiple arguments is by using \fByieldto\fR and the \fBreturn\fR
command, like this:
.PP
.CS
proc yieldMultiple {value} {
    tailcall \fByieldto\fR string cat $value
}
.CE

.PP
The coroutine can also be deleted by destroying the command \fIname\fR, and
the name of the current coroutine can be retrieved by using
\fBinfo coroutine\fR.
If there are deletion traces on variables in the coroutine's
implementation, they will fire at the point when the coroutine is explicitly
deleted (or, naturally, if the command returns conventionally).
.PP
At the point when \fIcommand\fR is called, the current namespace will be the
global namespace and there will be no stack frames above it (in the sense of
\fBupvar\fR and \fBuplevel\fR). However, which command to call will be
determined in the namespace that the \fBcoroutine\fR command was called from.
.PP
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
A suspended coroutine (i.e., one that has \fByield\fRed or \fByieldto\fR-d)
may have its state inspected (or modified) at that point by using
\fBcoroprobe\fR to run a command at the point where the coroutine is at. The
command takes the name of the coroutine to run the command in, \fIcoroName\fR,
and the name of a command (any any arguments it requires) to immediately run
at that point. The result of that command is the result of the \fBcoroprobe\fR
command, and the gross state of the coroutine remains the same afterwards
(i.e., the coroutine is still expecting the results of a \fByield\fR or
\fByieldto\fR as before) though variables may have been changed.
.PP
Similarly, the \fBcoroinject\fR command may be used to place a command to be
run inside a suspended coroutine (when it is resumed) to process arguments,
with quite a bit of similarity to \fBcoroprobe\fR. However, with
\fBcoroinject\fR there are several key differences:
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.IP \(bu
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
The coroutine is not immediately resumed after the injection has been done.  A
consequence of this is that multiple injections may be done before the
coroutine is resumed. There injected commands are performed in \fIreverse
order of definition\fR (that is, they are internally stored on a stack).
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.IP \(bu
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
An additional two arguments are appended to the list of arguments to be run
(that is, the \fIcommand\fR and its \fIargs\fR are extended by two elements).
The first is the name of the command that suspended the coroutine (\fByield\fR
or \fByieldto\fR), and the second is the argument (or list of arguments, in
the case of \fByieldto\fR) that is the current resumption value.
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.IP \(bu
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
The result of the injected command is used as the result of the \fByield\fR or
\fByieldto\fR that caused the coroutine to become suspended. Where there are
multiple injected commands, the result of one becomes the resumption value
processed by the next.
.PP
The injection is a one-off. It is not retained once it has been executed. It
may \fByield\fR or \fByieldto\fR as part of its execution.
.PP
Note that running coroutines may be neither probed nor injected; the
operations may only be applied to
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example shows a coroutine that will produce an infinite sequence of
even values, and a loop that consumes the first ten of them.
.PP
.CS
proc allNumbers {} {
................................................................................
    }
}} allNumbers
for {set i 1} {$i <= 20} {incr i} {
    puts "prime#$i = [\fIeratosthenes\fR]"
}
.CE
.PP

This example shows how a value can be passed around a group of three
coroutines that yield to each other:
.PP
.CS
proc juggler {name target {value ""}} {
    if {$value eq ""} {
        set value [\fByield\fR [info coroutine]]
    }
    while {$value ne ""} {
        puts "$name : $value"
        set value [string range $value 0 end-1]
        lassign [\fByieldto\fR \fI$target\fR $value] value
    }
}
\fBcoroutine\fR j1 juggler Larry [
    \fBcoroutine\fR j2 juggler Curly [
        \fBcoroutine\fR j3 juggler Moe j1]] "Nyuck!Nyuck!Nyuck!"
.CE
.PP
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
This example shows a simple coroutine that collects non-empty values and
returns a list of them when not given an argument. It also shows how we can
look inside the coroutine to find out what it is doing, and how we can modify
the input on a one-off basis.
.PP
.CS
proc collectorImpl {} {
    set me [info coroutine]
    set accumulator {}
    for {set val [\fByield\fR $me]} {$val ne ""} {set val [\fByield\fR]} {
        lappend accumulator $val
    }
    return $accumulator
}

\fBcoroutine\fR collect collectorImpl
\fIcollect\fR 123
\fIcollect\fR "abc def"
\fIcollect\fR 456

puts [\fBcoroprobe \fIcollect\fR set accumulator]
# ==> 123 {abc def} 456

\fIcollect\fR "pqr"

\fBcoroinject \fIcollect\fR apply {{type value} {
    puts "Received '$value' at a $type in [info coroutine]"
    return [string toupper $value]
}}

\fIcollect\fR rst
# ==> Received 'rst' at a yield in ::collect
\fIcollect\fR xyz

puts [\fIcollect\fR]
# ==> 123 {abc def} 456 pqr RST xyz
.CE
.PP
This example shows a simple coroutine that collects non-empty values and
returns a list of them when not given an argument. It also shows how we can
look inside the coroutine to find out what it is doing.
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.SS "DETAILED SEMANTICS"
.PP
This example demonstrates that coroutines start from the global namespace, and
that \fIcommand\fR resolution happens before the coroutine stack is created.
.PP
.CS
proc report {where level} {

Changes to doc/define.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2007 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH define n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
configuration of all subclasses of the class and all objects that are
instances of that class or which mix it in (as modified by any per-instance
configuration). The way in which the configuration is done is controlled by
either the \fIdefScript\fR argument or by the \fIsubcommand\fR and following
\fIarg\fR arguments; when the second is present, it is exactly as if all the
arguments from \fIsubcommand\fR onwards are made into a list and that list is
used as the \fIdefScript\fR argument.




.SS "CONFIGURING CLASSES"
.PP
The following commands are supported in the \fIdefScript\fR for
\fBoo::define\fR, each of which may also be used in the \fIsubcommand\fR form:





















.TP
\fBconstructor\fI argList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates the constructor for a class. The formal arguments to
the constructor (defined using the same format as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR
command) will be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the constructor will be
\fIbodyScript\fR. When the body of the constructor is evaluated, the current
namespace of the constructor will be a namespace that is unique to the object
being constructed. Within the constructor, the \fBnext\fR command should be
used to call the superclasses' constructors. If \fIbodyScript\fR is the empty
string, the constructor will be deleted.
.TP
\fBdeletemethod\fI name\fR ?\fIname ...\fR
.

This deletes each of the methods called \fIname\fR from a class. The methods
must have previously existed in that class. Does not affect the superclasses
of the class, nor does it affect the subclasses or instances of the class
(except when they have a call chain through the class being modified).
.TP
\fBdestructor\fI bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates the destructor for a class. Destructors take no
arguments, and the body of the destructor will be \fIbodyScript\fR. The
destructor is called when objects of the class are deleted, and when called
will have the object's unique namespace as the current namespace. Destructors
................................................................................
\fBexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be exported
(i.e. usable outside an instance through the instance object's command) by the
class being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined
by a superclass; subclass exports override superclass visibility, and may in
turn be overridden by instances.
.TP
\fBfilter\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fImethodName ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
sets or updates the list of method names that are used to guard whether
method call to instances of the class may be called and what the method's
results are. Each \fImethodName\fR names a single filtering method (which may
be exposed or not exposed); it is not an error for a non-existent method to be
named since they may be defined by subclasses.
.VS
By default, this slot works by appending.
.VE
.TP
\fBforward\fI name cmdName \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.
This creates or updates a forwarded method called \fIname\fR. The method is
defined be forwarded to the command called \fIcmdName\fR, with additional
arguments, \fIarg\fR etc., added before those arguments specified by the
caller of the method. The \fIcmdName\fR will always be resolved using the
rules of the invoking objects' namespaces, i.e., when \fIcmdName\fR is not
fully-qualified, the command will be searched for in each object's namespace,
using the instances' namespace's path, or by looking in the global namespace.
The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case letter, and
non-exported otherwise.







.TP









\fBmethod\fI name argList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates a method that is implemented as a procedure-like
script. The name of the method is \fIname\fR, the formal arguments to the
method (defined using the same format as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR command) will
be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the method will be \fIbodyScript\fR. When
the body of the method is evaluated, the current namespace of the method will
be a namespace that is unique to the current object. The method will be
exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case letter, and non-exported
otherwise; this behavior can be overridden via \fBexport\fR and
\fBunexport\fR.
.TP
\fBmixin\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
sets or updates the list of additional classes that are to be mixed into
all the instances of the class being defined. Each \fIclassName\fR argument
names a single class that is to be mixed in.
.VS
By default, this slot works by replacement.
.VE
.TP
\fBrenamemethod\fI fromName toName\fR
.
This renames the method called \fIfromName\fR in a class to \fItoName\fR. The
method must have previously existed in the class, and \fItoName\fR must not
previously refer to a method in that class. Does not affect the superclasses
of the class, nor does it affect the subclasses or instances of the class
(except when they have a call chain through the class being modified). Does
not change the export status of the method; if it was exported before, it will
be afterwards.
.TP
\fBself\fI subcommand arg ...\fR
.TP
\fBself\fI script\fR












.
This command is equivalent to calling \fBoo::objdefine\fR on the class being
defined (see \fBCONFIGURING OBJECTS\fR below for a description of the
supported values of \fIsubcommand\fR). It follows the same general pattern of
argument handling as the \fBoo::define\fR and \fBoo::objdefine\fR commands,
and
.QW "\fBoo::define \fIcls \fBself \fIsubcommand ...\fR"
operates identically to
.QW "\fBoo::objdefine \fIcls subcommand ...\fR" .












.TP
\fBsuperclass\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?
.VS

This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
allows the alteration of the superclasses of the class being defined.
Each \fIclassName\fR argument names one class that is to be a superclass of
the defined class. Note that objects must not be changed from being classes to
being non-classes or vice-versa, that an empty parent class is equivalent to
\fBoo::object\fR, and that the parent classes of \fBoo::object\fR and
\fBoo::class\fR may not be modified.
.VS
By default, this slot works by replacement.
.VE
.TP
\fBunexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be not exported
(i.e. not usable outside the instance through the instance object's command,
but instead just through the \fBmy\fR command visible in each object's
context) by the class being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be
actually defined by a superclass; subclass unexports override superclass
visibility, and may be overridden by instance unexports.
.TP
\fBvariable\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIname ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below) arranges for each of the named
variables to be automatically made
available in the methods, constructor and destructor declared by the class
being defined. Each variable name must not have any namespace
separators and must not look like an array access. All variables will be

actually present in the instance object on which the method is executed. Note
that the variable lists declared by a superclass or subclass are completely
disjoint, as are variable lists declared by instances; the list of variable
names is just for methods (and constructors and destructors) declared by this
class. By default, this slot works by appending.











.VE
.SS "CONFIGURING OBJECTS"


.PP
The following commands are supported in the \fIdefScript\fR for
\fBoo::objdefine\fR, each of which may also be used in the \fIsubcommand\fR
form:


.TP
\fBclass\fI className\fR









.
This allows the class of an object to be changed after creation. Note that the
class's constructors are not called when this is done, and so the object may
well be in an inconsistent state unless additional configuration work is done.















.TP
\fBdeletemethod\fI name\fR ?\fIname ...\fR
.
This deletes each of the methods called \fIname\fR from an object. The methods
must have previously existed in that object. Does not affect the classes that


the object is an instance of.
.TP


































\fBexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be exported
(i.e. usable outside the object through the object's command) by the object
being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined by a
class or superclass; object exports override class visibility.
.TP
\fBfilter\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fImethodName ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
sets or updates the list of method names that are used to guard whether a
method call to the object may be called and what the method's results are.
Each \fImethodName\fR names a single filtering method (which may be exposed or
not exposed); it is not an error for a non-existent method to be named. Note
that the actual list of filters also depends on the filters set upon any
classes that the object is an instance of.
.VS
By default, this slot works by appending.
.VE
.TP
\fBforward\fI name cmdName \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.
This creates or updates a forwarded object method called \fIname\fR. The
method is defined be forwarded to the command called \fIcmdName\fR, with
additional arguments, \fIarg\fR etc., added before those arguments specified
by the caller of the method. Forwarded methods should be deleted using the
\fBmethod\fR subcommand. The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with
a lower-case letter, and non-exported otherwise.







.TP
\fBmethod\fI name argList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates, updates or deletes an object method. The name of the method is
\fIname\fR, the formal arguments to the method (defined using the same format
as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR command) will be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the
method will be \fIbodyScript\fR. When the body of the method is evaluated, the
current namespace of the method will be a namespace that is unique to the
object. The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case
letter, and non-exported otherwise.













.TP
\fBmixin\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?
.VS

This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
sets or updates a per-object list of additional classes that are to be
mixed into the object. Each argument, \fIclassName\fR, names a single class
that is to be mixed in.
.VS
By default, this slot works by replacement.
.VE
.TP
\fBrenamemethod\fI fromName toName\fR

.


This renames the method called \fIfromName\fR in an object to \fItoName\fR.
The method must have previously existed in the object, and \fItoName\fR must
not previously refer to a method in that object. Does not affect the classes
that the object is an instance of. Does not change the export status of the
method; if it was exported before, it will be afterwards.







.TP
\fBunexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be not exported
(i.e. not usable outside the object through the object's command, but instead
just through the \fBmy\fR command visible in the object's context) by the
object being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined
by a class; instance unexports override class visibility.
.TP
\fBvariable\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIname ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below) arranges for each of the named
variables to be automatically made available in the methods declared by the
object being defined.  Each variable name must not have any namespace
separators and must not look like an array access. All variables will be

actually present in the object on which the method is executed. Note that the
variable lists declared by the classes and mixins of which the object is an
instance are completely disjoint; the list of variable names is just for
methods declared by this object. By default, this slot works by appending.






































































.SH "SLOTTED DEFINITIONS"
Some of the configurable definitions of a class or object are \fIslotted
definitions\fR. This means that the configuration is implemented by a slot
object, that is an instance of the class \fBoo::Slot\fR, which manages a list
of values (class names, variable names, etc.) that comprises the contents of
the slot. The class defines three operations (as methods) that may be done on
the slot:
.VE
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-append\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?
.VS

This appends the given \fImember\fR elements to the slot definition.
.VE
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-clear\fR
.VS

This sets the slot definition to the empty list.




.VE
.TP





\fIslot\fR \fB\-set\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?
.VS

This replaces the slot definition with the given \fImember\fR elements.
.PP
A consequence of this is that any use of a slot's default operation where the
first member argument begins with a hyphen will be an error. One of the above
operations should be used explicitly in those circumstances.
.SS "SLOT IMPLEMENTATION"
Internally, slot objects also define a method \fB\-\-default\-operation\fR
which is forwarded to the default operation of the slot (thus, for the class
.QW \fBvariable\fR
slot, this is forwarded to
.QW "\fBmy \-append\fR" ),
and these methods which provide the implementation interface:
.VE
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fBGet\fR
.VS

Returns a list that is the current contents of the slot. This method must
always be called from a stack frame created by a call to \fBoo::define\fR or

\fBoo::objdefine\fR.






.VE

.TP


















\fIslot\fR \fBSet \fIelementList\fR
.VS

Sets the contents of the slot to the list \fIelementList\fR and returns the
empty string. This method must always be called from a stack frame created by
a call to \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR.










.PP
The implementation of these methods is slot-dependent (and responsible for
accessing the correct part of the class or object definition). Slots also have
an unknown method handler to tie all these pieces together, and they hide
their \fBdestroy\fR method so that it is not invoked inadvertently. It is
\fIrecommended\fR that any user changes to the slot mechanism be restricted to
defining new operations whose names start with a hyphen.







.VE
.SH EXAMPLES
This example demonstrates how to use both forms of the \fBoo::define\fR and
\fBoo::objdefine\fR commands (they work in the same way), as well as
illustrating four of the subcommands of them.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c
................................................................................
}
\fBoo::objdefine\fR inst {
    \fBmixin -append\fR B
}
inst m1              \fI\(-> prints "red brick"\fR
inst m2              \fI\(-> prints "blue brick"\fR
.CE




































































































































.SH "SEE ALSO"
next(n), oo::class(n), oo::object(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
class, definition, method, object, slot
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2007-2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH define n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
configuration of all subclasses of the class and all objects that are
instances of that class or which mix it in (as modified by any per-instance
configuration). The way in which the configuration is done is controlled by
either the \fIdefScript\fR argument or by the \fIsubcommand\fR and following
\fIarg\fR arguments; when the second is present, it is exactly as if all the
arguments from \fIsubcommand\fR onwards are made into a list and that list is
used as the \fIdefScript\fR argument.
.PP
Note that the constructor for \fBoo::class\fR will call \fBoo::define\fR on
the script argument that it is provided. This is a convenient way to create
and define a class in one step.
.SH "CONFIGURING CLASSES"
.PP
The following commands are supported in the \fIdefScript\fR for
\fBoo::define\fR, each of which may also be used in the \fIsubcommand\fR form:
.TP
\fBclassmethod\fI name\fR ?\fIargList bodyScrip\fR?
.VS TIP478
This creates a class method, or (if \fIargList\fR and \fIbodyScript\fR are
omitted) promotes an existing method on the class object to be a class
method. The \fIname\fR, \fIargList\fR and \fIbodyScript\fR arguments are as in
the \fBmethod\fR definition, below.
.RS
.PP
Class methods can be called on either the class itself or on the instances of
that class. When they are called, the current object (see the \fBsel\fR and
\fBmy\fR commands) is the class on which they are called or the class of the
instance on which they are called, depending on whether they are called on the
class or an instance of the class, respectively. If called on a subclass or
instance of the subclass, the current object is the subclass.
.PP
In a private definition context, the methods as invoked on classes are
\fInot\fR private, but the methods as invoked on instances of classes are
private.
.RE
.VE TIP478
.TP
\fBconstructor\fI argList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates the constructor for a class. The formal arguments to
the constructor (defined using the same format as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR
command) will be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the constructor will be
\fIbodyScript\fR. When the body of the constructor is evaluated, the current
namespace of the constructor will be a namespace that is unique to the object
being constructed. Within the constructor, the \fBnext\fR command should be
used to call the superclasses' constructors. If \fIbodyScript\fR is the empty
string, the constructor will be deleted.
.RS

.PP
Classes do not need to have a constructor defined. If none is specified, the
superclass's constructor will be used instead.
.RE


.TP
\fBdestructor\fI bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates the destructor for a class. Destructors take no
arguments, and the body of the destructor will be \fIbodyScript\fR. The
destructor is called when objects of the class are deleted, and when called
will have the object's unique namespace as the current namespace. Destructors
................................................................................
\fBexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be exported
(i.e. usable outside an instance through the instance object's command) by the
class being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined
by a superclass; subclass exports override superclass visibility, and may in
turn be overridden by instances.













.TP
\fBforward\fI name cmdName \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.
This creates or updates a forwarded method called \fIname\fR. The method is
defined be forwarded to the command called \fIcmdName\fR, with additional
arguments, \fIarg\fR etc., added before those arguments specified by the
caller of the method. The \fIcmdName\fR will always be resolved using the
rules of the invoking objects' namespaces, i.e., when \fIcmdName\fR is not
fully-qualified, the command will be searched for in each object's namespace,
using the instances' namespace's path, or by looking in the global namespace.
The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case letter, and
non-exported otherwise.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), this command creates private forwarded methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBinitialise\fI script\fR
.TP
\fBinitialize\fI script\fR
.VS TIP478
This evaluates \fIscript\fR in a context which supports local variables and
where the current namespace is the instance namespace of the class object
itself. This is useful for setting up, e.g., class-scoped variables.
.VE TIP478
.TP
\fBmethod\fI name \fR?\fIoption\fR? \fIargList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates a method that is implemented as a procedure-like
script. The name of the method is \fIname\fR, the formal arguments to the
method (defined using the same format as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR command) will
be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the method will be \fIbodyScript\fR. When
the body of the method is evaluated, the current namespace of the method will
be a namespace that is unique to the current object. The method will be
exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case letter, and non-exported
otherwise; this behavior can be overridden via \fBexport\fR and
\fBunexport\fR
.VS  TIP519
or by specifying \fB\-export\fR, \fB\-private\fR or \fB\-unexport\fR in the
optional parameter \fIoption\fR.
.VE TIP519
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below) or if the \fB\-private\fR flag is given for \fIoption\fR, this command
creates private procedure-like methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBprivate \fIcmd arg...\fR
.TP
\fBprivate \fIscript\fR
.
.VS TIP500
This evaluates the \fIscript\fR (or the list of command and arguments given by
\fIcmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs) in a context where the definitions made on the
current class will be private definitions.
.RS
.PP
The following class definition commands are affected by \fBprivate\fR:
\fBforward\fR, \fBmethod\fR, \fBself\fR, and \fBvariable\fR. Nesting
\fBprivate\fR inside \fBprivate\fR has no cumulative effect; the innermost
definition context is just a private definition context. All other definition
commands have no difference in behavior when used in a private definition
context.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fBself\fI subcommand arg ...\fR
.TP
\fBself\fI script\fR
.TP
\fBself\fR
.
This command is equivalent to calling \fBoo::objdefine\fR on the class being
defined (see \fBCONFIGURING OBJECTS\fR below for a description of the
supported values of \fIsubcommand\fR). It follows the same general pattern of
argument handling as the \fBoo::define\fR and \fBoo::objdefine\fR commands,
and
.QW "\fBoo::define \fIcls \fBself \fIsubcommand ...\fR"
operates identically to
.QW "\fBoo::objdefine \fIcls subcommand ...\fR" .
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP470
If no arguments at all are used, this gives the name of the class currently
being configured.
.VE TIP470
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), the definitions on the class object will also be made in a private
definition context.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBsuperclass\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?

.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)

allows the alteration of the superclasses of the class being defined.
Each \fIclassName\fR argument names one class that is to be a superclass of
the defined class. Note that objects must not be changed from being classes to
being non-classes or vice-versa, that an empty parent class is equivalent to
\fBoo::object\fR, and that the parent classes of \fBoo::object\fR and
\fBoo::class\fR may not be modified.

By default, this slot works by replacement.

.TP
\fBunexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be not exported
(i.e. not usable outside the instance through the instance object's command,
but instead just through the \fBmy\fR command visible in each object's
context) by the class being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be
actually defined by a superclass; subclass unexports override superclass
visibility, and may be overridden by instance unexports.
.TP
\fBvariable\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below) arranges for each of the named
variables to be automatically made
available in the methods, constructor and destructor declared by the class
being defined. Each variable name must not have any namespace
separators and must not look like an array access. All variables will be
actually present in the namespace of the instance object on which the method
is executed. Note
that the variable lists declared by a superclass or subclass are completely
disjoint, as are variable lists declared by instances; the list of variable
names is just for methods (and constructors and destructors) declared by this
class. By default, this slot works by appending.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), this slot manipulates the list of private variable bindings for this
class. In a private variable binding, the name of the variable within the
instance object is different to the name given in the definition; the name
used in the definition is the name that you use to access the variable within
the methods of this class, and the name of the variable in the instance
namespace has a unique prefix that makes accidental use from other classes
extremely unlikely.
.VE TIP500

.RE
.SS "ADVANCED CLASS CONFIGURATION OPTIONS"
.PP



The following definitions are also supported, but are not required in simple
programs:
.TP

\fBdefinitionnamespace\fR ?\fIkind\fR? \fInamespaceName\fR
.VS TIP524
This allows control over what namespace will be used by the \fBoo::define\fR
and \fBoo::objdefine\fR commands to look up the definition commands they
use. When any object has a definition operation applied to it, \fIthe class that
it is an instance of\fR (and its superclasses and mixins) is consulted for
what definition namespace to use. \fBoo::define\fR gets the class definition
namespace, and \fB::oo::objdefine\fR gets the instance definition namespace,
but both otherwise use the identical lookup operation.
.RS



.PP
This sets the definition namespace of kind \fIkind\fR provided by the current
class to \fInamespaceName\fR. The \fInamespaceName\fR must refer to a
currently existing namespace, or must be the empty string (to stop the current
class from having such a namespace connected). The \fIkind\fR, if supplied,
must be either \fB\-class\fR (the default) or \fB\-instance\fR to specify the
whether the namespace for use with \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR
respectively is being set.
.PP
The class \fBoo::object\fR has its instance namespace locked to
\fB::oo::objdefine\fR, and the class \fBoo::class\fR has its class namespace
locked to \fB::oo::define\fR. A consequence of this is that effective use of
this feature for classes requires the definition of a metaclass.
.RE
.VE TIP524
.TP
\fBdeletemethod\fI name\fR ?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This deletes each of the methods called \fIname\fR from a class. The methods
must have previously existed in that class. Does not affect the superclasses
of the class, nor does it affect the subclasses or instances of the class
(except when they have a call chain through the class being modified) or the
class object itself.
.TP
\fBfilter\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fImethodName ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
sets or updates the list of method names that are used to guard whether
method call to instances of the class may be called and what the method's
results are. Each \fImethodName\fR names a single filtering method (which may
be exposed or not exposed); it is not an error for a non-existent method to be
named since they may be defined by subclasses.
By default, this slot works by appending.
.TP
\fBmixin\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
sets or updates the list of additional classes that are to be mixed into
all the instances of the class being defined. Each \fIclassName\fR argument
names a single class that is to be mixed in.
By default, this slot works by replacement.
.TP
\fBrenamemethod\fI fromName toName\fR
.
This renames the method called \fIfromName\fR in a class to \fItoName\fR. The
method must have previously existed in the class, and \fItoName\fR must not
previously refer to a method in that class. Does not affect the superclasses
of the class, nor does it affect the subclasses or instances of the class
(except when they have a call chain through the class being modified), or the
class object itself. Does
not change the export status of the method; if it was exported before, it will
be afterwards.
.SH "CONFIGURING OBJECTS"
.PP
The following commands are supported in the \fIdefScript\fR for
\fBoo::objdefine\fR, each of which may also be used in the \fIsubcommand\fR
form:
.TP
\fBexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be exported
(i.e. usable outside the object through the object's command) by the object
being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined by a
class or superclass; object exports override class visibility.














.TP
\fBforward\fI name cmdName \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.
This creates or updates a forwarded object method called \fIname\fR. The
method is defined be forwarded to the command called \fIcmdName\fR, with
additional arguments, \fIarg\fR etc., added before those arguments specified
by the caller of the method. Forwarded methods should be deleted using the
\fBmethod\fR subcommand. The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with
a lower-case letter, and non-exported otherwise.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), this command creates private forwarded methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBmethod\fI name \fR?\fIoption\fR? \fIargList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates, updates or deletes an object method. The name of the method is
\fIname\fR, the formal arguments to the method (defined using the same format
as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR command) will be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the
method will be \fIbodyScript\fR. When the body of the method is evaluated, the
current namespace of the method will be a namespace that is unique to the
object. The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case
letter, and non-exported otherwise;
.VS  TIP519
this can be overridden by specifying \fB\-export\fR, \fB\-private\fR or
\fB\-unexport\fR in the optional parameter \fIoption\fR, or via the
\fBexport\fR and \fBunexport\fR definitions.
.VE TIP519
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below) or if the \fB\-private\fR flag is given for \fIoption\fR, this command
creates private procedure-like methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBmixin\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?

.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)

sets or updates a per-object list of additional classes that are to be
mixed into the object. Each argument, \fIclassName\fR, names a single class
that is to be mixed in.

By default, this slot works by replacement.

