# Tcl Source Code

Check-in [b67e3f215e]
Bounty program for improvements to Tcl and certain Tcl packages.
Tcl 2019 Conference, Houston/TX, US, Nov 4-8
Send your abstracts to [email protected]
or submit via the online form by Sep 9.

Overview
Comment: * changes: Updated for 8.5b2 release. * doc/*.1: Revert doc changes that broke * doc/*.3: make html so we can get the release * doc/*.n: out the door. Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive family | ancestors | descendants | both | | core-8-5-b2 files | file ages | folders b67e3f215e5ed2c3abc44b48bd54a2c3a7ad948a dgp 2007-10-26 20:11:50
Context
 2007-10-26 23:52 Make the man->HTML scraper work better. check-in: 84dfc4343b user: dkf tags: trunk 20:11 * changes: Updated for 8.5b2 release. * doc/*.1: Revert d... check-in: b67e3f215e user: dgp tags: trunk, core-8-5-b2 16:54 tag: 8.5b2 check-in: 3b4a8c5724 user: dgp tags: trunk
Changes

Changes to ChangeLog.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12  2007-10-26 Don Porter <[email protected]> *** 8.5b2 TAGGED FOR RELEASE *** * changes: Updated for 8.5b2 release. * README: Bump version number to 8.5b2. * generic/tcl.h: * library/init.tcl: * tools/tcl.wse.in: * unix/configure.in: * unix/tcl.spec:   > > > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16  2007-10-26 Don Porter <[email protected]> *** 8.5b2 TAGGED FOR RELEASE *** * changes: Updated for 8.5b2 release. * doc/*.1: Revert doc changes that broke * doc/*.3: make html so we can get the release * doc/*.n: out the door. * README: Bump version number to 8.5b2. * generic/tcl.h: * library/init.tcl: * tools/tcl.wse.in: * unix/configure.in: * unix/tcl.spec: 

Changes to changes.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .... 7031 7032 7033 7034 7035 7036 7037 7038 7039 7040  Recent user-visible changes to Tcl: RCS: @(#) $Id: changes,v 1.120 2007/10/26 15:53:43 dgp Exp$ 1. No more [command1] [command2] construct for grouping multiple commands on a single command line. 2. Semi-colon now available for grouping commands on a line. 3. For a command to span multiple lines, must now use backslash-return ................................................................................ 2007-10-11 (bug fix)[1805887] [string is int -failindex] for 0o, 0b (porter) 2007-10-15 (bug fix)[1813528] Tcl_ParseBraces read past buffer (mistachkin) 2007-10-25 (bug fix)[1726873] intermittent crash in threads (vasiljevic) New doc macros for improved formatting. Docs updated to use. (fellows) --- Released 8.5b2, October 26, 2007 --- See ChangeLog for details ---   | < <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 .... 7031 7032 7033 7034 7035 7036 7037 7038  Recent user-visible changes to Tcl: RCS: @(#) $Id: changes,v 1.121 2007/10/26 20:11:50 dgp Exp$ 1. No more [command1] [command2] construct for grouping multiple commands on a single command line. 2. Semi-colon now available for grouping commands on a line. 3. For a command to span multiple lines, must now use backslash-return ................................................................................ 2007-10-11 (bug fix)[1805887] [string is int -failindex] for 0o, 0b (porter) 2007-10-15 (bug fix)[1813528] Tcl_ParseBraces read past buffer (mistachkin) 2007-10-25 (bug fix)[1726873] intermittent crash in threads (vasiljevic) --- Released 8.5b2, October 26, 2007 --- See ChangeLog for details --- 

Changes to doc/AppInit.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: AppInit.3,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_AppInit 3 7.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_AppInit \- perform application-specific initialization .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .AS Tcl_Interp *interp .AP Tcl_Interp *interp in Interpreter for the application. .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBTcl_AppInit\fR is a .QW hook procedure that is invoked by the main programs for Tcl applications such as \fBtclsh\fR and \fBwish\fR. Its purpose is to allow new Tcl applications to be created without modifying the main programs provided as part of Tcl and Tk. To create a new application you write a new version of \fBTcl_AppInit\fR to replace the default version provided by Tcl, then link your new \fBTcl_AppInit\fR with the Tcl library. .PP   | < < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: AppInit.3,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_AppInit 3 7.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_AppInit \- perform application-specific initialization .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .AS Tcl_Interp *interp .AP Tcl_Interp *interp in Interpreter for the application. .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBTcl_AppInit\fR is a hook'' procedure that is invoked by the main programs for Tcl applications such as \fBtclsh\fR and \fBwish\fR. Its purpose is to allow new Tcl applications to be created without modifying the main programs provided as part of Tcl and Tk. To create a new application you write a new version of \fBTcl_AppInit\fR to replace the default version provided by Tcl, then link your new \fBTcl_AppInit\fR with the Tcl library. .PP 

Changes to doc/BackgdErr.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1992-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: BackgdErr.3,v 1.5 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_BackgroundError 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_BackgroundError \- report Tcl error that occurred in background processing .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .AP Tcl_Interp *interp in Interpreter in which the error occurred. .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This procedure is typically invoked when a Tcl error occurs during .QW "background processing" such as executing an event handler. When such an error occurs, the error condition is reported to Tcl or to a widget or some other C code, and there is not usually any obvious way for that code to report the error to the user. In these cases the code calls \fBTcl_BackgroundError\fR with an \fIinterp\fR argument identifying the interpreter in which the error occurred. At the time \fBTcl_BackgroundError\fR is invoked, the interpreter's result is expected to contain an error message.   | < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1992-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: BackgdErr.3,v 1.6 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_BackgroundError 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_BackgroundError \- report Tcl error that occurred in background processing .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .AP Tcl_Interp *interp in Interpreter in which the error occurred. .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This procedure is typically invoked when a Tcl error occurs during background processing'' such as executing an event handler. When such an error occurs, the error condition is reported to Tcl or to a widget or some other C code, and there is not usually any obvious way for that code to report the error to the user. In these cases the code calls \fBTcl_BackgroundError\fR with an \fIinterp\fR argument identifying the interpreter in which the error occurred. At the time \fBTcl_BackgroundError\fR is invoked, the interpreter's result is expected to contain an error message. 

Changes to doc/CrtChannel.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1996-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1997-2000 Ajuba Solutions. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: CrtChannel.3,v 1.36 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ .so man.macros .TH Tcl_CreateChannel 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME Tcl_CreateChannel, Tcl_GetChannelInstanceData, Tcl_GetChannelType, Tcl_GetChannelName, Tcl_GetChannelHandle, Tcl_GetChannelMode, Tcl_GetChannelBufferSize, Tcl_SetChannelBufferSize, Tcl_NotifyChannel, Tcl_BadChannelOption, Tcl_ChannelName, Tcl_ChannelVersion, Tcl_ChannelBlockModeProc, Tcl_ChannelCloseProc, Tcl_ChannelClose2Proc, Tcl_ChannelInputProc, Tcl_ChannelOutputProc, Tcl_ChannelSeekProc, Tcl_ChannelWideSeekProc, Tcl_ChannelTruncateProc, Tcl_ChannelSetOptionProc, Tcl_ChannelGetOptionProc, Tcl_ChannelWatchProc, Tcl_ChannelGetHandleProc, Tcl_ChannelFlushProc, Tcl_ChannelHandlerProc, Tcl_ChannelThreadActionProc, Tcl_IsChannelShared, Tcl_IsChannelRegistered, Tcl_CutChannel, Tcl_SpliceChannel, Tcl_IsChannelExisting, Tcl_ClearChannelHandlers, Tcl_GetChannelThread, Tcl_ChannelBuffered \- procedures for creating and manipulating channels .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .CS bad option "-blah": should be one of -blocking, -buffering, -buffersize, -eofchar, -translation, -peername, or -sockname .CE when called with \fIoptionList\fR="peername sockname" .PP .QW blah is the \fIoptionName\fR argument and .QW "" is a space separated list of specific option words. The function takes good care of inserting minus signs before each option, commas after, and an .QW or before the last option. .SH "OLD CHANNEL TYPES" The original (8.3.1 and below) \fBTcl_ChannelType\fR structure contains the following fields: .PP .CS typedef struct Tcl_ChannelType { char *\fItypeName\fR;   | < | < | < <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1996-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1997-2000 Ajuba Solutions. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: CrtChannel.3,v 1.37 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ .so man.macros .TH Tcl_CreateChannel 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME Tcl_CreateChannel, Tcl_GetChannelInstanceData, Tcl_GetChannelType, Tcl_GetChannelName, Tcl_GetChannelHandle, Tcl_GetChannelMode, Tcl_GetChannelBufferSize, Tcl_SetChannelBufferSize, Tcl_NotifyChannel, Tcl_BadChannelOption, Tcl_ChannelName, Tcl_ChannelVersion, Tcl_ChannelBlockModeProc, Tcl_ChannelCloseProc, Tcl_ChannelClose2Proc, Tcl_ChannelInputProc, Tcl_ChannelOutputProc, Tcl_ChannelSeekProc, Tcl_ChannelWideSeekProc, Tcl_ChannelTruncateProc, Tcl_ChannelSetOptionProc, Tcl_ChannelGetOptionProc, Tcl_ChannelWatchProc, Tcl_ChannelGetHandleProc, Tcl_ChannelFlushProc, Tcl_ChannelHandlerProc, Tcl_ChannelThreadActionProc, Tcl_IsChannelShared, Tcl_IsChannelRegistered, Tcl_CutChannel, Tcl_SpliceChannel, Tcl_IsChannelExisting, Tcl_ClearChannelHandlers, Tcl_GetChannelThread, Tcl_ChannelBuffered \- procedures for creating and manipulating channels .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .CS bad option "-blah": should be one of -blocking, -buffering, -buffersize, -eofchar, -translation, -peername, or -sockname .CE when called with \fIoptionList\fR="peername sockname" .PP blah'' is the \fIoptionName\fR argument and '' is a space separated list of specific option words. The function takes good care of inserting minus signs before each option, commas after, and an or'' before the last option. .SH "OLD CHANNEL TYPES" The original (8.3.1 and below) \fBTcl_ChannelType\fR structure contains the following fields: .PP .CS typedef struct Tcl_ChannelType { char *\fItypeName\fR; 

Changes to doc/CrtSlave.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 ... 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: CrtSlave.3,v 1.17 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_CreateSlave 3 7.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_IsSafe, Tcl_MakeSafe, Tcl_CreateSlave, Tcl_GetSlave, Tcl_GetMaster, Tcl_GetInterpPath, Tcl_CreateAlias, Tcl_CreateAliasObj, Tcl_GetAlias, Tcl_GetAliasObj, Tcl_ExposeCommand, Tcl_HideCommand \- manage multiple Tcl interpreters, aliases and hidden commands .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .SH ARGUMENTS .AS "const char *const" **targetInterpPtr out .AP Tcl_Interp *interp in Interpreter in which to execute the specified command. .AP "const char" *slaveName in Name of slave interpreter to create or manipulate. .AP int isSafe in If non-zero, a .QW safe slave that is suitable for running untrusted code is created, otherwise a trusted slave is created. .AP Tcl_Interp *slaveInterp in Interpreter to use for creating the source command for an alias (see below). .AP "const char" *slaveCmd in Name of source command for alias. .AP Tcl_Interp *targetInterp in ................................................................................ then the \fBresult\fR field of the interpreter contains an error message. .PP \fBTcl_CreateSlave\fR creates a new interpreter as a slave of \fIinterp\fR. It also creates a slave command named \fIslaveName\fR in \fIinterp\fR which allows \fIinterp\fR to manipulate the new slave. If \fIisSafe\fR is zero, the command creates a trusted slave in which Tcl code has access to all the Tcl commands. If it is \fB1\fR, the command creates a .QW safe slave in which Tcl code has access only to set of Tcl commands defined as .QW "Safe Tcl" ; see the manual entry for the Tcl \fBinterp\fR command for details. If the creation of the new slave interpreter failed, \fBNULL\fR is returned. .PP \fBTcl_IsSafe\fR returns \fB1\fR if \fIinterp\fR is .QW safe (was created with the \fBTCL_SAFE_INTERPRETER\fR flag specified), \fB0\fR otherwise. .PP \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR marks \fIinterp\fR as .QW safe , so that future calls to \fBTcl_IsSafe\fR will return 1. It also removes all known potentially-unsafe core functionality (both commands and variables) from \fIinterp\fR. However, it cannot know what parts of an extension or application are safe and does not make any attempt to remove those parts, so safety is not guaranteed after calling \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR. Callers will want to take care with their use of \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR to avoid false claims of safety. For many situations, \fBTcl_CreateSlave\fR   | < < | | < | < | | < | | < <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 ... 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: CrtSlave.3,v 1.18 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_CreateSlave 3 7.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_IsSafe, Tcl_MakeSafe, Tcl_CreateSlave, Tcl_GetSlave, Tcl_GetMaster, Tcl_GetInterpPath, Tcl_CreateAlias, Tcl_CreateAliasObj, Tcl_GetAlias, Tcl_GetAliasObj, Tcl_ExposeCommand, Tcl_HideCommand \- manage multiple Tcl interpreters, aliases and hidden commands .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .SH ARGUMENTS .AS "const char *const" **targetInterpPtr out .AP Tcl_Interp *interp in Interpreter in which to execute the specified command. .AP "const char" *slaveName in Name of slave interpreter to create or manipulate. .AP int isSafe in If non-zero, a safe'' slave that is suitable for running untrusted code is created, otherwise a trusted slave is created. .AP Tcl_Interp *slaveInterp in Interpreter to use for creating the source command for an alias (see below). .AP "const char" *slaveCmd in Name of source command for alias. .AP Tcl_Interp *targetInterp in ................................................................................ then the \fBresult\fR field of the interpreter contains an error message. .PP \fBTcl_CreateSlave\fR creates a new interpreter as a slave of \fIinterp\fR. It also creates a slave command named \fIslaveName\fR in \fIinterp\fR which allows \fIinterp\fR to manipulate the new slave. If \fIisSafe\fR is zero, the command creates a trusted slave in which Tcl code has access to all the Tcl commands. If it is \fB1\fR, the command creates a safe'' slave in which Tcl code has access only to set of Tcl commands defined as Safe Tcl''; see the manual entry for the Tcl \fBinterp\fR command for details. If the creation of the new slave interpreter failed, \fBNULL\fR is returned. .PP \fBTcl_IsSafe\fR returns \fB1\fR if \fIinterp\fR is safe'' (was created with the \fBTCL_SAFE_INTERPRETER\fR flag specified), \fB0\fR otherwise. .PP \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR marks \fIinterp\fR as safe'', so that future calls to \fBTcl_IsSafe\fR will return 1. It also removes all known potentially-unsafe core functionality (both commands and variables) from \fIinterp\fR. However, it cannot know what parts of an extension or application are safe and does not make any attempt to remove those parts, so safety is not guaranteed after calling \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR. Callers will want to take care with their use of \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR to avoid false claims of safety. For many situations, \fBTcl_CreateSlave\fR 

Changes to doc/DString.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: DString.3,v 1.14 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_DString 3 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_DStringInit, Tcl_DStringAppend, Tcl_DStringAppendElement, Tcl_DStringStartSublist, Tcl_DStringEndSublist, Tcl_DStringLength, Tcl_DStringValue, Tcl_DStringSetLength, Tcl_DStringTrunc, Tcl_DStringFree, Tcl_DStringResult, Tcl_DStringGetResult \- manipulate dynamic strings .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR is similar to \fBTcl_DStringAppend\fR except that it doesn't take a \fIlength\fR argument (it appends all of \fIelement\fR) and it converts the string to a proper list element before appending. \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR adds a separator space before the new list element unless the new list element is the first in a list or sub-list (i.e. either the current string is empty, or it contains the single character .QW { , or the last two characters of the current string are .QW " {" ). \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR returns a pointer to the characters of the new string. .PP \fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR and \fBTcl_DStringEndSublist\fR can be used to create nested lists. To append a list element that is itself a sublist, first call \fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR, then call \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR   | | < | <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: DString.3,v 1.15 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_DString 3 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_DStringInit, Tcl_DStringAppend, Tcl_DStringAppendElement, Tcl_DStringStartSublist, Tcl_DStringEndSublist, Tcl_DStringLength, Tcl_DStringValue, Tcl_DStringSetLength, Tcl_DStringTrunc, Tcl_DStringFree, Tcl_DStringResult, Tcl_DStringGetResult \- manipulate dynamic strings .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR is similar to \fBTcl_DStringAppend\fR except that it doesn't take a \fIlength\fR argument (it appends all of \fIelement\fR) and it converts the string to a proper list element before appending. \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR adds a separator space before the new list element unless the new list element is the first in a list or sub-list (i.e. either the current string is empty, or it contains the single character {'', or the last two characters of the current string are  {''). \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR returns a pointer to the characters of the new string. .PP \fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR and \fBTcl_DStringEndSublist\fR can be used to create nested lists. To append a list element that is itself a sublist, first call \fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR, then call \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR 

Changes to doc/Encoding.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 ... 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1997-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Encoding.3,v 1.26 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_GetEncoding 3 "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_GetEncoding, Tcl_FreeEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingFromObj, Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString, Tcl_ExternalToUtf, Tcl_UtfToExternalDString, Tcl_UtfToExternal, Tcl_WinTCharToUtf, Tcl_WinUtfToTChar, Tcl_GetEncodingName, Tcl_SetSystemEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingNameFromEnvironment, Tcl_GetEncodingNames, Tcl_CreateEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_SetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir, Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir \- procedures for creating and using encodings .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ ignored. .PP \fBTcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir\fR and \fBTcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir\fR are obsolete interfaces best replaced with calls to \fBTcl_GetEncodingSearchPath\fR and \fBTcl_SetEncodingSearchPath\fR. They are called to access and set the first element of the \fIsearchPath\fR list. Since Tcl searches \fIsearchPath\fR for encoding data files in list order, these routines establish the .QW default directory in which to find encoding data files. .VE 8.5 .SH "ENCODING FILES" Space would prohibit precompiling into Tcl every possible encoding algorithm, so many encodings are stored on disk as dynamically-loadable encoding files. This behavior also allows the user to create additional encoding files that can be loaded using the same mechanism. These encoding files contain information about the tables and/or escape sequences used to map between an external encoding and Unicode. The external encoding may consist of single-byte, multi-byte, or double-byte characters. .PP Each dynamically-loadable encoding is represented as a text file. The initial line of the file, beginning with a .QW # symbol, is a comment that provides a human-readable description of the file. The next line identifies the type of encoding file. It can be one of the following letters: .IP "[1] \fBS\fR" A single-byte encoding, where one character is always one byte long in the encoding. An example is \fBiso8859-1\fR, used by many European languages. .IP "[2] \fBD\fR" ................................................................................ .PP In the file, the first column represents an option and the second column is the associated value. \fBinit\fR is a string to emit or expect before the first character is converted, while \fBfinal\fR is a string to emit or expect after the last character. All other options are names of table-based encodings; the associated value is the escape-sequence that marks that encoding. Tcl syntax is used for the values; in the above example, for instance, .QW \fB{}\fR represents the empty string and .QW \fB\ex1b\fR represents character 27. .PP When \fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR encounters an encoding \fIname\fR that has not been loaded, it attempts to load an encoding file called \fIname\fB.enc\fR from the \fBencoding\fR subdirectory of each directory that Tcl searches for its script library. If the encoding file exists, but is malformed, an error message will be left in \fIinterp\fR. .SH KEYWORDS utf, encoding, convert   | | < | | < < < < | < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 ... 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1997-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Encoding.3,v 1.27 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_GetEncoding 3 "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_GetEncoding, Tcl_FreeEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingFromObj, Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString, Tcl_ExternalToUtf, Tcl_UtfToExternalDString, Tcl_UtfToExternal, Tcl_WinTCharToUtf, Tcl_WinUtfToTChar, Tcl_GetEncodingName, Tcl_SetSystemEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingNameFromEnvironment, Tcl_GetEncodingNames, Tcl_CreateEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_SetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir, Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir \- procedures for creating and using encodings .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ ignored. .PP \fBTcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir\fR and \fBTcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir\fR are obsolete interfaces best replaced with calls to \fBTcl_GetEncodingSearchPath\fR and \fBTcl_SetEncodingSearchPath\fR. They are called to access and set the first element of the \fIsearchPath\fR list. Since Tcl searches \fIsearchPath\fR for encoding data files in list order, these routines establish the default'' directory in which to find encoding data files. .VE 8.5 .SH "ENCODING FILES" Space would prohibit precompiling into Tcl every possible encoding algorithm, so many encodings are stored on disk as dynamically-loadable encoding files. This behavior also allows the user to create additional encoding files that can be loaded using the same mechanism. These encoding files contain information about the tables and/or escape sequences used to map between an external encoding and Unicode. The external encoding may consist of single-byte, multi-byte, or double-byte characters. .PP Each dynamically-loadable encoding is represented as a text file. The initial line of the file, beginning with a #'' symbol, is a comment that provides a human-readable description of the file. The next line identifies the type of encoding file. It can be one of the following letters: .IP "[1] \fBS\fR" A single-byte encoding, where one character is always one byte long in the encoding. An example is \fBiso8859-1\fR, used by many European languages. .IP "[2] \fBD\fR" ................................................................................ .PP In the file, the first column represents an option and the second column is the associated value. \fBinit\fR is a string to emit or expect before the first character is converted, while \fBfinal\fR is a string to emit or expect after the last character. All other options are names of table-based encodings; the associated value is the escape-sequence that marks that encoding. Tcl syntax is used for the values; in the above example, for instance, \fB{}\fR'' represents the empty string and \fB\\x1b\fR'' represents character 27. .PP When \fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR encounters an encoding \fIname\fR that has not been loaded, it attempts to load an encoding file called \fIname\fB.enc\fR from the \fBencoding\fR subdirectory of each directory that Tcl searches for its script library. If the encoding file exists, but is malformed, an error message will be left in \fIinterp\fR. .SH KEYWORDS utf, encoding, convert 

Changes to doc/Eval.3.

 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118  '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Eval.3,v 1.24 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_Eval 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_EvalObjEx, Tcl_EvalFile, Tcl_EvalObjv, Tcl_Eval, Tcl_EvalEx, Tcl_GlobalEval, Tcl_GlobalEvalObj, Tcl_VarEval, Tcl_VarEvalVA \- execute Tcl scripts .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .PP \fBTcl_EvalFile\fR reads the file given by \fIfileName\fR and evaluates its contents as a Tcl script. It returns the same information as \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR. If the file couldn't be read then a Tcl error is returned to describe why the file couldn't be read. The eofchar for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms. If you require a .QW ^Z in code for string comparison, you can use .QW \e032 or .QW \eu001a , which will be safely substituted by the Tcl interpreter into .QW ^Z . .PP \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR executes a single pre-parsed command instead of a script. The \fIobjc\fR and \fIobjv\fR arguments contain the values of the words for the Tcl command, one word in each object in \fIobjv\fR. \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR evaluates the command and returns a completion code and result just like \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR. The caller of \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR has to manage the reference count of the   | < < | < < < | < >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113  '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Eval.3,v 1.25 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_Eval 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_EvalObjEx, Tcl_EvalFile, Tcl_EvalObjv, Tcl_Eval, Tcl_EvalEx, Tcl_GlobalEval, Tcl_GlobalEvalObj, Tcl_VarEval, Tcl_VarEvalVA \- execute Tcl scripts .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .PP \fBTcl_EvalFile\fR reads the file given by \fIfileName\fR and evaluates its contents as a Tcl script. It returns the same information as \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR. If the file couldn't be read then a Tcl error is returned to describe why the file couldn't be read. The eofchar for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms. If you require a ^Z'' in code for string comparison, you can use \\032'' or \\u001a'', which will be safely substituted by the Tcl interpreter into ^Z''. .PP \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR executes a single pre-parsed command instead of a script. The \fIobjc\fR and \fIobjv\fR arguments contain the values of the words for the Tcl command, one word in each object in \fIobjv\fR. \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR evaluates the command and returns a completion code and result just like \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR. The caller of \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR has to manage the reference count of the 

Changes to doc/ExprLong.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: ExprLong.3,v 1.12 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_ExprLong 3 7.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_ExprLong, Tcl_ExprDouble, Tcl_ExprBoolean, Tcl_ExprString \- evaluate an expression .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ an error is returned. .PP \fBTcl_ExprBoolean\fR stores a 0/1 integer value at \fI*booleanPtr\fR. If the expression's actual value is an integer or floating-point number, then they store 0 at \fI*booleanPtr\fR if the value was zero and 1 otherwise. If the expression's actual value is a non-numeric string then it must be one of the values accepted by \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR such as .QW yes or .QW no , or else an error occurs. .PP \fBTcl_ExprString\fR returns the value of the expression as a string stored in the interpreter's result. .SH "SEE ALSO" Tcl_ExprLongObj, Tcl_ExprDoubleObj, Tcl_ExprBooleanObj, Tcl_ExprObj .SH KEYWORDS boolean, double, evaluate, expression, integer, object, string   | | < < < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: ExprLong.3,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_ExprLong 3 7.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_ExprLong, Tcl_ExprDouble, Tcl_ExprBoolean, Tcl_ExprString \- evaluate an expression .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ an error is returned. .PP \fBTcl_ExprBoolean\fR stores a 0/1 integer value at \fI*booleanPtr\fR. If the expression's actual value is an integer or floating-point number, then they store 0 at \fI*booleanPtr\fR if the value was zero and 1 otherwise. If the expression's actual value is a non-numeric string then it must be one of the values accepted by \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR such as yes'' or no'', or else an error occurs. .PP \fBTcl_ExprString\fR returns the value of the expression as a string stored in the interpreter's result. .SH "SEE ALSO" Tcl_ExprLongObj, Tcl_ExprDoubleObj, Tcl_ExprBooleanObj, Tcl_ExprObj .SH KEYWORDS boolean, double, evaluate, expression, integer, object, string 