.TP

\fBprivate \fIcmd arg...\fR
.TP
\fBprivate \fIscript\fR
.VS TIP500
This evaluates the \fIscript\fR (or the list of command and arguments given by
\fIcmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs) in a context where the definitions made on the
current object will be private definitions.
.RS
.PP
The following class definition commands are affected by \fBprivate\fR:
\fBforward\fR, \fBmethod\fR, and \fBvariable\fR. Nesting \fBprivate\fR inside
\fBprivate\fR has no cumulative effect; the innermost definition context is
just a private definition context. All other definition commands have no
difference in behavior when used in a private definition context.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fBunexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be not exported
(i.e. not usable outside the object through the object's command, but instead
just through the \fBmy\fR command visible in the object's context) by the
object being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined
by a class; instance unexports override class visibility.
.TP
\fBvariable\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below) arranges for each of the named
variables to be automatically made available in the methods declared by the
object being defined.  Each variable name must not have any namespace
separators and must not look like an array access. All variables will be
actually present in the namespace of the object on which the method is
executed. Note that the
variable lists declared by the classes and mixins of which the object is an
instance are completely disjoint; the list of variable names is just for
methods declared by this object. By default, this slot works by appending.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), this slot manipulates the list of private variable bindings for this
object.  In a private variable binding, the name of the variable within the
instance object is different to the name given in the definition; the name
used in the definition is the name that you use to access the variable within
the methods of this instance object, and the name of the variable in the
instance namespace has a unique prefix that makes accidental use from
superclass methods extremely unlikely.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.SS "ADVANCED OBJECT CONFIGURATION OPTIONS"
.PP
The following definitions are also supported, but are not required in simple
programs:
.TP
\fBclass\fI className\fR
.
This allows the class of an object to be changed after creation. Note that the
class's constructors are not called when this is done, and so the object may
well be in an inconsistent state unless additional configuration work is done.
.TP
\fBdeletemethod\fI name\fR ?\fIname ...\fR
.
This deletes each of the methods called \fIname\fR from an object. The methods
must have previously existed in that object (e.g., because it was created
through \fBoo::objdefine method\fR). Does not affect the classes that the
object is an instance of, or remove the exposure of those class-provided
methods in the instance of that class.
.TP
\fBfilter\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fImethodName ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
sets or updates the list of method names that are used to guard whether a
method call to the object may be called and what the method's results are.
Each \fImethodName\fR names a single filtering method (which may be exposed or
not exposed); it is not an error for a non-existent method to be named. Note
that the actual list of filters also depends on the filters set upon any
classes that the object is an instance of.
By default, this slot works by appending.
.TP
\fBrenamemethod\fI fromName toName\fR
.
This renames the method called \fIfromName\fR in an object to \fItoName\fR.
The method must have previously existed in the object, and \fItoName\fR must
not previously refer to a method in that object. Does not affect the classes
that the object is an instance of and cannot rename in an instance object the
methods provided by those classes (though a \fBoo::objdefine forward\fRed
method may provide an equivalent capability). Does not change the export
status of the method; if it was exported before, it will be afterwards.
.TP
\fBself \fR
.VS TIP470
This gives the name of the object currently being configured.
.VE TIP470
.SH "PRIVATE METHODS"
.VS TIP500
When a class or instance has a private method, that private method can only be
invoked from within methods of that class or instance. Other callers of the
object's methods \fIcannot\fR invoke private methods, it is as if the private
methods do not exist. However, a private method of a class \fIcan\fR be
invoked from the class's methods when those methods are being used on another
instance object; this means that a class can use them to coordinate behaviour
between several instances of itself without interfering with how other
classes (especially either subclasses or superclasses) interact. Private
methods precede all mixed in classes in the method call order (as reported by
\fBself call\fR).
.VE TIP500
.SH "SLOTTED DEFINITIONS"
Some of the configurable definitions of a class or object are \fIslotted
definitions\fR. This means that the configuration is implemented by a slot
object, that is an instance of the class \fBoo::Slot\fR, which manages a list
of values (class names, variable names, etc.) that comprises the contents of
the slot. The class defines five operations (as methods) that may be done on
the slot:

.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-append\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?

.
This appends the given \fImember\fR elements to the slot definition.

.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-clear\fR

.
This sets the slot definition to the empty list.
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-prepend\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?
.VS TIP516
This prepends the given \fImember\fR elements to the slot definition.
.VE TIP516
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-remove\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?
.VS TIP516
This removes the given \fImember\fR elements from the slot definition.
.VE TIP516
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-set\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?

.
This replaces the slot definition with the given \fImember\fR elements.
.PP
A consequence of this is that any use of a slot's default operation where the
first member argument begins with a hyphen will be an error. One of the above
operations should be used explicitly in those circumstances.
.SS "SLOT IMPLEMENTATION"
Internally, slot objects also define a method \fB\-\-default\-operation\fR
which is forwarded to the default operation of the slot (thus, for the class
.QW \fBvariable\fR
slot, this is forwarded to
.QW "\fBmy \-append\fR" ),
and these methods which provide the implementation interface:

.TP
\fIslot\fR \fBGet\fR

.
Returns a list that is the current contents of the slot, but does not modify
the slot. This method must always be called from a stack frame created by a
call to \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR. This method \fIshould not\fR
return an error unless it is called from outside a definition context or with
the wrong number of arguments.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP516
The elements of the list should be fully resolved, if that is a meaningful
concept to the slot.
.VE TIP516
.RE
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fBResolve\fR \fIslotElement\fR
.VS TIP516
Returns \fIslotElement\fR with a resolution operation applied to it, but does
not modify the slot. For slots of simple strings, this is an operation that
does nothing, whereas for slots of classes, this maps a class name to its
fully-qualified class name.  This method must always be called from a stack
frame created by a call to \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR.  This
method \fIshould not\fR return an error unless it is called from outside a
definition context or with the wrong number of arguments; unresolvable
arguments should be returned as is (as not all slot operations strictly
require that values are resolvable to work).
.RS
.PP
Implementations \fIshould not\fR enforce uniqueness and ordering constraints
in this method; that is the responsibility of the \fBSet\fR method.
.RE
.VE TIP516
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fBSet \fIelementList\fR

.
Sets the contents of the slot to the list \fIelementList\fR and returns the
empty string. This method must always be called from a stack frame created by
a call to \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR. This method may return an
error if it rejects the change to the slot contents (e.g., because of invalid
values) as well as if it is called from outside a definition context or with
the wrong number of arguments.
.RS
.PP
This method \fImay\fR reorder and filter the elements if this is necessary in
order to satisfy the underlying constraints of the slot. (For example, slots
of classes enforce a uniqueness constraint that places each element in the
earliest location in the slot that it can.)
.RE
.PP
The implementation of these methods is slot-dependent (and responsible for
accessing the correct part of the class or object definition). Slots also have
an unknown method handler to tie all these pieces together, and they hide
their \fBdestroy\fR method so that it is not invoked inadvertently. It is
\fIrecommended\fR that any user changes to the slot mechanism be restricted to
defining new operations whose names start with a hyphen.
.PP
.VS TIP516
Most slot operations will initially \fBResolve\fR their argument list, combine
it with the results of the \fBGet\fR method, and then \fBSet\fR the result.
Some operations omit one or both of the first two steps; omitting the third
would result in an idempotent read-only operation (but the standard mechanism
for reading from slots is via \fBinfo class\fR and \fBinfo object\fR).
.VE TIP516
.SH EXAMPLES
This example demonstrates how to use both forms of the \fBoo::define\fR and
\fBoo::objdefine\fR commands (they work in the same way), as well as
illustrating four of the subcommands of them.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c
................................................................................
}
\fBoo::objdefine\fR inst {
    \fBmixin -append\fR B
}
inst m1              \fI\(-> prints "red brick"\fR
inst m2              \fI\(-> prints "blue brick"\fR
.CE
.PP
.VS TIP478
This example shows how to create and use class variables. It is a class that
counts how many instances of itself have been made.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create Counted
\fBoo::define\fR Counted {
    \fBinitialise\fR {
        variable count 0
    }

    \fBvariable\fR number
    \fBconstructor\fR {} {
        classvariable count
        set number [incr count]
    }

    \fBmethod\fR report {} {
        classvariable count
        puts "This is instance $number of $count"
    }
}

set a [Counted new]
set b [Counted new]
$a report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 1 of 2\fR
set c [Counted new]
$b report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 2 of 3\fR
$c report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 3 of 3\fR
.CE
.PP
This example demonstrates how to use class methods. (Note that the constructor
for \fBoo::class\fR calls \fBoo::define\fR on the class.)
.PP
.CS
oo::class create DBTable {
    \fBclassmethod\fR find {description} {
        puts "DB: locate row from [self] matching $description"
        return [my new]
    }
    \fBclassmethod\fR insert {description} {
        puts "DB: create row in [self] matching $description"
        return [my new]
    }
    \fBmethod\fR update {description} {
        puts "DB: update row [self] with $description"
    }
    \fBmethod\fR delete {} {
        puts "DB: delete row [self]"
        my destroy; # Just delete the object, not the DB row
    }
}

oo::class create Users {
    \fBsuperclass\fR DBTable
}
oo::class create Groups {
    \fBsuperclass\fR DBTable
}

set u1 [Users insert "username=abc"]
        \fI\(-> DB: create row from ::Users matching username=abc\fR
set u2 [Users insert "username=def"]
        \fI\(-> DB: create row from ::Users matching username=def\fR
$u2 update "group=NULL"
        \fI\(-> DB: update row ::oo::Obj124 with group=NULL\fR
$u1 delete
        \fI\(-> DB: delete row ::oo::Obj123\fR
set g [Group find "groupname=webadmins"]
        \fI\(-> DB: locate row ::Group with groupname=webadmins\fR
$g update "emailaddress=admins"
        \fI\(-> DB: update row ::oo::Obj125 with emailaddress=admins\fR
.CE
.VE TIP478
.PP
.VS TIP524
This example shows how to make a custom definition for a class. Note that it
explicitly includes delegation to the existing definition commands via
\fBnamespace path\fR.
.PP
.CS
namespace eval myDefinitions {
    # Delegate to existing definitions where not overridden
    namespace path \fB::oo::define\fR

    # A custom type of method
    proc exprmethod {name arguments body} {
        tailcall \fBmethod\fR $name $arguments [list expr $body]
    }

    # A custom way of building a constructor
    proc parameters args {
        uplevel 1 [list \fBvariable\fR {*}$args]
        set body [join [lmap a $args {
            string map [list VAR $a] {
                set [my varname VAR] [expr {double($VAR)}]
            }
        }] ";"]
        tailcall \fBconstructor\fR $args $body
    }
}

# Bind the namespace into a (very simple) metaclass for use
oo::class create exprclass {
    \fBsuperclass\fR oo::class
    \fBdefinitionnamespace\fR myDefinitions
}

# Use the custom definitions
exprclass create quadratic {
    parameters a b c
    exprmethod evaluate {x} {
        ($a * $x**2) + ($b * $x) + $c
    }
}

# Showing the resulting class and object in action
quadratic create quad 1 2 3
for {set x 0} {$x <= 4} {incr x} {
    puts [format "quad(%d) = %.2f" $x [quad evaluate $x]]
}
        \fI\(-> quad(0) = 3.00\fR
        \fI\(-> quad(1) = 6.00\fR
        \fI\(-> quad(2) = 11.00\fR
        \fI\(-> quad(3) = 18.00\fR
        \fI\(-> quad(4) = 27.00\fR
.CE
.VE TIP524
.SH "SEE ALSO"
next(n), oo::class(n), oo::object(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
class, definition, method, object, slot
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

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\fBdict append \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIstring ...\fR?
.
This appends the given string (or strings) to the value that the given
key maps to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable,
writing the resulting dictionary value back to that variable.
Non-existent keys are treated as if they map to an empty string. The
updated dictionary value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict create \fR?\fIkey value ...\fR?
.
Return a new dictionary that contains each of the key/value mappings
listed as arguments (keys and values alternating, with each key being
followed by its associated value.)
.TP
................................................................................
elements in a manner similar to \fBarray get\fR. That is, the first
element of each pair would be the key and the second element would be
the value for that key.
.PP
It is an error to attempt to retrieve a value for a key that is not
present in the dictionary.
.RE
















.TP
\fBdict incr \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIincrement\fR?
.
This adds the given increment value (an integer that defaults to 1 if
not specified) to the value that the given key maps to in the
dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing the
resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent keys
are treated as if they map to 0. It is an error to increment a value
for an existing key if that value is not an integer. The updated
dictionary value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict info \fIdictionaryValue\fR
.
This returns information (intended for display to people) about the
given dictionary though the format of this data is dependent on the
implementation of the dictionary. For dictionaries that are
implemented by hash tables, it is expected that this will return the
................................................................................
This appends the given items to the list value that the given key maps
to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing
the resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent
keys are treated as if they map to an empty list, and it is legal for
there to be no items to append to the list. It is an error for the
value that the key maps to to not be representable as a list. The
updated dictionary value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict map \fR{\fIkeyVariable valueVariable\fR} \fIdictionaryValue body\fR
.
This command applies a transformation to each element of a dictionary,
returning a new dictionary. It takes three arguments: the first is a
two-element list of variable names (for the key and value respectively of each
mapping in the dictionary), the second the dictionary value to iterate across,
................................................................................
\fBdict set \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIkey ...\fR? \fIvalue\fR
.
This operation takes the name of a variable containing a dictionary
value and places an updated dictionary value in that variable
containing a mapping from the given key to the given value. When
multiple keys are present, this operation creates or updates a chain
of nested dictionaries. The updated dictionary value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict size \fIdictionaryValue\fR
.
Return the number of key/value mappings in the given dictionary value.
.TP
\fBdict unset \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIkey ...\fR?
.
................................................................................
variable containing a dictionary value and places an updated
dictionary value in that variable that does not contain a mapping for
the given key. Where multiple keys are present, this describes a path
through nested dictionaries to the mapping to remove. At least one key
must be specified, but the last key on the key-path need not exist.
All other components on the path must exist. The updated dictionary
value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict update \fIdictionaryVariable key varName \fR?\fIkey varName ...\fR? \fIbody\fR
.
Execute the Tcl script in \fIbody\fR with the value for each \fIkey\fR
(as found by reading the dictionary value in \fIdictionaryVariable\fR)
mapped to the variable \fIvarName\fR. There may be multiple
\fIkey\fR/\fIvarName\fR pairs. If a \fIkey\fR does not have a mapping,
................................................................................
terminates, any changes made to the \fIvarName\fRs is reflected back
to the dictionary within \fIdictionaryVariable\fR (unless
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR itself becomes unreadable, when all updates
are silently discarded), even if the result of \fIbody\fR is an error
or some other kind of exceptional exit. The result of \fBdict
update\fR is (unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the
evaluation of \fIbody\fR.





.RS
.PP
Each \fIvarName\fR is mapped in the scope enclosing the \fBdict update\fR;
it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope
(\fBproc\fRedure, lambda term for \fBapply\fR, or method). Because of
this, the variables set by \fBdict update\fR will continue to
exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly \fBunset\fR).
................................................................................
for the execution of \fIbody\fR. As with \fBdict update\fR, making
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR unreadable will make the updates to the
dictionary be discarded, and this also happens if the contents of
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR are adjusted so that the chain of
dictionaries no longer exists. The result of \fBdict with\fR is
(unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the evaluation of
\fIbody\fR.





.RS
.PP
The variables are mapped in the scope enclosing the \fBdict with\fR;
it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope
(\fBproc\fRedure, lambda term for \fBapply\fR, or method). Because of
this, the variables set by \fBdict with\fR will continue to
exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly \fBunset\fR).
................................................................................
.CS
set foo {foo {a b} bar 2 baz 3}
\fBdict with\fR foo {}
puts $foo
#    prints: \fIa b foo {a b} bar 2 baz 3\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
append(n), array(n), foreach(n), mapeach(n), incr(n), list(n), lappend(n), set(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
dictionary, create, update, lookup, iterate, filter, map
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:






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\fBdict append \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIstring ...\fR?
.
This appends the given string (or strings) to the value that the given
key maps to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable,
writing the resulting dictionary value back to that variable.
Non-existent keys are treated as if they map to an empty string. The
updated dictionary value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the appending operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict create \fR?\fIkey value ...\fR?
.
Return a new dictionary that contains each of the key/value mappings
listed as arguments (keys and values alternating, with each key being
followed by its associated value.)
.TP
................................................................................
elements in a manner similar to \fBarray get\fR. That is, the first
element of each pair would be the key and the second element would be
the value for that key.
.PP
It is an error to attempt to retrieve a value for a key that is not
present in the dictionary.
.RE
.TP
\fBdict getdef \fIdictionaryValue \fR?\fIkey ...\fR? \fIkey default\fR
.TP
\fBdict getwithdefault \fIdictionaryValue \fR?\fIkey ...\fR? \fIkey default\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP342"
This behaves the same as \fBdict get\fR (with at least one \fIkey\fR
argument), returning the value that the key path maps to in the
dictionary \fIdictionaryValue\fR, except that instead of producing an
error because the \fIkey\fR (or one of the \fIkey\fRs on the key path)
is absent, it returns the \fIdefault\fR argument instead.
.RS
.PP
Note that there must always be at least one \fIkey\fR provided, and that
\fBdict getdef\fR and \fBdict getwithdefault\fR are aliases for each other.
.RE
.VE "8.7, TIP342"
.TP
\fBdict incr \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIincrement\fR?
.
This adds the given increment value (an integer that defaults to 1 if
not specified) to the value that the given key maps to in the
dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing the
resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent keys
are treated as if they map to 0. It is an error to increment a value
for an existing key if that value is not an integer. The updated
dictionary value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the incrementing operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict info \fIdictionaryValue\fR
.
This returns information (intended for display to people) about the
given dictionary though the format of this data is dependent on the
implementation of the dictionary. For dictionaries that are
implemented by hash tables, it is expected that this will return the
................................................................................
This appends the given items to the list value that the given key maps
to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing
the resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent
keys are treated as if they map to an empty list, and it is legal for
there to be no items to append to the list. It is an error for the
value that the key maps to to not be representable as a list. The
updated dictionary value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the list-appending operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict map \fR{\fIkeyVariable valueVariable\fR} \fIdictionaryValue body\fR
.
This command applies a transformation to each element of a dictionary,
returning a new dictionary. It takes three arguments: the first is a
two-element list of variable names (for the key and value respectively of each
mapping in the dictionary), the second the dictionary value to iterate across,
................................................................................
\fBdict set \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIkey ...\fR? \fIvalue\fR
.
This operation takes the name of a variable containing a dictionary
value and places an updated dictionary value in that variable
containing a mapping from the given key to the given value. When
multiple keys are present, this operation creates or updates a chain
of nested dictionaries. The updated dictionary value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the value insert/update operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict size \fIdictionaryValue\fR
.
Return the number of key/value mappings in the given dictionary value.
.TP
\fBdict unset \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIkey ...\fR?
.
................................................................................
variable containing a dictionary value and places an updated
dictionary value in that variable that does not contain a mapping for
the given key. Where multiple keys are present, this describes a path
through nested dictionaries to the mapping to remove. At least one key
must be specified, but the last key on the key-path need not exist.
All other components on the path must exist. The updated dictionary
value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the value remove operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict update \fIdictionaryVariable key varName \fR?\fIkey varName ...\fR? \fIbody\fR
.
Execute the Tcl script in \fIbody\fR with the value for each \fIkey\fR
(as found by reading the dictionary value in \fIdictionaryVariable\fR)
mapped to the variable \fIvarName\fR. There may be multiple
\fIkey\fR/\fIvarName\fR pairs. If a \fIkey\fR does not have a mapping,
................................................................................
terminates, any changes made to the \fIvarName\fRs is reflected back
to the dictionary within \fIdictionaryVariable\fR (unless
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR itself becomes unreadable, when all updates
are silently discarded), even if the result of \fIbody\fR is an error
or some other kind of exceptional exit. The result of \fBdict
update\fR is (unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the
evaluation of \fIbody\fR.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the update operation.
.VE TIP508
.RS
.PP
Each \fIvarName\fR is mapped in the scope enclosing the \fBdict update\fR;
it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope
(\fBproc\fRedure, lambda term for \fBapply\fR, or method). Because of
this, the variables set by \fBdict update\fR will continue to
exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly \fBunset\fR).
................................................................................
for the execution of \fIbody\fR. As with \fBdict update\fR, making
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR unreadable will make the updates to the
dictionary be discarded, and this also happens if the contents of
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR are adjusted so that the chain of
dictionaries no longer exists. The result of \fBdict with\fR is
(unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the evaluation of
\fIbody\fR.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the updating operation.
.VE TIP508
.RS
.PP
The variables are mapped in the scope enclosing the \fBdict with\fR;
it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope
(\fBproc\fRedure, lambda term for \fBapply\fR, or method). Because of
this, the variables set by \fBdict with\fR will continue to
exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly \fBunset\fR).
................................................................................
.CS
set foo {foo {a b} bar 2 baz 3}
\fBdict with\fR foo {}
puts $foo
#    prints: \fIa b foo {a b} bar 2 baz 3\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
append(n), array(n), foreach(n), incr(n), list(n), lappend(n), lmap(n), set(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
dictionary, create, update, lookup, iterate, filter, map
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:

Changes to doc/eof.n.

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    puts "Read record: $record"
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), close(n), fblocked(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
channel, end of file










>
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    puts "Read record: $record"
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), close(n), fblocked(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
channel, end of file
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/exec.n.

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.QW \[email protected]\0\fIfileId\fR
notation, does not work.  When reading from a socket, a 16-bit DOS
application will hang and a 32-bit application will return immediately with
end-of-file.  When either type of application writes to a socket, the
information is instead sent to the console, if one is present, or is
discarded.
.RS













.PP
The Tk console text widget does not provide real standard IO capabilities.
Under Tk, when redirecting from standard input, all applications will see an
immediate end-of-file; information redirected to standard output or standard
error will be discarded.
.PP
Either forward or backward slashes are accepted as path separators for
................................................................................
.CS
\fBexec\fR cmp.bat somefile.c -o somefile
.CE
.PP
With the file \fIcmp.bat\fR looking something like:
.PP
.CS




@gcc %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 %6 %7 %8 %9
.CE
.SS "WORKING WITH COMMAND BUILT-INS"
.PP
Sometimes you need to be careful, as different programs may have the
same name and be in the path. It can then happen that typing a command
at the DOS prompt finds \fIa different program\fR than the same






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.QW \[email protected]\0\fIfileId\fR
notation, does not work.  When reading from a socket, a 16-bit DOS
application will hang and a 32-bit application will return immediately with
end-of-file.  When either type of application writes to a socket, the
information is instead sent to the console, if one is present, or is
discarded.
.RS
.PP
Note that the current escape resp. quoting of arguments for windows works only
with executables using CommandLineToArgv, CRT-library or similar, as well as
with the windows batch files (excepting the newline, see below).
Although it is the common escape algorithm, but, in fact, the way how the
executable parses the command-line (resp. splits it into single arguments)
is decisive.
.PP
Unfortunately, there is currently no way to supply newline character within
an argument to the batch files (\fB.cmd\fR or \fB.bat\fR) or to the command
processor (\fBcmd.exe /c\fR), because this causes truncation of command-line
(also the argument chain) on the first newline character.
But it works properly with an executable (using CommandLineToArgv, etc).
.PP
The Tk console text widget does not provide real standard IO capabilities.
Under Tk, when redirecting from standard input, all applications will see an
immediate end-of-file; information redirected to standard output or standard
error will be discarded.
.PP
Either forward or backward slashes are accepted as path separators for
................................................................................
.CS
\fBexec\fR cmp.bat somefile.c -o somefile
.CE
.PP
With the file \fIcmp.bat\fR looking something like:
.PP
.CS
@gcc %*
.CE
or like another variant using single parameters:
.CS
@gcc %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 %6 %7 %8 %9
.CE
.SS "WORKING WITH COMMAND BUILT-INS"
.PP
Sometimes you need to be careful, as different programs may have the
same name and be in the path. It can then happen that typing a command
at the DOS prompt finds \fIa different program\fR than the same

Changes to doc/exit.n.

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    \fBexit\fR 2
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
exec(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, exit, process










>
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    \fBexit\fR 2
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
exec(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, exit, process
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/expr.n.

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value is the form produced by the \fB%g\fR format specifier of Tcl's
\fBformat\fR command.
.SS OPERANDS
.PP
An expression consists of a combination of operands, operators, parentheses and
commas, possibly with whitespace between any of these elements, which is
ignored.
An integer operand may be specified in decimal, binary

(the first two characters are \fB0b\fR), octal
(the first two characters are \fB0o\fR), or hexadecimal
(the first two characters are \fB0x\fR) form.  For
compatibility with older Tcl releases, an operand that begins with \fB0\fR is
interpreted as an octal integer even if the second character is not \fBo\fR.
A floating-point number may be specified in any of several
common decimal formats, and may use the decimal point \fB.\fR,
................................................................................
\fBTcl\fR.
.PP
Below are some examples of simple expressions where the value of \fBa\fR is 3
and the value of \fBb\fR is 6.  The command on the left side of each line
produces the value on the right side.
.PP
.CS
.ta 6c
\fBexpr\fR 3.1 + $a	\fI6.1\fR
\fBexpr\fR 2 + "$a.$b"	\fI5.6\fR
\fBexpr\fR 4*[llength "6 2"]	\fI8\fR
\fBexpr\fR {{word one} < "word $a"}	\fI0\fR
.CE
.SS OPERATORS
.PP
................................................................................
.
Unary minus, unary plus, bit-wise NOT, logical NOT.  These operators
may only be applied to numeric operands, and bit-wise NOT may only be
applied to integers.
.TP 20
\fB**\fR
.
Exponentiation.  Valid for numeric operands.

.TP 20
\fB*\0\0/\0\0%\fR
.
Multiply and divide, which are valid for numeric operands, and remainder, which
is valid for integers.  The remainder, an absolute value smaller than the
absolute value of the divisor, has the same sign as the divisor.
.RS
................................................................................
\fB<<\0\0>>\fR
.
Left and right shift.  Valid for integers.
A right shift always propagates the sign bit.
.TP 20
\fB<\0\0>\0\0<=\0\0>=\fR
.







Boolean less than, greater than, less than or equal, and greater than or equal.




.TP 20
\fB==\0\0!=\fR
.
Boolean equal and not equal.
.TP 20
\fBeq\0\0ne\fR
.
................................................................................
\fB|\fR
.
Bit-wise OR.  Valid for integer operands.
.TP 20
\fB&&\fR
.
Logical AND.  If both operands are true, the result is 1, or 0 otherwise.





.TP 20
\fB||\fR
.
Logical OR.  If both operands are false, the result is 0, or 1 otherwise.


.TP 20
\fIx\fB?\fIy\fB:\fIz\fR

.
If-then-else, as in C.  If \fIx\fR is false , the result is the value of
\fIy\fR.  Otherwise the result is the value of \fIz\fR.

.PP
The exponentiation operator promotes types in the same way that the multiply
and divide operators do, and the result is is the same as the result of
\fBpow\fR.
Exponentiation groups right-to-left within a precedence level. Other binary
operators group left-to-right.  For example, the value of

.PP
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {4*2 < 7}
.CE
.PP
is 0, while the value of
.PP
................................................................................
substitutions on, enclosing an expression in braces or otherwise quoting it
so that it's a static value allows the Tcl compiler to generate bytecode for
the expression, resulting in better speed and smaller storage requirements.
This also avoids issues that can arise if Tcl is allowed to perform
substitution on the value before \fBexpr\fR is called.
.PP
In the following example, the value of the expression is 11 because the Tcl parser first
substitutes \fB$b\fR and \fBexpr\fR then substitutes \fB$a\fR.  Enclosing the



expression in braces would result in a syntax error.


.CS
set a 3
set b {$a + 2}
\fBexpr\fR $b*4
.CE
.PP

When an expression is generated at runtime, like the one above is, the bytcode
compiler must ensure that new code is generated each time the expression
is evaluated.  This is the most costly kind of expression from a performance
perspective.  In such cases, consider directly using the commands described in
the \fBmathfunc\fR(n) or \fBmathop\fR(n) documentation instead of \fBexpr\fR.

Most expressions are not formed at runtime, but are literal strings or contain
substitutions that don't introduce other substitutions.  To allow the bytecode
compiler to work with an expression as a string literal at compilation time,
ensure that it contains no substitutions or that it is enclosed in braces or
otherwise quoted to prevent Tcl from performing substitutions, allowing
\fBexpr\fR to perform them instead.




















.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
A numeric comparison whose result is 1:

.CS
\fBexpr\fR {"0x03" > "2"}
.CE
.PP
A string comparison whose result is 1:

.CS
\fBexpr\fR {"0y" > "0x12"}
.CE








.PP
Define a procedure that computes an
.QW interesting
mathematical function:
.PP
.CS
proc tcl::mathfunc::calc {x y} {
................................................................................
.SH "SEE ALSO"
array(n), for(n), if(n), mathfunc(n), mathop(n), namespace(n), proc(n),
string(n), Tcl(n), while(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
arithmetic, boolean, compare, expression, fuzzy comparison
.SH COPYRIGHT
.nf
Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated.
Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved.
.fi
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:






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value is the form produced by the \fB%g\fR format specifier of Tcl's
\fBformat\fR command.
.SS OPERANDS
.PP
An expression consists of a combination of operands, operators, parentheses and
commas, possibly with whitespace between any of these elements, which is
ignored.
An integer operand may be specified in decimal (the normal case, the optional
first two characters are \fB0d\fR), binary
(the first two characters are \fB0b\fR), octal
(the first two characters are \fB0o\fR), or hexadecimal
(the first two characters are \fB0x\fR) form.  For
compatibility with older Tcl releases, an operand that begins with \fB0\fR is
interpreted as an octal integer even if the second character is not \fBo\fR.
A floating-point number may be specified in any of several
common decimal formats, and may use the decimal point \fB.\fR,
................................................................................
\fBTcl\fR.
.PP
Below are some examples of simple expressions where the value of \fBa\fR is 3
and the value of \fBb\fR is 6.  The command on the left side of each line
produces the value on the right side.
.PP
.CS
.ta 9c
\fBexpr\fR 3.1 + $a	\fI6.1\fR
\fBexpr\fR 2 + "$a.$b"	\fI5.6\fR
\fBexpr\fR 4*[llength "6 2"]	\fI8\fR
\fBexpr\fR {{word one} < "word $a"}	\fI0\fR
.CE
.SS OPERATORS
.PP
................................................................................
.
Unary minus, unary plus, bit-wise NOT, logical NOT.  These operators
may only be applied to numeric operands, and bit-wise NOT may only be
applied to integers.
.TP 20
\fB**\fR
.
Exponentiation.  Valid for numeric operands.  The maximum exponent value
that Tcl can handle if the first number is an integer > 1 is 268435455.
.TP 20
\fB*\0\0/\0\0%\fR
.
Multiply and divide, which are valid for numeric operands, and remainder, which
is valid for integers.  The remainder, an absolute value smaller than the
absolute value of the divisor, has the same sign as the divisor.
.RS
................................................................................
\fB<<\0\0>>\fR
.
Left and right shift.  Valid for integers.
A right shift always propagates the sign bit.
.TP 20
\fB<\0\0>\0\0<=\0\0>=\fR
.
Boolean numeric-preferring comparisons: less than, greater than, less than or
equal, and greater than or equal. If either argument is not numeric, the
comparison is done using UNICODE string comparison, as with the string
comparison operators below, which have the same precedence.
.TP 20
\fBlt\0\0gt\0\0le\0\0ge\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP461"
Boolean string comparisons: less than, greater than, less than or equal, and
greater than or equal. These always compare values using their UNICODE strings
(also see \fBstring compare\fR), unlike with the numeric-preferring
comparisons abov, which have the same precedence.
.VE "8.7, TIP461"
.TP 20
\fB==\0\0!=\fR
.
Boolean equal and not equal.
.TP 20
\fBeq\0\0ne\fR
.
................................................................................
\fB|\fR
.
Bit-wise OR.  Valid for integer operands.
.TP 20
\fB&&\fR
.
Logical AND.  If both operands are true, the result is 1, or 0 otherwise.

This operator evaluates lazily; it only evaluates its second operand if it
must in order to determine its result.
This operator evaluates lazily; it only evaluates its second operand if it
must in order to determine its result.
.TP 20
\fB||\fR
.
Logical OR.  If both operands are false, the result is 0, or 1 otherwise.
This operator evaluates lazily; it only evaluates its second operand if it
must in order to determine its result.
.TP 20

\fIx \fB?\fI y \fB:\fI z\fR
.
If-then-else, as in C.  If \fIx\fR is false , the result is the value of
\fIy\fR.  Otherwise the result is the value of \fIz\fR.
This operator evaluates lazily; it evaluates only one of \fIy\fR or \fIz\fR.
.PP
The exponentiation operator promotes types in the same way that the multiply
and divide operators do, and the result is is the same as the result of
\fBpow\fR.
Exponentiation groups right-to-left within a precedence level. Other binary
operators group left-to-right.  For example, the value of
.PP
.PP
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {4*2 < 7}
.CE
.PP
is 0, while the value of
.PP
................................................................................
substitutions on, enclosing an expression in braces or otherwise quoting it
so that it's a static value allows the Tcl compiler to generate bytecode for
the expression, resulting in better speed and smaller storage requirements.
This also avoids issues that can arise if Tcl is allowed to perform
substitution on the value before \fBexpr\fR is called.
.PP
In the following example, the value of the expression is 11 because the Tcl parser first
substitutes \fB$b\fR and \fBexpr\fR then substitutes \fB$a\fR as part
of evaluating the expression
.QW "$a + 2*4" .
Enclosing the
expression in braces would result in a syntax error as \fB$b\fR does
not evaluate to a numeric value.
.PP
.CS
set a 3
set b {$a + 2}
\fBexpr\fR $b*4
.CE
.PP

When an expression is generated at runtime, like the one above is, the bytecode
compiler must ensure that new code is generated each time the expression
is evaluated.  This is the most costly kind of expression from a performance
perspective.  In such cases, consider directly using the commands described in
the \fBmathfunc\fR(n) or \fBmathop\fR(n) documentation instead of \fBexpr\fR.
.PP
Most expressions are not formed at runtime, but are literal strings or contain
substitutions that don't introduce other substitutions.  To allow the bytecode
compiler to work with an expression as a string literal at compilation time,
ensure that it contains no substitutions or that it is enclosed in braces or
otherwise quoted to prevent Tcl from performing substitutions, allowing
\fBexpr\fR to perform them instead.
.PP
If it is necessary to include a non-constant expression string within the
wider context of an otherwise-constant expression, the most efficient
technique is to put the varying part inside a recursive \fBexpr\fR, as this at
least allows for the compilation of the outer part, though it does mean that
the varying part must itself be evaluated as a separate expression. Thus, in
this example the result is 20 and the outer expression benefits from fully
cached bytecode compilation.
.PP
.CS
set a 3
set b {$a + 2}
\fBexpr\fR {[\fBexpr\fR $b] * 4}
.CE
.PP
In general, you should enclose your expression in braces wherever possible,
and where not possible, the argument to \fBexpr\fR should be an expression
defined elsewhere as simply as possible. It is usually more efficient and
safer to use other techniques (e.g., the commands in the \fBtcl::mathop\fR
namespace) than it is to do complex expression generation.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
A numeric comparison whose result is 1:
.PP
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {"0x03" > "2"}
.CE
.PP
A string comparison whose result is 1:
.PP
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {"0y" > "0x12"}
.CE
.PP
.VS "8.7, TIP461"
A forced string comparison whose result is 0:
.PP
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {"0x03" gt "2"}
.CE
.VE "8.7, TIP461"
.PP
Define a procedure that computes an
.QW interesting
mathematical function:
.PP
.CS
proc tcl::mathfunc::calc {x y} {
................................................................................
.SH "SEE ALSO"
array(n), for(n), if(n), mathfunc(n), mathop(n), namespace(n), proc(n),
string(n), Tcl(n), while(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
arithmetic, boolean, compare, expression, fuzzy comparison
.SH COPYRIGHT
.nf
Copyright \(co 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
Copyright \(co 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated.
Copyright \(co 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved.
.fi
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:

Changes to doc/fblocked.n.

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socket -server connect 12345
vwait forever
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
gets(n), open(n), read(n), socket(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, nonblocking










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socket -server connect 12345
vwait forever
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
gets(n), open(n), read(n), socket(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, nonblocking
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/file.n.

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\fBfile tail \fIname\fR
.
Returns all of the characters in the last filesystem component of
\fIname\fR.  Any trailing directory separator in \fIname\fR is ignored.
If \fIname\fR contains no separators then returns \fIname\fR.  So,
\fBfile tail a/b\fR, \fBfile tail a/b/\fR and \fBfile tail b\fR all
return \fBb\fR.






























.TP
\fBfile tempfile\fR ?\fInameVar\fR? ?\fItemplate\fR?
'\" TIP #210
.VS 8.6
Creates a temporary file and returns a read-write channel opened on that file.
If the \fInameVar\fR is given, it specifies a variable that the name of the
temporary file will be written into; if absent, Tcl will attempt to arrange






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\fBfile tail \fIname\fR
.
Returns all of the characters in the last filesystem component of
\fIname\fR.  Any trailing directory separator in \fIname\fR is ignored.
If \fIname\fR contains no separators then returns \fIname\fR.  So,
\fBfile tail a/b\fR, \fBfile tail a/b/\fR and \fBfile tail b\fR all
return \fBb\fR.
.TP
\fBfile tempdir\fR ?\fItemplate\fR?
.VS "8.7, TIP 431"
Creates a temporary directory (guaranteed to be newly created and writable by
the current script) and returns its name. If \fItemplate\fR is given, it
specifies one of or both of the existing directory (on a filesystem controlled
by the operating system) to contain the temporary directory, and the base part
of the directory name; it is considered to have the location of the directory
if there is a directory separator in the name, and the base part is everything
after the last directory separator (if non-empty).  The default containing
directory is determined by system-specific operations, and the default base
name prefix is
.QW \fBtcl\fR .
.RS
.PP
The following output is typical and illustrative; the actual output will vary
between platforms:
.PP
.CS
% \fBfile tempdir\fR
/var/tmp/tcl_u0kuy5
 % \fBfile tempdir\fR /tmp/myapp
/tmp/myapp_8o7r9L
% \fBfile tempdir\fR /tmp/
/tmp/tcl_1mOJHD
% \fBfile tempdir\fR myapp
/var/tmp/myapp_0ihS0n
.CE
.RE
.VE "8.7, TIP 431"
.TP
\fBfile tempfile\fR ?\fInameVar\fR? ?\fItemplate\fR?
'\" TIP #210
.VS 8.6
Creates a temporary file and returns a read-write channel opened on that file.
If the \fInameVar\fR is given, it specifies a variable that the name of the
temporary file will be written into; if absent, Tcl will attempt to arrange

Changes to doc/fileevent.n.

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\fBfileevent\fR is based on the \fBaddinput\fR command created
by Mark Diekhans.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
fconfigure(n), gets(n), interp(n), puts(n), read(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
asynchronous I/O, blocking, channel, event handler, nonblocking, readable,
script, writable.










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\fBfileevent\fR is based on the \fBaddinput\fR command created
by Mark Diekhans.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
fconfigure(n), gets(n), interp(n), puts(n), read(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
asynchronous I/O, blocking, channel, event handler, nonblocking, readable,
script, writable.
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/filename.n.

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.QW .....abc
is illegal.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), glob(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
current directory, absolute file name, relative file name,
volume-relative file name, portability










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.QW .....abc
is illegal.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), glob(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
current directory, absolute file name, relative file name,
volume-relative file name, portability
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/flush.n.

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gets stdin name
puts "Hello there, $name!"
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), socket(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, buffer, channel, flush, nonblocking, output










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gets stdin name
puts "Hello there, $name!"
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), socket(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, buffer, channel, flush, nonblocking, output
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/foreach.n.

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.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
for(n), while(n), break(n), continue(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
foreach, iteration, list, loop










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.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
for(n), while(n), break(n), continue(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
foreach, iteration, list, loop
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/format.n.

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number if the first character is not a sign.
.TP 10
\fB0\fR
Specifies that the number should be padded on the left with
zeroes instead of spaces.
.TP 10
\fB#\fR
Requests an alternate output form. For \fBo\fR and \fBO\fR
conversions it guarantees that the first digit is always \fB0\fR.
For \fBx\fR or \fBX\fR conversions, \fB0x\fR or \fB0X\fR (respectively)
will be added to the beginning of the result unless it is zero.
For \fBb\fR conversions, \fB0b\fR
will be added to the beginning of the result unless it is zero.



For all floating-point conversions (\fBe\fR, \fBE\fR, \fBf\fR,
\fBg\fR, and \fBG\fR) it guarantees that the result always
has a decimal point.
For \fBg\fR and \fBG\fR conversions it specifies that
trailing zeroes should not be removed.
.SS "OPTIONAL FIELD WIDTH"
.PP
................................................................................
printed; if the string is longer than this then the trailing characters will be dropped.
If the precision is specified with \fB*\fR rather than a number
then the next argument to the \fBformat\fR command determines the precision;
it must be a numeric string.
.SS "OPTIONAL SIZE MODIFIER"
.PP
The fifth part of a conversion specifier is a size modifier,
which must be \fBll\fR, \fBh\fR, or \fBl\fR.
If it is \fBll\fR it specifies that an integer value is taken
without truncation for conversion to a formatted substring.
If it is \fBh\fR it specifies that an integer value is
truncated to a 16-bit range before converting.  This option is rarely useful.
If it is \fBl\fR it specifies that the integer value is
truncated to the same range as that produced by the \fBwide()\fR
function of the \fBexpr\fR command (at least a 64-bit range).


If neither \fBh\fR nor \fBl\fR are present, the integer value is
truncated to the same range as that produced by the \fBint()\fR
function of the \fBexpr\fR command (at least a 32-bit range, but
determined by the value of the \fBwordSize\fR element of the
\fBtcl_platform\fR array).
.SS "MANDATORY CONVERSION TYPE"
.PP
The last thing in a conversion specifier is an alphabetic character
................................................................................
Convert integer to unsigned hexadecimal string, using digits
.QW 0123456789abcdef
for \fBx\fR and
.QW 0123456789ABCDEF
for \fBX\fR).
.TP 10
\fBb\fR
Convert integer to binary string, using digits 0 and 1.
.TP 10
\fBc\fR
Convert integer to the Unicode character it represents.
.TP 10
\fBs\fR
No conversion; just insert string.
.TP 10
................................................................................
\fBg\fR or \fBG\fR
If the exponent is less than \-4 or greater than or equal to the
precision, then convert number as for \fB%e\fR or
\fB%E\fR.
Otherwise convert as for \fB%f\fR.
Trailing zeroes and a trailing decimal point are omitted.
.TP 10







\fB%\fR
No conversion: just insert \fB%\fR.




.SH "DIFFERENCES FROM ANSI SPRINTF"
.PP
The behavior of the format command is the same as the
ANSI C \fBsprintf\fR procedure except for the following
differences:
.IP [1]
Tcl guarantees that it will be working with UNICODE characters.
.IP [2]
\fB%p\fR and \fB%n\fR specifiers are not supported.
.IP [3]
For \fB%c\fR conversions the argument must be an integer value,
which will then be converted to the corresponding character value.
.IP [4]
The size modifiers are ignored when formatting floating-point values.
The \fBll\fR modifier has no \fBsprintf\fR counterpart.
The \fBb\fR specifier has no \fBsprintf\fR counterpart.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Convert the numeric value of a UNICODE character to the character
itself:
.PP
.CS






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number if the first character is not a sign.
.TP 10
\fB0\fR
Specifies that the number should be padded on the left with
zeroes instead of spaces.
.TP 10
\fB#\fR
Requests an alternate output form. For \fBo\fR conversions,
\fB0o\fR will be added to the beginning of the result unless
it is zero. For \fBx\fR or \fBX\fR conversions, \fB0x\fR
will be added to the beginning of the result unless it is zero.
For \fBb\fR conversions, \fB0b\fR
will be added to the beginning of the result unless it is zero.
For \fBd\fR conversions, \fB0d\fR there is no effect unless
the \fB0\fR specifier is used as well: In that case, \fB0d\fR
will be added to the beginning.
For all floating-point conversions (\fBe\fR, \fBE\fR, \fBf\fR,
\fBg\fR, and \fBG\fR) it guarantees that the result always
has a decimal point.
For \fBg\fR and \fBG\fR conversions it specifies that
trailing zeroes should not be removed.
.SS "OPTIONAL FIELD WIDTH"
.PP
................................................................................
printed; if the string is longer than this then the trailing characters will be dropped.
If the precision is specified with \fB*\fR rather than a number
then the next argument to the \fBformat\fR command determines the precision;
it must be a numeric string.
.SS "OPTIONAL SIZE MODIFIER"
.PP
The fifth part of a conversion specifier is a size modifier,
which must be \fBll\fR, \fBh\fR, \fBl\fR, or \fBL\fR.
If it is \fBll\fR it specifies that an integer value is taken
without truncation for conversion to a formatted substring.
If it is \fBh\fR it specifies that an integer value is
truncated to a 16-bit range before converting.  This option is rarely useful.
If it is \fBl\fR it specifies that the integer value is
truncated to the same range as that produced by the \fBwide()\fR
function of the \fBexpr\fR command (at least a 64-bit range).
If it is \fBL\fR it specifies that an integer or double value is taken
without truncation for conversion to a formatted substring.
If neither \fBh\fR nor \fBl\fR nor \fBL\fR are present, the integer value is
truncated to the same range as that produced by the \fBint()\fR
function of the \fBexpr\fR command (at least a 32-bit range, but
determined by the value of the \fBwordSize\fR element of the
\fBtcl_platform\fR array).
.SS "MANDATORY CONVERSION TYPE"
.PP
The last thing in a conversion specifier is an alphabetic character
................................................................................
Convert integer to unsigned hexadecimal string, using digits
.QW 0123456789abcdef
for \fBx\fR and
.QW 0123456789ABCDEF
for \fBX\fR).
.TP 10
\fBb\fR
Convert integer to unsigned binary string, using digits 0 and 1.
.TP 10
\fBc\fR
Convert integer to the Unicode character it represents.
.TP 10
\fBs\fR
No conversion; just insert string.
.TP 10
................................................................................
\fBg\fR or \fBG\fR
If the exponent is less than \-4 or greater than or equal to the
precision, then convert number as for \fB%e\fR or
\fB%E\fR.
Otherwise convert as for \fB%f\fR.
Trailing zeroes and a trailing decimal point are omitted.
.TP 10
\fBa\fR or \fBA\fR
Convert double to hexadecimal notation in the form
\fI0x1.yyy\fBp\(+-\fIzz\fR, where the number of \fIy\fR's is
determined by the precision (default: 13).
If the \fBA\fR form is used then the hex characters
are printed in uppercase.
.TP 10
\fB%\fR
No conversion: just insert \fB%\fR.
.TP 10
\fBp\fR
Shorthand form for \fB0x%zx\fR, so it outputs the integer in
hexadecimal form with \fB0x\fR prefix.
.SH "DIFFERENCES FROM ANSI SPRINTF"
.PP
The behavior of the format command is the same as the
ANSI C \fBsprintf\fR procedure except for the following
differences:
.IP [1]
Tcl guarantees that it will be working with UNICODE characters.
.IP [2]
\fB%n\fR specifier is not supported.
.IP [3]
For \fB%c\fR conversions the argument must be an integer value,
which will then be converted to the corresponding character value.
.IP [4]
The size modifiers are ignored when formatting floating-point values.

The \fBb\fR specifier has no \fBsprintf\fR counterpart.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Convert the numeric value of a UNICODE character to the character
itself:
.PP
.CS

Added doc/fpclassify.n.






































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved
'\" Copyright (c) 2019 by Donal Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH fpclassify n 8.7 Tcl "Tcl Float Classifier"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
fpclassify \- Floating point number classification of Tcl values
.SH SYNOPSIS
package require \fBTcl 8.7\fR
.sp
\fBfpclassify \fIvalue\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
The \fBfpclassify\fR command takes a floating point number, \fIvalue\fR, and
returns one of the following strings that describe it:
.TP
\fBzero\fR
.
\fIvalue\fR is a floating point zero.
.TP
\fBsubnormal\fR
.
\fIvalue\fR is the result of a gradual underflow.
.TP
\fBnormal\fR
.
\fIvalue\fR is an ordinary floating-point number (not zero, subnormal,
infinite, nor NaN).
.TP
\fBinfinite\fR
.
\fIvalue\fR is a floating-point infinity.
.TP
\fBnan\fR
.
\fIvalue\fR is Not-a-Number.
.PP
The \fBfpclassify\fR command throws an error if value is not a floating-point
value and cannot be converted to one.
.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
This shows how to check whether the result of a computation is numerically
safe or not. (Note however that it does not guard against numerical errors;
just against representational problems.)
.PP
.CS
set value [command-that-computes-a-value]
switch [\fBfpclassify\fR $value] {
    normal - zero {
        puts "Result is $value"
    }
    infinite {
        puts "Result is infinite"
    }
    subnormal {
        puts "Result is $value - WARNING! precision lost"
    }
    nan {
        puts "Computation completely failed"
    }
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), mathfunc(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
floating point
.SH STANDARDS
This command depends on the \fBfpclassify\fR() C macro conforming to
.QW "ISO C99"
(i.e., to ISO/IEC 9899:1999).
.SH COPYRIGHT
.nf
Copyright \(co 2018 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved
.fi
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:

Changes to doc/global.n.

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    append accumulator $string \en
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
namespace(n), upvar(n), variable(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
global, namespace, procedure, variable










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    append accumulator $string \en
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
namespace(n), upvar(n), variable(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
global, namespace, procedure, variable
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/history.n.

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is modified to eliminate the history command and replace it with
the result of the history command.
If you want to redo an event without modifying history, then use
the \fBevent\fR operation to retrieve some event,
and the \fBadd\fR operation to add it to history and execute it.
.SH KEYWORDS
event, history, record










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is modified to eliminate the history command and replace it with
the result of the history command.
If you want to redo an event without modifying history, then use
the \fBevent\fR operation to retrieve some event,
and the \fBadd\fR operation to add it to history and execute it.
.SH KEYWORDS
event, history, record
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/http.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Ajuba Solutions.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH "http" n 2.7 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
http \- Client-side implementation of the HTTP/1.1 protocol
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBpackage require http ?2.7?\fR
.\" See Also -useragent option documentation in body!
.sp
\fB::http::config ?\fI\-option value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::geturl \fIurl\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR \fIkey value\fR ?\fIkey value\fR ...?


.sp
\fB::http::reset\fR \fItoken\fR ?\fIwhy\fR?
.sp
\fB::http::wait \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::status \fItoken\fR
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
\fB::http::error \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::cleanup \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::register \fIproto port command\fR
.sp


\fB::http::unregister \fIproto\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBhttp\fR package provides the client side of the HTTP/1.1
protocol, as defined in RFC 2616.
The package implements the GET, POST, and HEAD operations
of HTTP/1.1.  It allows configuration of a proxy host to get through
firewalls.  The package is compatible with the \fBSafesock\fR security
policy, so it can be used by untrusted applets to do URL fetching from
a restricted set of hosts. This package can be extended to support
additional HTTP transport protocols, such as HTTPS, by providing
a custom \fBsocket\fR command, via \fB::http::register\fR.
................................................................................
\fB\-accept\fR \fImimetypes\fR
.
The Accept header of the request.  The default is */*, which means that
all types of documents are accepted.  Otherwise you can supply a
comma-separated list of mime type patterns that you are
willing to receive.  For example,
.QW "image/gif, image/jpeg, text/*" .






















.TP
\fB\-proxyhost\fR \fIhostname\fR
.
The name of the proxy host, if any.  If this value is the
empty string, the URL host is contacted directly.
.TP
\fB\-proxyport\fR \fInumber\fR
................................................................................
to determine if a proxy is required for a given host.  One argument, a
host name, is added to \fIcommand\fR when it is invoked.  If a proxy
is required, the callback should return a two-element list containing
the proxy server and proxy port.  Otherwise the filter should return
an empty list.  The default filter returns the values of the
\fB\-proxyhost\fR and \fB\-proxyport\fR settings if they are
non-empty.












.TP
\fB\-urlencoding\fR \fIencoding\fR
.
The \fIencoding\fR used for creating the x-url-encoded URLs with

\fB::http::formatQuery\fR.  The default is \fButf-8\fR, as specified by RFC
2718.  Prior to http 2.5 this was unspecified, and that behavior can be
returned by specifying the empty string (\fB{}\fR), although
\fIiso8859-1\fR is recommended to restore similar behavior but without the
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR throwing an error processing non-latin-1
characters.
.TP
\fB\-useragent\fR \fIstring\fR
.
The value of the User-Agent header in the HTTP request.  The default is
.QW "\fBTcl http client package 2.7\fR" .














.RE
.TP
\fB::http::geturl\fR \fIurl\fR ?\fIoptions\fR?
.
The \fB::http::geturl\fR command is the main procedure in the package.
The \fB\-query\fR option causes a POST operation and
the \fB\-validate\fR option causes a HEAD operation;
................................................................................
.CS
Pragma: no-cache
.CE
.RE
.TP
\fB\-keepalive\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
If true, attempt to keep the connection open for servicing
multiple requests.  Default is 0.
.TP
\fB\-method\fR \fItype\fR
.
Force the HTTP request method to \fItype\fR. \fB::http::geturl\fR will
auto-select GET, POST or HEAD based on other options, but this option
enables choices like PUT and DELETE for webdav support.
................................................................................
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR \fIkey value\fR ?\fIkey value\fR ...?
.
This procedure does x-url-encoding of query data.  It takes an even
number of arguments that are the keys and values of the query.  It
encodes the keys and values, and generates one string that has the
proper & and = separators.  The result is suitable for the
\fB\-query\fR value passed to \fB::http::geturl\fR.