Changes to doc/ExprLongObj.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1996-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: ExprLongObj.3,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_ExprLongObj 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_ExprLongObj, Tcl_ExprDoubleObj, Tcl_ExprBooleanObj, Tcl_ExprObj \- evaluate an expression .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ an error is returned. .PP \fBTcl_ExprBooleanObj\fR stores a 0/1 integer value at \fI*booleanPtr\fR. If the expression's actual value is an integer or floating-point number, then they store 0 at \fI*booleanPtr\fR if the value was zero and 1 otherwise. If the expression's actual value is a non-numeric string then it must be one of the values accepted by \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR such as .QW yes or .QW no , or else an error occurs. .PP If \fBTcl_ExprObj\fR successfully evaluates the expression, it stores a pointer to the Tcl object containing the expression's value at \fI*resultPtrPtr\fR. In this case, the caller is responsible for calling \fBTcl_DecrRefCount\fR to decrement the object's reference count when it is finished with the object. .SH "SEE ALSO" Tcl_ExprLong, Tcl_ExprDouble, Tcl_ExprBoolean, Tcl_ExprString, Tcl_GetObjResult .SH KEYWORDS boolean, double, evaluate, expression, integer, object, string   | | < < < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1996-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: ExprLongObj.3,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_ExprLongObj 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_ExprLongObj, Tcl_ExprDoubleObj, Tcl_ExprBooleanObj, Tcl_ExprObj \- evaluate an expression .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ an error is returned. .PP \fBTcl_ExprBooleanObj\fR stores a 0/1 integer value at \fI*booleanPtr\fR. If the expression's actual value is an integer or floating-point number, then they store 0 at \fI*booleanPtr\fR if the value was zero and 1 otherwise. If the expression's actual value is a non-numeric string then it must be one of the values accepted by \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR such as yes'' or no'', or else an error occurs. .PP If \fBTcl_ExprObj\fR successfully evaluates the expression, it stores a pointer to the Tcl object containing the expression's value at \fI*resultPtrPtr\fR. In this case, the caller is responsible for calling \fBTcl_DecrRefCount\fR to decrement the object's reference count when it is finished with the object. .SH "SEE ALSO" Tcl_ExprLong, Tcl_ExprDouble, Tcl_ExprBoolean, Tcl_ExprString, Tcl_GetObjResult .SH KEYWORDS boolean, double, evaluate, expression, integer, object, string 

Changes to doc/FileSystem.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 ... 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Vincent Darley '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: FileSystem.3,v 1.58 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Filesystem 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_FSRegister, Tcl_FSUnregister, Tcl_FSData, Tcl_FSMountsChanged, Tcl_FSGetFileSystemForPath, Tcl_FSGetPathType, Tcl_FSCopyFile, Tcl_FSCopyDirectory, Tcl_FSCreateDirectory, Tcl_FSDeleteFile, Tcl_FSRemoveDirectory, Tcl_FSRenameFile, Tcl_FSListVolumes, Tcl_FSEvalFile, Tcl_FSEvalFileEx, Tcl_FSLoadFile, Tcl_FSMatchInDirectory, Tcl_FSLink, Tcl_FSLstat, Tcl_FSUtime, Tcl_FSFileAttrsGet, Tcl_FSFileAttrsSet, Tcl_FSFileAttrStrings, Tcl_FSStat, Tcl_FSAccess, Tcl_FSOpenFileChannel, Tcl_FSGetCwd, Tcl_FSChdir, Tcl_FSPathSeparator, Tcl_FSJoinPath, Tcl_FSSplitPath, Tcl_FSEqualPaths, Tcl_FSGetNormalizedPath, Tcl_FSJoinToPath, Tcl_FSConvertToPathType, Tcl_FSGetInternalRep, Tcl_FSGetTranslatedPath, Tcl_FSGetTranslatedStringPath, Tcl_FSNewNativePath, Tcl_FSGetNativePath, Tcl_FSFileSystemInfo, Tcl_AllocStatBuf \- procedures to interact with any filesystem .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ its contents as a Tcl script. It returns the same information as \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR. If \fIencodingName\fR is NULL, the system encoding is used for reading the file contents. If the file couldn't be read then a Tcl error is returned to describe why the file couldn't be read. The eofchar for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms. If you require a .QW ^Z in code for string comparison, you can use .QW \e032 or .QW \eu001a , which will be safely substituted by the Tcl interpreter into .QW ^Z . \fBTcl_FSEvalFile\fR is a simpler version of \fBTcl_FSEvalFileEx\fR that always uses the system encoding when reading the file. .VE 8.5 .PP \fBTcl_FSLoadFile\fR dynamically loads a binary code file into memory and returns the addresses of two procedures within that file, if they are ................................................................................ a particular filesystem with a file path, and deal with the internal handling of path representations, for example copying and freeing such representations. .SS TYPENAME .PP The \fItypeName\fR field contains a null-terminated string that identifies the type of the filesystem implemented, e.g. .QW native , .QW zip or .QW vfs . .SS "STRUCTURE LENGTH" .PP The \fIstructureLength\fR field is generally implemented as \fIsizeof(Tcl_Filesystem)\fR, and is there to allow easier binary backwards compatibility if the size of the structure changes in a future Tcl release. .SS VERSION   | < < | < < < | < > | < < <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 ... 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Vincent Darley '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: FileSystem.3,v 1.59 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Filesystem 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_FSRegister, Tcl_FSUnregister, Tcl_FSData, Tcl_FSMountsChanged, Tcl_FSGetFileSystemForPath, Tcl_FSGetPathType, Tcl_FSCopyFile, Tcl_FSCopyDirectory, Tcl_FSCreateDirectory, Tcl_FSDeleteFile, Tcl_FSRemoveDirectory, Tcl_FSRenameFile, Tcl_FSListVolumes, Tcl_FSEvalFile, Tcl_FSEvalFileEx, Tcl_FSLoadFile, Tcl_FSMatchInDirectory, Tcl_FSLink, Tcl_FSLstat, Tcl_FSUtime, Tcl_FSFileAttrsGet, Tcl_FSFileAttrsSet, Tcl_FSFileAttrStrings, Tcl_FSStat, Tcl_FSAccess, Tcl_FSOpenFileChannel, Tcl_FSGetCwd, Tcl_FSChdir, Tcl_FSPathSeparator, Tcl_FSJoinPath, Tcl_FSSplitPath, Tcl_FSEqualPaths, Tcl_FSGetNormalizedPath, Tcl_FSJoinToPath, Tcl_FSConvertToPathType, Tcl_FSGetInternalRep, Tcl_FSGetTranslatedPath, Tcl_FSGetTranslatedStringPath, Tcl_FSNewNativePath, Tcl_FSGetNativePath, Tcl_FSFileSystemInfo, Tcl_AllocStatBuf \- procedures to interact with any filesystem .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ its contents as a Tcl script. It returns the same information as \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR. If \fIencodingName\fR is NULL, the system encoding is used for reading the file contents. If the file couldn't be read then a Tcl error is returned to describe why the file couldn't be read. The eofchar for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms. If you require a ^Z'' in code for string comparison, you can use \\032'' or \\u001a'', which will be safely substituted by the Tcl interpreter into ^Z''. \fBTcl_FSEvalFile\fR is a simpler version of \fBTcl_FSEvalFileEx\fR that always uses the system encoding when reading the file. .VE 8.5 .PP \fBTcl_FSLoadFile\fR dynamically loads a binary code file into memory and returns the addresses of two procedures within that file, if they are ................................................................................ a particular filesystem with a file path, and deal with the internal handling of path representations, for example copying and freeing such representations. .SS TYPENAME .PP The \fItypeName\fR field contains a null-terminated string that identifies the type of the filesystem implemented, e.g. native'' or zip'' or vfs''. .SS "STRUCTURE LENGTH" .PP The \fIstructureLength\fR field is generally implemented as \fIsizeof(Tcl_Filesystem)\fR, and is there to allow easier binary backwards compatibility if the size of the structure changes in a future Tcl release. .SS VERSION 

Changes to doc/GetInt.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: GetInt.3,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_GetInt 3 "" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_GetInt, Tcl_GetDouble, Tcl_GetBoolean \- convert from string to integer, double, or boolean .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ desired type then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned, an error message is left in the interpreter's result, and nothing is stored at *\fIintPtr\fR or *\fIdoublePtr\fR or *\fIboolPtr\fR. .PP \fBTcl_GetInt\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a collection of integer digits, optionally signed and optionally preceded by white space. If the first two characters of \fIsrc\fR after the optional white space and sign are .QW 0x then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in hexadecimal form; otherwise, if the first such character is .QW 0 then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in octal form; otherwise, \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in decimal form. .PP \fBTcl_GetDouble\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a floating-point number, which is: white space; a sign; a sequence of digits; a decimal point; a sequence of digits; the letter .QW e ; a signed decimal exponent ; and more white space. Any of the fields may be omitted, except that the digits either before or after the decimal point must be present and if the .QW e is present then it must be followed by the exponent number. .PP \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to specify a boolean value. If \fIsrc\fR is any of \fB0\fR, \fBfalse\fR, \fBno\fR, or \fBoff\fR, then \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR stores a zero value at \fI*boolPtr\fR. If \fIsrc\fR is any of \fB1\fR, \fBtrue\fR, \fByes\fR, or \fBon\fR, then 1 is stored at \fI*boolPtr\fR. Any of these values may be abbreviated, and upper-case spellings are also acceptable. .SH KEYWORDS boolean, conversion, double, floating-point, integer   | | < | < < | < | < < | >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: GetInt.3,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_GetInt 3 "" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_GetInt, Tcl_GetDouble, Tcl_GetBoolean \- convert from string to integer, double, or boolean .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ desired type then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned, an error message is left in the interpreter's result, and nothing is stored at *\fIintPtr\fR or *\fIdoublePtr\fR or *\fIboolPtr\fR. .PP \fBTcl_GetInt\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a collection of integer digits, optionally signed and optionally preceded by white space. If the first two characters of \fIsrc\fR after the optional white space and sign are 0x'' then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in hexadecimal form; otherwise, if the first such character is 0'' then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in octal form; otherwise, \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in decimal form. .PP \fBTcl_GetDouble\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a floating-point number, which is: white space; a sign; a sequence of digits; a decimal point; a sequence of digits; the letter e''; a signed decimal exponent ; and more white space. Any of the fields may be omitted, except that the digits either before or after the decimal point must be present and if the e'' is present then it must be followed by the exponent number. .PP \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to specify a boolean value. If \fIsrc\fR is any of \fB0\fR, \fBfalse\fR, \fBno\fR, or \fBoff\fR, then \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR stores a zero value at \fI*boolPtr\fR. If \fIsrc\fR is any of \fB1\fR, \fBtrue\fR, \fByes\fR, or \fBon\fR, then 1 is stored at \fI*boolPtr\fR. Any of these values may be abbreviated, and upper-case spellings are also acceptable. .SH KEYWORDS boolean, conversion, double, floating-point, integer 

Changes to doc/Hash.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 ... 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 ... 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 ... 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Hash.3,v 1.22 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_Hash 3 "" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_InitHashTable, Tcl_InitCustomHashTable, Tcl_InitObjHashTable, Tcl_DeleteHashTable, Tcl_CreateHashEntry, Tcl_DeleteHashEntry, Tcl_FindHashEntry, Tcl_GetHashValue, Tcl_SetHashValue, Tcl_GetHashKey, Tcl_FirstHashEntry, Tcl_NextHashEntry, Tcl_HashStats \- procedures to manage hash tables .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ may have the same value. Keys can take one of four forms: strings, one-word values, integer arrays, or custom keys defined by a Tcl_HashKeyType structure (See section \fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below). All of the keys in a given table have the same form, which is specified when the table is initialized. .PP The value of a hash table entry can be anything that fits in the same space as a .QW "char *" pointer. Values for hash table entries are managed entirely by clients, not by the hash module itself. Typically each entry's value is a pointer to a data structure managed by client code. .PP Hash tables grow gracefully as the number of entries increases, so that there are always less than three entries per hash bucket, on average. This allows for fast lookups regardless of the number of ................................................................................ \fIKeyType\fR must have one of the following values: .IP \fBTCL_STRING_KEYS\fR 25 Keys are null-terminated strings. They are passed to hashing routines using the address of the first character of the string. .IP \fBTCL_ONE_WORD_KEYS\fR 25 Keys are single-word values; they are passed to hashing routines and stored in hash table entries as .QW "char *" values. The pointer value is the key; it need not (and usually doesn't) actually point to a string. .IP \fBTCL_CUSTOM_TYPE_KEYS\fR 25 Keys are of arbitrary type, and are stored in the entry. Hashing and comparison is determined by \fItypePtr\fR. The Tcl_HashKeyType structure is described in the section \fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below. ................................................................................ Keys are pointers to an arbitrary type, and are stored in the entry. Hashing and comparison is determined by \fItypePtr\fR. The Tcl_HashKeyType structure is described in the section \fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below. .IP \fIother\fR 25 If \fIkeyType\fR is not one of the above, then it must be an integer value greater than 1. In this case the keys will be arrays of .QW int values, where \fIkeyType\fR gives the number of ints in each key. This allows structures to be used as keys. All keys must have the same size. Array keys are passed into hashing functions using the address of the first int in the array. .PP \fBTcl_DeleteHashTable\fR deletes all of the entries in a hash table and frees up the memory associated with the table's ................................................................................ .PP \fBTcl_FindHashEntry\fR is similar to \fBTcl_CreateHashEntry\fR except that it doesn't create a new entry if the key doesn't exist; instead, it returns NULL as result. .PP \fBTcl_GetHashValue\fR and \fBTcl_SetHashValue\fR are used to read and write an entry's value, respectively. Values are stored and retrieved as type .QW ClientData , which is large enough to hold a pointer value. On almost all machines this is large enough to hold an integer value too. .PP \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns the key for a given hash table entry, either as a pointer to a string, a one-word (e.g. .QW "char *" ) key, or as a pointer to the first word of an array of integers, depending on the \fIkeyType\fR used to create a hash table. In all cases \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns a result with type .QW "char *" . When the key is a string or array, the result of \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR points to information in the table entry; this information will remain valid until the entry is deleted or its table is deleted. .PP \fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR and \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR may be used to scan all of the entries in a hash table. A structure of type .QW Tcl_HashSearch , provided by the client, is used to keep track of progress through the table. \fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR initializes the search record and returns the first entry in the table (or NULL if the table is empty). Each subsequent call to \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR returns the next entry in the table or NULL if the end of the table has been reached. A call to \fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR followed by calls to \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR will return each of the entries in   | < < | | < < | < | | < < | < | | | | | |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 ... 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 ... 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 ... 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Hash.3,v 1.23 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_Hash 3 "" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_InitHashTable, Tcl_InitCustomHashTable, Tcl_InitObjHashTable, Tcl_DeleteHashTable, Tcl_CreateHashEntry, Tcl_DeleteHashEntry, Tcl_FindHashEntry, Tcl_GetHashValue, Tcl_SetHashValue, Tcl_GetHashKey, Tcl_FirstHashEntry, Tcl_NextHashEntry, Tcl_HashStats \- procedures to manage hash tables .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ may have the same value. Keys can take one of four forms: strings, one-word values, integer arrays, or custom keys defined by a Tcl_HashKeyType structure (See section \fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below). All of the keys in a given table have the same form, which is specified when the table is initialized. .PP The value of a hash table entry can be anything that fits in the same space as a char *'' pointer. Values for hash table entries are managed entirely by clients, not by the hash module itself. Typically each entry's value is a pointer to a data structure managed by client code. .PP Hash tables grow gracefully as the number of entries increases, so that there are always less than three entries per hash bucket, on average. This allows for fast lookups regardless of the number of ................................................................................ \fIKeyType\fR must have one of the following values: .IP \fBTCL_STRING_KEYS\fR 25 Keys are null-terminated strings. They are passed to hashing routines using the address of the first character of the string. .IP \fBTCL_ONE_WORD_KEYS\fR 25 Keys are single-word values; they are passed to hashing routines and stored in hash table entries as char *'' values. The pointer value is the key; it need not (and usually doesn't) actually point to a string. .IP \fBTCL_CUSTOM_TYPE_KEYS\fR 25 Keys are of arbitrary type, and are stored in the entry. Hashing and comparison is determined by \fItypePtr\fR. The Tcl_HashKeyType structure is described in the section \fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below. ................................................................................ Keys are pointers to an arbitrary type, and are stored in the entry. Hashing and comparison is determined by \fItypePtr\fR. The Tcl_HashKeyType structure is described in the section \fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below. .IP \fIother\fR 25 If \fIkeyType\fR is not one of the above, then it must be an integer value greater than 1. In this case the keys will be arrays of int'' values, where \fIkeyType\fR gives the number of ints in each key. This allows structures to be used as keys. All keys must have the same size. Array keys are passed into hashing functions using the address of the first int in the array. .PP \fBTcl_DeleteHashTable\fR deletes all of the entries in a hash table and frees up the memory associated with the table's ................................................................................ .PP \fBTcl_FindHashEntry\fR is similar to \fBTcl_CreateHashEntry\fR except that it doesn't create a new entry if the key doesn't exist; instead, it returns NULL as result. .PP \fBTcl_GetHashValue\fR and \fBTcl_SetHashValue\fR are used to read and write an entry's value, respectively. Values are stored and retrieved as type ClientData'', which is large enough to hold a pointer value. On almost all machines this is large enough to hold an integer value too. .PP \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns the key for a given hash table entry, either as a pointer to a string, a one-word (char *'') key, or as a pointer to the first word of an array of integers, depending on the \fIkeyType\fR used to create a hash table. In all cases \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns a result with type char *''. When the key is a string or array, the result of \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR points to information in the table entry; this information will remain valid until the entry is deleted or its table is deleted. .PP \fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR and \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR may be used to scan all of the entries in a hash table. A structure of type Tcl_HashSearch'', provided by the client, is used to keep track of progress through the table. \fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR initializes the search record and returns the first entry in the table (or NULL if the table is empty). Each subsequent call to \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR returns the next entry in the table or NULL if the end of the table has been reached. A call to \fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR followed by calls to \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR will return each of the entries in 

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 ... 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: LinkVar.3,v 1.13 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_LinkVar 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_LinkVar, Tcl_UnlinkVar, Tcl_UpdateLinkedVar \- link Tcl variable to C variable .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ '\" FIXME! Use bignums instead. attempts to write non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. .VE 8.5 .TP \fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR The C variable is of type \fBint\fR. If its value is zero then it will read from Tcl as .QW 0 ; otherwise it will read from Tcl as .QW 1 . Whenever \fIvarName\fR is modified, the C variable will be set to a 0 or 1 value. Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper boolean form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetBooleanFromObj\fR; attempts to write non-boolean values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. .TP ................................................................................ The C variable is of type \fBchar *\fR. If its value is not NULL then it must be a pointer to a string allocated with \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or \fBckalloc\fR. Whenever the Tcl variable is modified the current C string will be freed and new memory will be allocated to hold a copy of the variable's new value. If the C variable contains a NULL pointer then the Tcl variable will read as .QW NULL . .PP If the \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR flag is present in \fItype\fR then the variable will be read-only from Tcl, so that its value can only be changed by modifying the C variable. Attempts to write the variable from Tcl will be rejected with errors. .PP \fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR removes the link previously set up for the   | | < | < | <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 ... 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: LinkVar.3,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_LinkVar 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_LinkVar, Tcl_UnlinkVar, Tcl_UpdateLinkedVar \- link Tcl variable to C variable .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ '\" FIXME! Use bignums instead. attempts to write non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. .VE 8.5 .TP \fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR The C variable is of type \fBint\fR. If its value is zero then it will read from Tcl as 0''; otherwise it will read from Tcl as 1''. Whenever \fIvarName\fR is modified, the C variable will be set to a 0 or 1 value. Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper boolean form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetBooleanFromObj\fR; attempts to write non-boolean values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. .TP ................................................................................ The C variable is of type \fBchar *\fR. If its value is not NULL then it must be a pointer to a string allocated with \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or \fBckalloc\fR. Whenever the Tcl variable is modified the current C string will be freed and new memory will be allocated to hold a copy of the variable's new value. If the C variable contains a NULL pointer then the Tcl variable will read as NULL''. .PP If the \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR flag is present in \fItype\fR then the variable will be read-only from Tcl, so that its value can only be changed by modifying the C variable. Attempts to write the variable from Tcl will be rejected with errors. .PP \fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR removes the link previously set up for the 

Changes to doc/Notifier.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Notifier.3,v 1.18 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Notifier 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_CreateEventSource, Tcl_DeleteEventSource, Tcl_SetMaxBlockTime, Tcl_QueueEvent, Tcl_ThreadQueueEvent, Tcl_ThreadAlert, Tcl_GetCurrentThread, Tcl_DeleteEvents, Tcl_InitNotifier, Tcl_FinalizeNotifier, Tcl_WaitForEvent, Tcl_AlertNotifier, Tcl_SetTimer, Tcl_ServiceAll, Tcl_ServiceEvent, Tcl_GetServiceMode, Tcl_SetServiceMode \- the event queue and notifier interfaces .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fBTcl_InitNotifier\fR initializes the notifier state and returns a handle to the notifier state. Tcl calls this procedure when initializing a Tcl interpreter. Similarly, \fBTcl_FinalizeNotifier\fR shuts down the notifier, and is called by \fBTcl_Finalize\fR when shutting down a Tcl interpreter. .PP \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR is the lowest-level procedure in the notifier; it is responsible for waiting for an .QW interesting event to occur or for a given time to elapse. Before \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR is invoked, each of the event sources' setup procedure will have been invoked. The \fItimePtr\fR argument to \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR gives the maximum time to block for an event, based on calls to \fBTcl_SetMaxBlockTime\fR made by setup procedures and on other information (such as the \fBTCL_DONT_WAIT\fR bit in \fIflags\fR).   | | < <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Notifier.3,v 1.19 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Notifier 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_CreateEventSource, Tcl_DeleteEventSource, Tcl_SetMaxBlockTime, Tcl_QueueEvent, Tcl_ThreadQueueEvent, Tcl_ThreadAlert, Tcl_GetCurrentThread, Tcl_DeleteEvents, Tcl_InitNotifier, Tcl_FinalizeNotifier, Tcl_WaitForEvent, Tcl_AlertNotifier, Tcl_SetTimer, Tcl_ServiceAll, Tcl_ServiceEvent, Tcl_GetServiceMode, Tcl_SetServiceMode \- the event queue and notifier interfaces .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fBTcl_InitNotifier\fR initializes the notifier state and returns a handle to the notifier state. Tcl calls this procedure when initializing a Tcl interpreter. Similarly, \fBTcl_FinalizeNotifier\fR shuts down the notifier, and is called by \fBTcl_Finalize\fR when shutting down a Tcl interpreter. .PP \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR is the lowest-level procedure in the notifier; it is responsible for waiting for an interesting'' event to occur or for a given time to elapse. Before \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR is invoked, each of the event sources' setup procedure will have been invoked. The \fItimePtr\fR argument to \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR gives the maximum time to block for an event, based on calls to \fBTcl_SetMaxBlockTime\fR made by setup procedures and on other information (such as the \fBTCL_DONT_WAIT\fR bit in \fIflags\fR). 

Changes to doc/PrintDbl.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: PrintDbl.3,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_PrintDouble 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_PrintDouble \- Convert floating value to string .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBTcl_PrintDouble\fR generates a string that represents the value of \fIvalue\fR and stores it in memory at the location given by \fIdst\fR. It uses \fB%g\fR format to generate the string, with one special twist: the string is guaranteed to contain either a .QW . or an .QW e so that it doesn't look like an integer. Where \fB%g\fR would generate an integer with no decimal point, \fBTcl_PrintDouble\fR adds .QW .0 . .VS 8.5 .PP If the \fBtcl_precision\fR value is non-zero, the result will have precisely that many digits of significance. If the value is zero (the default), the result will have the fewest digits needed to represent the number in such a way that \fBTcl_NewDoubleObj\fR will generate the same number when presented with the given string. IEEE semantics of rounding to even apply to the conversion. .VE .SH KEYWORDS conversion, double-precision, floating-point, string   | | < < < | | < >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: PrintDbl.3,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_PrintDouble 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_PrintDouble \- Convert floating value to string .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBTcl_PrintDouble\fR generates a string that represents the value of \fIvalue\fR and stores it in memory at the location given by \fIdst\fR. It uses \fB%g\fR format to generate the string, with one special twist: the string is guaranteed to contain either a .'' or an e'' so that it doesn't look like an integer. Where \fB%g\fR would generate an integer with no decimal point, \fBTcl_PrintDouble\fR adds .0''. .VS 8.5 .PP If the \fBtcl_precision\fR value is non-zero, the result will have precisely that many digits of significance. If the value is zero (the default), the result will have the fewest digits needed to represent the number in such a way that \fBTcl_NewDoubleObj\fR will generate the same number when presented with the given string. IEEE semantics of rounding to even apply to the conversion. .VE .SH KEYWORDS conversion, double-precision, floating-point, string 

Changes to doc/RegExp.3.

 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ... 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 ... 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 ... 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324  '\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: RegExp.3,v 1.24 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_RegExpMatch 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_RegExpMatch, Tcl_RegExpCompile, Tcl_RegExpExec, Tcl_RegExpRange, Tcl_GetRegExpFromObj, Tcl_RegExpMatchObj, Tcl_RegExpExecObj, Tcl_RegExpGetInfo \- Pattern matching with regular expressions .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ long as the internal representation of \fIpatObj\fR refers to the compiled form. The \fIeflags\fR argument is a bit-wise OR of zero or more of the following flags that control the compilation of \fIpatObj\fR: .RS 2 .TP \fBTCL_REG_ADVANCED\fR Compile advanced regular expressions .PQ ARE s . This mode corresponds to the normal regular expression syntax accepted by the Tcl \fBregexp\fR and \fBregsub\fR commands. .TP \fBTCL_REG_EXTENDED\fR Compile extended regular expressions .PQ ERE s . This mode corresponds to the regular expression syntax recognized by Tcl 8.0 and earlier versions. .TP \fBTCL_REG_BASIC\fR Compile basic regular expressions .PQ BRE s . This mode corresponds to the regular expression syntax recognized by common Unix utilities like \fBsed\fR and \fBgrep\fR. This is the default if no flags are specified. .TP \fBTCL_REG_EXPANDED\fR Compile the regular expression (basic, extended, or advanced) using an expanded syntax that allows comments and whitespace. This mode causes non-backslashed non-bracket-expression white space and #-to-end-of-line comments to be ignored. .TP ................................................................................ .TP \fBTCL_REG_NOCASE\fR Compile for matching that ignores upper/lower case distinctions. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NEWLINE\fR Compile for newline-sensitive matching. By default, newline is a completely ordinary character with no special meaning in either regular expressions or strings. With this flag, .QW [^ bracket expressions and .QW . never match newline, .QW ^ matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal function, and .QW $matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function. \fBREG_NEWLINE\fR is the bit-wise OR of \fBREG_NLSTOP\fR and \fBREG_NLANCH\fR. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NLSTOP\fR Compile for partial newline-sensitive matching, with the behavior of .QW [^ bracket expressions and .QW . affected, but not the behavior of .QW ^ and .QW$ . In this mode, .QW [^ bracket expressions and .QW . never match newline. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NLANCH\fR Compile for inverse partial newline-sensitive matching, with the behavior of .QW ^ and .QW $(the .QW anchors ) affected, but not the behavior of .QW [^ bracket expressions and .QW . . In this mode .QW ^ matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal function, and .QW$ matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NOSUB\fR Compile for matching that reports only success or failure, not what was matched. This reduces compile overhead and may improve performance. Subsequent calls to \fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR or \fBTcl_RegExpRange\fR will not report any match information. .TP ................................................................................ offset value. Instead the behavior of the anchors is explicitly controlled by the \fIeflags\fR argument, which is a bit-wise OR of zero or more of the following flags: .RS 2 .TP \fBTCL_REG_NOTBOL\fR The starting character will not be treated as the beginning of a line or the beginning of the string, so .QW ^ will not match there. Note that this flag has no effect on how .QW \fB\eA\fR matches. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NOTEOL\fR The last character in the string will not be treated as the end of a line or the end of the string, so .QW $will not match there. Note that this flag has no effect on how .QW \fB\eZ\fR matches. .RE .PP \fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR retrieves information about the last match performed with a given regular expression \fIregexp\fR. The \fIinfoPtr\fR argument contains a pointer to a structure that is defined as follows: .PP   | | < | | | < | | | < | | | | < < < < < | | < | | | < < < | < < < < < | < > | | < < < < < > | < | < < < | < < | | < | < < | < | < <  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ... 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 ... 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 ... 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291  '\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#)$Id: RegExp.3,v 1.25 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $'\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_RegExpMatch 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_RegExpMatch, Tcl_RegExpCompile, Tcl_RegExpExec, Tcl_RegExpRange, Tcl_GetRegExpFromObj, Tcl_RegExpMatchObj, Tcl_RegExpExecObj, Tcl_RegExpGetInfo \- Pattern matching with regular expressions .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ long as the internal representation of \fIpatObj\fR refers to the compiled form. The \fIeflags\fR argument is a bit-wise OR of zero or more of the following flags that control the compilation of \fIpatObj\fR: .RS 2 .TP \fBTCL_REG_ADVANCED\fR Compile advanced regular expressions (AREs'). This mode corresponds to the normal regular expression syntax accepted by the Tcl \fBregexp\fR and \fBregsub\fR commands. .TP \fBTCL_REG_EXTENDED\fR Compile extended regular expressions (EREs'). This mode corresponds to the regular expression syntax recognized by Tcl 8.0 and earlier versions. .TP \fBTCL_REG_BASIC\fR Compile basic regular expressions (BREs'). This mode corresponds to the regular expression syntax recognized by common Unix utilities like \fBsed\fR and \fBgrep\fR. This is the default if no flags are specified. .TP \fBTCL_REG_EXPANDED\fR Compile the regular expression (basic, extended, or advanced) using an expanded syntax that allows comments and whitespace. This mode causes non-backslashed non-bracket-expression white space and #-to-end-of-line comments to be ignored. .TP ................................................................................ .TP \fBTCL_REG_NOCASE\fR Compile for matching that ignores upper/lower case distinctions. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NEWLINE\fR Compile for newline-sensitive matching. By default, newline is a completely ordinary character with no special meaning in either regular expressions or strings. With this flag, [^' bracket expressions and .' never match newline, ^' matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal function, and $' matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function. \fBREG_NEWLINE\fR is the bit-wise OR of \fBREG_NLSTOP\fR and \fBREG_NLANCH\fR. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NLSTOP\fR Compile for partial newline-sensitive matching, with the behavior of [^' bracket expressions and .' affected, but not the behavior of ^' and $'. In this mode, [^' bracket expressions and .' never match newline. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NLANCH\fR Compile for inverse partial newline-sensitive matching, with the behavior of ^' and $' (the anchors'') affected, but not the behavior of [^' bracket expressions and .'. In this mode ^' matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal function, and $' matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NOSUB\fR Compile for matching that reports only success or failure, not what was matched. This reduces compile overhead and may improve performance. Subsequent calls to \fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR or \fBTcl_RegExpRange\fR will not report any match information. .TP ................................................................................ offset value. Instead the behavior of the anchors is explicitly controlled by the \fIeflags\fR argument, which is a bit-wise OR of zero or more of the following flags: .RS 2 .TP \fBTCL_REG_NOTBOL\fR The starting character will not be treated as the beginning of a line or the beginning of the string, so ^' will not match there. Note that this flag has no effect on how \fB\eA\fR' matches. .TP \fBTCL_REG_NOTEOL\fR The last character in the string will not be treated as the end of a line or the end of the string, so '$' will not match there. Note that this flag has no effect on how \fB\eZ\fR' matches. .RE .PP \fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR retrieves information about the last match performed with a given regular expression \fIregexp\fR. The \fIinfoPtr\fR argument contains a pointer to a structure that is defined as follows: .PP 

Changes to doc/SetResult.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SetResult.3,v 1.15 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_SetResult 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_SetObjResult, Tcl_GetObjResult, Tcl_SetResult, Tcl_GetStringResult, Tcl_AppendResult, Tcl_AppendResultVA, Tcl_AppendElement, Tcl_ResetResult, Tcl_FreeResult \- manipulate Tcl result .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fIelement\fR will be extracted as a single element. Under normal conditions, \fBTcl_AppendElement\fR will add a space character to \fIinterp\fR's result just before adding the new list element, so that the list elements in the result are properly separated. However if the new list element is the first in a list or sub-list (i.e. \fIinterp\fR's current result is empty, or consists of the single character .QW { , or ends in the characters .QW " {" ) then no space is added. .PP \fBTcl_FreeResult\fR performs part of the work of \fBTcl_ResetResult\fR. It frees up the memory associated with \fIinterp\fR's result. It also sets \fIinterp->freeProc\fR to zero, but doesn't change \fIinterp->result\fR or clear error state. \fBTcl_FreeResult\fR is most commonly used when a procedure   | < < | < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SetResult.3,v 1.16 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_SetResult 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_SetObjResult, Tcl_GetObjResult, Tcl_SetResult, Tcl_GetStringResult, Tcl_AppendResult, Tcl_AppendResultVA, Tcl_AppendElement, Tcl_ResetResult, Tcl_FreeResult \- manipulate Tcl result .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fIelement\fR will be extracted as a single element. Under normal conditions, \fBTcl_AppendElement\fR will add a space character to \fIinterp\fR's result just before adding the new list element, so that the list elements in the result are properly separated. However if the new list element is the first in a list or sub-list (i.e. \fIinterp\fR's current result is empty, or consists of the single character {'', or ends in the characters  {'') then no space is added. .PP \fBTcl_FreeResult\fR performs part of the work of \fBTcl_ResetResult\fR. It frees up the memory associated with \fIinterp\fR's result. It also sets \fIinterp->freeProc\fR to zero, but doesn't change \fIinterp->result\fR or clear error state. \fBTcl_FreeResult\fR is most commonly used when a procedure 

Changes to doc/SetVar.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SetVar.3,v 1.13 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_SetVar 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_SetVar2Ex, Tcl_SetVar, Tcl_SetVar2, Tcl_ObjSetVar2, Tcl_GetVar2Ex, Tcl_GetVar, Tcl_GetVar2, Tcl_ObjGetVar2, Tcl_UnsetVar, Tcl_UnsetVar2 \- manipulate Tcl variables .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .TP \fBTCL_LIST_ELEMENT\fR If this bit is set, then \fInewValue\fR is converted to a valid Tcl list element before setting (or appending to) the variable. A separator space is appended before the new list element unless the list element is going to be the first element in a list or sublist (i.e. the variable's current value is empty, or contains the single character .QW { , or ends in .QW " }" ). When appending, the original value of the variable must also be a valid list, so that the operation is the appending of a new list element onto a list. .PP \fBTcl_GetVar\fR and \fBTcl_GetVar2\fR return the current value of a variable. The arguments to these procedures are treated in the same way   | | < < <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SetVar.3,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_SetVar 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_SetVar2Ex, Tcl_SetVar, Tcl_SetVar2, Tcl_ObjSetVar2, Tcl_GetVar2Ex, Tcl_GetVar, Tcl_GetVar2, Tcl_ObjGetVar2, Tcl_UnsetVar, Tcl_UnsetVar2 \- manipulate Tcl variables .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .TP \fBTCL_LIST_ELEMENT\fR If this bit is set, then \fInewValue\fR is converted to a valid Tcl list element before setting (or appending to) the variable. A separator space is appended before the new list element unless the list element is going to be the first element in a list or sublist (i.e. the variable's current value is empty, or contains the single character {'', or ends in  }''). When appending, the original value of the variable must also be a valid list, so that the operation is the appending of a new list element onto a list. .PP \fBTcl_GetVar\fR and \fBTcl_GetVar2\fR return the current value of a variable. The arguments to these procedures are treated in the same way 

Changes to doc/SplitList.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SplitList.3,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_SplitList 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_SplitList, Tcl_Merge, Tcl_ScanElement, Tcl_ConvertElement, Tcl_ScanCountedElement, Tcl_ConvertCountedElement \- manipulate Tcl lists .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ used to generate a portion of an argument for a Tcl command. In this case, surrounding \fIsrc\fR with curly braces would cause the command not to be parsed correctly. .PP .VS 8.5 By default, \fBTcl_ConvertElement\fR will use quoting in its output to be sure the first character of an element is not the hash character (i.e. .QW # ). This is to be sure the first element of any list passed to \fBeval\fR is not mis-parsed as the beginning of a comment. When a list element is not the first element of a list, this quoting is not necessary. When the caller can be sure that the element is not the first element of a list, it can disable quoting of the leading hash character by OR-ing the flag value returned by \fBTcl_ScanElement\fR with \fBTCL_DONT_QUOTE_HASH\fR. .VE 8.5   | < < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SplitList.3,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_SplitList 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_SplitList, Tcl_Merge, Tcl_ScanElement, Tcl_ConvertElement, Tcl_ScanCountedElement, Tcl_ConvertCountedElement \- manipulate Tcl lists .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ used to generate a portion of an argument for a Tcl command. In this case, surrounding \fIsrc\fR with curly braces would cause the command not to be parsed correctly. .PP .VS 8.5 By default, \fBTcl_ConvertElement\fR will use quoting in its output to be sure the first character of an element is not the hash character (#''). This is to be sure the first element of any list passed to \fBeval\fR is not mis-parsed as the beginning of a comment. When a list element is not the first element of a list, this quoting is not necessary. When the caller can be sure that the element is not the first element of a list, it can disable quoting of the leading hash character by OR-ing the flag value returned by \fBTcl_ScanElement\fR with \fBTCL_DONT_QUOTE_HASH\fR. .VE 8.5 

Changes to doc/StdChannels.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2001 by ActiveState Corporation '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: StdChannels.3,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH "Standard Channels" 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME Tcl_StandardChannels \- How the Tcl library deals with the standard channels ................................................................................ .PP Standard channels are initialized by the Tcl library in three cases: when explicitly requested, when implicitly required before returning channel information, or when implicitly required during registration of a new channel. .PP These cases differ in how they handle unavailable platform- specific standard channels. (A channel is not .QW available if it could not be successfully opened; for example, in a Tcl application run as a Windows NT service.) .TP 1) A single standard channel is initialized when it is explicitly specified in a call to \fBTcl_SetStdChannel\fR. The states of the other standard channels are unaffected. .RS .PP   | | < | |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2001 by ActiveState Corporation '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: StdChannels.3,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH "Standard Channels" 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME Tcl_StandardChannels \- How the Tcl library deals with the standard channels ................................................................................ .PP Standard channels are initialized by the Tcl library in three cases: when explicitly requested, when implicitly required before returning channel information, or when implicitly required during registration of a new channel. .PP These cases differ in how they handle unavailable platform- specific standard channels. (A channel is not available'' if it could not be successfully opened; for example, in a Tcl application run as a Windows NT service.) .TP 1) A single standard channel is initialized when it is explicitly specified in a call to \fBTcl_SetStdChannel\fR. The states of the other standard channels are unaffected. .RS .PP 

Changes to doc/StrMatch.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: StrMatch.3,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_StringMatch 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_StringMatch, Tcl_StringCaseMatch \- test whether a string matches a pattern .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This utility procedure determines whether a string matches a given pattern. If it does, then \fBTcl_StringMatch\fR returns 1. Otherwise \fBTcl_StringMatch\fR returns 0. The algorithm used for matching is the same algorithm used in the .QW "string match" Tcl command and is similar to the algorithm used by the C-shell for file name matching; see the Tcl manual entry for details. .PP In \fBTcl_StringCaseMatch\fR, the algorithm is the same, but you have the option to make the matching case-insensitive. If you choose this (by passing \fBnocase\fR as 1), then the string and pattern are essentially matched in the lower case. .SH KEYWORDS match, pattern, string   | | <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: StrMatch.3,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_StringMatch 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_StringMatch, Tcl_StringCaseMatch \- test whether a string matches a pattern .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This utility procedure determines whether a string matches a given pattern. If it does, then \fBTcl_StringMatch\fR returns 1. Otherwise \fBTcl_StringMatch\fR returns 0. The algorithm used for matching is the same algorithm used in the string match'' Tcl command and is similar to the algorithm used by the C-shell for file name matching; see the Tcl manual entry for details. .PP In \fBTcl_StringCaseMatch\fR, the algorithm is the same, but you have the option to make the matching case-insensitive. If you choose this (by passing \fBnocase\fR as 1), then the string and pattern are essentially matched in the lower case. .SH KEYWORDS match, pattern, string 

Changes to doc/SubstObj.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SubstObj.3,v 1.4 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_SubstObj 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_SubstObj \- perform substitutions on Tcl objects .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .PP When the \fBTCL_SUBST_VARIABLES\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR, sequences that look like variable substitutions for Tcl commands are replaced by the contents of the named variable. .PP When the \fBTCL_SUBST_COMMANDS\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR, sequences that look like command substitutions for Tcl commands are replaced by the result of evaluating that script. Where an uncaught .QW "continue exception" occurs during the evaluation of a command substitution, an empty string is substituted for the command. Where an uncaught .QW "break exception" occurs during the evaluation of a command substitution, the result of the whole substitution on \fIobjPtr\fR will be truncated at the point immediately before the start of the command substitution, and no characters will be added to the result or substitutions performed after that point. .SH "SEE ALSO" subst(n) .SH KEYWORDS backslash substitution, command substitution, variable substitution   | | < | | < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SubstObj.3,v 1.5 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_SubstObj 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_SubstObj \- perform substitutions on Tcl objects .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .PP When the \fBTCL_SUBST_VARIABLES\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR, sequences that look like variable substitutions for Tcl commands are replaced by the contents of the named variable. .PP When the \fBTCL_SUBST_COMMANDS\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR, sequences that look like command substitutions for Tcl commands are replaced by the result of evaluating that script. Where an uncaught continue exception' occurs during the evaluation of a command substitution, an empty string is substituted for the command. Where an uncaught break exception' occurs during the evaluation of a command substitution, the result of the whole substitution on \fIobjPtr\fR will be truncated at the point immediately before the start of the command substitution, and no characters will be added to the result or substitutions performed after that point. .SH "SEE ALSO" subst(n) .SH KEYWORDS backslash substitution, command substitution, variable substitution 

Changes to doc/TCL_MEM_DEBUG.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 .. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 Karl Lehenbauer and Mark Diekhans. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 by Scriptics Corporation. '\" All rights reserved. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: TCL_MEM_DEBUG.3,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH TCL_MEM_DEBUG 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME TCL_MEM_DEBUG \- Compile-time flag to enable Tcl memory debugging .BE ................................................................................ and the Tcl \fBmemory\fR command can be used to validate and examine memory usage. .SH "GUARD ZONES" .PP When memory debugging is enabled, whenever a call to \fBckalloc\fR is made, slightly more memory than requested is allocated so the memory debugging code can keep track of the allocated memory, and eight-byte .QW "guard zones" are placed in front of and behind the space that will be returned to the caller. (The sizes of the guard zones are defined by the C #define \fBLOW_GUARD_SIZE\fR and #define \fBHIGH_GUARD_SIZE\fR in the file \fIgeneric/tclCkalloc.c\fR -- it can be extended if you suspect large overwrite problems, at some cost in performance.) A known pattern is written into the guard zones and, on a call to \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones of the space being freed are checked to see if either zone has been modified in any way. If one has been, the guard bytes and their new contents are identified, and a .QW "low guard failed" or .QW "high guard failed" message is issued. The .QW "guard failed" message includes the address of the memory packet and the file name and line number of the code that called \fBckfree\fR. This allows you to detect the common sorts of one-off problems, where not enough space was allocated to contain the data written, for example. .SH "DEBUGGING DIFFICULT MEMORY CORRUPTION PROBLEMS" .PP   | | < | < < < | < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 .. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 Karl Lehenbauer and Mark Diekhans. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 by Scriptics Corporation. '\" All rights reserved. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: TCL_MEM_DEBUG.3,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH TCL_MEM_DEBUG 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME TCL_MEM_DEBUG \- Compile-time flag to enable Tcl memory debugging .BE ................................................................................ and the Tcl \fBmemory\fR command can be used to validate and examine memory usage. .SH "GUARD ZONES" .PP When memory debugging is enabled, whenever a call to \fBckalloc\fR is made, slightly more memory than requested is allocated so the memory debugging code can keep track of the allocated memory, and eight-byte guard zones'' are placed in front of and behind the space that will be returned to the caller. (The sizes of the guard zones are defined by the C #define \fBLOW_GUARD_SIZE\fR and #define \fBHIGH_GUARD_SIZE\fR in the file \fIgeneric/tclCkalloc.c\fR -- it can be extended if you suspect large overwrite problems, at some cost in performance.) A known pattern is written into the guard zones and, on a call to \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones of the space being freed are checked to see if either zone has been modified in any way. If one has been, the guard bytes and their new contents are identified, and a low guard failed'' or high guard failed'' message is issued. The guard failed'' message includes the address of the memory packet and the file name and line number of the code that called \fBckfree\fR. This allows you to detect the common sorts of one-off problems, where not enough space was allocated to contain the data written, for example. .SH "DEBUGGING DIFFICULT MEMORY CORRUPTION PROBLEMS" .PP 

Changes to doc/Tcl.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 ... 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 ... 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 ... 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Tcl.n,v 1.15 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl n "8.5" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME Tcl \- Tool Command Language .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ in any way it likes, such as an integer, variable name, list, or Tcl script. Different commands interpret their words differently. .IP "[3] \fBWords.\fR" Words of a command are separated by white space (except for newlines, which are command separators). .IP "[4] \fBDouble quotes.\fR" If the first character of a word is double-quote .PQ \N'34' then the word is terminated by the next double-quote character. If semi-colons, close brackets, or white space characters (including newlines) appear between the quotes then they are treated as ordinary characters and included in the word. Command substitution, variable substitution, and backslash substitution are performed on the characters between the quotes as described below. The double-quotes are not retained as part of the word. .VS 8.5 br .IP "[5] \fBArgument expansion.\fR" If a word starts with the string .QW {*} followed by a non-whitespace character, then the leading .QW {*} is removed and the rest of the word is parsed and substituted as any other word. After substitution, the word is parsed again without substitutions, and its words are added to the command being substituted. For instance, .QW "cmd a {*}{b c} d {*}{e f}" is equivalent to .QW "cmd a b c d e f" . .VE 8.5 .IP "[6] \fBBraces.\fR" If the first character of a word is an open brace .PQ { and rule [5] does not apply, then the word is terminated by the matching close brace .PQ } "" . Braces nest within the word: for each additional open brace there must be an additional close brace (however, if an open brace or close brace within the word is quoted with a backslash then it is not counted in locating the matching close brace). No substitutions are performed on the characters between the braces except for backslash-newline substitutions described below, nor do semi-colons, newlines, close brackets, or white space receive any special interpretation. The word will consist of exactly the characters between the outer braces, not including the braces themselves. .IP "[7] \fBCommand substitution.\fR" If a word contains an open bracket .PQ [ then Tcl performs \fIcommand substitution\fR. To do this it invokes the Tcl interpreter recursively to process the characters following the open bracket as a Tcl script. The script may contain any number of commands and must be terminated by a close bracket .PQ ] "" . The result of the script (i.e. the result of its last command) is substituted into the word in place of the brackets and all of the characters between them. There may be any number of command substitutions in a single word. Command substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces. .IP "[8] \fBVariable substitution.\fR" If a word contains a dollar-sign .PQ $followed by one of the forms described below, then Tcl performs \fIvariable substitution\fR: the dollar-sign and the following characters are replaced in the word by the value of a variable. Variable substitution may take any of the following forms: .RS .TP 15 \fB$\fIname\fR \fIName\fR is the name of a scalar variable; the name is a sequence ................................................................................ \fIName\fR is the name of a scalar variable. It may contain any characters whatsoever except for close braces. .LP There may be any number of variable substitutions in a single word. Variable substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces. .RE .IP "[9] \fBBackslash substitution.\fR" If a backslash .PQ \e appears within a word then \fIbackslash substitution\fR occurs. In all cases but those described below the backslash is dropped and the following character is treated as an ordinary character and included in the word. This allows characters such as double quotes, close brackets, and dollar signs to be included in words without triggering special processing. The following table lists the backslash sequences that are ................................................................................ and tabs after the newline. This backslash sequence is unique in that it is replaced in a separate pre-pass before the command is actually parsed. This means that it will be replaced even when it occurs between braces, and the resulting space will be treated as a word separator if it isn't in braces or quotes. .TP 7 \e\e Backslash .PQ \e "" . .TP 7 \e\fIooo\fR . The digits \fIooo\fR (one, two, or three of them) give an eight-bit octal value for the Unicode character that will be inserted. The upper bits of the Unicode character will be 0. .TP 7 ................................................................................ sixteen-bit hexadecimal value for the Unicode character that will be inserted. .LP Backslash substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces, except for backslash-newline as described above. .RE .IP "[10] \fBComments.\fR" If a hash character .PQ # appears at a point where Tcl is expecting the first character of the first word of a command, then the hash character and the characters that follow it, up through the next newline, are treated as a comment and ignored. The comment character only has significance when it appears at the beginning of a command. .IP "[11] \fBOrder of substitution.\fR" Each character is processed exactly once by the Tcl interpreter   | | < | | < | < | | | < < | | < | | < | < | | < | < | | < | | < < < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 ... 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 ... 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 ... 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Tcl.n,v 1.16 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl n "8.5" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME Tcl \- Tool Command Language .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ in any way it likes, such as an integer, variable name, list, or Tcl script. Different commands interpret their words differently. .IP "[3] \fBWords.\fR" Words of a command are separated by white space (except for newlines, which are command separators). .IP "[4] \fBDouble quotes.\fR" If the first character of a word is double-quote ("'') then the word is terminated by the next double-quote character. If semi-colons, close brackets, or white space characters (including newlines) appear between the quotes then they are treated as ordinary characters and included in the word. Command substitution, variable substitution, and backslash substitution are performed on the characters between the quotes as described below. The double-quotes are not retained as part of the word. .VS 8.5 br .IP "[5] \fBArgument expansion.\fR" If a word starts with the string {*}'' followed by a non-whitespace character, then the leading {*}'' is removed and the rest of the word is parsed and substituted as any other word. After substitution, the word is parsed again without substitutions, and its words are added to the command being substituted. For instance, cmd a {*}{b c} d {*}{e f}'' is equivalent to cmd a b c d e f''. .VE 8.5 .IP "[6] \fBBraces.\fR" If the first character of a word is an open brace ({'') and rule [5] does not apply, then the word is terminated by the matching close brace (}''). Braces nest within the word: for each additional open brace there must be an additional close brace (however, if an open brace or close brace within the word is quoted with a backslash then it is not counted in locating the matching close brace). No substitutions are performed on the characters between the braces except for backslash-newline substitutions described below, nor do semi-colons, newlines, close brackets, or white space receive any special interpretation. The word will consist of exactly the characters between the outer braces, not including the braces themselves. .IP "[7] \fBCommand substitution.\fR" If a word contains an open bracket (['') then Tcl performs \fIcommand substitution\fR. To do this it invokes the Tcl interpreter recursively to process the characters following the open bracket as a Tcl script. The script may contain any number of commands and must be terminated by a close bracket (]''). The result of the script (i.e. the result of its last command) is substituted into the word in place of the brackets and all of the characters between them. There may be any number of command substitutions in a single word. Command substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces. .IP "[8] \fBVariable substitution.\fR" If a word contains a dollar-sign ($'') followed by one of the forms described below, then Tcl performs \fIvariable substitution\fR: the dollar-sign and the following characters are replaced in the word by the value of a variable. Variable substitution may take any of the following forms: .RS .TP 15 \fB$\fIname\fR \fIName\fR is the name of a scalar variable; the name is a sequence ................................................................................ \fIName\fR is the name of a scalar variable. It may contain any characters whatsoever except for close braces. .LP There may be any number of variable substitutions in a single word. Variable substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces. .RE .IP "[9] \fBBackslash substitution.\fR" If a backslash (\e'') appears within a word then \fIbackslash substitution\fR occurs. In all cases but those described below the backslash is dropped and the following character is treated as an ordinary character and included in the word. This allows characters such as double quotes, close brackets, and dollar signs to be included in words without triggering special processing. The following table lists the backslash sequences that are ................................................................................ and tabs after the newline. This backslash sequence is unique in that it is replaced in a separate pre-pass before the command is actually parsed. This means that it will be replaced even when it occurs between braces, and the resulting space will be treated as a word separator if it isn't in braces or quotes. .TP 7 \e\e Backslash (\e''). .TP 7 \e\fIooo\fR . The digits \fIooo\fR (one, two, or three of them) give an eight-bit octal value for the Unicode character that will be inserted. The upper bits of the Unicode character will be 0. .TP 7 ................................................................................ sixteen-bit hexadecimal value for the Unicode character that will be inserted. .LP Backslash substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces, except for backslash-newline as described above. .RE .IP "[10] \fBComments.\fR" If a hash character (#'') appears at a point where Tcl is expecting the first character of the first word of a command, then the hash character and the characters that follow it, up through the next newline, are treated as a comment and ignored. The comment character only has significance when it appears at the beginning of a command. .IP "[11] \fBOrder of substitution.\fR" Each character is processed exactly once by the Tcl interpreter 

Changes to doc/Tcl_Main.3.