.TP
\fB::http::reset\fR \fItoken\fR ?\fIwhy\fR?
.
This command resets the HTTP transaction identified by \fItoken\fR, if any.
This sets the \fBstate(status)\fR value to \fIwhy\fR, which defaults to
\fBreset\fR, and then calls the registered \fB\-command\fR callback.
.TP
................................................................................
package require tls

::http::register https 443 ::tls::socket

set token [::http::geturl https://my.secure.site/]
.CE
.RE











.TP
\fB::http::unregister\fR \fIproto\fR
.
This procedure unregisters a protocol handler that was previously
registered via \fB::http::register\fR, returning a two-item list of
the default port and handler command that was previously installed
(via \fB::http::register\fR) if there was such a handler, and an error if
................................................................................
Once the data associated with the URL is no longer needed, the state
array should be unset to free up storage.
The \fB::http::cleanup\fR procedure is provided for that purpose.
The following elements of
the array are supported:
.RS
.TP








\fBbody\fR
.
The contents of the URL.  This will be empty if the \fB\-channel\fR
option has been specified.  This value is returned by the \fB::http::data\fR command.
.TP
\fBcharset\fR
.
................................................................................
.
A copy of the \fBContent-Type\fR meta-data value.
.TP
\fBurl\fR
.
The requested URL.
.RE










































































































































































































.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
This example creates a procedure to copy a URL to a file while printing a
progress meter, and prints the meta-data associated with the URL.
.PP
.CS
proc httpcopy { url file {chunk 4096} } {






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'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Ajuba Solutions.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH "http" n 2.9 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
http \- Client-side implementation of the HTTP/1.1 protocol
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBpackage require http\fI ?\fB2.8\fR?
.\" See Also -useragent option documentation in body!
.sp
\fB::http::config\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::geturl \fIurl\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR \fIkey value\fR ?\fIkey value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::quoteString\fR \fIvalue\fR
.sp
\fB::http::reset\fR \fItoken\fR ?\fIwhy\fR?
.sp
\fB::http::wait \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::status \fItoken\fR
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
\fB::http::error \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::cleanup \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::register \fIproto port command\fR
.sp
\fB::http::registerError \fIport\fR ?\fImessage\fR?
.sp
\fB::http::unregister \fIproto\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBhttp\fR package provides the client side of the HTTP/1.1
protocol, as defined in RFC 7230 to RFC 7235, which supersede RFC 2616.
The package implements the GET, POST, and HEAD operations
of HTTP/1.1.  It allows configuration of a proxy host to get through
firewalls.  The package is compatible with the \fBSafesock\fR security
policy, so it can be used by untrusted applets to do URL fetching from
a restricted set of hosts. This package can be extended to support
additional HTTP transport protocols, such as HTTPS, by providing
a custom \fBsocket\fR command, via \fB::http::register\fR.
................................................................................
\fB\-accept\fR \fImimetypes\fR
.
The Accept header of the request.  The default is */*, which means that
all types of documents are accepted.  Otherwise you can supply a
comma-separated list of mime type patterns that you are
willing to receive.  For example,
.QW "image/gif, image/jpeg, text/*" .
.TP
\fB\-cookiejar\fR \fIcommand\fR
.VS TIP406
The cookie store for the package to use to manage HTTP cookies.
\fIcommand\fR is a command prefix list; if the empty list (the
default value) is used, no cookies will be sent by requests or stored
from responses. The command indicated by \fIcommand\fR, if supplied,
must obey the \fBCOOKIE JAR PROTOCOL\fR described below.
.VE TIP406
.TP
\fB\-pipeline\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
Specifies whether HTTP/1.1 transactions on a persistent socket will be
pipelined.  See the \fBPERSISTENT SOCKETS\fR section for details. The default
is 1.
.TP
\fB\-postfresh\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
Specifies whether requests that use the \fBPOST\fR method will always use a
fresh socket, overriding the \fB-keepalive\fR option of
command \fBhttp::geturl\fR.  See the \fBPERSISTENT SOCKETS\fR section for details.
The default is 0.
.TP
\fB\-proxyhost\fR \fIhostname\fR
.
The name of the proxy host, if any.  If this value is the
empty string, the URL host is contacted directly.
.TP
\fB\-proxyport\fR \fInumber\fR
................................................................................
to determine if a proxy is required for a given host.  One argument, a
host name, is added to \fIcommand\fR when it is invoked.  If a proxy
is required, the callback should return a two-element list containing
the proxy server and proxy port.  Otherwise the filter should return
an empty list.  The default filter returns the values of the
\fB\-proxyhost\fR and \fB\-proxyport\fR settings if they are
non-empty.
.TP
\fB\-repost\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
Specifies what to do if a POST request over a persistent connection fails
because the server has half-closed the connection.  If boolean \fBtrue\fR, the
request
will be automatically retried; if boolean \fBfalse\fR it will not, and the
application
that uses \fBhttp::geturl\fR is expected to seek user confirmation before
retrying the POST.  The value \fBtrue\fR should be used only under certain
conditions. See the \fBPERSISTENT SOCKETS\fR section for details. The
default is 0.
.TP
\fB\-urlencoding\fR \fIencoding\fR
.
The \fIencoding\fR used for creating the x-url-encoded URLs with
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR and \fB::http::quoteString\fR.
The default is \fButf-8\fR, as specified by RFC
2718.  Prior to http 2.5 this was unspecified, and that behavior can be
returned by specifying the empty string (\fB{}\fR), although
\fIiso8859-1\fR is recommended to restore similar behavior but without the
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR or \fB::http::quoteString\fR
throwing an error processing non-latin-1 characters.
.TP
\fB\-useragent\fR \fIstring\fR
.
The value of the User-Agent header in the HTTP request.  In an unsafe
interpreter, the default value depends upon the operating system, and
the version numbers of \fBhttp\fR and \fBTcl\fR, and is (for example)
.QW "\fBMozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 10.0) http/2.8.12 Tcl/8.6.8\fR" .
A safe interpreter cannot determine its operating system, and so the default
in a safe interpreter is to use a Windows 10 value with the current version
numbers of \fBhttp\fR and \fBTcl\fR.
.TP
\fB\-zip\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
If the value is boolean \fBtrue\fR, then by default requests will send a header
.QW "\fBAccept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,compress\fR" .
If the value is boolean \fBfalse\fR, then by default this header will not be sent.
In either case the default can be overridden for an individual request by
supplying a custom \fBAccept-Encoding\fR header in the \fB-headers\fR option
of \fBhttp::geturl\fR. The default is 1.
.RE
.TP
\fB::http::geturl\fR \fIurl\fR ?\fIoptions\fR?
.
The \fB::http::geturl\fR command is the main procedure in the package.
The \fB\-query\fR option causes a POST operation and
the \fB\-validate\fR option causes a HEAD operation;
................................................................................
.CS
Pragma: no-cache
.CE
.RE
.TP
\fB\-keepalive\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
If boolean \fBtrue\fR, attempt to keep the connection open for servicing
multiple requests.  Default is 0.
.TP
\fB\-method\fR \fItype\fR
.
Force the HTTP request method to \fItype\fR. \fB::http::geturl\fR will
auto-select GET, POST or HEAD based on other options, but this option
enables choices like PUT and DELETE for webdav support.
................................................................................
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR \fIkey value\fR ?\fIkey value\fR ...?
.
This procedure does x-url-encoding of query data.  It takes an even
number of arguments that are the keys and values of the query.  It
encodes the keys and values, and generates one string that has the
proper & and = separators.  The result is suitable for the
\fB\-query\fR value passed to \fB::http::geturl\fR.
.TP
\fB::http::quoteString\fR \fIvalue\fR
.
This procedure does x-url-encoding of string.  It takes a single argument and
encodes it.
.TP
\fB::http::reset\fR \fItoken\fR ?\fIwhy\fR?
.
This command resets the HTTP transaction identified by \fItoken\fR, if any.
This sets the \fBstate(status)\fR value to \fIwhy\fR, which defaults to
\fBreset\fR, and then calls the registered \fB\-command\fR callback.
.TP
................................................................................
package require tls

::http::register https 443 ::tls::socket

set token [::http::geturl https://my.secure.site/]
.CE
.RE
.TP
\fB::http::registerError\fR \fIport\fR ?\fImessage\fR?
.
This procedure allows a registered protocol handler to deliver an error
message for use by \fBhttp\fR.  Calling this command does not raise an
error. The command is useful when a registered protocol detects an problem
(for example, an invalid TLS certificate) that will cause an error to
propagate to \fBhttp\fR.  The command allows \fBhttp\fR to provide a
precise error message rather than a general one.  The command returns the
value provided by the last call with argument \fImessage\fR, or the empty
string if no such call has been made.
.TP
\fB::http::unregister\fR \fIproto\fR
.
This procedure unregisters a protocol handler that was previously
registered via \fB::http::register\fR, returning a two-item list of
the default port and handler command that was previously installed
(via \fB::http::register\fR) if there was such a handler, and an error if
................................................................................
Once the data associated with the URL is no longer needed, the state
array should be unset to free up storage.
The \fB::http::cleanup\fR procedure is provided for that purpose.
The following elements of
the array are supported:
.RS
.TP
\fBbinary\fR
.
This is boolean \fBtrue\fR if (after decoding any compression specified
by the
.QW "Content-Encoding"
response header) the HTTP response is binary.  It is boolean \fBfalse\fR
if the HTTP response is text.
.TP
\fBbody\fR
.
The contents of the URL.  This will be empty if the \fB\-channel\fR
option has been specified.  This value is returned by the \fB::http::data\fR command.
.TP
\fBcharset\fR
.
................................................................................
.
A copy of the \fBContent-Type\fR meta-data value.
.TP
\fBurl\fR
.
The requested URL.
.RE
.SH "PERSISTENT CONNECTIONS"
.PP
.SS "BASICS"
.PP
See RFC 7230 Sec 6, which supersedes RFC 2616 Sec 8.1.
.PP
A persistent connection allows multiple HTTP/1.1 transactions to be
carried over the same TCP connection.  Pipelining allows a
client to make multiple requests over a persistent connection without
waiting for each response.  The server sends responses in the same order
that the requests were received.
.PP
If a POST request fails to complete, typically user confirmation is
needed before sending the request again.  The user may wish to verify
whether the server was modified by the failed POST request, before
sending the same request again.
.PP
A HTTP request will use a persistent socket if the call to
\fBhttp::geturl\fR has the option \fB-keepalive true\fR. It will use
pipelining where permitted if the \fBhttp::config\fR option
\fB-pipeline\fR is boolean \fBtrue\fR (its default value).
.PP
The http package maintains no more than one persistent connection to each
server (i.e. each value of
.QW "domain:port" ).
If \fBhttp::geturl\fR is called to make a request over a persistent
connection while the connection is busy with another request, the new
request will be held in a queue until the connection is free.
.PP
The http package does not support HTTP/1.0 persistent connections
controlled by the \fBKeep-Alive\fR header.
.SS "SPECIAL CASES"
.PP
This subsection discusses issues related to closure of the
persistent connection by the server, automatic retry of failed requests,
the special treatment necessary for POST requests, and the options for
dealing with these cases.
.PP
In accordance with RFC 7230, \fBhttp::geturl\fR does not pipeline
requests that use the POST method.  If a POST uses a persistent
connection and is not the first request on that connection,
\fBhttp::geturl\fR waits until it has received the response for the previous
request; or (if \fBhttp::config\fR option \fB-postfresh\fR is boolean \fBtrue\fR) it
uses a new connection for each POST.
.PP
If the server is processing a number of pipelined requests, and sends a
response header
.QW "\fBConnection: close\fR"
with one of the responses (other than the last), then subsequent responses
are unfulfilled. \fBhttp::geturl\fR will send the unfulfilled requests again
over a new connection.
.PP
A difficulty arises when a HTTP client sends a request over a persistent
connection that has been idle for a while.  The HTTP server may
half-close an apparently idle connection while the client is sending a
request, but before the request arrives at the server: in this case (an
.QW "asynchronous close event" )
the request will fail.  The difficulty arises because the client cannot
be certain whether the POST modified the state of the server.  For HEAD or
GET requests, \fBhttp::geturl\fR opens another connection and retransmits
the failed request. However, if the request was a POST, RFC 7230 forbids
automatic retry by default, suggesting either user confirmation, or
confirmation by user-agent software that has semantic understanding of
the application.  The \fBhttp::config\fR option \fB-repost\fR allows for
either possibility.
.PP
Asynchronous close events can occur only in a short interval of time.  The
\fBhttp\fR package monitors each persistent connection for closure by the
server.  Upon detection, the connection is also closed at the client end,
and subsequent requests will use a fresh connection.
.PP
If the \fBhttp::geturl\fR command is called with option \fB-keepalive true\fR,
then it will both try to use an existing persistent connection
(if one is available), and it will send the server a
.QW "\fBConnection: keep-alive\fR"
request header asking to keep the connection open for future requests.
.PP
The \fBhttp::config\fR options \fB-pipeline\fR, \fB-postfresh\fR, and
\fB-repost\fR relate to persistent connections.
.PP
Option \fB-pipeline\fR, if boolean \fBtrue\fR, will pipeline GET and HEAD requests
made
over a persistent connection.  POST requests will not be pipelined - if the
POST is not the first transaction on the connection, its request will not
be sent until the previous response has finished.  GET and HEAD requests
made after a POST will not be sent until the POST response has been
delivered, and will not be sent if the POST fails.
.PP
Option \fB-postfresh\fR, if boolean \fBtrue\fR, will override the \fBhttp::geturl\fR option
\fB-keepalive\fR, and always open a fresh connection for a POST request.
.PP
Option \fB-repost\fR, if \fBtrue\fR, permits automatic retry of a POST request
that fails because it uses a persistent connection that the server has
half-closed (an
.QW "asynchronous close event" ).
Subsequent GET and HEAD requests in a failed pipeline will also be retried.
\fIThe -repost option should be used only if the application understands
that the retry is appropriate\fR - specifically, the application must know
that if the failed POST successfully modified the state of the server, a repeat POST
would have no adverse effect.
.VS TIP406
.SH "COOKIE JAR PROTOCOL"
.PP
Cookies are short key-value pairs used to implement sessions within the
otherwise-stateless HTTP protocol. (See RFC 6265 for details; Tcl does not
implement the Cookie2 protocol as that is rarely seen in the wild.)
.PP
Cookie storage managment commands \(em
.QW "cookie jars"
\(em must support these subcommands which form the HTTP cookie storage
management protocol. Note that \fIcookieJar\fR below does not have to be a
command name; it is properly a command prefix (a Tcl list of words that will
be expanded in place) and admits many possible implementations.
.PP
Though not formally part of the protocol, it is expected that particular
values of \fIcookieJar\fR will correspond to sessions; it is up to the caller
of \fB::http::config\fR to decide what session applies and to manage the
deletion of said sessions when they are no longer desired (which should be
when they not configured as the current cookie jar).
.TP
\fIcookieJar \fBgetCookies \fIprotocol host requestPath\fR
.
This command asks the cookie jar what cookies should be supplied for a
particular request. It should take the \fIprotocol\fR (typically \fBhttp\fR or
\fBhttps\fR), \fIhost\fR name and \fIrequestPath\fR (parsed from the \fIurl\fR
argument to \fB::http::geturl\fR) and return a list of cookie keys and values
that describe the cookies to supply to the remote host. The list must have an
even number of elements.
.RS
.PP
There should only ever be at most one cookie with a particular key for any
request (typically the one with the most specific \fIhost\fR/domain match and
most specific \fIrequestPath\fR/path match), but there may be many cookies
with different names in any request.
.RE
.TP
\fIcookieJar \fBstoreCookie \fIcookieDictionary\fR
.
This command asks the cookie jar to store a particular cookie that was
returned by a request; the result of this command is ignored. The cookie
(which will have been parsed by the http package) is described by a
dictionary, \fIcookieDictionary\fR, that may have the following keys:
.RS
.TP
\fBdomain\fR
.
This is always present. Its value describes the domain hostname \fIor
prefix\fR that the cookie should be returned for.  The checking of the domain
against the origin (below) should be careful since sites that issue cookies
should only do so for domains related to themselves. Cookies that do not obey
a relevant origin matching rule should be ignored.
.TP
\fBexpires\fR
.
This is optional. If present, the cookie is intended to be a persistent cookie
and the value of the option is the Tcl timestamp (in seconds from the same
base as \fBclock seconds\fR) of when the cookie expires (which may be in the
past, which should result in the cookie being deleted immediately). If absent,
the cookie is intended to be a session cookie that should be not persisted
beyond the lifetime of the cookie jar.
.TP
\fBhostonly\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is a boolean that describes whether the
cookie is a single host cookie (true) or a domain-level cookie (false).
.TP
\fBhttponly\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is a boolean that is true when the site
wishes the cookie to only ever be used with HTTP (or HTTPS) traffic.
.TP
\fBkey\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is the \fIkey\fR of the cookie, which is
part of the information that must be return when sending this cookie back in a
future request.
.TP
\fBorigin\fR
.
This is always present. Its value describes where the http package believes it
received the cookie from, which may be useful for checking whether the
cookie's domain is valid.
.TP
\fBpath\fR
.
This is always present. Its value describes the path prefix of requests to the
cookie domain where the cookie should be returned.
.TP
\fBsecure\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is a boolean that is true when the cookie
should only used on requests sent over secure channels (typically HTTPS).
.TP
\fBvalue\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is the value of the cookie, which is part of
the information that must be return when sending this cookie back in a future
request.
.PP
Other keys may always be ignored; they have no meaning in this protocol.
.RE
.VE TIP406
.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
This example creates a procedure to copy a URL to a file while printing a
progress meter, and prints the meta-data associated with the URL.
.PP
.CS
proc httpcopy { url file {chunk 4096} } {

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2014-2018 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH "idna" n 0.1 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tcl::idna \- Support for normalization of Internationalized Domain Names
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require tcl::idna 1.0

\fBtcl::idna decode\fR \fIhostname\fR
\fBtcl::idna encode\fR \fIhostname\fR
\fBtcl::idna puny decode\fR \fIstring\fR ?\fIcase\fR?
\fBtcl::idna puny encode\fR \fIstring\fR ?\fIcase\fR?
\fBtcl::idna version\fR
.fi
.SH DESCRIPTION
This package provides an implementation of the punycode scheme used in
Internationalised Domain Names, and some access commands. (See RFC 3492 for a
description of punycode.)
.TP
\fBtcl::idna decode\fR \fIhostname\fR
.
This command takes the name of a host that potentially contains
punycode-encoded character sequences, \fIhostname\fR, and returns the hostname
as might be displayed to the user. Note that there are often UNICODE
characters that have extremely similar glyphs, so care should be taken with
displaying hostnames to users.
.TP
\fBtcl::idna encode\fR \fIhostname\fR
.
This command takes the name of a host as might be displayed to the user,
\fIhostname\fR, and returns the version of the hostname with characters not
permitted in basic hostnames encoded with punycode.
.TP
\fBtcl::idna puny\fR \fIsubcommand ...\fR
.
This command provides direct access to the basic punycode encoder and
decoder. It supports two \fIsubcommand\fRs:
.RS
.TP
\fBtcl::idna puny decode\fR \fIstring\fR ?\fIcase\fR?
.
This command decodes the punycode-encoded string, \fIstring\fR, and returns
the result. If \fIcase\fR is provided, it is a boolean to make the case be
folded to upper case (if \fIcase\fR is true) or lower case (if \fIcase\fR is
false) during the decoding process; if omitted, no case transformation is
applied.
.TP
\fBtcl::idna puny encode\fR \fIstring\fR ?\fIcase\fR?
.
This command encodes the string, \fIstring\fR, and returns the
punycode-encoded version of the string. If \fIcase\fR is provided, it is a
boolean to make the case be folded to upper case (if \fIcase\fR is true) or
lower case (if \fIcase\fR is false) during the encoding process; if omitted,
no case transformation is applied.
.RE
.TP
\fBtcl::idna version\fR
.
This returns the version of the \fBtcl::idna\fR package.
.SH "EXAMPLE"
.PP
This is an example of how punycoding of a string works:
.PP
.CS
package require tcl::idna

puts [\fBtcl::idna puny encode\fR "abc\(->def"]
#    prints: \fIabcdef-kn2c\fR
puts [\fBtcl::idna puny decode\fR "abcdef-kn2c"]
#    prints: \fIabc\(->def\fR
.CE
'\" TODO: show how it handles a real domain name
.SH "SEE ALSO"
http(n), cookiejar(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
internet, www
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

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1 is added to \fIvarName\fR.
The new value is stored as a decimal string in variable \fIvarName\fR
and also returned as result.
.PP
Starting with the Tcl 8.5 release, the variable \fIvarName\fR passed
to \fBincr\fR may be unset, and in that case, it will be set to
the value \fIincrement\fR or to the default increment value of \fB1\fR.





.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Add one to the contents of the variable \fIx\fR:
.PP
.CS
\fBincr\fR x
.CE
................................................................................
.CS
\fBincr\fR x 0
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), set(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
add, increment, variable, value










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1 is added to \fIvarName\fR.
The new value is stored as a decimal string in variable \fIvarName\fR
and also returned as result.
.PP
Starting with the Tcl 8.5 release, the variable \fIvarName\fR passed
to \fBincr\fR may be unset, and in that case, it will be set to
the value \fIincrement\fR or to the default increment value of \fB1\fR.
.VS TIP508
If \fIvarName\fR indicate an element that does not exist of an array that has
a default value set, the sum of the default value and the \fIincrement\fR (or
1) will be stored in the array element.
.VE TIP508
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Add one to the contents of the variable \fIx\fR:
.PP
.CS
\fBincr\fR x
.CE
................................................................................
.CS
\fBincr\fR x 0
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), set(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
add, increment, variable, value
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH info n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
info \- Return information about the state of the Tcl interpreter
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBinfo \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command provides information about various internals of the Tcl
interpreter.
The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBinfo args \fIprocname\fR
.
Returns a list containing the names of the arguments to procedure
\fIprocname\fR, in order.  \fIProcname\fR must be the name of a
Tcl command procedure.
.TP
\fBinfo body \fIprocname\fR
.
Returns the body of procedure \fIprocname\fR.  \fIProcname\fR must be
the name of a Tcl command procedure.
.TP
\fBinfo class\fI subcommand class\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR
.VS 8.6
Returns information about the class, \fIclass\fR. The \fIsubcommand\fRs are
described in \fBCLASS INTROSPECTION\fR below.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo cmdcount\fR
.
Returns a count of the total number of commands that have been invoked
in this interpreter.
.TP
\fBinfo commands \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified,
returns a list of names of all the Tcl commands visible
(i.e. executable without using a qualified name) to the current namespace,
including both the built-in commands written in C and
the command procedures defined using the \fBproc\fR command.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified,
only those names matching \fIpattern\fR are returned.
Matching is determined using the same rules as for \fBstring match\fR.
\fIpattern\fR can be a qualified name like \fBFoo::print*\fR.
That is, it may specify a particular namespace
using a sequence of namespace names separated by double colons (\fB::\fR),
and may have pattern matching special characters
at the end to specify a set of commands in that namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name,
the resulting list of command names has each one qualified with the name
of the specified namespace, and only the commands defined in the named
namespace are returned.
.\" Technically, most of this hasn't changed; that's mostly just the
.\" way it always worked. Hardly anyone knew that though.
.TP
\fBinfo complete \fIcommand\fR
.
Returns 1 if \fIcommand\fR is a complete Tcl command in the sense of
having no unclosed quotes, braces, brackets or array element names.
If the command does not appear to be complete then 0 is returned.
This command is typically used in line-oriented input environments
to allow users to type in commands that span multiple lines;  if the
command is not complete, the script can delay evaluating it until additional
lines have been typed to complete the command.
.TP
\fBinfo coroutine\fR
.VS 8.6
Returns the name of the currently executing \fBcoroutine\fR, or the empty
string if either no coroutine is currently executing, or the current coroutine
has been deleted (but has not yet returned or yielded since deletion).
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo default \fIprocname arg varname\fR
.
\fIProcname\fR must be the name of a Tcl command procedure and \fIarg\fR
must be the name of an argument to that procedure.  If \fIarg\fR
does not have a default value then the command returns \fB0\fR.
Otherwise it returns \fB1\fR and places the default value of \fIarg\fR
into variable \fIvarname\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo errorstack \fR?\fIinterp\fR?
.VS 8.6
Returns, in a form that is programmatically easy to parse, the function names
and arguments at each level from the call stack of the last error in the given
\fIinterp\fR, or in the current one if not specified.
.RS
.PP
This form is an even-sized list alternating tokens and parameters. Tokens are
currently either \fBCALL\fR, \fBUP\fR, or \fBINNER\fR, but other values may be
introduced in the future. \fBCALL\fR indicates a procedure call, and its











parameter is the corresponding \fBinfo level\fR \fB0\fR. \fBUP\fR indicates a
shift in variable frames generated by \fBuplevel\fR or similar, and applies to
the previous \fBCALL\fR item. Its parameter is the level offset. \fBINNER\fR
identifies the
.QW "inner context" ,
which is the innermost atomic command or bytecode instruction that raised the
error, along with its arguments when available. While \fBCALL\fR and \fBUP\fR
allow to follow complex call paths, \fBINNER\fR homes in on the offending
operation in the innermost procedure call, even going to sub-expression
granularity.
.PP
This information is also present in the \fB\-errorstack\fR entry of the
options dictionary returned by 3-argument \fBcatch\fR; \fBinfo errorstack\fR
is a convenient way of retrieving it for uncaught errors at top-level in an
interactive \fBtclsh\fR.
.RE
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo exists \fIvarName\fR
.
Returns \fB1\fR if the variable named \fIvarName\fR exists in the
current context (either as a global or local variable) and has been
defined by being given a value, returns \fB0\fR otherwise.
.TP
\fBinfo frame\fR ?\fInumber\fR?
.

This command provides access to all frames on the stack, even those
hidden from \fBinfo level\fR. If \fInumber\fR is not specified, this
command returns a number giving the frame level of the command. This
is 1 if the command is invoked at top-level. If \fInumber\fR is
specified, then the result is a dictionary containing the location
information for the command at the \fInumber\fRed level on the stack.
.RS
.PP
If \fInumber\fR is positive (> 0) then it selects a particular stack
level (1 refers to the outer-most active command, 2 to the command it
called, and so on, up to the current frame level which refers to
\fBinfo frame\fR itself); otherwise it gives a level relative to the
current command (0 refers to the current command, i.e., \fBinfo
frame\fR itself, -1 to its caller, and so on).


.PP
This is similar to how \fBinfo level\fR works, except that this
subcommand reports all frames, like \fBsource\fRd scripts,
\fBeval\fRs, \fBuplevel\fRs, etc.
.PP
Note that for nested commands, like

.QW "foo [bar [x]]" ,
only
.QW x
will be seen by an \fBinfo frame\fR invoked within
.QW x .
This is the same as for \fBinfo level\fR and error stack traces.
.PP
The result dictionary may contain the keys listed below, with the
specified meanings for their values:
.TP
\fBtype\fR
.
This entry is always present and describes the nature of the location
for the command. The recognized values are \fBsource\fR, \fBproc\fR,
\fBeval\fR, and \fBprecompiled\fR.
.RS
.TP
\fBsource\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
means that the command is found in a script loaded by the \fBsource\fR
command.
.TP
\fBproc\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
means that the command is found in dynamically created procedure body.

.TP
\fBeval\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
means that the command is executed by \fBeval\fR or \fBuplevel\fR.
.TP
\fBprecompiled\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
means that the command is found in a pre-compiled script (loadable by
the package \fBtbcload\fR), and no further information will be
available.
.RE
.TP
\fBline\fR
.
This entry provides the number of the line the command is at inside of
the script it is a part of. This information is not present for type
\fBprecompiled\fR. For type \fBsource\fR this information is counted
relative to the beginning of the file, whereas for the last two types
the line is counted relative to the start of the script.
.TP
\fBfile\fR
.
This entry is present only for type \fBsource\fR. It provides the
normalized path of the file the command is in.
.TP
\fBcmd\fR
.
This entry provides the string representation of the command. This is
usually the unsubstituted form, however for commands which are a
canonically-constructed list (e.g., as produced by the \fBlist\fR command)
executed by \fBeval\fR it is the substituted form as they have no other
string representation. Care is taken that the canonicality property of
the latter is not spoiled.
.TP
\fBproc\fR
.
This entry is present only if the command is found in the body of a
regular Tcl procedure. It then provides the name of that procedure.
.TP
\fBlambda\fR
.
This entry is present only if the command is found in the body of an
anonymous Tcl procedure, i.e. a lambda. It then provides the entire
definition of the lambda in question.
.TP
\fBlevel\fR
.
This entry is present only if the queried frame has a corresponding
frame returned by \fBinfo level\fR. It provides the index of this
frame, relative to the current level (0 and negative numbers).
.PP
A thing of note is that for procedures statically defined in files the
locations of commands in their bodies will be reported with type
\fBsource\fR and absolute line numbers, and not as type
\fBproc\fR. The same is true for procedures nested in statically
defined procedures, and literal eval scripts in files or statically
defined procedures.
.PP
In contrast, procedure definitions and \fBeval\fR within a dynamically
\fBeval\fRuated environment count line numbers relative to the start of
their script, even if they would be able to count relative to the
start of the outer dynamic script. That type of number usually makes
more sense.
.PP
A different way of describing this behaviour is that file based
locations are tracked as deeply as possible, and where this is not
possible the lines are counted based on the smallest possible
\fBeval\fR or procedure body, as that scope is usually easier to find
than any dynamic outer scope.
.PP
The syntactic form \fB{*}\fR is handled like \fBeval\fR. I.e. if it
is given a literal list argument the system tracks the line number
within the list words as well, and otherwise all line numbers are
counted relative to the start of each word (smallest scope)
.RE
.TP
\fBinfo functions \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, returns a list of all the math
functions currently defined.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those functions whose name matches
\fIpattern\fR are returned.  Matching is determined using the same
rules as for \fBstring match\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo globals \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, returns a list of all the names
of currently-defined global variables.
Global variables are variables in the global namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those names matching \fIpattern\fR
are returned.  Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo hostname\fR
.
Returns the name of the computer on which this invocation is being
executed.

Note that this name is not guaranteed to be the fully qualified domain
name of the host.  Where machines have several different names (as is
common on systems with both TCP/IP (DNS) and NetBIOS-based networking
installed,) it is the name that is suitable for TCP/IP networking that
is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo level\fR ?\fInumber\fR?
.
If \fInumber\fR is not specified, this command returns a number
giving the stack level of the invoking procedure, or 0 if the
command is invoked at top-level.  If \fInumber\fR is specified,
then the result is a list consisting of the name and arguments for the
procedure call at level \fInumber\fR on the stack.  If \fInumber\fR
is positive then it selects a particular stack level (1 refers
to the top-most active procedure, 2 to the procedure it called, and
so on); otherwise it gives a level relative to the current level
(0 refers to the current procedure, -1 to its caller, and so on).
See the \fBuplevel\fR command for more information on what stack
levels mean.
.TP
\fBinfo library\fR
.
Returns the name of the library directory in which standard Tcl
scripts are stored.
This is actually the value of the \fBtcl_library\fR
variable and may be changed by setting \fBtcl_library\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo loaded \fR?\fIinterp\fR? ?\fIpackage\fR?
.
Returns the filename loaded as part of \fIpackage\fR. If \fIpackage\fR
is not specified, returns a list describing all of the packages
that have been loaded into \fIinterp\fR with the \fBload\fR command.
Each list element is a sub-list with two elements consisting of the
name of the file from which the package was loaded and the name of
the package.
For statically-loaded packages the file name will be an empty string.
If \fIinterp\fR is omitted then information is returned for all packages
loaded in any interpreter in the process.
To get a list of just the packages in the current interpreter, specify
an empty string for the \fIinterp\fR argument.
.TP
\fBinfo locals \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, returns a list of all the names
of currently-defined local variables, including arguments to the
current procedure, if any.


Variables defined with the \fBglobal\fR, \fBupvar\fR  and
\fBvariable\fR commands will not be returned.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those names matching \fIpattern\fR
are returned.  Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR
.
Returns the full path name of the binary file from which the application
was invoked.  If Tcl was unable to identify the file, then an empty
string is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo object\fI subcommand object\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR
.VS 8.6

Returns information about the object, \fIobject\fR. The \fIsubcommand\fRs are
described in \fBOBJECT INTROSPECTION\fR below.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo patchlevel\fR
.
Returns the value of the global variable \fBtcl_patchLevel\fR, which holds
the exact version of the Tcl library by default.
.TP
\fBinfo procs \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, returns a list of all the
names of Tcl command procedures in the current namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified,
only those procedure names in the current namespace
matching \fIpattern\fR are returned.
Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.
If \fIpattern\fR contains any namespace separators, they are used to
select a namespace relative to the current namespace (or relative to
the global namespace if \fIpattern\fR starts with \fB::\fR) to match
within; the matching pattern is taken to be the part after the last
namespace separator.
.TP
\fBinfo script\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?
.
If a Tcl script file is currently being evaluated (i.e. there is a
call to \fBTcl_EvalFile\fR active or there is an active invocation
of the \fBsource\fR command), then this command returns the name
of the innermost file being processed.  If \fIfilename\fR is specified,
then the return value of this command will be modified for the
duration of the active invocation to return that name.  This is



useful in virtual file system applications.
Otherwise the command returns an empty string.

.TP
\fBinfo sharedlibextension\fR
.
Returns the extension used on this platform for the names of files
containing shared libraries (for example, \fB.so\fR under Solaris).
If shared libraries are not supported on this platform then an empty
string is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo tclversion\fR
.
Returns the value of the global variable \fBtcl_version\fR, which holds the
major and minor version of the Tcl library by default.
.TP
\fBinfo vars\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified,
returns a list of all the names of currently-visible variables.
This includes locals and currently-visible globals.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those names matching \fIpattern\fR
are returned.  Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.
\fIpattern\fR can be a qualified name like \fBFoo::option*\fR.
That is, it may specify a particular namespace
using a sequence of namespace names separated by double colons (\fB::\fR),
and may have pattern matching special characters
at the end to specify a set of variables in that namespace.

If \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name,
the resulting list of variable names
has each matching namespace variable qualified with the name
of its namespace.
Note that a currently-visible variable may not yet
.QW exist
if it has not
been set (e.g. a variable declared but not set by \fBvariable\fR).



.SS "CLASS INTROSPECTION"
.VS 8.6
.PP
The following \fIsubcommand\fR values are supported by \fBinfo class\fR:
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class call\fI class method\fR
.VS

Returns a description of the method implementations that are used to provide a
stereotypical instance of \fIclass\fR's implementation of \fImethod\fR
(stereotypical instances being objects instantiated by a class without having
any object-specific definitions added). This consists of a list of lists of
four elements, where each sublist consists of a word that describes the
general type of method implementation (being one of \fBmethod\fR for an
ordinary method, \fBfilter\fR for an applied filter, and \fBunknown\fR for a




method that is invoked as part of unknown method handling), a word giving the
name of the particular method invoked (which is always the same as
\fImethod\fR for the \fBmethod\fR type, and
.QW \fBunknown\fR
for the \fBunknown\fR type), a word giving the fully qualified name of the
class that defined the method, and a word describing the type of method
implementation (see \fBinfo class methodtype\fR).
.RS
.PP
Note that there is no inspection of whether the method implementations
actually use \fBnext\fR to transfer control along the call chain.




.RE
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class constructor\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the constructor of
class \fIclass\fR. The definition is described as a two element list; the first
element is the list of arguments to the constructor in a form suitable for
passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition, and the second
element is the body of the constructor. If no constructor is present, this
returns the empty list.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class definition\fI class method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the method named
\fImethod\fR of class \fIclass\fR. The definition is described as a two element
list; the first element is the list of arguments to the method in a form
suitable for passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition, and
the second element is the body of the method.

















.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class destructor\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the body of the destructor of class \fIclass\fR. If no
destructor is present, this returns the empty string.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class filters\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the list of filter methods set on the class.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class forward\fI class method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the argument list for the method forwarding called
\fImethod\fR that is set on the class called \fIclass\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class instances\fI class\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of instances of class \fIclass\fR. If the
optional \fIpattern\fR argument is present, it constrains the list of returned
instances to those that match it according to the rules of \fBstring match\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class methods\fI class\fR ?\fIoptions...\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all public (i.e. exported) methods of the
class called \fIclass\fR. Any of the following \fIoption\fRs may be
specified, controlling exactly which method names are returned:
.RS
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fB\-all\fR


.VS 8.6


If the \fB\-all\fR flag is given, the list of methods will include those
methods defined not just by the class, but also by the class's superclasses
and mixins.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fB\-private\fR


.VS 8.6


If the \fB\-private\fR flag is given, the list of methods will also include
the private (i.e. non-exported) methods of the class (and superclasses and
mixins, if \fB\-all\fR is also given).




















.RE
.VE 8.6

.TP
\fBinfo class methodtype\fI class method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the type of implementation used for
the method named \fImethod\fR of class \fIclass\fR. When the result is
\fBmethod\fR, further information can be discovered with \fBinfo class
definition\fR, and when the result is \fBforward\fR, further information can
be discovered with \fBinfo class forward\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class mixins\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all classes that have been mixed into the
class named \fIclass\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class subclasses\fI class\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of direct subclasses of class \fIclass\fR. If
the optional \fIpattern\fR argument is present, it constrains the list of
returned classes to those that match it according to the rules of
\fBstring match\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class superclasses\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of direct superclasses of class \fIclass\fR in
inheritance precedence order.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class variables\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all variables that have been declared for
the class named \fIclass\fR (i.e. that are automatically present in the
class's methods, constructor and destructor).




.SS "OBJECT INTROSPECTION"
.PP
The following \fIsubcommand\fR values are supported by \fBinfo object\fR:
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object call\fI object method\fR
.VS 8.6

Returns a description of the method implementations that are used to provide
\fIobject\fR's implementation of \fImethod\fR.  This consists of a list of
lists of four elements, where each sublist consists of a word that describes
the general type of method implementation (being one of \fBmethod\fR for an
ordinary method, \fBfilter\fR for an applied filter, and \fBunknown\fR for a




method that is invoked as part of unknown method handling), a word giving the
name of the particular method invoked (which is always the same as
\fImethod\fR for the \fBmethod\fR type, and
.QW \fBunknown\fR
for the \fBunknown\fR type), a word giving what defined the method (the fully
qualified name of the class, or the literal string \fBobject\fR if the method
implementation is on an instance), and a word describing the type of method
implementation (see \fBinfo object methodtype\fR).
.RS
.PP
Note that there is no inspection of whether the method implementations
actually use \fBnext\fR to transfer control along the call chain.




.RE
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object class\fI object\fR ?\fIclassName\fR?
.VS 8.6

If \fIclassName\fR is unspecified, this subcommand returns class of the
\fIobject\fR object. If \fIclassName\fR is present, this subcommand returns a
boolean value indicating whether the \fIobject\fR is of that class.











.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object definition\fI object method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the method named
\fImethod\fR of object \fIobject\fR. The definition is described as a two
element list; the first element is the list of arguments to the method in a
form suitable for passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition,
and the second element is the body of the method.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object filters\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the list of filter methods set on the object.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object forward\fI object method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the argument list for the method forwarding called
\fImethod\fR that is set on the object called \fIobject\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa\fI category object\fR ?\fIarg\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand tests whether an object belongs to a particular category,
returning a boolean value that indicates whether the \fIobject\fR argument
meets the criteria for the category. The supported categories are:
.VE 8.6
.RS
.TP
\fBinfo object isa class\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIobject\fR is a class (i.e. an instance of
\fBoo::class\fR or one of its subclasses).
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa metaclass\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIobject\fR is a class that can manufacture classes
(i.e. is \fBoo::class\fR or a subclass of it).
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa mixin\fI object class\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIclass\fR is directly mixed into \fIobject\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa object\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIobject\fR really is an object.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa typeof\fI object class\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIclass\fR is the type of \fIobject\fR (i.e. whether
\fIobject\fR is an instance of \fIclass\fR or one of its subclasses, whether
direct or indirect).
.RE
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object methods\fI object\fR ?\fIoption...\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all public (i.e. exported) methods of the
object called \fIobject\fR. Any of the following \fIoption\fRs may be
specified, controlling exactly which method names are returned:
.RS
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fB\-all\fR


.VS 8.6


If the \fB\-all\fR flag is given, the list of methods will include those
methods defined not just by the object, but also by the object's class and
mixins, plus the superclasses of those classes.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fB\-private\fR


.VS 8.6


If the \fB\-private\fR flag is given, the list of methods will also include
the private (i.e. non-exported) methods of the object (and classes, if
\fB\-all\fR is also given).




















.RE
.VE 8.6

.TP
\fBinfo object methodtype\fI object method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the type of implementation used for
the method named \fImethod\fR of object \fIobject\fR. When the result is
\fBmethod\fR, further information can be discovered with \fBinfo object
definition\fR, and when the result is \fBforward\fR, further information can
be discovered with \fBinfo object forward\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object mixins\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all classes that have been mixed into the
object named \fIobject\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object namespace\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the name of the internal namespace of the object named
\fIobject\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object variables\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all variables that have been declared for
the object named \fIobject\fR (i.e. that are automatically present in the
object's methods).



.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object vars\fI object\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all variables in the private namespace of
the object named \fIobject\fR. If the optional \fIpattern\fR argument is
given, it is a filter (in the syntax of a \fBstring match\fR glob pattern)
that constrains the list of variables returned. Note that this is different
from the list returned by \fBinfo object variables\fR; that can include
variables that are currently unset, whereas this can include variables that
are not automatically included by any of \fIobject\fR's methods (or those of
its class, superclasses or mixins).
.VE 8.6
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This command prints out a procedure suitable for saving in a Tcl
script:
.PP
.CS
proc printProc {procName} {
................................................................................
            lappend formals [list $var]
        }
    }
    puts [lappend result $formals [\fBinfo body\fR $procName]]
}
.CE
.SS "EXAMPLES WITH OBJECTS"
.VS 8.6
.PP
Every object necessarily knows what its class is; this information is
trivially extractable through introspection:
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c
c create o
................................................................................
The introspection capabilities can be used to discover what class implements a
method and get how it is defined. This procedure illustrates how:
.PP
.CS
proc getDef {obj method} {
    foreach inf [\fBinfo object call\fR $obj $method] {
        lassign $inf calltype name locus methodtype

        # Assume no forwards or filters, and hence no $calltype
        # or $methodtype checks...

        if {$locus eq "object"} {
            return [\fBinfo object definition\fR $obj $name]
        } else {
            return [\fBinfo class definition\fR $locus $name]
        }
    }
    error "no definition for $method"
................................................................................
.PP
.CS
proc getDef {obj method} {
    if {$method in [\fBinfo object methods\fR $obj]} {
        # Assume no forwards
        return [\fBinfo object definition\fR $obj $method]
    }

    set cls [\fBinfo object class\fR $obj]

    while {$method ni [\fBinfo class methods\fR $cls]} {
        # Assume the simple case
        set cls [lindex [\fBinfo class superclass\fR $cls] 0]
        if {$cls eq ""} {
            error "no definition for $method"
        }
    }

    # Assume no forwards
    return [\fBinfo class definition\fR $cls $method]
}
.CE
.VE 8.6
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.VS 8.6
global(n), oo::class(n), oo::define(n), oo::object(n), proc(n), self(n),
.VE 8.6
tcl_library(n), tcl_patchLevel(n), tcl_version(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, information, interpreter, introspection, level, namespace,
.VS 8.6
object,
.VE 8.6
procedure, variable
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:






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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH info n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
info \- Information about the state of the Tcl interpreter
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBinfo \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Available commands:


.TP
\fBinfo args \fIprocname\fR
.
Returns the names of the parameters to the procedure named \fIprocname\fR.


.TP
\fBinfo body \fIprocname\fR
.
Returns the body of the procedure named \fIprocname\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo class\fI subcommand class\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR
.
Returns information about the class named \fIclass\fR.
See \fBCLASS INTROSPECTION\fR below.
.TP
\fBinfo cmdcount\fR
.
Returns the total number of commands evaluated in this interpreter.
.TP
\fBinfo cmdtype \fIcommandName\fR
.VS TIP426
Returns a the type of the command named \fIcommandName\fR.
Built-in types are:
.RS
.IP \fBalias\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBinterp alias\fR.
In a safe interpreter an alias is only visible if both the alias and the
target are visible.
.IP \fBcoroutine\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBcoroutine\fR.
.IP \fBensemble\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBnamespace ensemble\fR.
.IP \fBimport\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBnamespace import\fR.
.IP \fBnative\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by the \fBTcl_CreateObjProc\fR
interface directly without further registration of the type of command.
.IP \fBobject\fR
\fIcommandName\fR is the public command that represents an
instance of \fBoo::object\fR or one of its subclasses.
.IP \fBprivateObject\fR
\fIcommandName\fR is the private command, \fBmy\fR by default,
that represents an instance of \fBoo::object\fR or one of its subclasses.
.IP \fBproc\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBproc\fR.
.IP \fBslave\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBinterp create\fR.
.IP \fBzlibStream\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBzlib stream\fR.
.PP
Other types may be also registered as well.  See \fBTcl_RegisterCommandTypeName\fR.
.RE
.VE TIP426
.TP
\fBinfo commands \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
Returns the names of all commands visible in the current namespace.  If
\fIpattern\fR is given, returns only those names that match according to
\fBstring match\fR.  Only the last component of \fIpattern\fR is a pattern.
Other components identify a namespace.  See \fBNAMESPACE RESOLUTION\fR in the
\fBnamespace\fR(n) documentation.
.TP
\fBinfo complete \fIcommand\fR
.
Returns 1 if \fIcommand\fR is a complete command, and \fB0\fR otherwise.
Typically used in line-oriented input environments
to allow users to type in commands that span multiple lines.
.TP
\fBinfo coroutine\fR
.
Returns the name of the current \fBcoroutine\fR, or the empty
string if there is no current coroutine or the current coroutine
has been deleted.
.TP
\fBinfo default \fIprocname parameter varname\fR
.
If the parameter \fIparameter\fR for the procedure named \fIprocname\fR has a
default value, stores that value in \fIvarname\fR and returns \fB1\fR.
Otherwise, returns \fB0\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo errorstack \fR?\fIinterp\fR?
.
Returns a description of the active command at each level for the
last error in the current interpreter, or in the interpreter named
\fIinterp\fR if given.
.RS
.PP
The description is a dictionary of tokens and parameters. Tokens are
currently either \fBCALL\fR, \fBUP\fR, or \fBINNER\fR, but other values may be
introduced in the future. \fBCALL\fR indicates a command call, and its
parameter is the corresponding \fBinfo level\fR \fB0\fR. \fBUP\fR indicates a
shift in variable frames generated by \fBuplevel\fR or similar, and applies to
the previous \fBCALL\fR item. Its parameter is the level offset. \fBINNER\fR
identifies the
.QW "inner context" ,
which is the innermost atomic command or bytecode instruction that raised the
error, along with its arguments when available. While \fBCALL\fR and \fBUP\fR
provide a trail of the call path, \fBINNER\fR provides details of the offending
operation in the innermost procedure call, even to sub-expression
granularity.
.PP
This information is also present in the \fB\-errorstack\fR entry of the
options dictionary returned by 3-argument \fBcatch\fR; \fBinfo errorstack\fR
is a convenient way of retrieving it for uncaught errors at top-level in an
interactive \fBinterpreter\fR.
.RE

.TP
\fBinfo exists \fIvarName\fR
.
Returns \fB1\fR if a variable named \fIvarName\fR is visible and has been

defined, and \fB0\fR otherwise.
.TP
\fBinfo frame\fR ?\fIdepth\fR?
.
Returns the depth of the call to \fBinfo frame\fR itself.  Otherwise, returns a
dictionary describing the active command at the \fIdepth\fR, which counts all
commands visible to \fBinfo level\fR, plus commands that don't create a new
level, such as \fBeval\fR, \fBsource\fR, or \fIuplevel\fR. The frame depth is
always greater than the current level.


.RS
.PP






If \fIdepth\fR is greater than \fB0\fR it is the frame at that depth.  Otherwise
it is the number of frames up from the current frame.
.PP





As with \fBinfo level\fR and error traces, for nested commands like
.QW "foo [bar [x]]" ,
only
.QW x
is seen by \fBinfo frame\fR invoked within
.QW x .

.PP
The dictionary may contain the following keys:

.TP
\fBtype\fR
.

Always present.  Possible values are \fBsource\fR, \fBproc\fR,
\fBeval\fR, and \fBprecompiled\fR.
.RS
.TP
\fBsource\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
A script loaded via the \fBsource\fR
command.
.TP
\fBproc\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
The body of a procedure that could not be traced back to a
line in a particular script.
.TP
\fBeval\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
The body of a script provided to \fBeval\fR or \fBuplevel\fR.
.TP
\fBprecompiled\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
A pre-compiled script (loadable by the package
\fBtbcload\fR), and no further information is available.

.RE
.TP
\fBline\fR
.
The line number of of the command inside its script.  Not available for
\fBprecompiled\fR commands.  When the type is \fBsource\fR, the line number is

relative to the beginning of the file, whereas for the last two types it is
relative to the start of the script.
.TP
\fBfile\fR
.
For type \fBsource\fR, provides the normalized path of the file that contains
the command.
.TP
\fBcmd\fR
.
The command before substitutions were performed.





.TP
\fBproc\fR
.
For type \fBprod\fR, the name of the procedure containing the command.

.TP
\fBlambda\fR
.
For a command in a script evaluated as the body of an unnamed routine via the

\fBapply\fR command, the definition of that routine.
.TP
\fBlevel\fR
.
For a frame that corresponds to a level, (to be determined).
.PP
When a command can be traced to its literal definition in some script, e.g.
procedures nested in statically defined procedures, and literal eval scripts in
files or statically defined procedures, its type is \fBsource\fR and its
location is the absolute line number in the script.  Otherwise, its type is
\fBproc\fR and its location is its line number within the body of the
procedure.


.PP
In contrast, procedure definitions and \fBeval\fR within a dynamically
\fBeval\fRuated environment count line numbers relative to the start of
their script, even if they would be able to count relative to the
start of the outer dynamic script. That type of number usually makes
more sense.
.PP
A different way of describing this behaviour is that file-based
locations are tracked as deeply as possible, and where this is not
possible the lines are counted based on the smallest possible
\fBeval\fR or procedure body, as that scope is usually easier to find
than any dynamic outer scope.
.PP
The syntactic form \fB{*}\fR is handled like \fBeval\fR. I.e. if it
is given a literal list argument the system tracks the line number
within the list words as well, and otherwise all line numbers are
counted relative to the start of each word (smallest scope)
.RE
.TP
\fBinfo functions \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not given, returns a list of all the math
functions currently defined.
If \fIpattern\fR is given, returns only those names that match

\fIpattern\fR according to \fBstring match\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo globals \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not given, returns a list of all the names
of currently-defined global variables.
Global variables are variables in the global namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is given, only those names matching \fIpattern\fR
are returned.  Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo hostname\fR
.
Returns the name of the current host.


This name is not guaranteed to be the fully-qualified domain
name of the host.  Where machines have several different names, as is
common on systems with both TCP/IP (DNS) and NetBIOS-based networking
installed, it is the name that is suitable for TCP/IP networking that
is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo level\fR ?\fIlevel\fR?
.
If \fInumber\fR is not given, the level this routine was called from.
Otherwise returns the complete command active at the given level.  If
\fInumber\fR is greater than \fB0\fR, it is the desired level.  Otherwise, it
is \fInumber\fR levels up from the current level.  A complete command is the
words in the command, with all subsitutions performed, meaning that it is a




list.  See \fBuplevel\fR for more information on levels.

.TP
\fBinfo library\fR
.
Returns the value of \fBtcl_library\fR, which is the name of the library
directory in which the scripts distributed with Tcl scripts are stored.


.TP
\fBinfo loaded \fR?\fIinterp\fR? ?\fIpackage\fR?
.
Returns the name of each file loaded in \fIinterp\fR va \fBload\fR as part of
\fIpackage\fR .  If \fIpackage\fR is not given, returns a list where each item
is the name of the loaded file and the name of the package for which the file
was loaded.  For a statically-loaded package the name of the file is the empty
string.  For \fInterp\fR, the empty string is the current interpreter.






.TP
\fBinfo locals \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.



If \fIpattern\fR is given, returns the name of each local variable matching
\fIpattern\fR according to \fBstring match\fR.  Otherwise, returns the name of
each local variable.  A variables defined with the \fBglobal\fR, \fBupvar\fR or
\fBvariable\fR is not local.




.TP
\fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR
.
Returns the absolute pathname of the program for the current interpreter.  If

such a file can not be identified an empty string is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo object\fI subcommand object\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR

.
Returns information about the object named \fIobject\fR. \fIsubcommand\fR is
described \fBOBJECT INTROSPECTION\fR below.

.TP
\fBinfo patchlevel\fR
.
Returns the value of the global variable \fBtcl_patchLevel\fR, in which the
exact version of the Tcl library initially stored.
.TP
\fBinfo procs \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
Returns the names of all visible procedures. If \fIpattern\fR is given, returns
only those names that match according to \fBstring match\fR.  Only the final
component in \fIpattern\fR is actually considered a pattern.  Any qualifying
components simply select a namespace.  See \fBNAMESPACE RESOLUTION\fR in the
\fBnamespace\fR(n) documentation.







.TP
\fBinfo script\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?
.






Returns the pathname of the innermost script currently being evaluated, or the
empty string if no pathname can be determined.  If \fIfilename\fR is given,
sets the return value of any future calls to \fBinfo script\fR for the duration
of the innermost active script.  This is useful in virtual file system

applications.
.TP
\fBinfo sharedlibextension\fR
.
Returns the extension used on this platform for names of shared libraries, e.g.
\fB.so\fR under Solaris.  Returns the empty string if shared libraries are not
supported on this platform.

.TP
\fBinfo tclversion\fR
.
Returns the value of the global variable \fBtcl_version\fR, in which the
major and minor version of the Tcl library are stored.
.TP
\fBinfo vars\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not given, returns the names of all visible variables.  If
\fIpattern\fR is given, returns only those names that match according to



\fBstring match\fR.  Only the last component of \fIpattern\fR is a pattern.





Other components identify a namespace.  See \fBNAMESPACE RESOLUTION\fR in the
\fBnamespace\fR(n) documentation.  When \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name,







results are fully qualified.

A variable that has declared but not yet defined is included in the results.
.SS "CLASS INTROSPECTION"

.PP
The following \fIsubcommand\fR values are supported by \fBinfo class\fR:

.TP
\fBinfo class call\fI class method\fR

.
Returns a description of the method implementations that are used to provide a
stereotypical instance of \fIclass\fR's implementation of \fImethod\fR
(stereotypical instances being objects instantiated by a class without having
any object-specific definitions added). This consists of a list of lists of
four elements, where each sublist consists of a word that describes the
general type of method implementation (being one of \fBmethod\fR for an
ordinary method, \fBfilter\fR for an applied filter,
.VS TIP500
\fBprivate\fR for a private method,
.VE TIP500
and \fBunknown\fR for a
method that is invoked as part of unknown method handling), a word giving the
name of the particular method invoked (which is always the same as
\fImethod\fR for the \fBmethod\fR type, and
.QW \fBunknown\fR
for the \fBunknown\fR type), a word giving the fully qualified name of the
class that defined the method, and a word describing the type of method
implementation (see \fBinfo class methodtype\fR).
.RS
.PP
Note that there is no inspection of whether the method implementations
actually use \fBnext\fR to transfer control along the call chain,
.VS TIP500
and the call chains that this command files do not actually contain private
methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE

.TP
\fBinfo class constructor\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the constructor of
class \fIclass\fR. The definition is described as a two element list; the first
element is the list of arguments to the constructor in a form suitable for
passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition, and the second
element is the body of the constructor. If no constructor is present, this
returns the empty list.

.TP
\fBinfo class definition\fI class method\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the method named
\fImethod\fR of class \fIclass\fR. The definition is described as a two element
list; the first element is the list of arguments to the method in a form
suitable for passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition, and
the second element is the body of the method.
.TP
\fBinfo class definitionnamespace\fI class\fR ?\fIkind\fR?
.VS TIP524
This subcommand returns the definition namespace for \fIkind\fR definitions of
the class \fIclass\fR; the definition namespace only affects the instances of
\fIclass\fR, not \fIclass\fR itself. The \fIkind\fR can be either
\fB\-class\fR to return the definition namespace used for \fBoo::define\fR, or
\fB\-instance\fR to return the definition namespace used for
\fBoo::objdefine\fR; the \fB\-class\fR kind is default (though this is only
actually useful on classes that are subclasses of \fBoo::class\fR).
.RS
.PP
If \fIclass\fR does not provide a definition namespace of the given kind,
this command returns the empty string. In those circumstances, the
\fBoo::define\fR and \fBoo::objdefine\fR commands look up which definition
namespace to use using the class inheritance hierarchy.
.RE
.VE TIP524
.TP
\fBinfo class destructor\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns the body of the destructor of class \fIclass\fR. If no
destructor is present, this returns the empty string.

.TP
\fBinfo class filters\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns the list of filter methods set on the class.