 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 .. 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104  '\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Tcl_Main.3,v 1.12 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_Main 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_Main, Tcl_SetMainLoop \- main program and event loop definition for Tcl-based applications .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .AP Tcl_MainLoopProc *mainLoopProc in Address of an application-specific event loop procedure. .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBTcl_Main\fR can serve as the main program for Tcl-based shell applications. A .QW "shell application" is a program like tclsh or wish that supports both interactive interpretation of Tcl and evaluation of a script contained in a file given as a command line argument. \fBTcl_Main\fR is offered as a convenience to developers of shell applications, so they do not have to reproduce all of the code for proper initialization of the Tcl library and interactive shell operation. Other styles of embedding Tcl in an application are not supported by \fBTcl_Main\fR. Those must be achieved by calling lower level functions in the Tcl library ................................................................................ .PP In either mode, \fBTcl_Main\fR will define in its master interpreter the Tcl variables \fIargc\fR, \fIargv\fR, \fIargv0\fR, and \fItcl_interactive\fR, as described in the documentation for \fBtclsh\fR. .PP When it has finished its own initialization, but before it processes commands, \fBTcl_Main\fR calls the procedure given by the \fIappInitProc\fR argument. This procedure provides a .QW hook for the application to perform its own initialization of the interpreter created by \fBTcl_Main\fR, such as defining application-specific commands. The procedure must have an interface that matches the type \fBTcl_AppInitProc\fR: .CS typedef int Tcl_AppInitProc(Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR); .CE   | | < | | < |  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 .. 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102  '\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Tcl_Main.3,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_Main 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_Main, Tcl_SetMainLoop \- main program and event loop definition for Tcl-based applications .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .AP Tcl_MainLoopProc *mainLoopProc in Address of an application-specific event loop procedure. .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBTcl_Main\fR can serve as the main program for Tcl-based shell applications. A shell application'' is a program like tclsh or wish that supports both interactive interpretation of Tcl and evaluation of a script contained in a file given as a command line argument. \fBTcl_Main\fR is offered as a convenience to developers of shell applications, so they do not have to reproduce all of the code for proper initialization of the Tcl library and interactive shell operation. Other styles of embedding Tcl in an application are not supported by \fBTcl_Main\fR. Those must be achieved by calling lower level functions in the Tcl library ................................................................................ .PP In either mode, \fBTcl_Main\fR will define in its master interpreter the Tcl variables \fIargc\fR, \fIargv\fR, \fIargv0\fR, and \fItcl_interactive\fR, as described in the documentation for \fBtclsh\fR. .PP When it has finished its own initialization, but before it processes commands, \fBTcl_Main\fR calls the procedure given by the \fIappInitProc\fR argument. This procedure provides a hook'' for the application to perform its own initialization of the interpreter created by \fBTcl_Main\fR, such as defining application-specific commands. The procedure must have an interface that matches the type \fBTcl_AppInitProc\fR: .CS typedef int Tcl_AppInitProc(Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR); .CE 

Changes to doc/TraceVar.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: TraceVar.3,v 1.16 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_TraceVar 3 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_TraceVar, Tcl_TraceVar2, Tcl_UntraceVar, Tcl_UntraceVar2, Tcl_VarTraceInfo, Tcl_VarTraceInfo2 \- monitor accesses to a variable .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .SH "UNDEFINED VARIABLES" .PP It is legal to set a trace on an undefined variable. The variable will still appear to be undefined until the first time its value is set. If an undefined variable is traced and then unset, the unset will fail with an error, .QW "no such variable" , but the trace procedure will still be invoked. .SH "TCL_TRACE_DESTROYED FLAG" .PP In an unset callback to \fIproc\fR, the \fBTCL_TRACE_DESTROYED\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR if the trace is being removed as part of the deletion. Traces on a variable are always removed whenever the variable   | < | |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: TraceVar.3,v 1.17 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_TraceVar 3 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_TraceVar, Tcl_TraceVar2, Tcl_UntraceVar, Tcl_UntraceVar2, Tcl_VarTraceInfo, Tcl_VarTraceInfo2 \- monitor accesses to a variable .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ .SH "UNDEFINED VARIABLES" .PP It is legal to set a trace on an undefined variable. The variable will still appear to be undefined until the first time its value is set. If an undefined variable is traced and then unset, the unset will fail with an error (no such variable''), but the trace procedure will still be invoked. .SH "TCL_TRACE_DESTROYED FLAG" .PP In an unset callback to \fIproc\fR, the \fBTCL_TRACE_DESTROYED\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR if the trace is being removed as part of the deletion. Traces on a variable are always removed whenever the variable 

Changes to doc/Translate.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Translate.3,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_TranslateFileName 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_TranslateFileName \- convert file name to native form and replace tilde with home directory .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ char * \fBTcl_TranslateFileName\fR(\fIinterp\fR, \fIname\fR, \fIbufferPtr\fR) .SH ARGUMENTS .AS Tcl_DString *bufferPtr in/out .AP Tcl_Interp *interp in Interpreter in which to report an error, if any. .AP "const char" *name in File name, which may start with a .QW ~ . .AP Tcl_DString *bufferPtr in/out If needed, this dynamic string is used to store the new file name. At the time of the call it should be uninitialized or free. The caller must eventually call \fBTcl_DStringFree\fR to free up anything stored here. .BE   | | <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Translate.3,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_TranslateFileName 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_TranslateFileName \- convert file name to native form and replace tilde with home directory .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ char * \fBTcl_TranslateFileName\fR(\fIinterp\fR, \fIname\fR, \fIbufferPtr\fR) .SH ARGUMENTS .AS Tcl_DString *bufferPtr in/out .AP Tcl_Interp *interp in Interpreter in which to report an error, if any. .AP "const char" *name in File name, which may start with a ~''. .AP Tcl_DString *bufferPtr in/out If needed, this dynamic string is used to store the new file name. At the time of the call it should be uninitialized or free. The caller must eventually call \fBTcl_DStringFree\fR to free up anything stored here. .BE 

Changes to doc/WrongNumArgs.3.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: WrongNumArgs.3,v 1.9 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_WrongNumArgs 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_WrongNumArgs \- generate standard error message for wrong number of arguments .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fBTcl_WrongNumArgs\fR is a utility procedure that is invoked by command procedures when they discover that they have received the wrong number of arguments. \fBTcl_WrongNumArgs\fR generates a standard error message and stores it in the result object of \fIinterp\fR. The message includes the \fIobjc\fR initial elements of \fIobjv\fR plus \fImessage\fR. For example, if \fIobjv\fR consists of the values \fBfoo\fR and \fBbar\fR, \fIobjc\fR is 1, and \fImessage\fR is .QW "\fBfileName count\fR" then \fIinterp\fR's result object will be set to the following string: .CS wrong # args: should be "foo fileName count" .CE If \fIobjc\fR is 2, the result will be set to the following string: .CS   | | <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: WrongNumArgs.3,v 1.10 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH Tcl_WrongNumArgs 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures" .BS .SH NAME Tcl_WrongNumArgs \- generate standard error message for wrong number of arguments .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fBTcl_WrongNumArgs\fR is a utility procedure that is invoked by command procedures when they discover that they have received the wrong number of arguments. \fBTcl_WrongNumArgs\fR generates a standard error message and stores it in the result object of \fIinterp\fR. The message includes the \fIobjc\fR initial elements of \fIobjv\fR plus \fImessage\fR. For example, if \fIobjv\fR consists of the values \fBfoo\fR and \fBbar\fR, \fIobjc\fR is 1, and \fImessage\fR is \fBfileName count\fR'' then \fIinterp\fR's result object will be set to the following string: .CS wrong # args: should be "foo fileName count" .CE If \fIobjc\fR is 2, the result will be set to the following string: .CS 

Changes to doc/after.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1990-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: after.n,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH after n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME after \- Execute a command after a time delay ................................................................................ proc doOneStep {} { if {[::my_calc::one_step]} { \fBafter idle\fR [list \fBafter\fR 0 doOneStep] } } doOneStep .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" concat(n), interp(n), update(n), vwait(n) .SH KEYWORDS cancel, delay, idle callback, sleep, time   | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1990-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: after.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH after n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME after \- Execute a command after a time delay ................................................................................ proc doOneStep {} { if {[::my_calc::one_step]} { \fBafter idle\fR [list \fBafter\fR 0 doOneStep] } } doOneStep .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" concat(n), interp(n), update(n), vwait(n) .SH KEYWORDS cancel, delay, idle callback, sleep, time 

Changes to doc/append.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: append.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH append n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME append \- Append to variable ................................................................................ of variable \fIvarName\fR. If \fIvarName\fR doesn't exist, it is given a value equal to the concatenation of all the \fIvalue\fR arguments. The result of this command is the new value stored in variable \fIvarName\fR. This command provides an efficient way to build up long variables incrementally. For example, .QW "\fBappend a $b\fR" is much more efficient than .QW "\fBset a$a$b\fR" , especially when \fB$a\fR is long. .SH EXAMPLE Building a string of comma-separated numbers piecemeal using a loop. .CS set var 0 for {set i 1} {$i<=10} {incr i} { \fBappend\fR var ","$i } puts $var # Prints 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" concat(n), lappend(n) .SH KEYWORDS append, variable   | < < | | < > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#)$Id: append.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $'\" .so man.macros .TH append n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME append \- Append to variable ................................................................................ of variable \fIvarName\fR. If \fIvarName\fR doesn't exist, it is given a value equal to the concatenation of all the \fIvalue\fR arguments. The result of this command is the new value stored in variable \fIvarName\fR. This command provides an efficient way to build up long variables incrementally. For example, \fBappend a$b\fR'' is much more efficient than \fBset a $a$b\fR'' if \fB$a\fR is long. .SH EXAMPLE Building a string of comma-separated numbers piecemeal using a loop. .CS set var 0 for {set i 1} {$i<=10} {incr i} { \fBappend\fR var "," $i } puts$var # Prints 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10 .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" concat(n), lappend(n) .SH KEYWORDS append, variable 

Changes to doc/apply.n.