.TP
\fBinfo class forward\fI class method\fR

.
This subcommand returns the argument list for the method forwarding called
\fImethod\fR that is set on the class called \fIclass\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class instances\fI class\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of instances of class \fIclass\fR. If the
optional \fIpattern\fR argument is present, it constrains the list of returned
instances to those that match it according to the rules of \fBstring match\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class methods\fI class\fR ?\fIoptions...\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all public (i.e. exported) methods of the
class called \fIclass\fR. Any of the following \fIoption\fRs may be
given, controlling exactly which method names are returned:
.RS

.TP
\fB\-all\fR
.
If the \fB\-all\fR flag is given,
.VS TIP500
and the \fB\-scope\fR flag is not given,
.VE TIP500
the list of methods will include those
methods defined not just by the class, but also by the class's superclasses
and mixins.

.TP
\fB\-private\fR
.
If the \fB\-private\fR flag is given,
.VS TIP500
and the \fB\-scope\fR flag is not given,
.VE TIP500
the list of methods will also include
the non-exported methods of the class (and superclasses and
mixins, if \fB\-all\fR is also given).
.VS TIP500
Note that this naming is an unfortunate clash with true private methods; this
option name is retained for backward compatibility.
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fB\-scope\fI scope\fR
.VS TIP500
Returns a list of all methods on \fIclass\fR that have the given visibility
\fIscope\fR.  When this option is supplied, both the \fB\-all\fR and
\fB\-private\fR options are ignored. The valid values for \fIscope\fR are:
.RS
.IP \fBpublic\fR 3
Only methods with \fIpublic\fR scope (i.e., callable from anywhere by any instance
of this class) are to be returned.
.IP \fBunexported\fR 3
Only methods with \fIunexported\fR scope (i.e., only callable via \fBmy\fR) are to
be returned.
.IP \fBprivate\fR 3
Only methods with \fIprivate\fR scope (i.e., only callable from within this class's
methods) are to be returned.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBinfo class methodtype\fI class method\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the type of implementation used for
the method named \fImethod\fR of class \fIclass\fR. When the result is
\fBmethod\fR, further information can be discovered with \fBinfo class
definition\fR, and when the result is \fBforward\fR, further information can
be discovered with \fBinfo class forward\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class mixins\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns a list of all classes that have been mixed into the
class named \fIclass\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class subclasses\fI class\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of direct subclasses of class \fIclass\fR. If
the optional \fIpattern\fR argument is present, it constrains the list of
returned classes to those that match it according to the rules of
\fBstring match\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class superclasses\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns a list of direct superclasses of class \fIclass\fR in
inheritance precedence order.

.TP
\fBinfo class variables\fI class\fR ?\fB\-private\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all variables that have been declared for
the class named \fIclass\fR (i.e. that are automatically present in the
class's methods, constructor and destructor).
.VS TIP500
If the \fB\-private\fR option is given, this lists the private variables
declared instead.
.VE TIP500
.SS "OBJECT INTROSPECTION"
.PP
The following \fIsubcommand\fR values are supported by \fBinfo object\fR:

.TP
\fBinfo object call\fI object method\fR

.
Returns a description of the method implementations that are used to provide
\fIobject\fR's implementation of \fImethod\fR.  This consists of a list of
lists of four elements, where each sublist consists of a word that describes
the general type of method implementation (being one of \fBmethod\fR for an
ordinary method, \fBfilter\fR for an applied filter,
.VS TIP500
\fBprivate\fR for a private method,
.VE TIP500
and \fBunknown\fR for a
method that is invoked as part of unknown method handling), a word giving the
name of the particular method invoked (which is always the same as
\fImethod\fR for the \fBmethod\fR type, and
.QW \fBunknown\fR
for the \fBunknown\fR type), a word giving what defined the method (the fully
qualified name of the class, or the literal string \fBobject\fR if the method
implementation is on an instance), and a word describing the type of method
implementation (see \fBinfo object methodtype\fR).
.RS
.PP
Note that there is no inspection of whether the method implementations
actually use \fBnext\fR to transfer control along the call chain,
.VS TIP500
and the call chains that this command files do not actually contain private
methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE

.TP
\fBinfo object class\fI object\fR ?\fIclassName\fR?

.
If \fIclassName\fR is not given, this subcommand returns class of the
\fIobject\fR object. If \fIclassName\fR is present, this subcommand returns a
boolean value indicating whether the \fIobject\fR is of that class.
.TP
\fBinfo object creationid\fI object\fR
.VS TIP500
Returns the unique creation identifier for the \fIobject\fR object. This
creation identifier is unique to the object (within a Tcl interpreter) and
cannot be controlled at object creation time or altered afterwards.
.RS
.PP
\fIImplementation note:\fR the creation identifier is used to generate unique
identifiers associated with the object, especially for private variables.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fBinfo object definition\fI object method\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the method named
\fImethod\fR of object \fIobject\fR. The definition is described as a two
element list; the first element is the list of arguments to the method in a
form suitable for passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition,
and the second element is the body of the method.

.TP
\fBinfo object filters\fI object\fR

.
This subcommand returns the list of filter methods set on the object.

.TP
\fBinfo object forward\fI object method\fR

.
This subcommand returns the argument list for the method forwarding called
\fImethod\fR that is set on the object called \fIobject\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object isa\fI category object\fR ?\fIarg\fR?

.
This subcommand tests whether an object belongs to a particular category,
returning a boolean value that indicates whether the \fIobject\fR argument
meets the criteria for the category. The supported categories are:

.RS
.TP
\fBinfo object isa class\fI object\fR

.
This returns whether \fIobject\fR is a class (i.e. an instance of
\fBoo::class\fR or one of its subclasses).

.TP
\fBinfo object isa metaclass\fI object\fR

.
This returns whether \fIobject\fR is a class that can manufacture classes
(i.e. is \fBoo::class\fR or a subclass of it).

.TP
\fBinfo object isa mixin\fI object class\fR

.
This returns whether \fIclass\fR is directly mixed into \fIobject\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object isa object\fI object\fR

.
This returns whether \fIobject\fR really is an object.

.TP
\fBinfo object isa typeof\fI object class\fR

.
This returns whether \fIclass\fR is the type of \fIobject\fR (i.e. whether
\fIobject\fR is an instance of \fIclass\fR or one of its subclasses, whether
direct or indirect).
.RE

.TP
\fBinfo object methods\fI object\fR ?\fIoption...\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all public (i.e. exported) methods of the
object called \fIobject\fR. Any of the following \fIoption\fRs may be
given, controlling exactly which method names are returned:
.RS

.TP
\fB\-all\fR
.
If the \fB\-all\fR flag is given,
.VS TIP500
and the \fB\-scope\fR flag is not given,
.VE TIP500
the list of methods will include those
methods defined not just by the object, but also by the object's class and
mixins, plus the superclasses of those classes.

.TP
\fB\-private\fR
.
If the \fB\-private\fR flag is given,
.VS TIP500
and the \fB\-scope\fR flag is not given,
.VE TIP500
the list of methods will also include
the non-exported methods of the object (and classes, if
\fB\-all\fR is also given).
.VS TIP500
Note that this naming is an unfortunate clash with true private methods; this
option name is retained for backward compatibility.
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fB\-scope\fI scope\fR
.VS TIP500
Returns a list of all methods on \fIobject\fR that have the given visibility
\fIscope\fR.  When this option is supplied, both the \fB\-all\fR and
\fB\-private\fR options are ignored. The valid values for \fIscope\fR are:
.RS
.IP \fBpublic\fR 3
Only methods with \fIpublic\fR scope (i.e., callable from anywhere) are to be
returned.
.IP \fBunexported\fR 3
Only methods with \fIunexported\fR scope (i.e., only callable via \fBmy\fR) are to
be returned.
.IP \fBprivate\fR 3
Only methods with \fIprivate\fR scope (i.e., only callable from within this object's
instance methods) are to be returned.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBinfo object methodtype\fI object method\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the type of implementation used for
the method named \fImethod\fR of object \fIobject\fR. When the result is
\fBmethod\fR, further information can be discovered with \fBinfo object
definition\fR, and when the result is \fBforward\fR, further information can
be discovered with \fBinfo object forward\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object mixins\fI object\fR

.
This subcommand returns a list of all classes that have been mixed into the
object named \fIobject\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object namespace\fI object\fR

.
This subcommand returns the name of the internal namespace of the object named
\fIobject\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object variables\fI object\fRR ?\fB\-private\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all variables that have been declared for
the object named \fIobject\fR (i.e. that are automatically present in the
object's methods).
.VS TIP500
If the \fB\-private\fR option is given, this lists the private variables
declared instead.
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fBinfo object vars\fI object\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all variables in the private namespace of
the object named \fIobject\fR. If the optional \fIpattern\fR argument is
given, it is a filter (in the syntax of a \fBstring match\fR glob pattern)
that constrains the list of variables returned. Note that this is different
from the list returned by \fBinfo object variables\fR; that can include
variables that are currently unset, whereas this can include variables that
are not automatically included by any of \fIobject\fR's methods (or those of
its class, superclasses or mixins).

.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This command prints out a procedure suitable for saving in a Tcl
script:
.PP
.CS
proc printProc {procName} {
................................................................................
            lappend formals [list $var]
        }
    }
    puts [lappend result $formals [\fBinfo body\fR $procName]]
}
.CE
.SS "EXAMPLES WITH OBJECTS"

.PP
Every object necessarily knows what its class is; this information is
trivially extractable through introspection:
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c
c create o
................................................................................
The introspection capabilities can be used to discover what class implements a
method and get how it is defined. This procedure illustrates how:
.PP
.CS
proc getDef {obj method} {
    foreach inf [\fBinfo object call\fR $obj $method] {
        lassign $inf calltype name locus methodtype

        # Assume no forwards or filters, and hence no $calltype
        # or $methodtype checks...

        if {$locus eq "object"} {
            return [\fBinfo object definition\fR $obj $name]
        } else {
            return [\fBinfo class definition\fR $locus $name]
        }
    }
    error "no definition for $method"
................................................................................
.PP
.CS
proc getDef {obj method} {
    if {$method in [\fBinfo object methods\fR $obj]} {
        # Assume no forwards
        return [\fBinfo object definition\fR $obj $method]
    }

    set cls [\fBinfo object class\fR $obj]

    while {$method ni [\fBinfo class methods\fR $cls]} {
        # Assume the simple case
        set cls [lindex [\fBinfo class superclass\fR $cls] 0]
        if {$cls eq ""} {
            error "no definition for $method"
        }
    }

    # Assume no forwards
    return [\fBinfo class definition\fR $cls $method]
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"

global(n), oo::class(n), oo::define(n), oo::object(n), proc(n), self(n),

tcl_library(n), tcl_patchLevel(n), tcl_version(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, information, interpreter, introspection, level, namespace,



object, procedure, variable
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/interp.n.

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\fBinterp\fR \fBdebug \fIpath\fR ?\fB\-frame\fR ?\fIbool\fR??
.
Controls whether frame-level stack information is captured in the
slave interpreter identified by \fIpath\fR.  If no arguments are
given, option and current setting are returned.  If \fB\-frame\fR
is given, the debug setting is set to the given boolean if provided
and the current setting is returned.
This only effects the output of \fBinfo frame\fR, in that exact
frame-level information for command invocation at the bytecode level
is only captured with this setting on.
.RS
.PP
For example, with code like
.PP
.CS
................................................................................
execution of all commands.
.PP
Note that once it is on, this flag cannot be switched back off: such
attempts are silently ignored. This is needed to maintain the
consistency of the underlying interpreter's state.
.RE
.TP
\fBinterp\fR \fBdelete \fR?\fIpath ...?\fR
.
Deletes zero or more interpreters given by the optional \fIpath\fR
arguments, and for each interpreter, it also deletes its slaves. The
command also deletes the slave command for each interpreter deleted.
For each \fIpath\fR argument, if no interpreter by that name
exists, the command raises an error.
.TP






|







 







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\fBinterp\fR \fBdebug \fIpath\fR ?\fB\-frame\fR ?\fIbool\fR??
.
Controls whether frame-level stack information is captured in the
slave interpreter identified by \fIpath\fR.  If no arguments are
given, option and current setting are returned.  If \fB\-frame\fR
is given, the debug setting is set to the given boolean if provided
and the current setting is returned.
This only affects the output of \fBinfo frame\fR, in that exact
frame-level information for command invocation at the bytecode level
is only captured with this setting on.
.RS
.PP
For example, with code like
.PP
.CS
................................................................................
execution of all commands.
.PP
Note that once it is on, this flag cannot be switched back off: such
attempts are silently ignored. This is needed to maintain the
consistency of the underlying interpreter's state.
.RE
.TP
\fBinterp\fR \fBdelete \fR?\fIpath ...\fR?
.
Deletes zero or more interpreters given by the optional \fIpath\fR
arguments, and for each interpreter, it also deletes its slaves. The
command also deletes the slave command for each interpreter deleted.
For each \fIpath\fR argument, if no interpreter by that name
exists, the command raises an error.
.TP

Changes to doc/join.n.

38
39
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44




\fBjoin\fR $data
     \fB\(-> 1 2 3 4 5 {6 7} 8\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), split(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, join, list, separator










>
>
>
>
38
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42
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47
48
\fBjoin\fR $data
     \fB\(-> 1 2 3 4 5 {6 7} 8\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), split(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, join, list, separator
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/lappend.n.

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25
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29
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31
..
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49




.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command treats the variable given by \fIvarName\fR as a list
and appends each of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to that list as a separate
element, with spaces between elements.
If \fIvarName\fR does not exist, it is created as a list with elements
given by the \fIvalue\fR arguments.






\fBLappend\fR is similar to \fBappend\fR except that the \fIvalue\fRs
are appended as list elements rather than raw text.
This command provides a relatively efficient way to build up
large lists.  For example,
.QW "\fBlappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
.QW "\fBset a [concat $a [list $b]]\fR"
................................................................................
1 2 3 4 5
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n),
lsort(n), lrange(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
append, element, list, variable










>
>
>
>
>
>







 







>
>
>
>
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.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command treats the variable given by \fIvarName\fR as a list
and appends each of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to that list as a separate
element, with spaces between elements.
If \fIvarName\fR does not exist, it is created as a list with elements
given by the \fIvalue\fR arguments.
.VS TIP508
If \fIvarName\fR indicate an element that does not exist of an array that has
a default value set, list that is comprised of the default value with all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments appended as elements will be stored in the array
element.
.VE TIP508
\fBLappend\fR is similar to \fBappend\fR except that the \fIvalue\fRs
are appended as list elements rather than raw text.
This command provides a relatively efficient way to build up
large lists.  For example,
.QW "\fBlappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
.QW "\fBset a [concat $a [list $b]]\fR"
................................................................................
1 2 3 4 5
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n),
lsort(n), lrange(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
append, element, list, variable
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/lindex.n.

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10
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.TH lindex n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lindex \- Retrieve an element from a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlindex \fIlist ?index ...?\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlindex\fR command accepts a parameter, \fIlist\fR, which
it treats as a Tcl list. It also accepts zero or more \fIindices\fR into
the list.  The indices may be presented either consecutively on the
command line, or grouped in a






|







9
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.TH lindex n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lindex \- Retrieve an element from a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlindex \fIlist\fR ?\fIindex ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlindex\fR command accepts a parameter, \fIlist\fR, which
it treats as a Tcl list. It also accepts zero or more \fIindices\fR into
the list.  The indices may be presented either consecutively on the
command line, or grouped in a

Added doc/link.n.
























































































































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2011-2015 Andreas Kupries
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH link n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
link \- create link from command to method of object
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBlink\fR \fImethodName\fR ?\fI...\fR?
\fBlink\fR \fB{\fIcommandName methodName\fB}\fR ?\fI...\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
The \fBlink\fR command is available within methods. It takes a series of one
or more method names (\fImethodName ...\fR) and/or pairs of command- and
method-name (\fB{\fIcommandName methodName\fB}\fR) and makes the named methods
available as commands without requiring the explicit use of the name of the
object or the \fBmy\fR command. The method does not need to exist at the time
that the link is made; if the link command is invoked when the method does not
exist, the standard \fBunknown\fR method handling system is used.
.PP
The command name under which the method becomes available defaults to the
method name, except where explicitly specified through an alias/method pair.
Formally, every argument must be a list; if the list has two elements, the
first element is the name of the command to create and the second element is
the name of the method of the current object to which the command links;
otherwise, the name of the command and the name of the method are the same
string (the first element of the list).
.PP
If the name of the command is not a fully-qualified command name, it will be
resolved with respect to the current namespace (i.e., the object namespace).
.SH EXAMPLES
This demonstrates linking a single method in various ways. First it makes a
simple link, then a renamed link, then an external link. Note that the method
itself is unexported, but that it can still be called directly from outside
the class.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create ABC {
    method Foo {} {
        puts "This is Foo in [self]"
    }

    constructor {} {
        \fBlink\fR Foo
        # The method foo is now directly accessible as foo here
        \fBlink\fR {bar Foo}
        # The method foo is now directly accessible as bar
        \fBlink\fR {::ExternalCall Foo}
        # The method foo is now directly accessible in the global
        # namespace as ExternalCall
    }

    method grill {} {
        puts "Step 1:"
        Foo
        puts "Step 2:"
        bar
    }
}

ABC create abc
abc grill
        \fI\(-> Step 1:\fR
        \fI\(-> This is foo in ::abc\fR
        \fI\(-> Step 2:\fR
        \fI\(-> This is foo in ::abc\fR
# Direct access via the linked command
puts "Step 3:"; ExternalCall
        \fI\(-> Step 3:\fR
        \fI\(-> This is foo in ::abc\fR
.CE
.PP
This example shows that multiple linked commands can be made in a call to
\fBlink\fR, and that they can handle arguments.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create Ex {
    constructor {} {
        \fBlink\fR a b c
        # The methods a, b, and c (defined below) are all now
        # directly acessible within methods under their own names.
    }

    method a {} {
        puts "This is a"
    }
    method b {x} {
        puts "This is b($x)"
    }
    method c {y z} {
        puts "This is c($y,$z)"
    }

    method call {p q r} {
        a
        b $p
        c $q $r
    }
}

set o [Ex new]
$o 3 5 7
        \fI\(-> This is a\fR
        \fI\(-> This is b(3)\fR
        \fI\(-> This is c(5,7)\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
interp(n), my(n), oo::class(n), oo::define(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, method, object
.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/llength.n.

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1,0
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, length










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1,0
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, length
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Added doc/lpop.n.
































































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 by Peter Spjuth.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH lpop n 8.7 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lpop \- Get and remove an element in a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlpop \fIvarName ?index ...?\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlpop\fR command accepts a parameter, \fIvarName\fR, which
it interprets as the name of a variable containing a Tcl list.
It also accepts one or more \fIindices\fR into
the list. If no indices are presented, it defaults to "end".
.PP
When presented with a single index, the \fBlpop\fR command
addresses the \fIindex\fR'th element in it, removes if from the list
and returns the element.
.PP
If \fIindex\fR is negative or greater or equal than the number
of elements in \fI$varName\fR, then an error occurs.
.PP
The interpretation of each simple \fIindex\fR value is the same as
for the command \fBstring index\fR, supporting simple index
arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the list.
.PP
If additional \fIindex\fR arguments are supplied, then each argument is
used in turn to address an element within a sublist designated
by the previous indexing operation,
allowing the script to remove elements in sublists.
The command,
.PP
.CS
\fBlpop\fR a 1 2
.CE
.PP
gets and removes element 2 of sublist 1.
.PP
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
In each of these examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is:
.PP
.CS
set x [list [list a b c] [list d e f] [list g h i]]
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {d e f} {g h i}\fR
.CE
.PP
The indicated value becomes the new value of \fIx\fR
(except in the last case, which is an error which leaves the value of
\fIx\fR unchanged.)
.PP
.CS
\fBlpop\fR x 0
      \fI\(-> {d e f} {g h i}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x 2
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {d e f}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x end
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {d e f}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x end-1
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {g h i}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x 2 1
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {d e f} {g i}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x 2 3 j
      \fI\(-> list index out of range\fR
.CE
.PP
In the following examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is:
.PP
.CS
set x [list [list [list a b] [list c d]] \e
            [list [list e f] [list g h]]]
      \fI\(-> {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}\fR
.CE
.PP
The indicated value becomes the new value of \fIx\fR.
.PP
.CS
\fBlpop\fR x 1 1 0
      \fI\(-> {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} h}\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n), lset(n)
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list, remove, pop, stack, queue
'\"Local Variables:
'\"mode: nroff
'\"End:

Changes to doc/lrange.n.

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% lindex $var 1
elements to
% \fBlrange\fR $var 1 1
{elements to}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lreplace(n), lsort(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, range, sublist










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% lindex $var 1
elements to
% \fBlrange\fR $var 1 1
{elements to}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lremove(n), lreplace(n), lsort(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, range, sublist
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Added doc/lremove.n.














































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2019 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH lremove n 8.7 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lremove \- Remove elements from a list by index
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlremove \fIlist\fR ?\fIindex ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBlremove\fR returns a new list formed by simultaneously removing zero or
more elements of \fIlist\fR at each of the indices given by an arbirary number
of \fIindex\fR arguments. The indices may be in any order and may be repeated;
the element at index will only be removed once.  The index values are
interpreted the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR,
supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the
list.  0 refers to the first element of the list, and \fBend\fR refers to the
last element of the list.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Removing the third element of a list:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlremove\fR {a b c d e} 2
a b d e
.CE
.PP
Removing two elements from a list:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlremove\fR {a b c d e} end-1 1
a c e
.CE
.PP
Removing the same element indicated in two different ways:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlremove\fR {a b c d e} 2 end-2
a b d e
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lrange(n), lsearch(n), lsearch(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, remove
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/lrepeat.n.

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\fBlrepeat\fR 3 a b c
      \fI\(-> a b c a b c a b c\fR
\fBlrepeat\fR 3 [\fBlrepeat\fR 2 a] b c
      \fI\(-> {a a} b c {a a} b c {a a} b c\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list










<


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\fBlrepeat\fR 3 a b c
      \fI\(-> a b c a b c a b c\fR
\fBlrepeat\fR 3 [\fBlrepeat\fR 2 a] b c
      \fI\(-> {a a} b c {a a} b c {a a} b c\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

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.SH NAME
lreplace \- Replace elements in a list with new elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlreplace \fIlist first last \fR?\fIelement element ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBlreplace\fR returns a new list formed by replacing one or more elements of
\fIlist\fR with the \fIelement\fR arguments.
\fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are index values specifying the first and
last elements of the range to replace.
The index values \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are interpreted
the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR,
supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the
end of the list.
0 refers to the first element of the
list, and \fBend\fR refers to the last element of the list.
If \fIlist\fR is empty, then \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are ignored.
.PP

If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is considered to refer to before the
first element of the list.  For non-empty lists, the element indicated
by \fIfirst\fR must exist or \fIfirst\fR must indicate before the
start of the list.




.PP
If \fIlast\fR is less than \fIfirst\fR, then any specified elements
will be inserted into the list before the point specified by \fIfirst\fR
with no elements being deleted.
.PP
The \fIelement\fR arguments specify zero or more new arguments to
be added to the list in place of those that were deleted.
Each \fIelement\fR argument will become a separate element of
the list.  If no \fIelement\fR arguments are specified, then the elements
between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are simply deleted.  If \fIlist\fR
is empty, any \fIelement\fR arguments are added to the end of the list.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Replacing an element of a list with another:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlreplace\fR {a b c d e} 1 1 foo
a foo c d e
................................................................................
.CS
proc lremove {listVariable value} {
    upvar 1 $listVariable var
    set idx [lsearch -exact $var $value]
    set var [\fBlreplace\fR $var $idx $idx]
}
.CE













.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lrange(n), lsort(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, replace










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.SH NAME
lreplace \- Replace elements in a list with new elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlreplace \fIlist first last \fR?\fIelement element ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBlreplace\fR returns a new list formed by replacing zero or more elements of
\fIlist\fR with the \fIelement\fR arguments.
\fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are index values specifying the first and
last elements of the range to replace.
The index values \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are interpreted
the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR,
supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the
end of the list.
0 refers to the first element of the
list, and \fBend\fR refers to the last element of the list.

.PP
If either \fIfirst\fR or \fIlast\fR is less than zero, it is considered
to refer to before the first element of the list. This allows \fBlreplace\fR
to prepend elements to \fIlist\fR.
.VS TIP505
If either \fIfirst\fR or \fIlast\fR indicates a position greater than the
index of the last element of the list, it is treated as if it is an
index one greater than the last element. This allows \fBlreplace\fR to
append elements to \fIlist\fR.
.VE TIP505
.PP
If \fIlast\fR is less than \fIfirst\fR, then any specified elements
will be inserted into the list before the element specified by \fIfirst\fR
with no elements being deleted.
.PP
The \fIelement\fR arguments specify zero or more new elements to
be added to the list in place of those that were deleted.
Each \fIelement\fR argument will become a separate element of
the list.  If no \fIelement\fR arguments are specified, then the elements
between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are simply deleted.

.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Replacing an element of a list with another:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlreplace\fR {a b c d e} 1 1 foo
a foo c d e
................................................................................
.CS
proc lremove {listVariable value} {
    upvar 1 $listVariable var
    set idx [lsearch -exact $var $value]
    set var [\fBlreplace\fR $var $idx $idx]
}
.CE
.PP
.VS TIP505
Appending elements to the list; note that \fBend+2\fR will initially
be treated as if it is \fB6\fR here, but both that and \fB12345\fR are greater
than the index of the final item so they behave identically:
.PP
.CS
% set var {a b c d e}
a b c d e
% set var [\fBlreplace\fR $var 12345 end+2 f g h i]
a b c d e f g h i
.CE
.VE TIP505
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lrange(n), lremove(n), lsort(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, replace
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/lsearch.n.

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This option implies \fB\-sorted\fR and cannot be used with either \fB\-all\fR
or \fB\-not\fR.
.VE 8.6
.SS "NESTED LIST OPTIONS"
.PP
These options are used to search lists of lists.  They may be used
with any other options.













.TP
\fB\-index\fR\0\fIindexList\fR
.
This option is designed for use when searching within nested lists.
The \fIindexList\fR argument gives a path of indices (much as might be
used with the \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR commands) within each element
to allow the location of the term being matched against.
................................................................................
.PP
It is also possible to search inside elements:
.PP
.CS
\fBlsearch\fR -index 1 -all -inline {{a abc} {b bcd} {c cde}} *bc*
      \fI\(-> {a abc} {b bcd}\fR
.CE







.SH "SEE ALSO"
foreach(n), list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n),
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
binary search, linear search,
list, match, pattern, regular expression, search, string
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:






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This option implies \fB\-sorted\fR and cannot be used with either \fB\-all\fR
or \fB\-not\fR.
.VE 8.6
.SS "NESTED LIST OPTIONS"
.PP
These options are used to search lists of lists.  They may be used
with any other options.
.TP
\fB\-stride\0\fIstrideLength\fR
.
If this option is specified, the list is treated as consisting of
groups of \fIstrideLength\fR elements and the groups are searched by
either their first element or, if the \fB\-index\fR option is used,
by the element within each group given by the first index passed to
\fB\-index\fR (which is then ignored by \fB\-index\fR). The resulting
index always points to the first element in a group.
.PP
The list length must be an integer multiple of \fIstrideLength\fR, which
in turn must be at least 1. A \fIstrideLength\fR of 1 is the default and
indicates no grouping.
.TP
\fB\-index\fR\0\fIindexList\fR
.
This option is designed for use when searching within nested lists.
The \fIindexList\fR argument gives a path of indices (much as might be
used with the \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR commands) within each element
to allow the location of the term being matched against.
................................................................................
.PP
It is also possible to search inside elements:
.PP
.CS
\fBlsearch\fR -index 1 -all -inline {{a abc} {b bcd} {c cde}} *bc*
      \fI\(-> {a abc} {b bcd}\fR
.CE
.PP
The same thing for a flattened list:
.PP
.CS
\fBlsearch\fR -stride 2 -index 1 -all -inline {a abc b bcd c cde} *bc*
      \fI\(-> {a abc b bcd}\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
foreach(n), list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n),
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
binary search, linear search,
list, match, pattern, regular expression, search, string
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:

Changes to doc/mathfunc.n.

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\fB::tcl::mathfunc::floor\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::fmod\fR \fIx\fR \fIy\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::hypot\fR \fIx\fR \fIy\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::int\fR \fIarg\fR
.br










\fB::tcl::mathfunc::isqrt\fR \fIarg\fR






.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::log\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::log10\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::max\fR \fIarg\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
................................................................................
namespace \fB::tcl::mathfunc\fR; these functions are also available
for code apart from \fBexpr\fR, by invoking the given commands
directly.
.PP
Tcl supports the following mathematical functions in expressions, all
of which work solely with floating-point numbers unless otherwise noted:
.DS
.ta 3c 6c 9c
\fBabs\fR	\fBacos\fR	\fBasin\fR	\fBatan\fR
\fBatan2\fR	\fBbool\fR	\fBceil\fR	\fBcos\fR
\fBcosh\fR	\fBdouble\fR	\fBentier\fR	\fBexp\fR
\fBfloor\fR	\fBfmod\fR	\fBhypot\fR	\fBint\fR


\fBisqrt\fR	\fBlog\fR	\fBlog10\fR	\fBmax\fR
\fBmin\fR	\fBpow\fR	\fBrand\fR	\fBround\fR
\fBsin\fR	\fBsinh\fR	\fBsqrt\fR	\fBsrand\fR
\fBtan\fR	\fBtanh\fR	\fBwide\fR
.DE
.PP
In addition to these predefined functions, applications may
define additional functions by using \fBproc\fR (or any other method,
such as \fBinterp alias\fR or \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR) to define
new commands in the \fBtcl::mathfunc\fR namespace.  In addition, an
obsolete interface named \fBTcl_CreateMathFunc\fR() is available to
................................................................................
.
The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined, and then the low order bits of that integer value up
to the machine word size are returned as an integer value.  For reference,
the number of bytes in the machine word are stored in the \fBwordSize\fR
element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
.TP




























\fBisqrt \fIarg\fR
.
Computes the integer part of the square root of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be
a positive value, either an integer or a floating point number.
Unlike \fBsqrt\fR, which is limited to the precision of a floating point
number, \fIisqrt\fR will return a result of arbitrary precision.

















.TP
\fBlog \fIarg\fR
.
Returns the natural logarithm of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be a
positive value.
.TP
\fBlog10 \fIarg\fR
................................................................................
.TP
\fBwide \fIarg\fR
.
The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined, and then the low order 64 bits of that integer value
are returned as an integer value.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), mathop(n), namespace(n)
.SH "COPYRIGHT"
.nf
Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated.
Copyright (c) 2005, 2006 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>.
.fi
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:







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\fB::tcl::mathfunc::floor\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::fmod\fR \fIx\fR \fIy\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::hypot\fR \fIx\fR \fIy\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::int\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
.VS "8.7, TIP 521"
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::isfinite\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::isinf\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::isnan\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::isnormal\fR \fIarg\fR
.VE "8.7, TIP 521"
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::isqrt\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
.VS "8.7, TIP 521"
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::issubnormal\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::isunordered\fR \fIx y\fR
.VE "8.7, TIP 521"
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::log\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::log10\fR \fIarg\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::max\fR \fIarg\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
................................................................................
namespace \fB::tcl::mathfunc\fR; these functions are also available
for code apart from \fBexpr\fR, by invoking the given commands
directly.
.PP
Tcl supports the following mathematical functions in expressions, all
of which work solely with floating-point numbers unless otherwise noted:
.DS
.ta 3.2c 6.4c 9.6c
\fBabs\fR	\fBacos\fR	\fBasin\fR	\fBatan\fR
\fBatan2\fR	\fBbool\fR	\fBceil\fR	\fBcos\fR
\fBcosh\fR	\fBdouble\fR	\fBentier\fR	\fBexp\fR
\fBfloor\fR	\fBfmod\fR	\fBhypot\fR	\fBint\fR
\fBisfinite\fR	\fBisinf\fR	\fBisnan\fR	\fBisnormal\fR
\fBisqrt\fR	\fBissubnormal\fR	\fBisunordered\fR	\fBlog\fR
\fBlog10\fR	\fBmax\fR	\fBmin\fR	\fBpow\fR
\fBrand\fR	\fBround\fR	\fBsin\fR	\fBsinh\fR
\fBsqrt\fR	\fBsrand\fR	\fBtan\fR	\fBtanh\fR
\fBwide\fR
.DE
.PP
In addition to these predefined functions, applications may
define additional functions by using \fBproc\fR (or any other method,
such as \fBinterp alias\fR or \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR) to define
new commands in the \fBtcl::mathfunc\fR namespace.  In addition, an
obsolete interface named \fBTcl_CreateMathFunc\fR() is available to
................................................................................
.
The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined, and then the low order bits of that integer value up
to the machine word size are returned as an integer value.  For reference,
the number of bytes in the machine word are stored in the \fBwordSize\fR
element of the \fBtcl_platform\fR array.
.TP
\fBisfinite \fIarg\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 521"
Returns 1 if the floating-point number \fIarg\fR is finite. That is, if it is
zero, subnormal, or normal. Returns 0 if the number is infinite or NaN. Throws
an error if \fIarg\fR cannot be promoted to a floating-point value.
.VE "8.7, TIP 521"
.TP
\fBisinf \fIarg\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 521"
Returns 1 if the floating-point number \fIarg\fR is infinite. Returns 0 if the
number is finite or NaN. Throws an error if \fIarg\fR cannot be promoted to a
floating-point value.
.VE "8.7, TIP 521"
.TP
\fBisnan \fIarg\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 521"
Returns 1 if the floating-point number \fIarg\fR is Not-a-Number. Returns 0 if
the number is finite or infinite. Throws an error if \fIarg\fR cannot be
promoted to a floating-point value.
.VE "8.7, TIP 521"
.TP
\fBisnormal \fIarg\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 521"
Returns 1 if the floating-point number \fIarg\fR is normal. Returns 0 if the
number is zero, subnormal, infinite or NaN. Throws an error if \fIarg\fR
cannot be promoted to a floating-point value.
.VE "8.7, TIP 521"
.TP
\fBisqrt \fIarg\fR
.
Computes the integer part of the square root of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be
a positive value, either an integer or a floating point number.
Unlike \fBsqrt\fR, which is limited to the precision of a floating point
number, \fIisqrt\fR will return a result of arbitrary precision.
.TP
\fBissubnormal \fIarg\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 521"
Returns 1 if the floating-point number \fIarg\fR is subnormal, i.e., the
result of gradual underflow. Returns 0 if the number is zero, normal, infinite
or NaN. Throws an error if \fIarg\fR cannot be promoted to a floating-point
value.
.VE "8.7, TIP 521"
.TP
\fBisunordered \fIx y\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 521"
Returns 1 if \fIx\fR and \fIy\fR cannot be compared for ordering, that is, if
either one is NaN. Returns 0 if both values can be ordered, that is, if they
are both chosen from among the set of zero, subnormal, normal and infinite
values. Throws an error if either \fIx\fR or \fIy\fR cannot be promoted to a
floating-point value.
.VE "8.7, TIP 521"
.TP
\fBlog \fIarg\fR
.
Returns the natural logarithm of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be a
positive value.
.TP
\fBlog10 \fIarg\fR
................................................................................
.TP
\fBwide \fIarg\fR
.
The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined, and then the low order 64 bits of that integer value
are returned as an integer value.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), fpclassify(n), mathop(n), namespace(n)
.SH "COPYRIGHT"
.nf
Copyright \(co 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
Copyright \(co 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated.
Copyright \(co 2005, 2006 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>.
.fi
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/mathop.n.

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\fB::tcl::mathop::>=\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::>\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::eq\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::ne\fR \fIarg arg\fR










.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::in\fR \fIarg list\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::ni\fR \fIarg list\fR
.sp
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
The following operator commands are supported:
.DS
.ta 2c 4c 6c 8c
\fB~\fR	\fB!\fR	\fB+\fR	\fB\-\fR	\fB*\fR
\fB/\fR	\fB%\fR	\fB**\fR	\fB&\fR	\fB|\fR
\fB^\fR	\fB>>\fR	\fB<<\fR	\fB==\fR	\fBeq\fR
\fB!=\fR	\fBne\fR	\fB<\fR	\fB<=\fR	\fB>\fR
\fB>=\fR	\fBin\fR	\fBni\fR

.DE
.SS "MATHEMATICAL OPERATORS"
.PP
The behaviors of the mathematical operator commands are as follows:
.TP
\fB!\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
................................................................................
Returns the result of raising each value to the power of the result of
recursively operating on the result of processing the following arguments, so
.QW "\fB** 2 3 4\fR"
is the same as
.QW "\fB** 2 [** 3 4]\fR" .
Each \fInumber\fR may be
any numeric value, though the second number must not be fractional if the

first is negative. If no arguments are given, the result will be one, and if
only one argument is given, the result will be that argument. The
result will have an integral value only when all arguments are
integral values.
.SS "COMPARISON OPERATORS"
.PP
The behaviors of the comparison operator commands (most of which operate
preferentially on numeric arguments) are as follows:
.TP
\fB==\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
................................................................................
\fB<\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be strictly more than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed preferentially on the numeric values, and are
otherwise performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value. When the
arguments are numeric but should be compared as strings, the \fBstring
compare\fR command should be used instead.
.TP
\fB<=\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be equal to or more than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed preferentially on the numeric values, and are
otherwise performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value. When the
arguments are numeric but should be compared as strings, the \fBstring
compare\fR command should be used instead.
.TP
\fB>\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be strictly less than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed preferentially on the numeric values, and are
otherwise performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value. When the
arguments are numeric but should be compared as strings, the \fBstring
compare\fR command should be used instead.
.TP
\fB>=\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be equal to or less than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed preferentially on the numeric values, and are
otherwise performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value. When the
arguments are numeric but should be compared as strings, the \fBstring
compare\fR command should be used instead.
































.SS "BIT-WISE OPERATORS"
.PP
The behaviors of the bit-wise operator commands (all of which only operate on
integral arguments) are as follows:
.TP
\fB~\fR \fInumber\fR
.
................................................................................

\fI# Test for list membership\fR
set gotIt [\fBin\fR 3 $list]

\fI# Test to see if a value is within some defined range\fR
set inRange [\fB<=\fR 1 $x 5]

\fI# Test to see if a list is sorted\fR
set sorted [\fB<=\fR {*}$list]




.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), mathfunc(n), namespace(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, expression, operator
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:






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\fB::tcl::mathop::>=\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::>\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::eq\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::ne\fR \fIarg arg\fR
.br
.VS "8.7, TIP461"
\fB::tcl::mathop::lt\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::le\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::gt\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::ge\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.VE "8.7, TIP461"
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::in\fR \fIarg list\fR
.br
\fB::tcl::mathop::ni\fR \fIarg list\fR
.sp
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
The following operator commands are supported:
.DS
.ta 2c 4c 6c 8c
\fB~\fR	\fB!\fR	\fB+\fR	\fB\-\fR	\fB*\fR
\fB/\fR	\fB%\fR	\fB**\fR	\fB&\fR	\fB|\fR
\fB^\fR	\fB>>\fR	\fB<<\fR	\fB==\fR	\fBeq\fR
\fB!=\fR	\fBne\fR	\fB<\fR	\fB<=\fR	\fB>\fR
\fB>=\fR	\fBin\fR	\fBni\fR	\fBlt\fR	\fBle\fR
\fBgt\fR	\fBge\fR
.DE
.SS "MATHEMATICAL OPERATORS"
.PP
The behaviors of the mathematical operator commands are as follows:
.TP
\fB!\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
................................................................................
Returns the result of raising each value to the power of the result of
recursively operating on the result of processing the following arguments, so
.QW "\fB** 2 3 4\fR"
is the same as
.QW "\fB** 2 [** 3 4]\fR" .
Each \fInumber\fR may be
any numeric value, though the second number must not be fractional if the
first is negative.  The maximum exponent value that Tcl can handle if the
first number is an integer > 1 is 268435455. If no arguments are given,
the result will be one, and if only one argument is given, the result will
be that argument. The result will have an integral value only when all
arguments are integral values.
.SS "COMPARISON OPERATORS"
.PP
The behaviors of the comparison operator commands (most of which operate
preferentially on numeric arguments) are as follows:
.TP
\fB==\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
................................................................................
\fB<\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be strictly more than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed preferentially on the numeric values, and are
otherwise performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value. When the
arguments are numeric but should be compared as strings, the \fBlt\fR
operator or the \fBstring compare\fR command should be used instead.
.TP
\fB<=\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be equal to or more than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed preferentially on the numeric values, and are
otherwise performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value. When the
arguments are numeric but should be compared as strings,  the \fBle\fR
operator or the \fBstring compare\fR command should be used instead.
.TP
\fB>\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be strictly less than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed preferentially on the numeric values, and are
otherwise performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value. When the
arguments are numeric but should be compared as strings, the \fBgt\fR
operator or the \fBstring compare\fR command should be used instead.
.TP
\fB>=\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be equal to or less than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed preferentially on the numeric values, and are
otherwise performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value. When the
arguments are numeric but should be compared as strings, the \fBge\fR
operator or the \fBstring compare\fR command should be used instead.
.TP
\fBlt\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.VS "8.7, TIP461"
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be strictly more than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value.
.VE "8.7, TIP461"
.TP
\fBle\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.VS "8.7, TIP461"
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be equal to or strictly more than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value.
.VE "8.7, TIP461"
.TP
\fBgt\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.VS "8.7, TIP461"
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be strictly less than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value.
.VE "8.7, TIP461"
.TP
\fBge\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.VS "8.7, TIP461"
Returns whether the arbitrarily-many arguments are ordered, with each argument
after the first having to be equal to or strictly less than the one preceding it.
Comparisons are performed using UNICODE string comparison. If fewer than two
arguments are present, this operation always returns a true value.
.VE "8.7, TIP461"
.SS "BIT-WISE OPERATORS"
.PP
The behaviors of the bit-wise operator commands (all of which only operate on
integral arguments) are as follows:
.TP
\fB~\fR \fInumber\fR
.
................................................................................

\fI# Test for list membership\fR
set gotIt [\fBin\fR 3 $list]

\fI# Test to see if a value is within some defined range\fR
set inRange [\fB<=\fR 1 $x 5]

\fI# Test to see if a list is numerically sorted\fR
set sorted [\fB<=\fR {*}$list]

\fI# Test to see if a list is lexically sorted\fR
set alphaList {a b c d e f}
set sorted [\fBle\fR {*}$alphaList]
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), mathfunc(n), namespace(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, expression, operator
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:

Changes to doc/msgcat.n.

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.TH "msgcat" n 1.5 msgcat "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
msgcat \- Tcl message catalog
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBpackage require Tcl 8.5\fR
.sp
\fBpackage require msgcat 1.6\fR
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mc \fIsrc-string\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcmax ?\fIsrc-string src-string ...\fR?
.sp
.VS "TIP 412"
\fB::msgcat::mcexists\fR ?\fB-exactnamespace\fR? ?\fB-exactlocale\fR? \fIsrc-string\fR
.VE "TIP 412"




.sp
\fB::msgcat::mclocale \fR?\fInewLocale\fR?
.sp

\fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR

.sp
.VS "TIP 412"
\fB::msgcat::mcloadedlocales subcommand\fR ?\fIlocale\fR?
.VE "TIP 412"
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcload \fIdirname\fR
.sp
................................................................................
.VS "TIP 412"
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale subcommand\fR ?\fIlocale\fR?
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcpackageconfig subcommand\fR \fIoption\fR ?\fIvalue\fR?
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcforgetpackage\fR
.VE "TIP 412"




.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmsgcat\fR package provides a set of functions
that can be used to manage multi-lingual user interfaces.
Text strings are defined in a
.QW "message catalog"
................................................................................
Each package has its own message catalog and configuration settings in \fBmsgcat\fR.
.PP
A \fIlocale\fR is a specification string describing a user language like \fBde_ch\fR for Swiss German.
In \fBmsgcat\fR, there is a global locale initialized by the system locale of the current system.
Each package may decide to use the global locale or to use a package specific locale.
.PP
The global locale may be changed on demand, for example by a user initiated language change or within a multi user application like a web server.





.SH COMMANDS
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mc \fIsrc-string\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.
Returns a translation of \fIsrc-string\fR according to the
current locale.  If additional arguments past \fIsrc-string\fR
are given, the \fBformat\fR command is used to substitute the
................................................................................
\fB::msgcat::mc\fR is the main function used to localize an
application.  Instead of using an English string directly, an
application can pass the English string through \fB::msgcat::mc\fR and
use the result.  If an application is written for a single language in
this fashion, then it is easy to add support for additional languages
later simply by defining new message catalog entries.
.RE











.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcmax ?\fIsrc-string src-string ...\fR?
.
Given several source strings, \fB::msgcat::mcmax\fR returns the length
of the longest translated string.  This is useful when designing
localized GUIs, which may require that all buttons, for example, be a
fixed width (which will be the width of the widest button).

.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcexists\fR ?\fB-exactnamespace\fR? ?\fB-exactlocale\fR? \fIsrc-string\fR
.
.VS "TIP 412"
Return true, if there is a translation for the given \fIsrc-string\fR.
.PP
.RS
The search may be limited by the option \fB\-exactnamespace\fR to only check the current namespace and not any parent namespaces.
.PP
It may also be limited by the option \fB\-exactlocale\fR to only check the first prefered locale (e.g. first element returned by \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR if global locale is used).





.RE

.VE "TIP 412"

.TP

























\fB::msgcat::mclocale \fR?\fInewLocale\fR?
.
This function sets the locale to \fInewLocale\fR.  If \fInewLocale\fR
is omitted, the current locale is returned, otherwise the current locale










is set to \fInewLocale\fR.  msgcat stores and compares the locale in a
case-insensitive manner, and returns locales in lowercase.
The initial locale is determined by the locale specified in
the user's environment.  See \fBLOCALE SPECIFICATION\fR
below for a description of the locale string format.
.RS
.PP
.VS "TIP 412"
If the locale is set, the preference list of locales is evaluated.
Locales in this list are loaded now, if not jet loaded.
.VE "TIP 412"
.RE
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR
.
Returns an ordered list of the locales preferred by
the user, based on the user's language specification.
The list is ordered from most specific to least
preference.  The list is derived from the current
locale set in msgcat by \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR, and
cannot be set independently.  For example, if the







current locale is en_US_funky, then \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR
returns \fB{en_us_funky en_us en {}}\fR.




.TP
\fB::msgcat:mcloadedlocales subcommand\fR ?\fIlocale\fR?
.
This group of commands manage the list of loaded locales for packages not setting a package locale.
.PP
.RS
The subcommand \fBget\fR returns the list of currently loaded locales.
................................................................................
Note that this routine is only called if the concerned package did not set a package locale unknown command name.
.RE
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcforgetpackage\fR
.
The calling package clears all its state within the \fBmsgcat\fR package including all settings and translations.
.VE "TIP 412"
















.PP
.SH "LOCALE SPECIFICATION"
.PP
The locale is specified to \fBmsgcat\fR by a locale string
passed to \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR.
The locale string consists of
a language code, an optional country code, and an optional
................................................................................
.PP
.CS
\fBmsgcat::mc\fR {Produced %1$d at %2$s} $num $city
# ... where that key is mapped to one of the
# human-oriented versions by \fBmsgcat::mcset\fR
.CE
.VS "TIP 412"
.SH Package private locale
.PP
A package using \fBmsgcat\fR may choose to use its own package private
locale and its own set of loaded locales, independent to the global
locale set by \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR.
.PP
This allows a package to change its locale without causing any locales load or removal in other packages and not to invoke the global locale change callback (see below).
.PP
................................................................................
This command may cause the load of locales.
.RE
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale get\fR
.
Return the package private locale or the global locale, if no package private locale is set.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale preferences\fR
.
Return the package private preferences or the global preferences,
if no package private locale is set.












.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale loaded\fR
.
Return the list of locales loaded for this package.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale isset\fR
.
................................................................................
.
Returns true, if the given locale is loaded for the package.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale clear\fR
.
Clear any loaded locales of the package not present in the package preferences.
.PP
.SH Changing package options
.PP
Each package using msgcat has a set of options within \fBmsgcat\fR.
The package options are described in the next sectionPackage options.
Each package option may be set or unset individually using the following ensemble:
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackageconfig get\fR \fIoption\fR
.
................................................................................
The called procedure must return the formatted message which will finally be returned by msgcat::mc.
.PP
A generic unknown handler is used if set to the empty string. This consists in returning the key if no arguments are given. With given arguments, format is used to process the arguments.
.PP
See section \fBcallback invocation\fR below.
The appended arguments are identical to \fB::msgcat::mcunknown\fR.
.RE
.SS Callback invocation
A package may decide to register one or multiple callbacks, as described above.
.PP
Callbacks are invoked, if:
.PP
1. the callback command is set,
.PP
2. the command is not the empty string,
.PP
3. the registering namespace exists.
.PP
If a called routine fails with an error, the \fBbgerror\fR routine for the interpreter is invoked after command completion.
Only exception is the callback \fBunknowncmd\fR, where an error causes the invoking \fBmc\fR-command to fail with that error.
.PP
.SS Examples















































Packages which display a GUI may update their widgets when the global locale changes.
To register to a callback, use:
.CS
namespace eval gui {
    msgcat::mcpackageconfig changecmd updateGUI

    proc updateGui args {
................................................................................
}
.CE
.VE "TIP 412"
.SH CREDITS
.PP
The message catalog code was developed by Mark Harrison.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
format(n), scan(n), namespace(n), package(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
internationalization, i18n, localization, l10n, message, text, translation
.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" End:






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.TH "msgcat" n 1.5 msgcat "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
msgcat \- Tcl message catalog
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBpackage require Tcl 8.7\fR
.sp
\fBpackage require msgcat 1.7\fR
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mc \fIsrc-string\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcmax ?\fIsrc-string src-string ...\fR?
.sp
.VS "TIP 412"
\fB::msgcat::mcexists\fR ?\fB-exactnamespace\fR? ?\fB-exactlocale\fR? \fIsrc-string\fR
.VE "TIP 412"
.sp
.VS "TIP 490"
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagenamespaceget\fR
.VE "TIP 490"
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mclocale \fR?\fInewLocale\fR?
.sp
.VS "TIP 499"
\fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR ?\fIlocale preference\fR? ...
.VE "TIP 499"
.sp
.VS "TIP 412"
\fB::msgcat::mcloadedlocales subcommand\fR ?\fIlocale\fR?
.VE "TIP 412"
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcload \fIdirname\fR
.sp
................................................................................
.VS "TIP 412"
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale subcommand\fR ?\fIlocale\fR?
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcpackageconfig subcommand\fR \fIoption\fR ?\fIvalue\fR?
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcforgetpackage\fR
.VE "TIP 412"
.sp
.VS "TIP 499"
\fB::msgcat::mcutil subcommand\fR ?\fIlocale\fR?
.VS "TIP 499"
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmsgcat\fR package provides a set of functions
that can be used to manage multi-lingual user interfaces.
Text strings are defined in a
.QW "message catalog"
................................................................................
Each package has its own message catalog and configuration settings in \fBmsgcat\fR.
.PP
A \fIlocale\fR is a specification string describing a user language like \fBde_ch\fR for Swiss German.
In \fBmsgcat\fR, there is a global locale initialized by the system locale of the current system.
Each package may decide to use the global locale or to use a package specific locale.
.PP
The global locale may be changed on demand, for example by a user initiated language change or within a multi user application like a web server.
.PP
.VS tip490
Object oriented programming is supported by the use of a package namespace.
.VE tip490
.PP
.SH COMMANDS
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mc \fIsrc-string\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.
Returns a translation of \fIsrc-string\fR according to the
current locale.  If additional arguments past \fIsrc-string\fR
are given, the \fBformat\fR command is used to substitute the
................................................................................
\fB::msgcat::mc\fR is the main function used to localize an
application.  Instead of using an English string directly, an
application can pass the English string through \fB::msgcat::mc\fR and
use the result.  If an application is written for a single language in
this fashion, then it is easy to add support for additional languages
later simply by defining new message catalog entries.
.RE
.VS "TIP 490"
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcn \fInamespace\fR \fIsrc-string\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.
Like \fB::msgcat::mc\fR, but with the message namespace specified as first argument.
.PP
.RS
\fBmcn\fR may be used for cases where the package namespace is not the namespace of the caller.
An example is shown within the description of the command \fB::msgcat::mcpackagenamespaceget\fR below.
.RE
.PP
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcmax ?\fIsrc-string src-string ...\fR?
.
Given several source strings, \fB::msgcat::mcmax\fR returns the length
of the longest translated string.  This is useful when designing
localized GUIs, which may require that all buttons, for example, be a
fixed width (which will be the width of the widest button).
.VS "TIP 412"
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcexists\fR ?\fB-exactnamespace\fR? ?\fB-exactlocale\fR? ?\fB-namespace\fR \fInamespace\fR? \fIsrc-string\fR
.

Return true, if there is a translation for the given \fIsrc-string\fR.
.PP
.RS
The search may be limited by the option \fB\-exactnamespace\fR to only check the current namespace and not any parent namespaces.
.PP
It may also be limited by the option \fB\-exactlocale\fR to only check the first prefered locale (e.g. first element returned by \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR if global locale is used).
.PP
.VE "TIP 412"
.VS "TIP 490"
An explicit package namespace may be specified by the option \fB-namespace\fR.
The namespace of the caller is used if not explicitly specified.
.RE
.PP
.VE "TIP 490"
.VS "TIP 490"
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagenamespaceget\fR
.
Return the package namespace of the caller.
This command handles all cases described in section \fBOBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING\fR.
.PP
.RS
Example usage is a tooltip package, which saves the caller package namespace to update the translation each time the tooltip is shown:
.CS
proc ::tooltip::tooltip {widget message} {
    ...
    set messagenamespace [uplevel 1 {::msgcat::mcpackagenamespaceget}]
    ...
    bind $widget  [list ::tooltip::show $widget $messagenamespace $message]
}

proc ::tooltip::show {widget messagenamespace message} {
    ...
    set message [::msgcat::mcn $messagenamespace $message]
    ...
}
.CE
.RE
.PP
.VE "TIP 490"
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mclocale \fR?\fInewLocale\fR?
.

If \fInewLocale\fR is omitted, the current locale is returned, otherwise the current locale
is set to \fInewLocale\fR.
.PP
.RS
If the new locale is set to \fInewLocale\fR, the corresponding preferences are calculated and set.
For example, if the current locale is en_US_funky, then \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR returns \fB{en_us_funky en_us en {}}\fR.
.PP
The same result may be acheved by \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR {*}[\fB::msgcat::mcutil getpreferences\fR \fInewLocale\fR].
.PP
The current locale is always the first element of the list returned by \fBmcpreferences\fR.
.PP
msgcat stores and compares the locale in a
case-insensitive manner, and returns locales in lowercase.
The initial locale is determined by the locale specified in
the user's environment.  See \fBLOCALE SPECIFICATION\fR
below for a description of the locale string format.