 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 .. 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  the \fBvariable\fR command or the \fBupvar\fR command. .PP The invocation of \fBapply\fR adds a call frame to Tcl's evaluation stack (the stack of frames accessed via \fBuplevel\fR). The execution of \fIbody\fR proceeds in this call frame, in the namespace given by \fInamespace\fR or in the global namespace if none was specified. If given, \fInamespace\fR is interpreted relative to the global namespace even if its name does not start with .QW :: . .PP The semantics of \fBapply\fR can also be described by: .PP .CS proc apply {fun args} { set len [llength $fun] if {($len < 2) || ($len > 3)} { ................................................................................ return -options$opt $res } .CE .SH EXAMPLES This shows how to make a simple general command that applies a transformation to each element of a list. .CS .ta 2i proc map {lambda list} { set result {} foreach$item $list { lappend result [\fBapply\fR$lambda $item] } return$result } map {x {return [string length $x]:$x}} {a bb ccc dddd} \fB$$->\fI 1:a 2:bb 3:ccc 4:dddd\fR map {x {expr {x**2 + 3*x - 2}}} {-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4} \fB\(->\fI 2 -2 -4 -4 -2 2 8 16 26\fR .CE .PP The \fBapply\fR command is also useful for defining callbacks for use in the \fBtrace\fR command: .CS .ta 2i set vbl "123abc" trace add variable vbl write {\fBapply\fR {v1 v2 op} { upvar 1 v1 v puts "updated variable to \e"v\e"" }} set vbl 123 \fB\(->\fI updated variable to "123"\fR set vbl abc \fB\(->\fI updated variable to "abc"\fR .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" proc(n), uplevel(n) .SH KEYWORDS argument, procedure, anonymous function   | < < | | < | < <  37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 .. 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95  the \fBvariable\fR command or the \fBupvar\fR command. .PP The invocation of \fBapply\fR adds a call frame to Tcl's evaluation stack (the stack of frames accessed via \fBuplevel\fR). The execution of \fIbody\fR proceeds in this call frame, in the namespace given by \fInamespace\fR or in the global namespace if none was specified. If given, \fInamespace\fR is interpreted relative to the global namespace even if its name does not start with '::'. .PP The semantics of \fBapply\fR can also be described by: .PP .CS proc apply {fun args} { set len [llength fun] if {(len < 2) || (len > 3)} { ................................................................................ return -options opt res } .CE .SH EXAMPLES This shows how to make a simple general command that applies a transformation to each element of a list. .CS proc map {lambda list} { set result {} foreach item list { lappend result [\fBapply\fR lambda item] } return result } map {x {return [string length x]:x}} {a bb ccc dddd} \fI=> 1:a 2:bb 3:ccc 4:dddd\fR map {x {expr {x**2 + 3*x - 2}}} {-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4} \fI=> 2 -2 -4 -4 -2 2 8 16 26\fR .CE .PP The \fBapply\fR command is also useful for defining callbacks for use in the \fBtrace\fR command: .CS set vbl "123abc" trace add variable vbl write {\fBapply\fR {v1 v2 op} { upvar 1 v1 v puts "updated variable to \\"v\\"" }} set vbl 123 set vbl abc .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" proc(n), uplevel(n) .SH KEYWORDS argument, procedure, anonymous function  Changes to doc/array.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: array.n,v 1.17 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH array n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME array \- Manipulate array variables ................................................................................ blue 4 white 9 } foreach {color count} [\fBarray get\fR colorcount] { puts "Color: color Count: count" } \(-> Color: blue Count: 4 Color: white Count: 9 Color: green Count: 5 Color: red Count: 1 foreach color [\fBarray names\fR colorcount] { puts "Color: color Count: colorcount(color)" } \(-> Color: blue Count: 4 Color: white Count: 9 Color: green Count: 5 Color: red Count: 1 foreach color [lsort [\fBarray names\fR colorcount]] { puts "Color: color Count: colorcount(color)" } \(-> Color: blue Count: 4 Color: green Count: 5 Color: red Count: 1 Color: white Count: 9 \fBarray statistics\fR colorcount \(-> 4 entries in table, 4 buckets number of buckets with 0 entries: 1 number of buckets with 1 entries: 2 number of buckets with 2 entries: 1 number of buckets with 3 entries: 0 number of buckets with 4 entries: 0 number of buckets with 5 entries: 0 number of buckets with 6 entries: 0 number of buckets with 7 entries: 0 number of buckets with 8 entries: 0 number of buckets with 9 entries: 0 number of buckets with 10 or more entries: 0 average search distance for entry: 1.2 .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), string(n), variable(n), trace(n), foreach(n) .SH KEYWORDS array, element names, search   | | | | | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: array.n,v 1.18 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH array n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME array \- Manipulate array variables ................................................................................ blue 4 white 9 } foreach {color count} [\fBarray get\fR colorcount] { puts "Color: color Count: count" } => Color: blue Count: 4 Color: white Count: 9 Color: green Count: 5 Color: red Count: 1 foreach color [\fBarray names\fR colorcount] { puts "Color: color Count: colorcount(color)" } => Color: blue Count: 4 Color: white Count: 9 Color: green Count: 5 Color: red Count: 1 foreach color [lsort [\fBarray names\fR colorcount]] { puts "Color: color Count: colorcount(color)" } => Color: blue Count: 4 Color: green Count: 5 Color: red Count: 1 Color: white Count: 9 \fBarray statistics\fR colorcount => 4 entries in table, 4 buckets number of buckets with 0 entries: 1 number of buckets with 1 entries: 2 number of buckets with 2 entries: 1 number of buckets with 3 entries: 0 number of buckets with 4 entries: 0 number of buckets with 5 entries: 0 number of buckets with 6 entries: 0 number of buckets with 7 entries: 0 number of buckets with 8 entries: 0 number of buckets with 9 entries: 0 number of buckets with 10 or more entries: 0 average search distance for entry: 1.2 .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), string(n), variable(n), trace(n), foreach(n) .SH KEYWORDS array, element names, search  Changes to doc/bgerror.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1990-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: bgerror.n,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH bgerror n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME bgerror \- Command invoked to process background errors ................................................................................ proc bgerror {message} { set timestamp [clock format [clock seconds]] set fl [open mylog.txt {WRONLY CREAT APPEND}] puts fl "timestamp: bgerror in ::argv 'message'" close fl } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" after(n), interp(n), tclvars(n) .SH KEYWORDS background error, reporting   | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1990-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: bgerror.n,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH bgerror n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME bgerror \- Command invoked to process background errors ................................................................................ proc bgerror {message} { set timestamp [clock format [clock seconds]] set fl [open mylog.txt {WRONLY CREAT APPEND}] puts fl "timestamp: bgerror in ::argv 'message'" close fl } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" after(n), interp(n), tclvars(n) .SH KEYWORDS background error, reporting  Changes to doc/binary.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 ... 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 ... 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 ... 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 ... 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 ... 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1997 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: binary.n,v 1.31 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH binary n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME binary \- Insert and extract fields from binary strings ................................................................................ \fBbinary format\fR B5B* 11100 111000011010 .CE will return a string equivalent to \fB\\xe0\\xe1\\xa0\fR. .RE .IP \fBh\fR 5 Stores a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in low-to-high within each byte in the output string. \fIArg\fR must contain a sequence of characters in the set .QW 0123456789abcdefABCDEF . The resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the hex digits being formatted in low-to-high order within each byte. If \fIarg\fR has fewer than \fIcount\fR digits, then zeros will be used for the remaining digits. If \fIarg\fR has more than the specified number of digits, the extra digits will be ignored. If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then all of the digits in \fIarg\fR will be formatted. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one digit will be formatted. If the number of digits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the ................................................................................ \fIcount\fR is a non-negative decimal integer or \fB*\fR, which normally indicates that all of the remaining items in the data are to be used. If there are not enough bytes left after the current cursor position to satisfy the current field specifier, then the corresponding variable is left untouched and \fBbinary scan\fR returns immediately with the number of variables that were set. If there are not enough arguments for all of the fields in the format string that consume arguments, then an error is generated. The flag character .QW u may be given to cause some types to be read as unsigned values. The flag is accepted for all field types but is ignored for non-integer fields. .PP A similar example as with \fBbinary format\fR should explain the relation between field specifiers and arguments in case of the binary scan subcommand: .CS ................................................................................ long data size values. In doing this, values that have their high bit set (0x80 for chars, 0x8000 for shorts, 0x80000000 for ints), will be sign extended. Thus the following will occur: .CS set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000] \fBbinary scan\fR signShort s1 val; \fI# val == 0xFFFF8000\fR .CE If you require unsigned values you can include the .QW u flag character following the field type. For example, to read an unsigned short value: .CS set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000] \fBbinary scan\fR signShort su1 val; \fI# val == 0x00008000\fR .CE .PP Each type-count pair moves an imaginary cursor through the binary data, reading bytes from the current position. The cursor is initially ................................................................................ .CS \fBbinary scan\fR "abc efghi \\000" A* var1 .CE will return \fB1\fR with \fBabc efghi\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR. .RE .IP \fBb\fR 5 The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR binary digits in low-to-high order represented as a sequence of .QW 1 and .QW 0 characters. The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with the bits being taken in low-to-high order within each byte. Any extra bits in the last byte are ignored. If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then all of the remaining bits in \fIstring\fR will be scanned. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one bit will be scanned. For example, .RS .CS ................................................................................ .CE will return \fB2\fR with \fB01110\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB1000011100000101\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR. .RE .IP \fBH\fR 5 The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in high-to-low order represented as a sequence of characters in the set .QW 0123456789abcdef . The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with the hex digits being taken in high-to-low order within each byte. Any extra bits in the last byte are ignored. If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then all of the remaining hex digits in \fIstring\fR will be scanned. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one hex digit will be scanned. For example, .RS .CS ................................................................................ if {![\fBbinary scan\fR [read channel 4] I length]} { error "missing length" } set data [read channel length] return [encoding convertfrom utf-8 data] } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" format(n), scan(n), tclvars(n) .SH KEYWORDS binary, format, scan   | | < | | < | < | < | < < < < | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 ... 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 ... 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 ... 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 ... 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 ... 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1997 by Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: binary.n,v 1.32 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH binary n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME binary \- Insert and extract fields from binary strings ................................................................................ \fBbinary format\fR B5B* 11100 111000011010 .CE will return a string equivalent to \fB\\xe0\\xe1\\xa0\fR. .RE .IP \fBh\fR 5 Stores a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in low-to-high within each byte in the output string. \fIArg\fR must contain a sequence of characters in the set 0123456789abcdefABCDEF''. The resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the hex digits being formatted in low-to-high order within each byte. If \fIarg\fR has fewer than \fIcount\fR digits, then zeros will be used for the remaining digits. If \fIarg\fR has more than the specified number of digits, the extra digits will be ignored. If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then all of the digits in \fIarg\fR will be formatted. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one digit will be formatted. If the number of digits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the ................................................................................ \fIcount\fR is a non-negative decimal integer or \fB*\fR, which normally indicates that all of the remaining items in the data are to be used. If there are not enough bytes left after the current cursor position to satisfy the current field specifier, then the corresponding variable is left untouched and \fBbinary scan\fR returns immediately with the number of variables that were set. If there are not enough arguments for all of the fields in the format string that consume arguments, then an error is generated. The flag character 'u' may be given to cause some types to be read as unsigned values. The flag is accepted for all field types but is ignored for non-integer fields. .PP A similar example as with \fBbinary format\fR should explain the relation between field specifiers and arguments in case of the binary scan subcommand: .CS ................................................................................ long data size values. In doing this, values that have their high bit set (0x80 for chars, 0x8000 for shorts, 0x80000000 for ints), will be sign extended. Thus the following will occur: .CS set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000] \fBbinary scan\fR signShort s1 val; \fI# val == 0xFFFF8000\fR .CE If you require unsigned values you can include the 'u' flag character following the field type. For example, to read an unsigned short value: .CS set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000] \fBbinary scan\fR signShort su1 val; \fI# val == 0x00008000\fR .CE .PP Each type-count pair moves an imaginary cursor through the binary data, reading bytes from the current position. The cursor is initially ................................................................................ .CS \fBbinary scan\fR "abc efghi \\000" A* var1 .CE will return \fB1\fR with \fBabc efghi\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR. .RE .IP \fBb\fR 5 The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR binary digits in low-to-high order represented as a sequence of 1'' and 0'' characters. The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with the bits being taken in low-to-high order within each byte. Any extra bits in the last byte are ignored. If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then all of the remaining bits in \fIstring\fR will be scanned. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one bit will be scanned. For example, .RS .CS ................................................................................ .CE will return \fB2\fR with \fB01110\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and \fB1000011100000101\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR. .RE .IP \fBH\fR 5 The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in high-to-low order represented as a sequence of characters in the set 0123456789abcdef''. The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with the hex digits being taken in high-to-low order within each byte. Any extra bits in the last byte are ignored. If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then all of the remaining hex digits in \fIstring\fR will be scanned. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one hex digit will be scanned. For example, .RS .CS ................................................................................ if {![\fBbinary scan\fR [read channel 4] I length]} { error "missing length" } set data [read channel length] return [encoding convertfrom utf-8 data] } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" format(n), scan(n), tclvars(n) .SH KEYWORDS binary, format, scan  Changes to doc/break.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: break.n,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH break n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME break \- Abort looping command ................................................................................ for {set x 0} {x<10} {incr x} { if {x > 5} { \fBbreak\fR } puts "x is x" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" catch(n), continue(n), for(n), foreach(n), return(n), while(n) .SH KEYWORDS abort, break, loop   | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: break.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH break n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME break \- Abort looping command ................................................................................ for {set x 0} {x<10} {incr x} { if {x > 5} { \fBbreak\fR } puts "x is x" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" catch(n), continue(n), for(n), foreach(n), return(n), while(n) .SH KEYWORDS abort, break, loop  Changes to doc/catch.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96  '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2003. (not subject to US copyright) '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: catch.n,v 1.14 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH catch n "8.5" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME catch \- Evaluate script and trap exceptional returns ................................................................................ puts stderr "Could not open someFile for writing\\nfid" exit 1 } .CE .PP There are more complex examples of \fBcatch\fR usage in the documentation for the \fBreturn\fR command. .SH "SEE ALSO" break(n), continue(n), dict(n), error(n), return(n), tclvars(n) .SH KEYWORDS catch, error   | > >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98  '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2003. (not subject to US copyright) '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: catch.n,v 1.15 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH catch n "8.5" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME catch \- Evaluate script and trap exceptional returns ................................................................................ puts stderr "Could not open someFile for writing\\nfid" exit 1 } .CE .PP There are more complex examples of \fBcatch\fR usage in the documentation for the \fBreturn\fR command. .SH "SEE ALSO" break(n), continue(n), dict(n), error(n), return(n), tclvars(n) .SH KEYWORDS catch, error  Changes to doc/cd.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: cd.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH cd n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME cd \- Change working directory ................................................................................ .CE .PP Change to the directory \fBlib\fR that is a sibling directory of the current one: .CS \fBcd\fR ../lib .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" filename(n), glob(n), pwd(n) .SH KEYWORDS working directory   | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: cd.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH cd n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME cd \- Change working directory ................................................................................ .CE .PP Change to the directory \fBlib\fR that is a sibling directory of the current one: .CS \fBcd\fR ../lib .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" filename(n), glob(n), pwd(n) .SH KEYWORDS working directory  Changes to doc/chan.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 ... 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 ... 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 ... 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: chan.n,v 1.12 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  .so man.macros .TH chan n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME chan \- Read, write and manipulate channels .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fInot\fR made. If \fIinputChan\fR is closed, then all data already queued for \fIoutputChan\fR is written out. .PP Note that \fIinputChan\fR can become readable during a background copy. You should turn off any \fBchan event\fR or \fBfileevent\fR handlers during a background copy so those handlers do not interfere with the copy. Any I/O attempted by a \fBchan event\fR or \fBfileevent\fR handler will get a .QW "channel busy" error. .PP \fBChan copy\fR translates end-of-line sequences in \fIinputChan\fR and \fIoutputChan\fR according to the \fB\-translation\fR option for these channels (see \fBchan configure\fR above). The translations mean that the number of bytes read from \fIinputChan\fR can be different than the number of bytes written to \fIoutputChan\fR. Only the number of bytes written to \fIoutputChan\fR is reported, either as ................................................................................ returned as the result of the \fBchan create\fR command, and the channel is open. Use either \fBclose\fR or \fBchan close\fR to remove the channel. .RS .PP The argument \fImode\fR specifies if the new channel is opened for reading, writing, or both. It has to be a list containing any of the strings .QW "\fBread\fR" or .QW "\fBwrite\fR" . The list must have at least one element, as a channel you can neither write to nor read from makes no sense. The handler command for the new channel must support the chosen mode, or an error is thrown. .PP The command prefix is executed in the global namespace, at the top of call stack, following the appending of arguments as described in the \fBreflectedchan\fR manual page. Command resolution happens at the ................................................................................ writable. File event handlers are most commonly used to allow data to be received from another process on an event-driven basis, so that the receiver can continue to interact with the user or with other channels while waiting for the data to arrive. If an application invokes \fBchan gets\fR or \fBchan read\fR on a blocking channel when there is no input data available, the process will block; until the input data arrives, it will not be able to service other events, so it will appear to the user to .QW "freeze up" . With \fBchan event\fR, the process can tell when data is present and only invoke \fBchan gets\fR or \fBchan read\fR when they won't block. .PP A channel is considered to be readable if there is unread data available on the underlying device. A channel is also considered to be readable if there is unread data in an input buffer, except in the special case where the most recent attempt to read from the channel ................................................................................ . Produces a list of all channel names. If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those channel names that match it (according to the rules of \fBstring match\fR) will be returned. .TP \fBchan pending \fImode channelId\fR . Depending on whether \fImode\fR is .QW "input" or .QW "output" , returns the number of bytes of input or output (respectively) currently buffered internally for \fIchannelId\fR (especially useful in a readable event callback to impose application-specific limits on input line lengths to avoid a potential denial-of-service attack where a hostile user crafts an extremely long line that exceeds the available memory to buffer it). Returns -1 if the channel was not opened for the mode in question. .TP \fBchan postevent \fIchannelId eventSpec\fR . This subcommand is used by command handlers specified with \fBchan create\fR. It notifies the channel represented by the handle \fIchannelId\fR that the event(s) listed in the \fIeventSpec\fR have occurred. The argument has to be a list containing any of the strings .QW "\fBread\fR" and .QW "\fBwrite\fR" . The list must contain at least one element as it does not make sense to invoke the command if there are no events to post. .RS .PP Note that this subcommand can only be used with channel handles that were created/opened by \fBchan create\fR. All other channels will cause this subcommand to report an error.   | | < < < < < < | < < | | < < < < < < < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 ... 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 ... 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 ... 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: chan.n,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  .so man.macros .TH chan n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME chan \- Read, write and manipulate channels .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ \fInot\fR made. If \fIinputChan\fR is closed, then all data already queued for \fIoutputChan\fR is written out. .PP Note that \fIinputChan\fR can become readable during a background copy. You should turn off any \fBchan event\fR or \fBfileevent\fR handlers during a background copy so those handlers do not interfere with the copy. Any I/O attempted by a \fBchan event\fR or \fBfileevent\fR handler will get a "channel busy" error. .PP \fBChan copy\fR translates end-of-line sequences in \fIinputChan\fR and \fIoutputChan\fR according to the \fB\-translation\fR option for these channels (see \fBchan configure\fR above). The translations mean that the number of bytes read from \fIinputChan\fR can be different than the number of bytes written to \fIoutputChan\fR. Only the number of bytes written to \fIoutputChan\fR is reported, either as ................................................................................ returned as the result of the \fBchan create\fR command, and the channel is open. Use either \fBclose\fR or \fBchan close\fR to remove the channel. .RS .PP The argument \fImode\fR specifies if the new channel is opened for reading, writing, or both. It has to be a list containing any of the strings "\fBread\fR" or "\fBwrite\fR". The list must have at least one element, as a channel you can neither write to nor read from makes no sense. The handler command for the new channel must support the chosen mode, or an error is thrown. .PP The command prefix is executed in the global namespace, at the top of call stack, following the appending of arguments as described in the \fBreflectedchan\fR manual page. Command resolution happens at the ................................................................................ writable. File event handlers are most commonly used to allow data to be received from another process on an event-driven basis, so that the receiver can continue to interact with the user or with other channels while waiting for the data to arrive. If an application invokes \fBchan gets\fR or \fBchan read\fR on a blocking channel when there is no input data available, the process will block; until the input data arrives, it will not be able to service other events, so it will appear to the user to freeze up''. With \fBchan event\fR, the process can tell when data is present and only invoke \fBchan gets\fR or \fBchan read\fR when they won't block. .PP A channel is considered to be readable if there is unread data available on the underlying device. A channel is also considered to be readable if there is unread data in an input buffer, except in the special case where the most recent attempt to read from the channel ................................................................................ . Produces a list of all channel names. If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those channel names that match it (according to the rules of \fBstring match\fR) will be returned. .TP \fBchan pending \fImode channelId\fR . Depending on whether \fImode\fR is "input" or "output", returns the number of bytes of input or output (respectively) currently buffered internally for \fIchannelId\fR (especially useful in a readable event callback to impose application-specific limits on input line lengths to avoid a potential denial-of-service attack where a hostile user crafts an extremely long line that exceeds the available memory to buffer it). Returns -1 if the channel was not opened for the mode in question. .TP \fBchan postevent \fIchannelId eventSpec\fR . This subcommand is used by command handlers specified with \fBchan create\fR. It notifies the channel represented by the handle \fIchannelId\fR that the event(s) listed in the \fIeventSpec\fR have occurred. The argument has to be a list containing any of the strings "\fBread\fR" and "\fBwrite\fR". The list must contain at least one element as it does not make sense to invoke the command if there are no events to post. .RS .PP Note that this subcommand can only be used with channel handles that were created/opened by \fBchan create\fR. All other channels will cause this subcommand to report an error.  Changes to doc/clock.n.  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 .. 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 ... 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 ... 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 ... 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 ... 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 ... 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 ... 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 ... 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 ... 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886  .TH "clock" n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME clock \- Obtain and manipulate dates and times .SH "SYNOPSIS" package require \fBTcl 8.5\fR .sp \fBclock add\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fIcount unit...\fR? ?\fI\-option value\fR? .sp \fBclock clicks\fR ?\fI\-option\fR? .sp \fBclock format\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR...? .sp \fBclock microseconds\fR .sp \fBclock milliseconds\fR .sp \fBclock scan\fR \fIinputString\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR...? .sp \fBclock seconds\fR .sp .BE .SH "DESCRIPTION" .PP The \fBclock\fR command performs several operations that obtain and manipulate values that represent times. The command supports several subcommands that determine what action is carried out by the command. .TP \fBclock add\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fIcount unit...\fR? ?\fI\-option value\fR? Adds a (possibly negative) offset to a time that is expressed as an integer number of seconds. See \fBCLOCK ARITHMETIC\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock clicks\fR ?\fI\-option\fR? If no \fI\-option\fR argument is supplied, returns a high-resolution time value as a system-dependent integer value. The unit of the value is system-dependent but should be the highest resolution clock available on the system such as a CPU cycle counter. See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description. .sp If the \fI\-option\fR argument is \fI\-milliseconds\fR, then the command is synonymous with \fBclock milliseconds\fR (see below). This usage is obsolete, and \fBclock milliseconds\fR is to be considered the preferred way of obtaining a count of milliseconds. .sp If the \fI\-option\fR argument is \fI\-microseconds\fR, then the command is synonymous with \fBclock microseconds\fR (see below). This usage is obsolete, and \fBclock microseconds\fR is to be considered the preferred way of obtaining a count of microseconds. .TP \fBclock format\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR...? Formats a time that is expressed as an integer number of seconds into a format intended for consumption by users or external programs. See \fBFORMATTING TIMES\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock microseconds\fR Returns the current time as an integer number of microseconds. See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock milliseconds\fR Returns the current time as an integer number of milliseconds. See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock scan\fR \fIinputString\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR...? Scans a time that is expressed as a character string and produces an integer number of seconds. See \fBSCANNING TIMES\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock seconds\fR Returns the current time as an integer number of seconds. .SS "PARAMETERS" ................................................................................ One of the words, \fBseconds\fR, \fBminutes\fR, \fBhours\fR, \fBdays\fR, \fBweeks\fR, \fBmonths\fR, or \fByears\fR, or any unique prefix of such a word. Used in conjunction with \fIcount\fR to identify an interval of time, for example, \fI3 seconds\fR or \fI1 year\fR. .SS "OPTIONS" .TP \fB\-base\fR time Specifies that any relative times present in a \fBclock scan\fR command are to be given relative to \fItime\fR. \fItime\fR must be expressed as a count of nominal seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC. .TP \fB\-format\fR format Specifies the desired output format for \fBclock format\fR or the expected input format for \fBclock scan\fR. The \fIformat\fR string consists of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign .PQ \fI%\fR interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character sequences beginning with the per-cent sign. The permissible format groups, and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR. .RS .PP On \fBclock format\fR, the default format is .CS %a %b %d %H:%M:%S %z %Y .CE .PP On \fBclock scan\fR, the lack of a \fI\-format\fR option indicates that a .QW "free format scan" is requested; see \fBFREE FORM SCAN\fR for a description of what happens. .RE .TP \fB\-gmt\fR boolean If \fIboolean\fR is true, specifies that a time specified to \fBclock add\fR, \fBclock format\fR or \fBclock scan\fR should be processed in UTC. If \fIboolean\fR is false, the processing defaults to the local time zone. This usage is obsolete; the correct current usage is to specify the UTC time zone with .QW "\fB\-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR" or any of the equivalent ways to specify it. .TP \fB\-locale\fR localeName Specifies that locale-dependent scanning and formatting (and date arithmetic for dates preceding the adoption of the Gregorian calendar) is to be done in the locale identified by \fIlocaleName\fR. The locale name may be any of the locales acceptable to the \fBmsgcat\fR package, or it may be the special name \fIsystem\fR, which represents the current locale of the process, or the null string, which represents Tcl's default locale. .sp The effect of locale on scanning and formatting is discussed in the descriptions of the individual format groups under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR. The effect of locale on clock arithmetic is discussed under \fBCLOCK ARITHMETIC\fR. .TP \fB\-timezone\fR zoneName Specifies that clock arithmetic, formatting, and scanning are to be done according to the rules for the time zone specified by \fIzoneName\fR. The permissible values, and their interpretation, are discussed under \fBTIME ZONES\fR. On subcommands that expect a \fB\-timezone\fR argument, the default is to use the \fIcurrent time zone\fR. The current time zone is determined, in order of preference, by: .RS .IP [1] the environment variable \fBTCL_TZ\fR. .IP [2] the environment variable \fBTZ\fR. ................................................................................ Greenwich. On 32-bit systems, this approach is likely to have bugs, particularly for times that lie outside the window (approximately the years 1902 to 2037) that can be represented in a 32-bit integer. .SH "CLOCK ARITHMETIC" The \fBclock add\fR command performs clock arithmetic on a value (expressed as nominal seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC) given as its first argument. The remaining arguments (other than the possible \fB\-timezone\fR, \fB\-locale\fR and \fB\-gmt\fR options) are integers and keywords in alternation, where the keywords are chosen from \fBseconds\fR, \fBminutes\fR, \fBhours\fR, \fBdays\fR, \fBweeks\fR, \fBmonths\fR, or \fByears\fR, or any unique prefix of such a word. .PP Addition of seconds, minutes and hours is fairly straightforward; the given time increment (times sixty for minutes, or 3600 for hours) ................................................................................ .SH "FORMATTING TIMES" The \fBclock format\fR command produces times for display to a user or writing to an external medium. The command accepts times that are expressed in seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC, as returned by \fBclock seconds\fR, \fBclock scan\fR, \fBclock add\fR, \fBfile atime\fR or \fBfile mtime\fR. .PP If a \fB\-format\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies how the date and time are to be formatted. The string consists of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign .PQ \fI%\fR interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character sequences beginning with the per-cent sign. The permissible format groups, and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR. .PP If a \fB\-timezone\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies the time zone in which the date and time are to be formatted. As an alternative to .QW "\fB\-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR" , the obsolete usage .QW "\fB\-gmt\fR \fItrue\fR" may be used. See \fBTIME ZONES\fR for the permissible variants for the time zone. .PP If a \fB\-locale\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies the locale in which the time is to be formatted, in the same format that is used for the \fBmsgcat\fR package. Note that the default, if \fB\-locale\fR is not specified, is the root locale \fB{}\fR rather than the current locale. The current locale may be obtained by using .QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR" . In addition, some platforms support a \fBsystem\fR locale that reflects the user's current choices. For instance, on Windows, the format that the user has selected from dates and times in the Control Panel can be obtained by using the \fBsystem\fR locale. On platforms that do not define a user selection of date and time formats separate from \fBLC_TIME\fR, .QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBsystem\fR" is synonymous with .QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR" . .SH "SCANNING TIMES" The \fBclock scan\fR command accepts times that are formatted as strings and converts them to counts of seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC. It normally takes a \fB\-format\fR option that is followed by a string describing the expected format of the input. (See \fBFREE FORM SCAN\fR for the effect of \fBclock scan\fR without such an argument.) The string consists of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign .PQ \fI%\fR "" , interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character sequences beginning with the per-cent sign. The permissible format groups, and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR. .PP If a \fB\-timezone\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies the time zone in which the date and time are to be interpreted. As an alternative to .QW "\fB\-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR" , the obsolete usage .QW "\fB\-gmt\fR \fItrue\fR" may be used. See \fBTIME ZONES\fR for the permissible variants for the time zone. .PP If a \fB\-locale\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies the locale in which the time is to be interpreted, in the same format that is used for the \fBmsgcat\fR package. Note that the default, if \fB\-locale\fR is not specified, is the root locale .MT rather than the current locale. The current locale may be obtained by using .QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR" . In addition, some platforms support a \fBsystem\fR locale that reflects the user's current choices. For instance, on Windows, the format that the user has selected from dates and times in the Control Panel can be obtained by using the \fBsystem\fR locale. On platforms that do not define a user selection of date and time formats separate from \fBLC_TIME\fR, .QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBsystem\fR" is synonymous with .QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR" . .PP If a \fB\-base\fR option is present, the following argument is a time (expressed in seconds from the epoch time) that is used as a \fIbase time\fR for interpreting relative times. If no \fB\-base\fR option is present, the base time is the current time. .PP Scanning of times in fixed format works by determining three things: the date, the time of day, and the time zone. These three are then combined into a point in time, which is returned as the number of seconds from the epoch. .PP Before scanning begins, the format string is preprocessed ................................................................................ the minute of the hour, that group combines with the hour. If the string further contains a group specifying the second of the minute, that group combines with the hour and minute. .IP [3] If the string contains neither a \fB%s\fR format group nor a group specifying the hour of the day, then midnight (\fB00:00\fR, the start of the given date) is used. The time zone is determined by either the \fB\-timezone\fR or \fB\-gmt\fR options, or by using the current time zone. .PP If a format string lacks a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group, it is possible for the time to be ambiguous because it appears twice in the same day, once without and once with Daylight Saving Time. If this situation occurs, the first occurrence of the time is chosen. (For this reason, it is wise to have the input string contain the ................................................................................ \fB%N\fR On output, produces the number of the month (1-12) with one or two digits. digits. On input, accepts one or two digits, possibly with leading whitespace, and interprets them as the number of the month. .TP \fB%Od\fR, \fB%Oe\fR, \fB%OH\fR, \fB%OI\fR, \fB%Ok\fR, \fB%Ol\fR, \fB%Om\fR, \fB%OM\fR, \fB%OS\fR, \fB%Ou\fR, \fB%Ow\fR, \fB%Oy\fR All of these format groups are synonymous with their counterparts without the .QW \fBO\fR , except that the string is produced and parsed in the locale-dependent alternative numerals. .TP \fB%p\fR . On output, produces an indicator for the part of the day, \fBAM\fR or \fBPM\fR, appropriate to the given locale. If the script of the given locale supports multiple letterforms, lowercase is preferred. On input, matches the representation \fBAM\fR or \fBPM\fR in the given locale, in either case. .TP \fB%P\fR ................................................................................ time zone. This option should, in general, be used on input only when parsing RFC822 dates. Other uses are fraught with ambiguity; for instance, the string \fBBST\fR may represent British Summer Time or Brazilian Standard Time. It is recommended that date/time strings for use by computers use numeric time zones instead. .TP \fB%%\fR On output, produces a literal .QW \fB%\fR character. On input, matches a literal .QW \fB%\fR character. .TP \fB%+\fR Synonymous with .QW "\fB%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y\fR" . .SH "TIME ZONES" When the \fBclock\fR command is processing a local time, it has several possible sources for the time zone to use. In order of preference, they are: .IP [1] A time zone specified inside a string being parsed and matched by a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group. .IP [2] A time zone specified with the \fB\-timezone\fR option to the \fBclock\fR command (or, equivalently, by .QW "\fB\-gmt\fR \fB1\fR" ). .IP [3] A time zone specified in an environment variable \fBTCL_TZ\fR. .IP [4] A time zone specified in an environment variable \fBTZ\fR. .IP [5] The local time zone from the Control Panel on Windows systems. .IP [6] ................................................................................ .PP If the time zone begins with a colon, it is one of a standardized list of names like \fB:America/New_York\fR that give the rules for various locales. A complete list of the location names is too lengthy to be listed here. On most Tcl installations, the definitions of the locations are to be found in named files in the directory .QW "\fI/no_backup/tools/lib/tcl8.5/clock/tzdata\fR" . On some Unix systems, these files are omitted, and the definitions are instead obtained from system files in .QW "\fI/usr/share/zoneinfo\fR" , .QW "\fI/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo\fR" or .QW "\fI/usr/local/etc/zoneinfo\fR" . As a special case, the name \fB:localtime\fR refers to the local time zone as defined by the C library. .PP A time zone string consisting of a plus or minus sign followed by four or six decimal digits is interpreted as an offset in hours, minutes, and seconds (if six digits are present) from UTC. The plus sign denotes a sign east of Greenwich; ................................................................................ Any other time zone string is processed by prefixing a colon and attempting to use it as a location name, as above. .SH "LOCALIZATION" Developers wishing to localize the date and time formatting and parsing are referred to \fIhttp://tip.tcl.tk/173\fR for a specification. .SH "FREE FORM SCAN" If the \fBclock scan\fR command is invoked without a \fB\-format\fR option, then it requests a \fIfree-form scan.\fR \fI This form of scan is deprecated.\fR The reason for the deprecation is that there are too many ambiguities. (Does the string .QW 2000 represent a year, a time of day, or a quantity?) No set of rules for interpreting free-form dates and times has been found to give unsurprising results in all cases. .PP If free-form scan is used, only the \fB\-base\fR and \fB\-gmt\fR options are accepted. The \fB\-timezone\fR and \fB\-locale\fR options will result in an error if \fB\-format\fR is not supplied. .PP For the benefit of users who need to understand legacy code that uses free-form scan, the documentation for how free-form scan interprets a string is included here: .PP If only a time is specified, the current date is assumed. If the \fIinputString\fR does not contain a time zone mnemonic, the local time zone is assumed, unless the \fB\-gmt\fR argument is true, in which case the clock value is calculated assuming that the specified time is relative to Greenwich Mean Time. \fB\-gmt\fR, if specified, affects only the computed time value; it does not impact the interpretation of \fB\-base\fR. .PP If the \fB\-base\fR flag is specified, the next argument should contain an integer clock value. Only the date in this value is used, not the time. This is useful for determining the time on a specific day or doing other date-relative conversions. .PP The \fIinputString\fR argument consists of zero or more specifications of the following form: .TP ................................................................................ \fItime\fR A time of day, which is of the form: \fBhh?:mm?:ss?? ?meridian? ?zone?\fR or \fBhhmm ?meridian? ?zone?\fR If no meridian is specified, \fBhh\fR is interpreted on a 24-hour clock. .TP \fIdate\fR A specific month and day with optional year. The acceptable formats are .QW "\fBmm/dd\fR?\fB/yy\fR?" , .QW "\fBmonthname dd\fR?\fB, yy\fR?" , .QW "\fBday, dd monthname \fR?\fByy\fR?" , .QW "\fBdd monthname yy\fR" , .QW "?\fBCC\fR?\fByymmdd\fR" , and .QW "\fBdd-monthname-\fR?\fBCC\fR?\fByy\fR" . The default year is the current year. If the year is less than 100, we treat the years 00-68 as 2000-2068 and the years 69-99 as 1969-1999. Not all platforms can represent the years 38-70, so an error may result if these years are used. .TP \fIISO 8601 point-in-time\fR An ISO 8601 point-in-time specification, such as \fBCCyymmddThhmmss\fR, where \fBT\fR is the literal .QW T , .QW "\fBCCyymmdd hhmmss\fR" , or .QW \fBCCyymmddThh:mm:ss\fR . Note that only these three formats are accepted. The command does \fInot\fR accept the full range of point-in-time specifications specified in ISO8601. Other formats can be recognized by giving an explicit \fI\-format\fR option to the \fBclock scan\fR command. .TP \fIrelative time\fR A specification relative to the current time. The format is \fBnumber unit\fR. Acceptable units are \fByear\fR, \fBfortnight\fR, \fBmonth\fR, \fBweek\fR, \fBday\fR, \fBhour\fR, \fBminute\fR (or \fBmin\fR), and \fBsecond\fR (or \fBsec\fR). The unit can be specified as a singular or plural, as in \fB3 weeks\fR.   | | | | | | | | | | | | | | < | | | | | < | | | | | | | < | | < | < | < | | | > > > > > > | > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > > | < < | < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < | | | < < | | < | < < < | < | | | < | < | < < < | | | < | | | | | | | | | | | | | < | | < < < < | |  6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 .. 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 ... 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 ... 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 ... 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 ... 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 ... 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 ... 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 ... 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 ... 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852  .TH "clock" n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME clock \- Obtain and manipulate dates and times .SH "SYNOPSIS" package require \fBTcl 8.5\fR .sp \fBclock add\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fIcount unit...\fR? ?\fI-option value\fR? .sp \fBclock clicks\fR ?\fI-option\fR? .sp \fBclock format\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fI-option value\fR...? .sp \fBclock microseconds\fR .sp \fBclock milliseconds\fR .sp \fBclock scan\fR \fIinputString\fR ?\fI-option value\fR...? .sp \fBclock seconds\fR .sp .BE .SH "DESCRIPTION" .PP The \fBclock\fR command performs several operations that obtain and manipulate values that represent times. The command supports several subcommands that determine what action is carried out by the command. .TP \fBclock add\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fIcount unit...\fR? ?\fI-option value\fR? Adds a (possibly negative) offset to a time that is expressed as an integer number of seconds. See \fBCLOCK ARITHMETIC\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock clicks\fR ?\fI-option\fR? If no \fI-option\fR argument is supplied, returns a high-resolution time value as a system-dependent integer value. The unit of the value is system-dependent but should be the highest resolution clock available on the system such as a CPU cycle counter. See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description. .sp If the \fI-option\fR argument is \fI-milliseconds\fR, then the command is synonymous with \fBclock milliseconds\fR (see below). This usage is obsolete, and \fBclock milliseconds\fR is to be considered the preferred way of obtaining a count of milliseconds. .sp If the \fI-option\fR argument is \fI-microseconds\fR, then the command is synonymous with \fBclock microseconds\fR (see below). This usage is obsolete, and \fBclock microseconds\fR is to be considered the preferred way of obtaining a count of microseconds. .TP \fBclock format\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fI-option value\fR...? Formats a time that is expressed as an integer number of seconds into a format intended for consumption by users or external programs. See \fBFORMATTING TIMES\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock microseconds\fR Returns the current time as an integer number of microseconds. See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock milliseconds\fR Returns the current time as an integer number of milliseconds. See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock scan\fR \fIinputString\fR ?\fI-option value\fR...? Scans a time that is expressed as a character string and produces an integer number of seconds. See \fBSCANNING TIMES\fR for a full description. .TP \fBclock seconds\fR Returns the current time as an integer number of seconds. .SS "PARAMETERS" ................................................................................ One of the words, \fBseconds\fR, \fBminutes\fR, \fBhours\fR, \fBdays\fR, \fBweeks\fR, \fBmonths\fR, or \fByears\fR, or any unique prefix of such a word. Used in conjunction with \fIcount\fR to identify an interval of time, for example, \fI3 seconds\fR or \fI1 year\fR. .SS "OPTIONS" .TP \fB-base\fR time Specifies that any relative times present in a \fBclock scan\fR command are to be given relative to \fItime\fR. \fItime\fR must be expressed as a count of nominal seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC. .TP \fB-format\fR format Specifies the desired output format for \fBclock format\fR or the expected input format for \fBclock scan\fR. The \fIformat\fR string consists of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign ('\fI%\fR') interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character sequences beginning with the per-cent sign. The permissible format groups, and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR. .RS .PP On \fBclock format\fR, the default format is .CS %a %b %d %H:%M:%S %z %Y .CE .PP On \fBclock scan\fR, the lack of a \fI-format\fR option indicates that a "free format scan" is requested; see \fBFREE FORM SCAN\fR for a description of what happens. .RE .TP \fB-gmt\fR boolean If \fIboolean\fR is true, specifies that a time specified to \fBclock add\fR, \fBclock format\fR or \fBclock scan\fR should be processed in UTC. If \fIboolean\fR is false, the processing defaults to the local time zone. This usage is obsolete; the correct current usage is to specify the UTC time zone with '\fB-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR' or any of the equivalent ways to specify it. .TP \fB-locale\fR localeName Specifies that locale-dependent scanning and formatting (and date arithmetic for dates preceding the adoption of the Gregorian calendar) is to be done in the locale identified by \fIlocaleName\fR. The locale name may be any of the locales acceptable to the \fBmsgcat\fR package, or it may be the special name \fIsystem\fR, which represents the current locale of the process, or the null string, which represents Tcl's default locale. .sp The effect of locale on scanning and formatting is discussed in the descriptions of the individual format groups under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR. The effect of locale on clock arithmetic is discussed under \fBCLOCK ARITHMETIC\fR. .TP \fB-timezone\fR zoneName Specifies that clock arithmetic, formatting, and scanning are to be done according to the rules for the time zone specified by \fIzoneName\fR. The permissible values, and their interpretation, are discussed under \fBTIME ZONES\fR. On subcommands that expect a \fB-timezone\fR argument, the default is to use the \fIcurrent time zone\fR. The current time zone is determined, in order of preference, by: .RS .IP [1] the environment variable \fBTCL_TZ\fR. .IP [2] the environment variable \fBTZ\fR. ................................................................................ Greenwich. On 32-bit systems, this approach is likely to have bugs, particularly for times that lie outside the window (approximately the years 1902 to 2037) that can be represented in a 32-bit integer. .SH "CLOCK ARITHMETIC" The \fBclock add\fR command performs clock arithmetic on a value (expressed as nominal seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC) given as its first argument. The remaining arguments (other than the possible \fB-timezone\fR, \fB-locale\fR and \fB-gmt\fR options) are integers and keywords in alternation, where the keywords are chosen from \fBseconds\fR, \fBminutes\fR, \fBhours\fR, \fBdays\fR, \fBweeks\fR, \fBmonths\fR, or \fByears\fR, or any unique prefix of such a word. .PP Addition of seconds, minutes and hours is fairly straightforward; the given time increment (times sixty for minutes, or 3600 for hours) ................................................................................ .SH "FORMATTING TIMES" The \fBclock format\fR command produces times for display to a user or writing to an external medium. The command accepts times that are expressed in seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC, as returned by \fBclock seconds\fR, \fBclock scan\fR, \fBclock add\fR, \fBfile atime\fR or \fBfile mtime\fR. .PP If a \fB-format\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies how the date and time are to be formatted. The string consists of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign ('\fI%\fR') interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character sequences beginning with the per-cent sign. The permissible format groups, and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR. .PP If a \fB-timezone\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies the time zone in which the date and time are to be formatted. As an alternative to \fB-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR, the obsolete usage \fB-gmt\fR \fItrue\fR may be used. See \fBTIME ZONES\fR for the permissible variants for the time zone. .PP If a \fB-locale\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies the locale in which the time is to be formatted, in the same format that is used for the \fBmsgcat\fR package. Note that the default, if \fB-locale\fR is not specified, is the root locale \fB{}\fR rather than the current locale. The current locale may be obtained by using \fB-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR. In addition, some platforms support a \fBsystem\fR locale that reflects the user's current choices. For instance, on Windows, the format that the user has selected from dates and times in the Control Panel can be obtained by using the \fBsystem\fR locale. On platforms that do not define a user selection of date and time formats separate from \fBLC_TIME\fR, \fB-locale\fR \fBsystem\fR is synonymous with \fB-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR. .SH "SCANNING TIMES" The \fBclock scan\fR command accepts times that are formatted as strings and converts them to counts of seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC. It normally takes a \fB-format\fR option that is followed by a string describing the expected format of the input. (See \fBFREE FORM SCAN\fR for the effect of \fBclock scan\fR without such an argument.) The string consists of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign ('\fI%\fR'), interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character sequences beginning with the per-cent sign. The permissible format groups, and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR. .PP If a \fB-timezone\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies the time zone in which the date and time are to be interpreted. As an alternative to \fB-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR, the obsolete usage \fB-gmt\fR \fItrue\fR may be used. See \fBTIME ZONES\fR for the permissible variants for the time zone. .PP If a \fB-locale\fR option is present, the following argument is a string that specifies the locale in which the time is to be interpreted, in the same format that is used for the \fBmsgcat\fR package. Note that the default, if \fB-locale\fR is not specified, is the root locale \fB{}\fR rather than the current locale. The current locale may be obtained by using \fB-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR. In addition, some platforms support a \fBsystem\fR locale that reflects the user's current choices. For instance, on Windows, the format that the user has selected from dates and times in the Control Panel can be obtained by using the \fBsystem\fR locale. On platforms that do not define a user selection of date and time formats separate from \fBLC_TIME\fR, \fB-locale\fR \fBsystem\fR is synonymous with \fB-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR. .PP If a \fB-base\fR option is present, the following argument is a time (expressed in seconds from the epoch time) that is used as a \fIbase time\fR for interpreting relative times. If no \fB-base\fR option is present, the base time is the current time. .PP Scanning of times in fixed format works by determining three things: the date, the time of day, and the time zone. These three are then combined into a point in time, which is returned as the number of seconds from the epoch. .PP Before scanning begins, the format string is preprocessed ................................................................................ the minute of the hour, that group combines with the hour. If the string further contains a group specifying the second of the minute, that group combines with the hour and minute. .IP [3] If the string contains neither a \fB%s\fR format group nor a group specifying the hour of the day, then midnight (\fB00:00\fR, the start of the given date) is used. The time zone is determined by either the \fB-timezone\fR or \fB-gmt\fR options, or by using the current time zone. .PP If a format string lacks a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group, it is possible for the time to be ambiguous because it appears twice in the same day, once without and once with Daylight Saving Time. If this situation occurs, the first occurrence of the time is chosen. (For this reason, it is wise to have the input string contain the ................................................................................ \fB%N\fR On output, produces the number of the month (1-12) with one or two digits. digits. On input, accepts one or two digits, possibly with leading whitespace, and interprets them as the number of the month. .TP \fB%Od\fR, \fB%Oe\fR, \fB%OH\fR, \fB%OI\fR, \fB%Ok\fR, \fB%Ol\fR, \fB%Om\fR, \fB%OM\fR, \fB%OS\fR, \fB%Ou\fR, \fB%Ow\fR, \fB%Oy\fR All of these format groups are synonymous with their counterparts without the '\fBO\fR', except that the string is produced and parsed in the locale-dependent alternative numerals. .TP \fB%p\fR On output, produces an indicator for the part of the day, \fBAM\fR or \fBPM\fR, appropriate to the given locale. If the script of the given locale supports multiple letterforms, lowercase is preferred. On input, matches the representation \fBAM\fR or \fBPM\fR in the given locale, in either case. .TP \fB%P\fR ................................................................................ time zone. This option should, in general, be used on input only when parsing RFC822 dates. Other uses are fraught with ambiguity; for instance, the string \fBBST\fR may represent British Summer Time or Brazilian Standard Time. It is recommended that date/time strings for use by computers use numeric time zones instead. .TP \fB%%\fR On output, produces a literal '\fB%\fR' character. On input, matches a literal '\fB%\fR' character. .TP \fB%+\fR Synonymous with '\fB%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y\fR'. .SH "TIME ZONES" When the \fBclock\fR command is processing a local time, it has several possible sources for the time zone to use. In order of preference, they are: .IP [1] A time zone specified inside a string being parsed and matched by a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group. .IP [2] A time zone specified with the \fB-timezone\fR option to the \fBclock\fR command (or, equivalently, by \fB-gmt\fR \fB1\fR). .IP [3] A time zone specified in an environment variable \fBTCL_TZ\fR. .IP [4] A time zone specified in an environment variable \fBTZ\fR. .IP [5] The local time zone from the Control Panel on Windows systems. .IP [6] ................................................................................ .PP If the time zone begins with a colon, it is one of a standardized list of names like \fB:America/New_York\fR that give the rules for various locales. A complete list of the location names is too lengthy to be listed here. On most Tcl installations, the definitions of the locations are to be found in named files in the directory "\fI/no_backup/tools/lib/tcl8.5/clock/tzdata\fR". On some Unix systems, these files are omitted, and the definitions are instead obtained from system files in "\fI/usr/share/zoneinfo\fR", "\fI/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo\fR" or "\fI/usr/local/etc/zoneinfo\fR". As a special case, the name \fB:localtime\fR refers to the local time zone as defined by the C library. .PP A time zone string consisting of a plus or minus sign followed by four or six decimal digits is interpreted as an offset in hours, minutes, and seconds (if six digits are present) from UTC. The plus sign denotes a sign east of Greenwich; ................................................................................ Any other time zone string is processed by prefixing a colon and attempting to use it as a location name, as above. .SH "LOCALIZATION" Developers wishing to localize the date and time formatting and parsing are referred to \fIhttp://tip.tcl.tk/173\fR for a specification. .SH "FREE FORM SCAN" If the \fBclock scan\fR command is invoked without a \fB-format\fR option, then it requests a \fIfree-form scan.\fR \fI This form of scan is deprecated.\fR The reason for the deprecation is that there are too many ambiguities. (Does the string '2000' represent a year, a time of day, or a quantity?) No set of rules for interpreting free-form dates and times has been found to give unsurprising results in all cases. .PP If free-form scan is used, only the \fB-base\fR and \fB-gmt\fR options are accepted. The \fB-timezone\fR and \fB-locale\fR options will result in an error if \fB-format\fR is not supplied. .PP For the benefit of users who need to understand legacy code that uses free-form scan, the documentation for how free-form scan interprets a string is included here: .PP If only a time is specified, the current date is assumed. If the \fIinputString\fR does not contain a time zone mnemonic, the local time zone is assumed, unless the \fB-gmt\fR argument is true, in which case the clock value is calculated assuming that the specified time is relative to Greenwich Mean Time. \fB-gmt\fR, if specified, affects only the computed time value; it does not impact the interpretation of \fB-base\fR. .PP If the \fB-base\fR flag is specified, the next argument should contain an integer clock value. Only the date in this value is used, not the time. This is useful for determining the time on a specific day or doing other date-relative conversions. .PP The \fIinputString\fR argument consists of zero or more specifications of the following form: .TP ................................................................................ \fItime\fR A time of day, which is of the form: \fBhh?:mm?:ss?? ?meridian? ?zone?\fR or \fBhhmm ?meridian? ?zone?\fR If no meridian is specified, \fBhh\fR is interpreted on a 24-hour clock. .TP \fIdate\fR A specific month and day with optional year. The acceptable formats are "\fBmm/dd\fR?\fB/yy\fR?", "\fBmonthname dd\fR?\fB, yy\fR?", "\fBday, dd monthname \fR?\fByy\fR?", "\fBdd monthname yy\fR", "?\fBCC\fR?\fByymmdd\fR", and "\fBdd-monthname-\fR?\fBCC\fR?\fByy\fR". The default year is the current year. If the year is less than 100, we treat the years 00-68 as 2000-2068 and the years 69-99 as 1969-1999. Not all platforms can represent the years 38-70, so an error may result if these years are used. .TP \fIISO 8601 point-in-time\fR An ISO 8601 point-in-time specification, such as \fBCCyymmddThhmmss\fR, where \fBT\fR is the literal T, "\fBCCyymmdd hhmmss\fR", or \fBCCyymmddThh:mm:ss\fR. Note that only these three formats are accepted. The command does \fInot\fR accept the full range of point-in-time specifications specified in ISO8601. Other formats can be recognized by giving an explicit \fI-format\fR option to the \fBclock scan\fR command. .TP \fIrelative time\fR A specification relative to the current time. The format is \fBnumber unit\fR. Acceptable units are \fByear\fR, \fBfortnight\fR, \fBmonth\fR, \fBweek\fR, \fBday\fR, \fBhour\fR, \fBminute\fR (or \fBmin\fR), and \fBsecond\fR (or \fBsec\fR). The unit can be specified as a singular or plural, as in \fB3 weeks\fR.  Changes to doc/close.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: close.n,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH close n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME close \- Close an open channel ................................................................................ catch { uplevel 1 script } result options \fBclose\fR chan return -options options result } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), open(n), socket(n), eof(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3) .SH KEYWORDS blocking, channel, close, nonblocking   | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: close.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH close n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME close \- Close an open channel ................................................................................ catch { uplevel 1 script } result options \fBclose\fR chan return -options options result } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), open(n), socket(n), eof(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3) .SH KEYWORDS blocking, channel, close, nonblocking  Changes to doc/concat.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: concat.n,v 1.8 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH concat n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME concat \- Join lists together ................................................................................ It permits any number of arguments; if no \fIarg\fRs are supplied, the result is an empty string. .SH EXAMPLES Although \fBconcat\fR will concatenate lists (so the command: .CS \fBconcat\fR a b {c d e} {f {g h}} .CE will return .QW "\fBa b c d e f {g h}\fR" as its result), it will also concatenate things that are not lists, and hence the command: .CS \fBconcat\fR " a b {c " d " e} f" .CE will return .QW "\fBa b {c d e} f\fR" as its result. .PP Note that the concatenation does not remove spaces from the middle of its arguments, so the command: .CS \fBconcat\fR "a b c" { d e f } .CE will return .QW "\fBa b c d e f\fR" (i.e. with three spaces between the .QW \fBa\fR , the .QW \fBb\fR and the .QW \fBc\fR ). .SH "SEE ALSO" append(n), eval(n) .SH KEYWORDS concatenate, join, lists   | < < | < | < < < | < < < < < > > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: concat.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH concat n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME concat \- Join lists together ................................................................................ It permits any number of arguments; if no \fIarg\fRs are supplied, the result is an empty string. .SH EXAMPLES Although \fBconcat\fR will concatenate lists (so the command: .CS \fBconcat\fR a b {c d e} {f {g h}} .CE will return "\fBa b c d e f {g h}\fR" as its result), it will also concatenate things that are not lists, and hence the command: .CS \fBconcat\fR " a b {c " d " e} f" .CE will return "\fBa b {c d e} f\fR" as its result. .PP Note that the concatenation does not remove spaces from the middle of its arguments, so the command: .CS \fBconcat\fR "a b c" { d e f } .CE will return "\fBa b c d e f\fR" (i.e. with three spaces between the \fBa\fR, the \fBb\fR and the \fBc\fR). .SH "SEE ALSO" append(n), eval(n) .SH KEYWORDS concatenate, join, lists  Changes to doc/continue.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: continue.n,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH continue n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME continue \- Skip to the next iteration of a loop ................................................................................ for {set x 0} {x<10} {incr x} { if {x == 5} { \fBcontinue\fR } puts "x is x" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" break(n), for(n), foreach(n), return(n), while(n) .SH KEYWORDS continue, iteration, loop   | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: continue.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH continue n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME continue \- Skip to the next iteration of a loop ................................................................................ for {set x 0} {x<10} {incr x} { if {x == 5} { \fBcontinue\fR } puts "x is x" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" break(n), for(n), foreach(n), return(n), while(n) .SH KEYWORDS continue, iteration, loop  Changes to doc/dde.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 ... 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 ActiveState Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: dde.n,v 1.19 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH dde n 1.3 dde "Tcl Bundled Packages" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME dde \- Execute a Dynamic Data Exchange command ................................................................................ .PP .SH "DDE COMMANDS" .PP The following commands are a subset of the full Dynamic Data Exchange set of commands. .TP \fBdde servername \fR?\fB-force\fR? ?\fB-handler \fIproc\fR? ?\fB--\fR? ?\fItopic\fR? . \fBdde servername\fR registers the interpreter as a DDE server with the service name \fBTclEval\fR and the topic name specified by \fItopic\fR. If no \fItopic\fR is given, \fBdde servername\fR returns the name of the current topic or the empty string if it is not registered as a service. If the given \fItopic\fR name is already in use, then a suffix of the form .QW " #2" or .QW " #3" is appended to the name to make it unique. The command's result will be the name actually used. The \fB\-force\fR option is used to force registration of precisely the given \fItopic\fR name. .IP The \fB-handler\fR option specifies a Tcl procedure that will be called to process calls to the dde server. If the package has been loaded into a safe interpreter then a \fB-handler\fR procedure must be defined. The procedure is called with all the arguments provided by the remote call. .TP \fBdde execute\fR ?\fB\-async\fR? \fIservice topic data\fR . \fBdde execute\fR takes the \fIdata\fR and sends it to the server indicated by \fIservice\fR with the topic indicated by \fItopic\fR. Typically, \fIservice\fR is the name of an application, and \fItopic\fR is a file to work on. The \fIdata\fR field is given to the remote application. Typically, the application treats the \fIdata\fR field as a script, and the script is run in the application. The \fB\-async\fR option requests asynchronous invocation. The command returns an error message if the script did not run, unless the \fB\-async\fR flag was used, in which case the command returns immediately with no error. .TP \fBdde poke \fIservice topic item data\fR . \fBdde poke\fR passes the \fIdata\fR to the server indicated by \fIservice\fR using the \fItopic\fR and \fIitem\fR specified. Typically, \fIservice\fR is the name of an application. \fItopic\fR is application specific but can be a command to the server or the name of a file to work on. The \fIitem\fR is also application specific and is often not used, but it must always be non-null. The \fIdata\fR field is given to the remote application. .TP \fBdde request\fR ?\fB\-binary\fR? \fIservice topic item\fR . \fBdde request\fR is typically used to get the value of something; the value of a cell in Microsoft Excel or the text of a selection in Microsoft Word. \fIservice\fR is typically the name of an application, \fItopic\fR is typically the name of the file, and \fIitem\fR is application-specific. The command returns the value of \fIitem\fR as defined in the application. Normally this is interpreted to be a string with terminating null. If \fB\-binary\fR is specified, the result is returned as a byte array. .TP \fBdde services \fIservice topic\fR . \fBdde services\fR returns a list of service-topic pairs that currently exist on the machine. If \fIservice\fR and \fItopic\fR are both empty strings ({}), then all service-topic pairs currently available on the system are returned. If \fIservice\fR is empty and \fItopic\fR is not, then all services with the specified topic are returned. If \fIservice\fR is non-empty and \fItopic\fR is, all topics for a given service are returned. If both are non-empty, if that service-topic pair currently exists, it is returned; otherwise, an empty string is returned. .TP \fBdde eval\fR ?\fB\-async\fR? \fItopic cmd \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR? . \fBdde eval\fR evaluates a command and its arguments using the interpreter specified by \fItopic\fR. The DDE service must be the \fBTclEval\fR service. The \fB\-async\fR option requests asynchronous invocation. The command returns an error message if the script did not run, unless the \fB\-async\fR flag was used, in which case the command returns immediately with no error. This command can be used to replace send on Windows. .SH "DDE AND TCL" ................................................................................ .SH EXAMPLE This asks Internet Explorer (which must already be running) to go to a particularly important website: .CS package require dde \fBdde execute\fR iexplore WWW_OpenURL http://www.tcl.tk/ .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" tk(n), winfo(n), send(n) .SH KEYWORDS application, dde, name, remote execution   | < < < < < | | < < < < < > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 ... 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 ActiveState Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: dde.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH dde n 1.3 dde "Tcl Bundled Packages" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME dde \- Execute a Dynamic Data Exchange command ................................................................................ .PP .SH "DDE COMMANDS" .PP The following commands are a subset of the full Dynamic Data Exchange set of commands. .TP \fBdde servername \fR?\fB-force\fR? ?\fB-handler \fIproc\fR? ?\fB--\fR? ?\fItopic\fR? \fBdde servername\fR registers the interpreter as a DDE server with the service name \fBTclEval\fR and the topic name specified by \fItopic\fR. If no \fItopic\fR is given, \fBdde servername\fR returns the name of the current topic or the empty string if it is not registered as a service. If the given \fItopic\fR name is already in use, then a suffix of the form ' #2' or ' #3' is appended to the name to make it unique. The command's result will be the name actually used. The \fB-force\fR option is used to force registration of precisely the given \fItopic\fR name. .IP The \fB-handler\fR option specifies a Tcl procedure that will be called to process calls to the dde server. If the package has been loaded into a safe interpreter then a \fB-handler\fR procedure must be defined. The procedure is called with all the arguments provided by the remote call. .TP \fBdde execute\fR ?\fB\-async\fR? \fIservice topic data\fR \fBdde execute\fR takes the \fIdata\fR and sends it to the server indicated by \fIservice\fR with the topic indicated by \fItopic\fR. Typically, \fIservice\fR is the name of an application, and \fItopic\fR is a file to work on. The \fIdata\fR field is given to the remote application. Typically, the application treats the \fIdata\fR field as a script, and the script is run in the application. The \fB\-async\fR option requests asynchronous invocation. The command returns an error message if the script did not run, unless the \fB\-async\fR flag was used, in which case the command returns immediately with no error. .TP \fBdde poke \fIservice topic item data\fR \fBdde poke\fR passes the \fIdata\fR to the server indicated by \fIservice\fR using the \fItopic\fR and \fIitem\fR specified. Typically, \fIservice\fR is the name of an application. \fItopic\fR is application specific but can be a command to the server or the name of a file to work on. The \fIitem\fR is also application specific and is often not used, but it must always be non-null. The \fIdata\fR field is given to the remote application. .TP \fBdde request\fR ?\fB\-binary\fR? \fIservice topic item\fR \fBdde request\fR is typically used to get the value of something; the value of a cell in Microsoft Excel or the text of a selection in Microsoft Word. \fIservice\fR is typically the name of an application, \fItopic\fR is typically the name of the file, and \fIitem\fR is application-specific. The command returns the value of \fIitem\fR as defined in the application. Normally this is interpreted to be a string with terminating null. If \fB\-binary\fR is specified, the result is returned as a byte array. .TP \fBdde services \fIservice topic\fR \fBdde services\fR returns a list of service-topic pairs that currently exist on the machine. If \fIservice\fR and \fItopic\fR are both empty strings ({}), then all service-topic pairs currently available on the system are returned. If \fIservice\fR is empty and \fItopic\fR is not, then all services with the specified topic are returned. If \fIservice\fR is non-empty and \fItopic\fR is, all topics for a given service are returned. If both are non-empty, if that service-topic pair currently exists, it is returned; otherwise, an empty string is returned. .TP \fBdde eval\fR ?\fB\-async\fR? \fItopic cmd \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR? \fBdde eval\fR evaluates a command and its arguments using the interpreter specified by \fItopic\fR. The DDE service must be the \fBTclEval\fR service. The \fB\-async\fR option requests asynchronous invocation. The command returns an error message if the script did not run, unless the \fB\-async\fR flag was used, in which case the command returns immediately with no error. This command can be used to replace send on Windows. .SH "DDE AND TCL" ................................................................................ .SH EXAMPLE This asks Internet Explorer (which must already be running) to go to a particularly important website: .CS package require dde \fBdde execute\fR iexplore WWW_OpenURL http://www.tcl.tk/ .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" tk(n), winfo(n), send(n) .SH KEYWORDS application, dde, name, remote execution  Changes to doc/dict.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 ... 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2003 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: dict.n,v 1.13 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH dict n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME dict \- Manipulate dictionaries ................................................................................ } } # Another way to iterate and pick out names... foreach id [\fBdict keys\fR employeeInfo] { puts "Hello, [\fBdict get\fR employeeInfo id forenames]!" } .CE .PP A localizable version of \fBstring toupper\fR: .CS # Set up the basic C locale set capital [\fBdict create\fR C [\fBdict create\fR]] foreach c [split {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} ""] { \fBdict set\fR capital C c [string toupper c] } ................................................................................ # ... and so on for other supported languages ... # Now get the mapping for the current locale and use it. set upperCaseMap [\fBdict get\fR capital env(LANG)] set upperCase [string map upperCaseMap string] .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" append(n), array(n), foreach(n), incr(n), list(n), lappend(n), set(n) .SH KEYWORDS dictionary, create, update, lookup, iterate, filter   | | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 ... 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2003 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: dict.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH dict n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME dict \- Manipulate dictionaries ................................................................................ } } # Another way to iterate and pick out names... foreach id [\fBdict keys\fR employeeInfo] { puts "Hello, [\fBdict get\fR employeeInfo id forenames]!" } .CE A localizable version of \fBstring toupper\fR: .CS # Set up the basic C locale set capital [\fBdict create\fR C [\fBdict create\fR]] foreach c [split {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} ""] { \fBdict set\fR capital C c [string toupper c] } ................................................................................ # ... and so on for other supported languages ... # Now get the mapping for the current locale and use it. set upperCaseMap [\fBdict get\fR capital env(LANG)] set upperCase [string map upperCaseMap string] .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" append(n), array(n), foreach(n), incr(n), list(n), lappend(n), set(n) .SH KEYWORDS dictionary, create, update, lookup, iterate, filter  Changes to doc/encoding.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998 by Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: encoding.n,v 1.11 2007/10/26 12:25:06 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH encoding n "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME encoding \- Manipulate encodings .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ that maps to the 00 page in Unicode. The resulting Tcl strings will not contain the expected Japanese characters. Instead, they will contain a sequence of Latin-1 characters that correspond to the bytes of the original string. The \fBencoding\fR command can be used to convert this string to the expected Japanese Unicode characters. For example, .CS set s [\fBencoding convertfrom\fR euc-jp "\exA4\exCF"] .CE would return the Unicode string .QW "\eu306F" , which is the Hiragana letter HA. .SH "SEE ALSO" fconfigure(n), Tcl_GetEncoding(3) .SH KEYWORDS encoding   | | | < | > | >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998 by Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: encoding.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH encoding n "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME encoding \- Manipulate encodings .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ that maps to the 00 page in Unicode. The resulting Tcl strings will not contain the expected Japanese characters. Instead, they will contain a sequence of Latin-1 characters that correspond to the bytes of the original string. The \fBencoding\fR command can be used to convert this string to the expected Japanese Unicode characters. For example, .CS set s [\fBencoding convertfrom\fR euc-jp "\\xA4\\xCF"] .CE would return the Unicode string "\\u306F", which is the Hiragana letter HA. .SH "SEE ALSO" Tcl_GetEncoding(3) .SH KEYWORDS encoding  Changes to doc/eof.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: eof.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH eof n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME eof \- Check for end of file condition on channel ................................................................................ if {[\fBeof\fR f]} { close f break } puts "Read record: record" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), open(n), close(n), fblocked(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3) .SH KEYWORDS channel, end of file   | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: eof.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH eof n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME eof \- Check for end of file condition on channel ................................................................................ if {[\fBeof\fR f]} { close f break } puts "Read record: record" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), open(n), close(n), fblocked(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3) .SH KEYWORDS channel, end of file  Changes to doc/exec.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 ... 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 ... 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 ... 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 ... 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 ... 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 ... 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 ... 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2006 Donal K. Fellows. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: exec.n,v 1.18 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH exec n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME exec \- Invoke subprocesses ................................................................................ Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will be treated as the first \fIarg\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .PP If an \fIarg\fR (or pair of \fIarg\fRs) has one of the forms described below then it is used by \fBexec\fR to control the flow of input and output among the subprocess(es). Such arguments will not be passed to the subprocess(es). In forms such as .QW "< \fIfileName\fR" , \fIfileName\fR may either be in a separate argument from .QW < or in the same argument with no intervening space (i.e. .QW <\fIfileName\fR ). .TP 15 | Separates distinct commands in the pipeline. The standard output of the preceding command will be piped into the standard input of the next command. .TP 15 |& ................................................................................ all commands are redirected to \fIfileId\fR's file. The file must have been opened for writing. .PP If standard output has not been redirected then the \fBexec\fR command returns the standard output from the last command in the pipeline, .VS 8.5 unless .QW 2>@1 was specified, in which case standard error is included as well. .VE 8.5 If any of the commands in the pipeline exit abnormally or are killed or suspended, then \fBexec\fR will return an error and the error message will include the pipeline's output followed by error messages describing the abnormal terminations; the \fB-errorcode\fR return option will contain additional information about the last abnormal termination encountered. ................................................................................ is a newline then that character is normally deleted from the result or error message. This is consistent with other Tcl return values, which don't normally end with newlines. However, if \fB\-keepnewline\fR is specified then the trailing newline is retained. .PP If standard input isn't redirected with .QW < , .QW << or .QW <@ then the standard input for the first command in the pipeline is taken from the application's current standard input. .PP If the last \fIarg\fR is .QW & then the pipeline will be executed in background. In this case the \fBexec\fR command will return a list whose elements are the process identifiers for all of the subprocesses in the pipeline. The standard output from the last command in the pipeline will go to the application's standard output if it hasn't been redirected, and error output from all of the commands in the pipeline will go to the application's ................................................................................ .PP The first word in each command is taken as the command name; tilde-substitution is performed on it, and if the result contains no slashes then the directories in the PATH environment variable are searched for an executable by the given name. If the name contains a slash then it must refer to an executable reachable from the current directory. No .QW glob expansion or other shell-like substitutions are performed on the arguments to commands. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .TP \fBWindows\fR (all versions) . Reading from or writing to a socket, using the .QW \[email protected]\0\fIfileId\fR notation, does not work. When reading from a socket, a 16-bit DOS application will hang and a 32-bit application will return immediately with end-of-file. When either type of application writes to a socket, the information is instead sent to the console, if one is present, or is discarded. .RS .PP ................................................................................ backslashes only in paths. Any arguments to an application that specify a path name with forward slashes will not automatically be converted to use the backslash character. If an argument contains forward slashes as the path separator, it may or may not be recognized as a path name, depending on the program. .PP Additionally, when calling a 16-bit DOS or Windows 3.X application, all path names must use the short, cryptic, path format (e.g., using .QW applba~1.def instead of .QW applbakery.default ), which can be obtained with the \fBfile attributes fileName -shortname\fR command. .PP Two or more forward or backward slashes in a row in a path refer to a network path. For example, a simple concatenation of the root directory \fBc:/\fR with a subdirectory \fB/windows/system\fR will yield \fBc://windows/system\fR (two slashes together), which refers to the mount point called \fBsystem\fR on the machine called \fBwindows\fR (and the ................................................................................ The Windows NT 16-bit system directory. .IP \(bu The Windows NT home directory. .IP \(bu The directories listed in the path. .PP In order to execute shell built-in commands like \fBdir\fR and \fBcopy\fR, the caller must prepend the desired command with .QW "\fBcmd.exe /c\0\fR" because built-in commands are not implemented using executables. .RE .TP \fBWindows 9x\fR . When attempting to execute an application, \fBexec\fR first searches for the name as it was specified. Then, in order, \fB.com\fR, \fB.exe\fR, and ................................................................................ The Windows 9x system directory. .IP \(bu The Windows 9x home directory. .IP \(bu The directories listed in the path. .PP In order to execute shell built-in commands like \fBdir\fR and \fBcopy\fR, the caller must prepend the desired command with .QW "\fBcommand.com /c\0\fR" because built-in commands are not implemented using executables. .PP Once a 16-bit DOS application has read standard input from a console and then quit, all subsequently run 16-bit DOS applications will see the standard input as already closed. 32-bit applications do not have this problem and will run correctly, even after a 16-bit DOS application thinks that standard input is closed. There is no known workaround for this bug at this time. .PP Redirection between the \fBNUL:\fR device and a 16-bit application does not always work. When redirecting from \fBNUL:\fR, some applications may hang, others will get an infinite stream of .QW 0x01 bytes, and some will actually correctly get an immediate end-of-file; the behavior seems to depend upon something compiled into the application itself. When redirecting greater than 4K or so to \fBNUL:\fR, some applications will hang. The above problems do not happen with 32-bit applications. .PP All DOS 16-bit applications are run synchronously. All standard input from a pipe to a 16-bit DOS application is collected into a temporary file; the ................................................................................ same name and be in the path. It can then happen that typing a command at the DOS prompt finds \fIa different program\fR than the same command run via \fBexec\fR. This is because of the (documented) differences in behaviour between \fBexec\fR and DOS batch files. .PP When in doubt, use the command \fBauto_execok\fR: it will return the complete path to the program as seen by the \fBexec\fR command. This applies especially when you want to run .QW "internal" commands like \fIdir\fR from a Tcl script (if you just want to list filenames, use the \fBglob\fR command.) To do that, use this: .CS \fBexec\fR {*}[auto_execok dir] *.tcl .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" error(n), open(n) .SH KEYWORDS execute, pipeline, redirection, subprocess   | < | < < | | | < | | < < < < | | < | | < | | < | < < < | | < | < | < < | < | |  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 ... 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 ... 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 ... 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 ... 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 ... 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 ... 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 ... 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2006 Donal K. Fellows. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: exec.n,v 1.19 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH exec n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME exec \- Invoke subprocesses ................................................................................ Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will be treated as the first \fIarg\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .PP If an \fIarg\fR (or pair of \fIarg\fRs) has one of the forms described below then it is used by \fBexec\fR to control the flow of input and output among the subprocess(es). Such arguments will not be passed to the subprocess(es). In forms such as < \fIfileName\fR'' \fIfileName\fR may either be in a separate argument from <'' or in the same argument with no intervening space (i.e. <\fIfileName\fR''). .TP 15 | Separates distinct commands in the pipeline. The standard output of the preceding command will be piped into the standard input of the next command. .TP 15 |& ................................................................................ all commands are redirected to \fIfileId\fR's file. The file must have been opened for writing. .PP If standard output has not been redirected then the \fBexec\fR command returns the standard output from the last command in the pipeline, .VS 8.5 unless 2>@1'' was specified, in which case standard error is included as well. .VE 8.5 If any of the commands in the pipeline exit abnormally or are killed or suspended, then \fBexec\fR will return an error and the error message will include the pipeline's output followed by error messages describing the abnormal terminations; the \fB-errorcode\fR return option will contain additional information about the last abnormal termination encountered. ................................................................................ is a newline then that character is normally deleted from the result or error message. This is consistent with other Tcl return values, which don't normally end with newlines. However, if \fB\-keepnewline\fR is specified then the trailing newline is retained. .PP If standard input isn't redirected with <'' or <<'' or <@'' then the standard input for the first command in the pipeline is taken from the application's current standard input. .PP If the last \fIarg\fR is &'' then the pipeline will be executed in background. In this case the \fBexec\fR command will return a list whose elements are the process identifiers for all of the subprocesses in the pipeline. The standard output from the last command in the pipeline will go to the application's standard output if it hasn't been redirected, and error output from all of the commands in the pipeline will go to the application's ................................................................................ .PP The first word in each command is taken as the command name; tilde-substitution is performed on it, and if the result contains no slashes then the directories in the PATH environment variable are searched for an executable by the given name. If the name contains a slash then it must refer to an executable reachable from the current directory. No glob'' expansion or other shell-like substitutions are performed on the arguments to commands. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .TP \fBWindows\fR (all versions) . Reading from or writing to a socket, using the \[email protected]\0\fIfileId\fR'' notation, does not work. When reading from a socket, a 16-bit DOS application will hang and a 32-bit application will return immediately with end-of-file. When either type of application writes to a socket, the information is instead sent to the console, if one is present, or is discarded. .RS .PP ................................................................................ backslashes only in paths. Any arguments to an application that specify a path name with forward slashes will not automatically be converted to use the backslash character. If an argument contains forward slashes as the path separator, it may or may not be recognized as a path name, depending on the program. .PP Additionally, when calling a 16-bit DOS or Windows 3.X application, all path names must use the short, cryptic, path format (e.g., using applba~1.def'' instead of applbakery.default''), which can be obtained with the \fBfile attributes fileName -shortname\fR command. .PP Two or more forward or backward slashes in a row in a path refer to a network path. For example, a simple concatenation of the root directory \fBc:/\fR with a subdirectory \fB/windows/system\fR will yield \fBc://windows/system\fR (two slashes together), which refers to the mount point called \fBsystem\fR on the machine called \fBwindows\fR (and the ................................................................................ The Windows NT 16-bit system directory. .IP \(bu The Windows NT home directory. .IP \(bu The directories listed in the path. .PP In order to execute shell built-in commands like \fBdir\fR and \fBcopy\fR, the caller must prepend the desired command with \fBcmd.exe /c\0\fR'' because built-in commands are not implemented using executables. .RE .TP \fBWindows 9x\fR . When attempting to execute an application, \fBexec\fR first searches for the name as it was specified. Then, in order, \fB.com\fR, \fB.exe\fR, and ................................................................................ The Windows 9x system directory. .IP \(bu The Windows 9x home directory. .IP \(bu The directories listed in the path. .PP In order to execute shell built-in commands like \fBdir\fR and \fBcopy\fR, the caller must prepend the desired command with \fBcommand.com /c\0\fR'' because built-in commands are not implemented using executables. .PP Once a 16-bit DOS application has read standard input from a console and then quit, all subsequently run 16-bit DOS applications will see the standard input as already closed. 32-bit applications do not have this problem and will run correctly, even after a 16-bit DOS application thinks that standard input is closed. There is no known workaround for this bug at this time. .PP Redirection between the \fBNUL:\fR device and a 16-bit application does not always work. When redirecting from \fBNUL:\fR, some applications may hang, others will get an infinite stream of 0x01'' bytes, and some will actually correctly get an immediate end-of-file; the behavior seems to depend upon something compiled into the application itself. When redirecting greater than 4K or so to \fBNUL:\fR, some applications will hang. The above problems do not happen with 32-bit applications. .PP All DOS 16-bit applications are run synchronously. All standard input from a pipe to a 16-bit DOS application is collected into a temporary file; the ................................................................................ same name and be in the path. It can then happen that typing a command at the DOS prompt finds \fIa different program\fR than the same command run via \fBexec\fR. This is because of the (documented) differences in behaviour between \fBexec\fR and DOS batch files. .PP When in doubt, use the command \fBauto_execok\fR: it will return the complete path to the program as seen by the \fBexec\fR command. This applies especially when you want to run "internal" commands like \fIdir\fR from a Tcl script (if you just want to list filenames, use the \fBglob\fR command.) To do that, use this: .CS \fBexec\fR {*}[auto_execok dir] *.tcl .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" error(n), open(n) .SH KEYWORDS execute, pipeline, redirection, subprocess  Changes to doc/expr.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ... 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 ... 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 ... 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 ... 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 ... 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: expr.n,v 1.26 2007/10/25 09:35:14 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH expr n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME expr \- Evaluate an expression ................................................................................ .PP For some examples of simple expressions, suppose the variable \fBa\fR has the value 3 and the variable \fBb\fR has the value 6. Then the command on the left side of each of the lines below will produce the value on the right side of the line: .CS .ta 3.5i \fBexpr\fR 3.1 + a \fB\(-> \fI6.1\fR \fBexpr\fR 2 + "a.b" \fB\(-> \fI5.6\fR \fBexpr\fR 4*[llength "6 2"] \fB\(-> \fI8\fR \fBexpr\fR {{word one} < "word a"} \fB\(-> \fI0\fR .CE .SS OPERATORS .PP The valid operators are listed below, grouped in decreasing order of precedence: .TP 20 \fB\-\0\0+\0\0~\0\0!\fR ................................................................................ All of the binary operators group left-to-right within the same precedence level. For example, the command .CS \fBexpr\fR {4*2 < 7} .CE returns 0. .PP The \fB&&\fR, \fB||\fR, and \fB?:\fR operators have .QW "lazy evaluation" , just as in C, which means that operands are not evaluated if they are not needed to determine the outcome. For example, in the command .CS \fBexpr {v ? [a] : [b]}\fR .CE only one of \fB[a]\fR or \fB[b]\fR will actually be evaluated, depending on the value of \fBv\fR. Note, however, that this is only true if the entire expression is enclosed in braces; otherwise ................................................................................ \fBexpr\fR {5 / 4} .CE returns 1, while .CS \fBexpr\fR {5 / 4.0} \fBexpr\fR {5 / ( [string length "abcd"] + 0.0 )} .CE both return 1.25. Floating-point values are always returned with a .QW \fB.\fR or an \fBe\fR so that they will not look like integer values. For example, .CS \fBexpr\fR {20.0/5.0} .CE returns \fB4.0\fR, not \fB4\fR. .SS "STRING OPERATIONS" ................................................................................ the bytecode compiler must emit additional instructions to handle this situation. The most expensive code is required for unbraced expressions that contain command substitutions. These expressions must be implemented by generating new code each time the expression is executed. .SH EXAMPLES Define a procedure that computes an .QW "interesting" mathematical function: .CS proc tcl::mathfunc::calc {x y} { \fBexpr\fR { (x**2 - y**2) / exp(x**2 + y**2) } } .CE .PP Convert polar coordinates into cartesian coordinates: ................................................................................ }] .CE .PP Generate a random integer in the range 0..99 inclusive: .CS set randNum [\fBexpr\fR { int(100 * rand()) }] .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" array(n), for(n), if(n), mathfunc(n), namespace(n), proc(n), string(n), Tcl(n), while(n) .SH KEYWORDS arithmetic, boolean, compare, expression, fuzzy comparison .SH COPYRIGHT .nf Copyright \(co 1993 The Regents of the University of California. Copyright \(co 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated. Copyright \(co 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. .fi   | | | | | | | | | | | | < | > | < > > < | > | < < > >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 ... 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 ... 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 ... 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 ... 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 ... 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: expr.n,v 1.27 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH expr n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME expr \- Evaluate an expression ................................................................................ .PP For some examples of simple expressions, suppose the variable \fBa\fR has the value 3 and the variable \fBb\fR has the value 6. Then the command on the left side of each of the lines below will produce the value on the right side of the line: .CS .ta 6c \fBexpr\fR 3.1 + a \fI6.1\fR \fBexpr\fR 2 + "a.b" \fI5.6\fR \fBexpr\fR 4*[llength "6 2"] \fI8\fR \fBexpr\fR {{word one} < "word a"} \fI0\fR .CE .SS OPERATORS .PP The valid operators are listed below, grouped in decreasing order of precedence: .TP 20 \fB\-\0\0+\0\0~\0\0!\fR ................................................................................ All of the binary operators group left-to-right within the same precedence level. For example, the command .CS \fBexpr\fR {4*2 < 7} .CE returns 0. .PP The \fB&&\fR, \fB||\fR, and \fB?:\fR operators have lazy evaluation'', just as in C, which means that operands are not evaluated if they are not needed to determine the outcome. For example, in the command .CS \fBexpr {v ? [a] : [b]}\fR .CE only one of \fB[a]\fR or \fB[b]\fR will actually be evaluated, depending on the value of \fBv\fR. Note, however, that this is only true if the entire expression is enclosed in braces; otherwise ................................................................................ \fBexpr\fR {5 / 4} .CE returns 1, while .CS \fBexpr\fR {5 / 4.0} \fBexpr\fR {5 / ( [string length "abcd"] + 0.0 )} .CE both return 1.25. Floating-point values are always returned with a \fB.\fR'' or an \fBe\fR so that they will not look like integer values. For example, .CS \fBexpr\fR {20.0/5.0} .CE returns \fB4.0\fR, not \fB4\fR. .SS "STRING OPERATIONS" ................................................................................ the bytecode compiler must emit additional instructions to handle this situation. The most expensive code is required for unbraced expressions that contain command substitutions. These expressions must be implemented by generating new code each time the expression is executed. .SH EXAMPLES Define a procedure that computes an "interesting" mathematical function: .CS proc tcl::mathfunc::calc {x y} { \fBexpr\fR { (x**2 - y**2) / exp(x**2 + y**2) } } .CE .PP Convert polar coordinates into cartesian coordinates: ................................................................................ }] .CE .PP Generate a random integer in the range 0..99 inclusive: .CS set randNum [\fBexpr\fR { int(100 * rand()) }] .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" array(n), for(n), if(n), mathfunc(n), namespace(n), proc(n), string(n), Tcl(n), while(n) .SH KEYWORDS arithmetic, boolean, compare, expression, fuzzy comparison .SH COPYRIGHT Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. .br Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated. .br Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved.  Changes to doc/fcopy.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 .. 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 ... 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: fcopy.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH fcopy n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME fcopy \- Copy data from one channel to another ................................................................................ and the command callback is \fInot\fR made. If \fIinchan\fR is closed, then all data already queued for \fIoutchan\fR is written out. .PP Note that \fIinchan\fR can become readable during a background copy. You should turn off any \fBfileevent\fR handlers during a background copy so those handlers do not interfere with the copy. Any I/O attempted by a \fBfileevent\fR handler will get a .QW "channel busy" error. .PP \fBFcopy\fR translates end-of-line sequences in \fIinchan\fR and \fIoutchan\fR according to the \fB\-translation\fR option for these channels. See the manual entry for \fBfconfigure\fR for details on the \fB\-translation\fR option. The translations mean that the number of bytes read from \fIinchan\fR ................................................................................ .PP \fBFcopy\fR obeys the encodings and character translations configured for the channels. This means that the incoming characters are converted internally first UTF-8 and then into the encoding of the channel \fBfcopy\fR writes to. See the manual entry for \fBfconfigure\fR for details on the \fB\-encoding\fR and \fB\-translation\fR options. No conversion is done if both channels are set to encoding .QW "binary" and have matching translations. If only the output channel is set to encoding .QW "binary" the system will write the internal UTF-8 representation of the incoming characters. If only the input channel is set to encoding .QW "binary" the system will assume that the incoming bytes are valid UTF-8 characters and convert them according to the output encoding. The behaviour of the system for bytes which are not valid UTF-8 characters is undefined in this case. .SH EXAMPLES .PP The first example transfers the contents of one channel exactly to another. Note that when copying one file to another, it is better to use \fBfile copy\fR which also copies file metadata (e.g. the file access permissions) where possible. .CS ................................................................................ set out [socket server port] set chunk 1024 set total 0 \fBfcopy\fR in out -size chunk \\ -command [list CopyMore in out chunk] vwait done .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" eof(n), fblocked(n), fconfigure(n), file(n) .SH KEYWORDS blocking, channel, end of line, end of file, nonblocking, read, translation   | | < < | | | < | | < | > | | > > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 .. 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 ... 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: fcopy.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH fcopy n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME fcopy \- Copy data from one channel to another ................................................................................ and the command callback is \fInot\fR made. If \fIinchan\fR is closed, then all data already queued for \fIoutchan\fR is written out. .PP Note that \fIinchan\fR can become readable during a background copy. You should turn off any \fBfileevent\fR handlers during a background copy so those handlers do not interfere with the copy. Any I/O attempted by a \fBfileevent\fR handler will get a "channel busy" error. .PP \fBFcopy\fR translates end-of-line sequences in \fIinchan\fR and \fIoutchan\fR according to the \fB\-translation\fR option for these channels. See the manual entry for \fBfconfigure\fR for details on the \fB\-translation\fR option. The translations mean that the number of bytes read from \fIinchan\fR ................................................................................ .PP \fBFcopy\fR obeys the encodings and character translations configured for the channels. This means that the incoming characters are converted internally first UTF-8 and then into the encoding of the channel \fBfcopy\fR writes to. See the manual entry for \fBfconfigure\fR for details on the \fB\-encoding\fR and \fB\-translation\fR options. No conversion is done if both channels are set to encoding "binary" and have matching translations. If only the output channel is set to encoding "binary" the system will write the internal UTF-8 representation of the incoming characters. If only the input channel is set to encoding "binary" the system will assume that the incoming bytes are valid UTF-8 characters and convert them according to the output encoding. The behaviour of the system for bytes which are not valid UTF-8 characters is undefined in this case. .SH EXAMPLES .PP The first example transfers the contents of one channel exactly to another. Note that when copying one file to another, it is better to use \fBfile copy\fR which also copies file metadata (e.g. the file access permissions) where possible. .CS ................................................................................ set out [socket server port] set chunk 1024 set total 0 \fBfcopy\fR in out -size chunk \\ -command [list CopyMore in out chunk] vwait done .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" eof(n), fblocked(n), fconfigure(n), file(n) .SH KEYWORDS blocking, channel, end of line, end of file, nonblocking, read, translation  Changes to doc/file.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 ... 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 ... 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 ... 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 ... 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 ... 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 ... 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 ... 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 ... 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: file.n,v 1.46 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH file n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME file \- Manipulate file names and attributes ................................................................................ .RS This subcommand returns or sets platform specific values associated with a file. The first form returns a list of the platform specific flags and their values. The second form returns the value for the specific option. The third form sets one or more of the values. The values are as follows: .PP On Unix, \fB\-group\fR gets or sets the group name for the file. A group id can be given to the command, but it returns a group name. \fB\-owner\fR gets or sets the user name of the owner of the file. The command returns the owner name, but the numerical id can be passed when setting the owner. \fB\-permissions\fR sets or retrieves the octal code that chmod(1) uses. This command does also has limited support for setting using the symbolic attributes for chmod(1), of the form [ugo]?[[+\-=][rwxst],[...]], where multiple symbolic attributes can be separated by commas (example: \fBu+s,go\-rw\fR add sticky bit for user, remove read and write permissions for group and other). A simplified \fBls\fR style string, of the form rwxrwxrwx (must be 9 characters), is also supported (example: \fBrwxr\-xr\-t\fR is equivalent to 01755). On versions of Unix supporting file flags, \fB\-readonly\fR gives the value or sets or clears the readonly attribute of the file, i.e. the user immutable flag \fBuchg\fR to chflags(1). .PP On Windows, \fB\-archive\fR gives the value or sets or clears the archive attribute of the file. \fB\-hidden\fR gives the value or sets or clears the hidden attribute of the file. \fB\-longname\fR will expand each path element to its long version. This attribute cannot be set. \fB\-readonly\fR gives the value or sets or clears the readonly attribute of the file. \fB\-shortname\fR gives a string where every path element is replaced with its short (8.3) version of the name. This attribute cannot be set. \fB\-system\fR gives or sets or clears the value of the system attribute of the file. .PP On Mac OS X and Darwin, \fB\-creator\fR gives or sets the Finder creator type of the file. \fB\-hidden\fR gives or sets or clears the hidden attribute of the file. \fB\-readonly\fR gives or sets or clears the readonly attribute of the file. \fB\-rsrclength\fR gives the length of the resource fork of the file, this attribute can only be set to the value 0, which results in the resource fork being stripped off the file. .RE .TP \fBfile channels ?\fIpattern\fR? . ................................................................................ argument. Non-empty directories will be removed only if the \fB\-force\fR option is specified. When operating on symbolic links, the links themselves will be deleted, not the objects they point to. Trying to delete a non-existent file is not considered an error. Trying to delete a read-only file will cause the file to be deleted, even if the \fB\-force\fR flags is not specified. If the \fB\-force\fR option is specified on a directory, Tcl will attempt both to change permissions and move the current directory .QW pwd out of the given path if that is necessary to allow the deletion to proceed. Arguments are processed in the order specified, halting at the first error, if any. A \fB\-\|\-\fR marks the end of switches; the argument following the \fB\-\|\-\fR will be treated as a \fIpathname\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .TP \fBfile dirname \fIname\fR Returns a name comprised of all of the path components in \fIname\fR excluding the last element. If \fIname\fR is a relative file name and only contains one path element, then returns .QW \fB.\fR . If \fIname\fR refers to a root directory, then the root directory is returned. For example, .RS .CS \fBfile dirname c:/\fR .CE returns \fBc:/\fR. .PP Note that tilde substitution will only be ................................................................................ returns \fB/foo/bar\fR. .PP Note that any of the names can contain separators, and that the result is always canonical for the current platform: \fB/\fR for Unix and Windows. .RE .TP \fBfile link ?\fI\-linktype\fR? \fIlinkName\fR ?