.PP
.VS "TIP 412"
If the locale is set, the preference list of locales is evaluated.
Locales in this list are loaded now, if not jet loaded.
.VE "TIP 412"
.RE
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR ?\fIlocale preference\fR? ...
.
Without arguments, returns an ordered list of the locales preferred by
the user.
The list is ordered from most specific to least preference.
.PP
.VS "TIP 499"
.RS
A set of locale preferences may be given to set the list of locale preferences.
The current locale is also set, which is the first element of the locale preferences list.
.PP
Locale preferences are loaded now, if not jet loaded.
.PP
As an example, the user may prefer French or English text. This may be configured by:
.CS
::msgcat::mcpreferences fr en {}

.CE
.RE
.PP
.VS "TIP 499"
.TP
\fB::msgcat:mcloadedlocales subcommand\fR ?\fIlocale\fR?
.
This group of commands manage the list of loaded locales for packages not setting a package locale.
.PP
.RS
The subcommand \fBget\fR returns the list of currently loaded locales.
................................................................................
Note that this routine is only called if the concerned package did not set a package locale unknown command name.
.RE
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcforgetpackage\fR
.
The calling package clears all its state within the \fBmsgcat\fR package including all settings and translations.
.VE "TIP 412"
.PP
.VS "TIP 499"
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcutil getpreferences\fR \fIlocale\fR
.
Return the preferences list of the given locale as described in section \fBLOCALE SPECIFICATION\fR.
An example is the composition of a preference list for the bilingual region "Biel/Bienne" as a concatenation of swiss german and swiss french:
.CS
% concat [lrange [msgcat::mcutil getpreferences fr_CH] 0 end-1] [msgcat::mcutil getpreferences de_CH]
fr_ch fr de_ch de {}
.CE
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcutil getsystemlocale\fR
.
The system locale is returned as described by the section \fBLOCALE SPECIFICATION\fR.
.VE "TIP 499"
.PP
.SH "LOCALE SPECIFICATION"
.PP
The locale is specified to \fBmsgcat\fR by a locale string
passed to \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR.
The locale string consists of
a language code, an optional country code, and an optional
................................................................................
.PP
.CS
\fBmsgcat::mc\fR {Produced %1$d at %2$s} $num $city
# ... where that key is mapped to one of the
# human-oriented versions by \fBmsgcat::mcset\fR
.CE
.VS "TIP 412"
.SH "PACKAGE PRIVATE LOCALE"
.PP
A package using \fBmsgcat\fR may choose to use its own package private
locale and its own set of loaded locales, independent to the global
locale set by \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR.
.PP
This allows a package to change its locale without causing any locales load or removal in other packages and not to invoke the global locale change callback (see below).
.PP
................................................................................
This command may cause the load of locales.
.RE
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale get\fR
.
Return the package private locale or the global locale, if no package private locale is set.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale preferences\fR ?\fIlocale preference\fR? ...
.
With no parameters, return the package private preferences or the global preferences,
if no package private locale is set.
The package locale state (set or not) is not changed (in contrast to the command \fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale set\fR).
.PP
.RS
.VS "TIP 499"
If a set of locale preferences is given, it is set as package locale preference list.
The package locale is set to the first element of the preference list.
A package locale is activated, if it was not set so far.
.PP
Locale preferences are loaded now for the package, if not jet loaded.
.VE "TIP 499"
.RE
.PP
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale loaded\fR
.
Return the list of locales loaded for this package.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale isset\fR
.
................................................................................
.
Returns true, if the given locale is loaded for the package.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackagelocale clear\fR
.
Clear any loaded locales of the package not present in the package preferences.
.PP
.SH "CHANGING PACKAGE OPTIONS"
.PP
Each package using msgcat has a set of options within \fBmsgcat\fR.
The package options are described in the next sectionPackage options.
Each package option may be set or unset individually using the following ensemble:
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcpackageconfig get\fR \fIoption\fR
.
................................................................................
The called procedure must return the formatted message which will finally be returned by msgcat::mc.
.PP
A generic unknown handler is used if set to the empty string. This consists in returning the key if no arguments are given. With given arguments, format is used to process the arguments.
.PP
See section \fBcallback invocation\fR below.
The appended arguments are identical to \fB::msgcat::mcunknown\fR.
.RE
.SH "Callback invocation"
A package may decide to register one or multiple callbacks, as described above.
.PP
Callbacks are invoked, if:
.PP
1. the callback command is set,
.PP
2. the command is not the empty string,
.PP
3. the registering namespace exists.
.PP
If a called routine fails with an error, the \fBbgerror\fR routine for the interpreter is invoked after command completion.
Only exception is the callback \fBunknowncmd\fR, where an error causes the invoking \fBmc\fR-command to fail with that error.
.PP
.VS tip490
.SH "OBJECT ORIENTED PROGRAMMING"
\fBmsgcat\fR supports packages implemented by object oriented programming.
Objects and classes should be defined within a package namespace.
.PP
There are 3 supported cases where package namespace sensitive commands of msgcat (\fBmc\fR, \fBmcexists\fR, \fBmcpackagelocale\fR, \fBmcforgetpackage\fR, \fBmcpackagenamespaceget\fR, \fBmcpackageconfig\fR, \fBmcset\fR and \fBmcmset\fR) may be called:
.PP
.TP
\fB1) In class definition script\fR
.
\fBmsgcat\fR command is called within a class definition script.
.CS
namespace eval ::N2 {
    mcload $dir/msgs
    oo::class create C1 {puts [mc Hi!]}
}
.CE
.PP
.TP
\fB2) method defined in a class\fR
.
\fBmsgcat\fR command is called from a method in an object and the method is defined in a class.
.CS
namespace eval ::N3Class {
    mcload $dir/msgs
    oo::class create C1
    oo::define C1 method m1 {
        puts [mc Hi!]
    }
}
.CE
.PP
.TP
\fB3) method defined in a classless object\fR
.
\fBmsgcat\fR command is called from a method of a classless object.
.CS
namespace eval ::N4 {
    mcload $dir/msgs
    oo::object create O1
    oo::objdefine O1 method m1 {} {
        puts [mc Hi!]
    }
}
.CE
.PP
.VE tip490
.SH EXAMPLES
Packages which display a GUI may update their widgets when the global locale changes.
To register to a callback, use:
.CS
namespace eval gui {
    msgcat::mcpackageconfig changecmd updateGUI

    proc updateGui args {
................................................................................
}
.CE
.VE "TIP 412"
.SH CREDITS
.PP
The message catalog code was developed by Mark Harrison.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
format(n), scan(n), namespace(n), package(n), oo::class(n), oo::object
.SH KEYWORDS
internationalization, i18n, localization, l10n, message, text, translation, class, object
.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" End:

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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH my n 0.1 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
my \- invoke any method of current object
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBmy\fI methodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?

.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmy\fR command is used to allow methods of objects to invoke any method





of the object (or its class). In particular, the set of valid values for
\fImethodName\fR is the set of all methods supported by an object and its
superclasses, including those that are not exported. The object upon which the
method is invoked is always the one that is the current context of the method
(i.e. the object that is returned by \fBself object\fR) from which the
\fBmy\fR command is invoked.




.PP












Each object has its own \fBmy\fR command, contained in its instance namespace.

.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example shows basic use of \fBmy\fR to use the \fBvariables\fR method of
the \fBoo::object\fR class, which is not publicly visible by default:
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c {
    method count {} {
        \fBmy\fR variable counter
        puts [incr counter]
    }
}

c create o
o count              \fI\(-> prints "1"\fR
o count              \fI\(-> prints "2"\fR
o count              \fI\(-> prints "3"\fR
.CE























































.SH "SEE ALSO"
next(n), oo::object(n), self(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
method, method visibility, object, private method, public method

.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:






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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH my n 0.1 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
my, myclass \- invoke any method of current object or its class
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBmy\fI methodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?
\fBmyclass\fI methodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmy\fR command is used to allow methods of objects to invoke methods
of the object (or its class),
.VS TIP478
and he \fBmyclass\fR command is used to allow methods of objects to invoke
methods of the current class of the object \fIas an object\fR.
.VE TIP478
In particular, the set of valid values for
\fImethodName\fR is the set of all methods supported by an object and its
superclasses, including those that are not exported



.VS TIP500
and private methods of the object or class when used within another method
defined by that object or class.
.VE TIP500
.PP
The object upon which the method is invoked via \fBmy\fR is the one that owns
the namespace that the \fBmy\fR command is contained in initially (\fBNB:\fR the link
remains if the command is renamed), which is the currently invoked object by
default.
.VS TIP478
Similarly, the object on which the method is invoked via \fBmyclass\fR is the
object that is the current class of the object that owns the namespace that
the \fBmyclass\fR command is contained in initially. As with \fBmy\fR, the
link remains even if the command is renamed into another namespace, and
defaults to being the manufacturing class of the current object.
.VE TIP478
.PP
Each object has its own \fBmy\fR and \fBmyclass\fR commands, contained in its
instance namespace.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example shows basic use of \fBmy\fR to use the \fBvariables\fR method of
the \fBoo::object\fR class, which is not publicly visible by default:
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c {
    method count {} {
        \fBmy\fR variable counter
        puts [incr counter]
    }
}

c create o
o count              \fI\(-> prints "1"\fR
o count              \fI\(-> prints "2"\fR
o count              \fI\(-> prints "3"\fR
.CE
.PP
This example shows how you can use \fBmy\fR to make callbacks to private
methods from outside the object (from a \fBtrace\fR), using
\fBnamespace code\fR to enter the correct context. (See the \fBcallback\fR
command for the recommended way of doing this.)
.PP
.CS
oo::class create HasCallback {
    method makeCallback {} {
        return [namespace code {
            \fBmy\fR Callback
        }]
    }

    method Callback {args} {
        puts "callback: $args"
    }
}

set o [HasCallback new]
trace add variable xyz write [$o makeCallback]
set xyz "called"     \fI\(-> prints "callback: xyz {} write"\fR
.CE
.PP
.VS TIP478
This example shows how to access a private method of a class from an instance
of that class. (See the \fBclassmethod\fR declaration in \fBoo::define\fR for
a higher level interface for doing this.)
.PP
.CS
oo::class create CountedSteps {
    self {
        variable count
        method Count {} {
            return [incr count]
        }
    }
    method advanceTwice {} {
        puts "in [self] step A: [\fBmyclass\fR Count]"
        puts "in [self] step B: [\fBmyclass\fR Count]"
    }
}

CountedSteps create x
CountedSteps create y
x advanceTwice       \fI\(-> prints "in ::x step A: 1"\fR
                     \fI\(-> prints "in ::x step B: 2"\fR
y advanceTwice       \fI\(-> prints "in ::y step A: 3"\fR
                     \fI\(-> prints "in ::y step B: 4"\fR
x advanceTwice       \fI\(-> prints "in ::x step A: 5"\fR
                     \fI\(-> prints "in ::x step B: 6"\fR
y advanceTwice       \fI\(-> prints "in ::y step A: 7"\fR
                     \fI\(-> prints "in ::y step B: 8"\fR
.CE
.VE TIP478
.SH "SEE ALSO"
next(n), oo::object(n), self(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
method, method visibility, object, private method, public method

.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/next.n.

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.PP
.CS
oo::class create theSuperclass {
    method example {args} {
        puts "in the superclass, args = $args"
    }
}

oo::class create theSubclass {
    superclass theSuperclass
    method example {args} {
        puts "before chaining from subclass, args = $args"
        \fBnext\fR a {*}$args b
        \fBnext\fR pureSynthesis
        puts "after chaining from subclass"
    }
}

theSubclass create obj
oo::objdefine obj method example args {
    puts "per-object method, args = $args"
    \fBnext\fR x {*}$args y
    \fBnext\fR
}
obj example 1 2 3
................................................................................
        if {[info exist ValueCache($key)]} {
            return $ValueCache($key)
        }

        \fI# Compute value, insert into cache, and return it\fR
        return [set ValueCache($key) [\fBnext\fR {*}$args]]
    }

    method flushCache {} {
        my variable ValueCache
        unset ValueCache
        \fI# Skip the caching\fR
        return -level 2 ""
    }
}

oo::object create demo
oo::objdefine demo {
    mixin cache

    method compute {a b c} {
        after 3000 \fI;# Simulate deep thought\fR
        return [expr {$a + $b * $c}]
    }

    method compute2 {a b c} {
        after 3000 \fI;# Simulate deep thought\fR
        return [expr {$a * $b + $c}]
    }
}

puts [demo compute  1 2 3]      \fI\(-> prints "7" after delay\fR






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.PP
.CS
oo::class create theSuperclass {
    method example {args} {
        puts "in the superclass, args = $args"
    }
}

oo::class create theSubclass {
    superclass theSuperclass
    method example {args} {
        puts "before chaining from subclass, args = $args"
        \fBnext\fR a {*}$args b
        \fBnext\fR pureSynthesis
        puts "after chaining from subclass"
    }
}

theSubclass create obj
oo::objdefine obj method example args {
    puts "per-object method, args = $args"
    \fBnext\fR x {*}$args y
    \fBnext\fR
}
obj example 1 2 3
................................................................................
        if {[info exist ValueCache($key)]} {
            return $ValueCache($key)
        }

        \fI# Compute value, insert into cache, and return it\fR
        return [set ValueCache($key) [\fBnext\fR {*}$args]]
    }

    method flushCache {} {
        my variable ValueCache
        unset ValueCache
        \fI# Skip the caching\fR
        return -level 2 ""
    }
}

oo::object create demo
oo::objdefine demo {
    mixin cache

    method compute {a b c} {
        after 3000 \fI;# Simulate deep thought\fR
        return [expr {$a + $b * $c}]
    }

    method compute2 {a b c} {
        after 3000 \fI;# Simulate deep thought\fR
        return [expr {$a * $b + $c}]
    }
}

puts [demo compute  1 2 3]      \fI\(-> prints "7" after delay\fR

Changes to doc/open.n.

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.SH "SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS"
.PP
If \fIfileName\fR refers to a serial port, then the specified serial port
is opened and initialized in a platform-dependent manner.  Acceptable
values for the \fIfileName\fR to use to open a serial port are described in
the PORTABILITY ISSUES section.
.PP
The \fBfconfigure\fR command can be used to query and set additional
configuration options specific to serial ports (where supported):

.TP
\fB\-mode\fR \fIbaud\fB,\fIparity\fB,\fIdata\fB,\fIstop\fR
.
This option is a set of 4 comma-separated values: the baud rate, parity,
number of data bits, and number of stop bits for this serial port.  The
\fIbaud\fR rate is a simple integer that specifies the connection speed.
\fIParity\fR is one of the following letters: \fBn\fR, \fBo\fR, \fBe\fR,
................................................................................
.TP
\fB\-xchar\fR \fI{xonChar xoffChar}\fR
.
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to query or change the software
handshake characters. Normally the operating system default should be
DC1 (0x11) and DC3 (0x13) representing the ASCII standard
XON and XOFF characters.





































































.TP
\fB\-pollinterval\fR \fImsec\fR
.
(Windows only). This option is used to set the maximum time between
polling for fileevents.
This affects the time interval between checking for events throughout the Tcl
interpreter (the smallest value always wins).  Use this option only if
................................................................................
\fB\-lasterror\fR
.
(Windows only). This option is query only.
In case of a serial communication error, \fBread\fR or \fBputs\fR
returns a general Tcl file I/O error.
\fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-lasterror\fR can be called to get a list of error details.
See below for an explanation of the various error codes.
.SH "SERIAL PORT SIGNALS"
.PP
RS-232 is the most commonly used standard electrical interface for serial
communications. A negative voltage (-3V..-12V) define a mark (on=1) bit and
a positive voltage (+3..+12V) define a space (off=0) bit (RS-232C).  The
following signals are specified for incoming and outgoing data, status
lines and handshaking. Here we are using the terms \fIworkstation\fR for
your computer and \fImodem\fR for the external device, because some signal
................................................................................
.IP \fBBREAK\fR
A BREAK condition is not a hardware signal line, but a logical zero on the
TXD or RXD lines for a long period of time, usually 250 to 500
milliseconds.  Normally a receive or transmit data signal stays at the mark
(on=1) voltage until the next character is transferred. A BREAK is sometimes
used to reset the communications line or change the operating mode of
communications hardware.
.SH "ERROR CODES (Windows only)"
.PP
A lot of different errors may occur during serial read operations or during
event polling in background. The external device may have been switched
off, the data lines may be noisy, system buffers may overrun or your mode
settings may be wrong.  That is why a reliable software should always
\fBcatch\fR serial read operations.  In cases of an error Tcl returns a
general file I/O error.  Then \fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-lasterror\fR may help to
................................................................................
A stop-bit error has been detected by your UART.
Wrong mode settings with \fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-mode\fR or a noisy data line (RXD)
may cause this error.
.TP 10
\fBBREAK\fR
.
A BREAK condition has been detected by your UART (see above).
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows \fR
.
Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are of the form
\fBcom\fIX\fB\fR, where \fIX\fR is a number, generally from 1 to 9.
A legacy form accepted as well is \fBcom\fIX\fB:\fR. This notation only
works for serial ports from 1 to 9.  An attempt to open a serial port that
................................................................................
not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard
input, but is redirected from a file, then the above problem does not occur.
.RE
.PP
See the \fBPORTABILITY ISSUES\fR section of the \fBexec\fR command for
additional information not specific to command pipelines about executing
applications on the various platforms
















































.SH "EXAMPLE"
.PP
Open a command pipeline and catch any errors:
.PP
.CS
set fl [\fBopen\fR "| ls this_file_does_not_exist"]
set data [read $fl]
if {[catch {close $fl} err]} {
    puts "ls command failed: $err"
}
.CE
















.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), close(n), filename(n), fconfigure(n), gets(n), read(n),
puts(n), exec(n), pid(n), fopen(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
access mode, append, create, file, non-blocking, open, permissions,
pipeline, process, serial
'\"Local Variables:
'\"mode: nroff
'\"End:






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.SH "SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS"
.PP
If \fIfileName\fR refers to a serial port, then the specified serial port
is opened and initialized in a platform-dependent manner.  Acceptable
values for the \fIfileName\fR to use to open a serial port are described in
the PORTABILITY ISSUES section.
.PP
The \fBchan configure\fR and \fBfconfigure\fR commands can be used to query
and set additional configuration options specific to serial ports (where
supported):
.TP
\fB\-mode\fR \fIbaud\fB,\fIparity\fB,\fIdata\fB,\fIstop\fR
.
This option is a set of 4 comma-separated values: the baud rate, parity,
number of data bits, and number of stop bits for this serial port.  The
\fIbaud\fR rate is a simple integer that specifies the connection speed.
\fIParity\fR is one of the following letters: \fBn\fR, \fBo\fR, \fBe\fR,
................................................................................
.TP
\fB\-xchar\fR \fI{xonChar xoffChar}\fR
.
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to query or change the software
handshake characters. Normally the operating system default should be
DC1 (0x11) and DC3 (0x13) representing the ASCII standard
XON and XOFF characters.
.TP
\fB\-closemode\fR \fIcloseMode\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 160"
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to query or change the close mode of
the serial channel, which defines how pending output in operating system
buffers is handled when the channel is closed. The following values for
\fIcloseMode\fR are supported:
.RS
.TP
\fBdefault\fR
.
indicates that a system default operation should be used; all serial channels
default to this.
.TP
\fBdiscard\fR
.
indicates that the contents of the OS buffers should be discarded.  Note that
this is \fInot recommended\fR when writing to a POSIX terminal, as it can
interact unexpectedly with handling of \fBstderr\fR.
.TP
\fBdrain\fR
.
indicates that Tcl should wait when closing the channel until all output has
been consumed. This may slow down \fBclose\fR noticeably.
.RE
.VE "8.7, TIP 160"
.TP
\fB\-inputmode\fR \fIinputMode\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 160"
(Unix only; Windows has the equivalent option on console channels). This
option is used to query or change the input mode of the serial channel under
the assumption that it is talking to a terminal, which controls how interactive
input from users is handled. The following values for \fIinputMode\fR are
supported:
.RS
.TP
\fBnormal\fR
.
indicates that normal line-oriented input should be used, with standard
terminal editing capabilities enabled.
.TP
\fBpassword\fR
.
indicates that non-echoing input should be used, with standard terminal
editing capabilities enabled but no writing of typed characters to the
terminal (except for newlines). Some terminals may indicate this specially.
.TP
\fBraw\fR
.
indicates that all keyboard input should be given directly to Tcl with the
terminal doing no processing at all. It does not echo the keys, leaving it up
to the Tcl script to interpret what to do.
.TP
\fBreset\fR (set only)
.
indicates that the terminal should be reset to what state it was in when the
terminal was opened.
.PP
Note that setting this option (technically, anything that changes the terminal
state from its initial value \fIvia this option\fR) will cause the channel to
turn on an automatic reset of the terminal when the channel is closed.
.RE
.TP
\fB\-winsize\fR
.
(Unix only; Windows has the equivalent option on console channels). This
option is query only. It retrieves a two-element list with the the current
width and height of the terminal.
.VE "8.7, TIP 160"
.TP
\fB\-pollinterval\fR \fImsec\fR
.
(Windows only). This option is used to set the maximum time between
polling for fileevents.
This affects the time interval between checking for events throughout the Tcl
interpreter (the smallest value always wins).  Use this option only if
................................................................................
\fB\-lasterror\fR
.
(Windows only). This option is query only.
In case of a serial communication error, \fBread\fR or \fBputs\fR
returns a general Tcl file I/O error.
\fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-lasterror\fR can be called to get a list of error details.
See below for an explanation of the various error codes.
.SS "SERIAL PORT SIGNALS"
.PP
RS-232 is the most commonly used standard electrical interface for serial
communications. A negative voltage (-3V..-12V) define a mark (on=1) bit and
a positive voltage (+3..+12V) define a space (off=0) bit (RS-232C).  The
following signals are specified for incoming and outgoing data, status
lines and handshaking. Here we are using the terms \fIworkstation\fR for
your computer and \fImodem\fR for the external device, because some signal
................................................................................
.IP \fBBREAK\fR
A BREAK condition is not a hardware signal line, but a logical zero on the
TXD or RXD lines for a long period of time, usually 250 to 500
milliseconds.  Normally a receive or transmit data signal stays at the mark
(on=1) voltage until the next character is transferred. A BREAK is sometimes
used to reset the communications line or change the operating mode of
communications hardware.
.SS "ERROR CODES (Windows only)"
.PP
A lot of different errors may occur during serial read operations or during
event polling in background. The external device may have been switched
off, the data lines may be noisy, system buffers may overrun or your mode
settings may be wrong.  That is why a reliable software should always
\fBcatch\fR serial read operations.  In cases of an error Tcl returns a
general file I/O error.  Then \fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-lasterror\fR may help to
................................................................................
A stop-bit error has been detected by your UART.
Wrong mode settings with \fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-mode\fR or a noisy data line (RXD)
may cause this error.
.TP 10
\fBBREAK\fR
.
A BREAK condition has been detected by your UART (see above).
.SS "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows \fR
.
Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are of the form
\fBcom\fIX\fB\fR, where \fIX\fR is a number, generally from 1 to 9.
A legacy form accepted as well is \fBcom\fIX\fB:\fR. This notation only
works for serial ports from 1 to 9.  An attempt to open a serial port that
................................................................................
not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard
input, but is redirected from a file, then the above problem does not occur.
.RE
.PP
See the \fBPORTABILITY ISSUES\fR section of the \fBexec\fR command for
additional information not specific to command pipelines about executing
applications on the various platforms
.SH "CONSOLE CHANNELS"
.VS "8.7, TIP 160"
On Windows only, console channels (usually \fBstdin\fR or \fBstdout\fR)
support the following options:
.TP
\fB\-inputmode\fR \fIinputMode\fR
.
This option is used to query or change the input mode of the console channel,
which controls how interactive input from users is handled. The following
values for \fIinputMode\fR are supported:
.RS
.TP
\fBnormal\fR
.
indicates that normal line-oriented input should be used, with standard
console editing capabilities enabled.
.TP
\fBpassword\fR
.
indicates that non-echoing input should be used, with standard console
editing capabilitied enabled but no writing of typed characters to the
terminal (except for newlines).
.TP
\fBraw\fR
.
indicates that all keyboard input should be given directly to Tcl with the
console doing no processing at all. It does not echo the keys, leaving it up
to the Tcl script to interpret what to do.
.TP
\fBreset\fR (set only)
.
indicates that the console should be reset to what state it was in when the
console channel was opened.
.PP
Note that setting this option (technically, anything that changes the console
state from its default \fIvia this option\fR) will cause the channel to turn
on an automatic reset of the console when the channel is closed.
.RE
.TP
\fB\-winsize\fR
.
This option is query only.
It retrieves a two-element list with the the current width and height of the
console that this channel is talking to.
.PP
Note that the equivalent options exist on Unix, but are on the serial channel
type.
.VE "8.7, TIP 160"
.SH "EXAMPLES"
.PP
Open a command pipeline and catch any errors:
.PP
.CS
set fl [\fBopen\fR "| ls this_file_does_not_exist"]
set data [read $fl]
if {[catch {close $fl} err]} {
    puts "ls command failed: $err"
}
.CE
.PP
.VS "8.7, TIP 160"
Read a password securely from the user (assuming that the script is being run
interactively):
.PP
.CS
chan configure stdin \fB-inputmode password\fR
try {
    chan puts -nonewline "Password: "
    chan flush stdout
    set thePassword [chan gets stdin]
} finally {
    chan configure stdin \fB-inputmode reset\fR
}
.CE
.VE "8.7, TIP 160"
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), close(n), filename(n), fconfigure(n), gets(n), read(n),
puts(n), exec(n), pid(n), fopen(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
access mode, append, create, file, non-blocking, open, permissions,
pipeline, process, serial
'\"Local Variables:
'\"mode: nroff
'\"End:

Changes to doc/packagens.n.

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specified.
.PP
At least one \fB\-load\fR or \fB\-source\fR parameter must be given.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
auto-load, index, package, version










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specified.
.PP
At least one \fB\-load\fR or \fB\-source\fR parameter must be given.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
auto-load, index, package, version
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/pid.n.

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puts [string repeat - 70]
puts [read $pipeline]
close $pipeline
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
exec(n), open(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
file, pipeline, process identifier










<


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puts [string repeat - 70]
puts [read $pipeline]
close $pipeline
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
exec(n), open(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
file, pipeline, process identifier
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/platform.n.

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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
platform \- System identification support code and utilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require platform ?1.0.10?\fR
.sp
\fBplatform::generic\fR
\fBplatform::identify\fR
\fBplatform::patterns \fIidentifier\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION






|







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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
platform \- System identification support code and utilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require platform\fR ?\fB1.0.10\fR?
.sp
\fBplatform::generic\fR
\fBplatform::identify\fR
\fBplatform::patterns \fIidentifier\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION

Changes to doc/platform_shell.n.

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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
platform::shell \- System identification support code and utilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require platform::shell ?1.1.4?\fR
.sp
\fBplatform::shell::generic \fIshell\fR
\fBplatform::shell::identify \fIshell\fR
\fBplatform::shell::platform \fIshell\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
for the specified Tcl shell, in contrast to the running shell.
.TP
\fBplatform::shell::platform \fIshell\fR
This command returns the contents of \fBtcl_platform(platform)\fR for
the specified Tcl shell.
.SH KEYWORDS
operating system, cpu architecture, platform, architecture










|







 







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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
platform::shell \- System identification support code and utilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require platform::shell\fR ?\fB1.1.4\fR?
.sp
\fBplatform::shell::generic \fIshell\fR
\fBplatform::shell::identify \fIshell\fR
\fBplatform::shell::platform \fIshell\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
for the specified Tcl shell, in contrast to the running shell.
.TP
\fBplatform::shell::platform \fIshell\fR
This command returns the contents of \fBtcl_platform(platform)\fR for
the specified Tcl shell.
.SH KEYWORDS
operating system, cpu architecture, platform, architecture
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/prefix.n.

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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tcl::prefix \- facilities for prefix matching
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB::tcl::prefix all\fR \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
\fB::tcl::prefix longest\fR \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
\fB::tcl::prefix match\fR \fI?option ...?\fR \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This document describes commands looking up a prefix in a list of strings.
The following commands are supported:
.TP
\fB::tcl::prefix all\fR \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
.
Returns a list of all elements in \fItable\fR that begin with the prefix
\fIstring\fR.
.TP
\fB::tcl::prefix longest\fR \fItable\fR \fIstri