\fItarget\fR? . If only one argument is given, that argument is assumed to be \fIlinkName\fR, and this command returns the value of the link given by \fIlinkName\fR (i.e. the name of the file it points to). If \fIlinkName\fR isn't a link or its value cannot be read (as, for example, seems to be the case with hard links, which look just like ordinary files), then an error is returned. ................................................................................ type of the link is platform-specific (on Unix a symbolic link will be the default). This is useful for the case where the user wishes to create a link in a cross-platform way, and doesn't care what type of link is created. . If the user wishes to make a link of a specific type only, (and signal an error if for some reason that is not possible), then the optional \fI\-linktype\fR argument should be given. Accepted values for \fI\-linktype\fR are .QW "\-symbolic" and .QW "\-hard" . . On Unix, symbolic links can be made to relative paths, and those paths must be relative to the actual \fIlinkName\fR's location (not to the cwd), but on all other platforms where relative links are not supported, target paths will always be converted to absolute, normalized form before the link is created (and therefore relative paths are interpreted as relative to the cwd). Furthermore, .QW "~user" paths are always expanded to absolute form. When creating links on filesystems that either do not support any links, or do not support the specific type requested, an error message will be returned. In particular Windows 95, 98 and ME do not support any links at present, but most Unix platforms support both symbolic and hard links (the latter for files only) and Windows NT/2000/XP (on NTFS drives) support symbolic directory links and hard file links. ................................................................................ .TP \fBfile normalize \fIname\fR . .RS Returns a unique normalized path representation for the file-system object (file, directory, link, etc), whose string value can be used as a unique identifier for it. A normalized path is an absolute path which has all .QW ../ , .QW ./ removed. Also it is one which is in the .QW standard format for the native platform. On Unix, this means the segments leading up to the path must be free of symbolic links/aliases (but the very last path component may be a symbolic link), and on Windows it also means we want the long form with that form's case-dependence (which gives us a unique, case-dependent path). The one exception concerning the last link in the path is necessary, because Tcl or the user may wish to operate on the actual symbolic link itself (for example \fBfile delete\fR, \fBfile rename\fR, \fBfile copy\fR are defined to operate on symbolic links, not on the things that they point to). .RE .TP \fBfile owned \fIname\fR . Returns \fB1\fR if file \fIname\fR is owned by the current user, \fB0\fR otherwise. .TP ................................................................................ switches; the argument following the \fB\-\|\-\fR will be treated as a \fIsource\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .RE .TP \fBfile rootname \fIname\fR . Returns all of the characters in \fIname\fR up to but not including the last .QW . character in the last component of name. If the last component of \fIname\fR doesn't contain a dot, then returns \fIname\fR. .TP \fBfile separator\fR ?\fIname\fR? . If no argument is given, returns the character which is used to separate path segments for native files on this platform. If a path is given, the filesystem responsible for that path is asked to return its ................................................................................ \fBfile system \fIname\fR . Returns a list of one or two elements, the first of which is the name of the filesystem to use for the file, and the second, if given, an arbitrary string representing the filesystem-specific nature or type of the location within that filesystem. If a filesystem only supports one type of file, the second element may not be supplied. For example the native files have a first element .QW native , and a second element which when given is a platform-specific type name for the file's system (e.g. .QW NTFS , .QW FAT , on Windows). A generic virtual file system might return the list .QW "vfs ftp" to represent a file on a remote ftp site mounted as a virtual filesystem through an extension called .QW vfs . If the file does not belong to any filesystem, an error is generated. .TP \fBfile tail \fIname\fR . Returns all of the characters in the last filesystem component of \fIname\fR. Any trailing directory separator in \fIname\fR is ignored. If \fIname\fR contains no separators then returns \fIname\fR. So, \fBfile tail a/b\fR, \fBfile tail a/b/\fR and \fBfile tail b\fR all ................................................................................ . Returns a string giving the type of file \fIname\fR, which will be one of \fBfile\fR, \fBdirectory\fR, \fBcharacterSpecial\fR, \fBblockSpecial\fR, \fBfifo\fR, \fBlink\fR, or \fBsocket\fR. .TP \fBfile volumes\fR . Returns the absolute paths to the volumes mounted on the system, as a proper Tcl list. Without any virtual filesystems mounted as root volumes, on UNIX, the command will always return .QW "/" , since all filesystems are locally mounted. On Windows, it will return a list of the available local drives (e.g. .QW "a:/ c:/" ). If any virtual filesystem has mounted additional volumes, they will be in the returned list. .TP \fBfile writable \fIname\fR . Returns \fB1\fR if file \fIname\fR is writable by the current user, \fB0\fR otherwise. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .TP ................................................................................ Rename a file and leave a symbolic link pointing from the old location to the new place: .CS set oldName foobar.txt set newName foo/bar.txt # Make sure that where we're going to move to exists... if {![\fBfile isdirectory\fR [\fBfile dirname\fR newName]]} { \fBfile mkdir\fR [\fBfile dirname\fR newName] } \fBfile rename\fR oldName newName \fBfile link\fR -symbolic oldName newName .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" chan(n), close(n), eof(n), fblocked(n), filename(n), flush(n), gets(n), open(n), seek(n), tell(n) .SH KEYWORDS attributes, copy files, delete files, directory, file, move files, name, rename files, stat   | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | < < | < | | | | | < < < | < < < < < | < | | | < < | | < < < < < | < | | < | | | | < | | < | | |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 ... 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 ... 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 ... 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 ... 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 ... 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 ... 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 ... 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 ... 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: file.n,v 1.47 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH file n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME file \- Manipulate file names and attributes ................................................................................ .RS This subcommand returns or sets platform specific values associated with a file. The first form returns a list of the platform specific flags and their values. The second form returns the value for the specific option. The third form sets one or more of the values. The values are as follows: .PP On Unix, \fB-group\fR gets or sets the group name for the file. A group id can be given to the command, but it returns a group name. \fB-owner\fR gets or sets the user name of the owner of the file. The command returns the owner name, but the numerical id can be passed when setting the owner. \fB-permissions\fR sets or retrieves the octal code that chmod(1) uses. This command does also has limited support for setting using the symbolic attributes for chmod(1), of the form [ugo]?[[+\-=][rwxst],[...]], where multiple symbolic attributes can be separated by commas (example: \fBu+s,go\-rw\fR add sticky bit for user, remove read and write permissions for group and other). A simplified \fBls\fR style string, of the form rwxrwxrwx (must be 9 characters), is also supported (example: \fBrwxr\-xr\-t\fR is equivalent to 01755). On versions of Unix supporting file flags, \fB-readonly\fR gives the value or sets or clears the readonly attribute of the file, i.e. the user immutable flag \fBuchg\fR to chflags(1). .PP On Windows, \fB-archive\fR gives the value or sets or clears the archive attribute of the file. \fB-hidden\fR gives the value or sets or clears the hidden attribute of the file. \fB-longname\fR will expand each path element to its long version. This attribute cannot be set. \fB-readonly\fR gives the value or sets or clears the readonly attribute of the file. \fB-shortname\fR gives a string where every path element is replaced with its short (8.3) version of the name. This attribute cannot be set. \fB-system\fR gives or sets or clears the value of the system attribute of the file. .PP On Mac OS X and Darwin, \fB-creator\fR gives or sets the Finder creator type of the file. \fB-hidden\fR gives or sets or clears the hidden attribute of the file. \fB-readonly\fR gives or sets or clears the readonly attribute of the file. \fB-rsrclength\fR gives the length of the resource fork of the file, this attribute can only be set to the value 0, which results in the resource fork being stripped off the file. .RE .TP \fBfile channels ?\fIpattern\fR? . ................................................................................ argument. Non-empty directories will be removed only if the \fB\-force\fR option is specified. When operating on symbolic links, the links themselves will be deleted, not the objects they point to. Trying to delete a non-existent file is not considered an error. Trying to delete a read-only file will cause the file to be deleted, even if the \fB\-force\fR flags is not specified. If the \fB\-force\fR option is specified on a directory, Tcl will attempt both to change permissions and move the current directory 'pwd' out of the given path if that is necessary to allow the deletion to proceed. Arguments are processed in the order specified, halting at the first error, if any. A \fB\-\|\-\fR marks the end of switches; the argument following the \fB\-\|\-\fR will be treated as a \fIpathname\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .TP \fBfile dirname \fIname\fR Returns a name comprised of all of the path components in \fIname\fR excluding the last element. If \fIname\fR is a relative file name and only contains one path element, then returns \fB.\fR''. If \fIname\fR refers to a root directory, then the root directory is returned. For example, .RS .CS \fBfile dirname c:/\fR .CE returns \fBc:/\fR. .PP Note that tilde substitution will only be ................................................................................ returns \fB/foo/bar\fR. .PP Note that any of the names can contain separators, and that the result is always canonical for the current platform: \fB/\fR for Unix and Windows. .RE .TP \fBfile link ?\fI-linktype\fR? \fIlinkName\fR ?\fItarget\fR? . If only one argument is given, that argument is assumed to be \fIlinkName\fR, and this command returns the value of the link given by \fIlinkName\fR (i.e. the name of the file it points to). If \fIlinkName\fR isn't a link or its value cannot be read (as, for example, seems to be the case with hard links, which look just like ordinary files), then an error is returned. ................................................................................ type of the link is platform-specific (on Unix a symbolic link will be the default). This is useful for the case where the user wishes to create a link in a cross-platform way, and doesn't care what type of link is created. . If the user wishes to make a link of a specific type only, (and signal an error if for some reason that is not possible), then the optional \fI-linktype\fR argument should be given. Accepted values for \fI-linktype\fR are "-symbolic" and "-hard". . On Unix, symbolic links can be made to relative paths, and those paths must be relative to the actual \fIlinkName\fR's location (not to the cwd), but on all other platforms where relative links are not supported, target paths will always be converted to absolute, normalized form before the link is created (and therefore relative paths are interpreted as relative to the cwd). Furthermore, "~user" paths are always expanded to absolute form. When creating links on filesystems that either do not support any links, or do not support the specific type requested, an error message will be returned. In particular Windows 95, 98 and ME do not support any links at present, but most Unix platforms support both symbolic and hard links (the latter for files only) and Windows NT/2000/XP (on NTFS drives) support symbolic directory links and hard file links. ................................................................................ .TP \fBfile normalize \fIname\fR . .RS Returns a unique normalized path representation for the file-system object (file, directory, link, etc), whose string value can be used as a unique identifier for it. A normalized path is an absolute path which has all '../', './' removed. Also it is one which is in the standard'' format for the native platform. On Unix, this means the segments leading up to the path must be free of symbolic links/aliases (but the very last path component may be a symbolic link), and on Windows it also means we want the long form with that form's case-dependence (which gives us a unique, case-dependent path). The one exception concerning the last link in the path is necessary, because Tcl or the user may wish to operate on the actual symbolic link itself (for example 'file delete', 'file rename', 'file copy' are defined to operate on symbolic links, not on the things that they point to). .RE .TP \fBfile owned \fIname\fR . Returns \fB1\fR if file \fIname\fR is owned by the current user, \fB0\fR otherwise. .TP ................................................................................ switches; the argument following the \fB\-\|\-\fR will be treated as a \fIsource\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .RE .TP \fBfile rootname \fIname\fR . Returns all of the characters in \fIname\fR up to but not including the last .'' character in the last component of name. If the last component of \fIname\fR doesn't contain a dot, then returns \fIname\fR. .TP \fBfile separator\fR ?\fIname\fR? . If no argument is given, returns the character which is used to separate path segments for native files on this platform. If a path is given, the filesystem responsible for that path is asked to return its ................................................................................ \fBfile system \fIname\fR . Returns a list of one or two elements, the first of which is the name of the filesystem to use for the file, and the second, if given, an arbitrary string representing the filesystem-specific nature or type of the location within that filesystem. If a filesystem only supports one type of file, the second element may not be supplied. For example the native files have a first element 'native', and a second element which when given is a platform-specific type name for the file's system (e.g. 'NTFS', 'FAT', on Windows). A generic virtual file system might return the list 'vfs ftp' to represent a file on a remote ftp site mounted as a virtual filesystem through an extension called 'vfs'. If the file does not belong to any filesystem, an error is generated. .TP \fBfile tail \fIname\fR . Returns all of the characters in the last filesystem component of \fIname\fR. Any trailing directory separator in \fIname\fR is ignored. If \fIname\fR contains no separators then returns \fIname\fR. So, \fBfile tail a/b\fR, \fBfile tail a/b/\fR and \fBfile tail b\fR all ................................................................................ . Returns a string giving the type of file \fIname\fR, which will be one of \fBfile\fR, \fBdirectory\fR, \fBcharacterSpecial\fR, \fBblockSpecial\fR, \fBfifo\fR, \fBlink\fR, or \fBsocket\fR. .TP \fBfile volumes\fR . Returns the absolute paths to the volumes mounted on the system, as a proper Tcl list. Without any virtual filesystems mounted as root volumes, on UNIX, the command will always return "/", since all filesystems are locally mounted. On Windows, it will return a list of the available local drives (e.g. {a:/ c:/}). If any virtual filesystem has mounted additional volumes, they will be in the returned list. .TP \fBfile writable \fIname\fR . Returns \fB1\fR if file \fIname\fR is writable by the current user, \fB0\fR otherwise. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .TP ................................................................................ Rename a file and leave a symbolic link pointing from the old location to the new place: .CS set oldName foobar.txt set newName foo/bar.txt # Make sure that where we're going to move to exists... if {![\fBfile isdirectory\fR [\fBfile dirname\fR newName]]} { \fBfile mkdir\fR [\fBfile dirname\fR newName] } \fBfile rename\fR oldName newName \fBfile link\fR -symbolic oldName newName .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" chan(n), close(n), eof(n), fblocked(n), filename(n), flush(n), gets(n), open(n), seek(n), tell(n) .SH KEYWORDS attributes, copy files, delete files, directory, file, move files, name, rename files, stat  Changes to doc/fileevent.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 ... 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: fileevent.n,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH fileevent n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME fileevent \- Execute a script when a channel becomes readable or writable ................................................................................ is evaluated whenever the channel becomes readable or writable. File event handlers are most commonly used to allow data to be received from another process on an event-driven basis, so that the receiver can continue to interact with the user while waiting for the data to arrive. If an application invokes \fBgets\fR or \fBread\fR on a blocking channel when there is no input data available, the process will block; until the input data arrives, it will not be able to service other events, so it will appear to the user to .QW "freeze up" . With \fBfileevent\fR, the process can tell when data is present and only invoke \fBgets\fR or \fBread\fR when they won't block. .PP The \fIchannelId\fR argument to \fBfileevent\fR refers to an open channel such as a Tcl standard channel (\fBstdin\fR, \fBstdout\fR, or \fBstderr\fR), the return value from an invocation of \fBopen\fR or \fBsocket\fR, or the result of a channel creation command provided ................................................................................ if {![eof chan]} { puts [gets chan] } } \fBfileevent\fR chan readable [list GetData chan] .CE .SH CREDITS .PP \fBfileevent\fR is based on the \fBaddinput\fR command created by Mark Diekhans. .SH "SEE ALSO" fconfigure(n), gets(n), interp(n), puts(n), read(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3) .SH KEYWORDS asynchronous I/O, blocking, channel, event handler, nonblocking, readable, script, writable.   | < < | > > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 ... 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: fileevent.n,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH fileevent n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME fileevent \- Execute a script when a channel becomes readable or writable ................................................................................ is evaluated whenever the channel becomes readable or writable. File event handlers are most commonly used to allow data to be received from another process on an event-driven basis, so that the receiver can continue to interact with the user while waiting for the data to arrive. If an application invokes \fBgets\fR or \fBread\fR on a blocking channel when there is no input data available, the process will block; until the input data arrives, it will not be able to service other events, so it will appear to the user to freeze up''. With \fBfileevent\fR, the process can tell when data is present and only invoke \fBgets\fR or \fBread\fR when they won't block. .PP The \fIchannelId\fR argument to \fBfileevent\fR refers to an open channel such as a Tcl standard channel (\fBstdin\fR, \fBstdout\fR, or \fBstderr\fR), the return value from an invocation of \fBopen\fR or \fBsocket\fR, or the result of a channel creation command provided ................................................................................ if {![eof chan]} { puts [gets chan] } } \fBfileevent\fR chan readable [list GetData chan] .CE .SH CREDITS .PP \fBfileevent\fR is based on the \fBaddinput\fR command created by Mark Diekhans. .SH "SEE ALSO" fconfigure(n), gets(n), interp(n), puts(n), read(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3) .SH KEYWORDS asynchronous I/O, blocking, channel, event handler, nonblocking, readable, script, writable.  Changes to doc/filename.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: filename.n,v 1.16 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH filename n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME filename \- File name conventions supported by Tcl commands ................................................................................ Tcl attempts to interpret that part of the path or otherwise access the file. The behaviour of these paths when not trying to interpret them is the same as on Unix. File names that have a tilde without a user name will be correctly substituted using the \fBHOME\fR environment variable, just like for Unix. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .PP Not all file systems are case sensitive, so scripts should avoid code that depends on the case of characters in a file name. In addition, the character sets allowed on different devices may differ, so scripts should choose file names that do not contain special characters like: \fB<>:?"/\e|\fR. .\"" Reset emacs highlighting The safest approach is to use names consisting of alphanumeric characters only. Care should be taken with filenames which contain spaces (common on Windows systems) and filenames where the backslash is the directory separator (Windows native path names). Also Windows 3.1 only supports file names with a root of no more than 8 characters and an extension of no more than 3 characters. .PP On Windows platforms there are file and path length restrictions. Complete paths or filenames longer than about 260 characters will lead to errors in most file operations. .PP Another Windows peculiarity is that any number of trailing dots .QW "." in filenames are totally ignored, so, for example, attempts to create a file or directory with a name .QW "foo." will result in the creation of a file or directory with name .QW "foo" . This fact is reflected in the results of .QW \fBfile normalize\fR . Furthermore, a file name consisting only of dots .QW "........." or dots with trailing characters .QW ".....abc" is illegal. .SH KEYWORDS current directory, absolute file name, relative file name, volume-relative file name, portability .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), glob(n)   | | | | | < | | > | | | | | | | | < | | < < < | < | < | < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: filename.n,v 1.17 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH filename n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME filename \- File name conventions supported by Tcl commands ................................................................................ Tcl attempts to interpret that part of the path or otherwise access the file. The behaviour of these paths when not trying to interpret them is the same as on Unix. File names that have a tilde without a user name will be correctly substituted using the \fBHOME\fR environment variable, just like for Unix. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .PP Not all file systems are case sensitive, so scripts should avoid code that depends on the case of characters in a file name. In addition, the character sets allowed on different devices may differ, so scripts should choose file names that do not contain special characters like: \fB<>:?"/\e|\fR. The safest approach is to use names consisting of alphanumeric characters only. Care should be taken with filenames which contain spaces (common on Windows systems) and filenames where the backslash is the directory separator (Windows native path names). Also Windows 3.1 only supports file names with a root of no more than 8 characters and an extension of no more than 3 characters. .PP On Windows platforms there are file and path length restrictions. Complete paths or filenames longer than about 260 characters will lead to errors in most file operations. .PP Another Windows peculiarity is that any number of trailing dots '.' in filenames are totally ignored, so, for example, attempts to create a file or directory with a name "foo." will result in the creation of a file/directory with name "foo". This fact is reflected in the results of 'file normalize'. Furthermore, a file name consisting only of dots '.........' or dots with trailing characters '.....abc' is illegal. .SH KEYWORDS current directory, absolute file name, relative file name, volume-relative file name, portability .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), glob(n)  Changes to doc/for.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: for.n,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH for n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME for \- For' loop .SH SYNOPSIS \fBfor \fIstart test next body\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBFor\fR is a looping command, similar in structure to the C   | |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: for.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH for n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME for \- For'' loop .SH SYNOPSIS \fBfor \fIstart test next body\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBFor\fR is a looping command, similar in structure to the C  Changes to doc/format.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 ... 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 ... 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: format.n,v 1.16 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH format n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME format \- Format a string in the style of sprintf ................................................................................ a set of flags, a minimum field width, a precision, a size modifier, and a conversion character. Any of these fields may be omitted except for the conversion character. The fields that are present must appear in the order given above. The paragraphs below discuss each of these fields in turn. .PP If the \fB%\fR is followed by a decimal number and a \fB\fR, as in .QW \fB%2d\fR , then the value to convert is not taken from the next sequential argument. Instead, it is taken from the argument indicated by the number, where 1 corresponds to the first \fIarg\fR. If the conversion specifier requires multiple arguments because of \fB*\fR characters in the specifier then successive arguments are used, starting with the argument given by the number. This follows the XPG3 conventions for positional specifiers. ................................................................................ Convert integer to signed decimal string (equivalent to \fBd\fR). .TP 10 \fBo\fR Convert integer to unsigned octal string. .TP 10 \fBx\fR or \fBX\fR Convert integer to unsigned hexadecimal string, using digits .QW 0123456789abcdef for \fBx\fR and .QW 0123456789ABCDEF for \fBX\fR). .TP 10 \fBc\fR Convert integer to the Unicode character it represents. .TP 10 \fBs\fR No conversion; just insert string. .TP 10 ................................................................................ Convert number to signed decimal string of the form \fIxx.yyy\fR, where the number of \fIy\fR's is determined by the precision (default: 6). If the precision is 0 then no decimal point is output. .TP 10 \fBe\fR or \fBE\fR Convert number to scientific notation in the form .QW "\fIx.yyy\fBe\(+-\fIzz\fR" , where the number of \fIy\fR's is determined by the precision (default: 6). If the precision is 0 then no decimal point is output. If the \fBE\fR form is used then \fBE\fR is printed instead of \fBe\fR. .TP 10 \fBg\fR or \fBG\fR If the exponent is less than \-4 or greater than or equal to the precision, then convert number as for \fB%e\fR or   | | | | < < < < | |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 ... 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 ... 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: format.n,v 1.17 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH format n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME format \- Format a string in the style of sprintf ................................................................................ a set of flags, a minimum field width, a precision, a size modifier, and a conversion character. Any of these fields may be omitted except for the conversion character. The fields that are present must appear in the order given above. The paragraphs below discuss each of these fields in turn. .PP If the \fB%\fR is followed by a decimal number and a \fB\fR, as in \fB%2d\fR'', then the value to convert is not taken from the next sequential argument. Instead, it is taken from the argument indicated by the number, where 1 corresponds to the first \fIarg\fR. If the conversion specifier requires multiple arguments because of \fB*\fR characters in the specifier then successive arguments are used, starting with the argument given by the number. This follows the XPG3 conventions for positional specifiers. ................................................................................ Convert integer to signed decimal string (equivalent to \fBd\fR). .TP 10 \fBo\fR Convert integer to unsigned octal string. .TP 10 \fBx\fR or \fBX\fR Convert integer to unsigned hexadecimal string, using digits 0123456789abcdef'' for \fBx\fR and 0123456789ABCDEF'' for \fBX\fR). .TP 10 \fBc\fR Convert integer to the Unicode character it represents. .TP 10 \fBs\fR No conversion; just insert string. .TP 10 ................................................................................ Convert number to signed decimal string of the form \fIxx.yyy\fR, where the number of \fIy\fR's is determined by the precision (default: 6). If the precision is 0 then no decimal point is output. .TP 10 \fBe\fR or \fBE\fR Convert number to scientific notation in the form \fIx.yyy\fBe\(+-\fIzz\fR, where the number of \fIy\fR's is determined by the precision (default: 6). If the precision is 0 then no decimal point is output. If the \fBE\fR form is used then \fBE\fR is printed instead of \fBe\fR. .TP 10 \fBg\fR or \fBG\fR If the exponent is less than \-4 or greater than or equal to the precision, then convert number as for \fB%e\fR or  Changes to doc/glob.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .. 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 ... 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 ... 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: glob.n,v 1.19 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH glob n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME glob \- Return names of files that match patterns .SH SYNOPSIS \fBglob \fR?\fIswitches\fR? \fIpattern \fR?\fIpattern ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command performs file name .QW globbing in a fashion similar to the csh shell. It returns a list of the files whose names match any of the \fIpattern\fR arguments. No particular order is guaranteed in the list, so if a sorted list is required the caller should use \fBlsort\fR. .LP If the initial arguments to \fBglob\fR start with \fB\-\fR then they are treated as switches. The following switches are ................................................................................ The following are equivalent: .RS .CS \fBglob \-type d *\fR \fBglob */\fR .CE .RE except that the first case doesn't return the trailing .QW / and is more platform independent. .RE .TP \fB\-\|\-\fR Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will be treated as a \fIpattern\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .PP The \fIpattern\fR arguments may contain any of the following ................................................................................ .TP 10 \fB\e\fIx\fR Matches the character \fIx\fR. .TP 10 \fB{\fIa\fB,\fIb\fB,\fI...\fR} Matches any of the strings \fIa\fR, \fIb\fR, etc. .LP On Unix, as with csh, a .QW . at the beginning of a file's name or just after a .QW / must be matched explicitly or with a {} construct, unless the .QW "-types hidden" flag is given (since .QW . at the beginning of a file's name indicates that it is hidden). On other platforms, files beginning with a .QW . are handled no differently to any others, except the special directories .QW . and .QW .. which must be matched explicitly (this is to avoid a recursive pattern like .QW "glob -join * * * *" from recursing up the directory hierarchy as well as down). In addition, all .QW / characters must be matched explicitly. .LP If the first character in a \fIpattern\fR is .QW ~ then it refers to the home directory for the user whose name follows the .QW ~ . If the .QW ~ is followed immediately by .QW / then the value of the HOME environment variable is used. .LP The \fBglob\fR command differs from csh globbing in two ways. First, it does not sort its result list (use the \fBlsort\fR command if you want the list sorted). Second, \fBglob\fR only returns the names of files that actually exist; in csh no check for existence is made unless a pattern contains a ?, *, or [] construct. .LP When the \fBglob\fR command returns relative paths whose filenames start with a tilde .QW ~ (for example through \fBglob *\fR or \fBglob -tails\fR, the returned list will not quote the tilde with .QW ./ . This means care must be taken if those names are later to be used with \fBfile join\fR, to avoid them being interpreted as absolute paths pointing to a given user's home directory. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .TP \fBWindows\fR . For Windows UNC names, the servername and sharename components of the path may not contain ?, *, or [] constructs. On Windows NT, if \fIpattern\fR is of the form .QW \fB~\fIusername\[email protected]\fIdomain\fR it refers to the home directory of the user whose account information resides on the specified NT domain server. Otherwise, user account information is obtained from the local computer. On Windows 95 and 98, \fBglob\fR accepts patterns like .QW .../ and .QW ..../ for successively higher up parent directories. .RS .PP Since the backslash character has a special meaning to the glob command, glob patterns containing Windows style path separators need special care. The pattern \fIC:\e\efoo\e\e*\fR is interpreted as \fIC:\efoo\e*\fR where \fI\ef\fR will match the single character \fIf\fR and \fI\e*\fR will match the single character \fI*\fR and will not be interpreted as a wildcard character. One solution to this problem is to use the Unix style forward slash as a path separator. Windows style ................................................................................ .CE .PP Find all subdirectories of the current directory: .CS \fBglob\fR \-type d * .CE .PP Find all files whose name contains an .QW a , a .QW b or the sequence .QW cde : .CS \fBglob\fR \-type f *{a,b,cde}* .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n) .SH KEYWORDS exist, file, glob, pattern   | | < < | < | < < | < | < | < < < < | | < < < | < | < | | < | < < < | < | < < | < | | < | < | | | < < < < | < < < < <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 .. 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 ... 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 ... 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: glob.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH glob n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME glob \- Return names of files that match patterns .SH SYNOPSIS \fBglob \fR?\fIswitches\fR? \fIpattern \fR?\fIpattern ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command performs file name globbing'' in a fashion similar to the csh shell. It returns a list of the files whose names match any of the \fIpattern\fR arguments. No particular order is guaranteed in the list, so if a sorted list is required the caller should use \fBlsort\fR. .LP If the initial arguments to \fBglob\fR start with \fB\-\fR then they are treated as switches. The following switches are ................................................................................ The following are equivalent: .RS .CS \fBglob \-type d *\fR \fBglob */\fR .CE .RE except that the first case doesn't return the trailing /'' and is more platform independent. .RE .TP \fB\-\|\-\fR Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will be treated as a \fIpattern\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .PP The \fIpattern\fR arguments may contain any of the following ................................................................................ .TP 10 \fB\e\fIx\fR Matches the character \fIx\fR. .TP 10 \fB{\fIa\fB,\fIb\fB,\fI...\fR} Matches any of the strings \fIa\fR, \fIb\fR, etc. .LP On Unix, as with csh, a .'' at the beginning of a file's name or just after a /'' must be matched explicitly or with a {} construct, unless the -types hidden'' flag is given (since .'' at the beginning of a file's name indicates that it is hidden). On other platforms, files beginning with a .'' are handled no differently to any others, except the special directories .'' and ..'' which must be matched explicitly (this is to avoid a recursive pattern like glob -join * * * *'' from recursing up the directory hierarchy as well as down). In addition, all /'' characters must be matched explicitly. .LP If the first character in a \fIpattern\fR is ~'' then it refers to the home directory for the user whose name follows the ~''. If the ~'' is followed immediately by /'' then the value of the HOME environment variable is used. .LP The \fBglob\fR command differs from csh globbing in two ways. First, it does not sort its result list (use the \fBlsort\fR command if you want the list sorted). Second, \fBglob\fR only returns the names of files that actually exist; in csh no check for existence is made unless a pattern contains a ?, *, or [] construct. .LP When the \fBglob\fR command returns relative paths whose filenames start with a tilde ~'' (for example through \fBglob *\fR or \fBglob -tails\fR, the returned list will not quote the tilde with ./''. This means care must be taken if those names are later to be used with \fBfile join\fR, to avoid them being interpreted as absolute paths pointing to a given user's home directory. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .PP \fBWindows\fR . For Windows UNC names, the servername and sharename components of the path may not contain ?, *, or [] constructs. On Windows NT, if \fIpattern\fR is of the form \fB~\fIusername\[email protected]\fIdomain\fR'' it refers to the home directory of the user whose account information resides on the specified NT domain server. Otherwise, user account information is obtained from the local computer. On Windows 95 and 98, \fBglob\fR accepts patterns like .../'' and ..../'' for successively higher up parent directories. . Since the backslash character has a special meaning to the glob command, glob patterns containing Windows style path separators need special care. The pattern \fIC:\e\efoo\e\e*\fR is interpreted as \fIC:\efoo\e*\fR where \fI\ef\fR will match the single character \fIf\fR and \fI\e*\fR will match the single character \fI*\fR and will not be interpreted as a wildcard character. One solution to this problem is to use the Unix style forward slash as a path separator. Windows style ................................................................................ .CE .PP Find all subdirectories of the current directory: .CS \fBglob\fR \-type d * .CE .PP Find all files whose name contains an "a", a "b" or the sequence "cde": .CS \fBglob\fR \-type f *{a,b,cde}* .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n) .SH KEYWORDS exist, file, glob, pattern  Changes to doc/history.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 .. 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: history.n,v 1.5 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH history n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME history \- Manipulate the history list ................................................................................ \fBhistory \fR?\fIoption\fR? ?\fIarg arg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBhistory\fR command performs one of several operations related to recently-executed commands recorded in a history list. Each of these recorded commands is referred to as an .QW event . When specifying an event to the \fBhistory\fR command, the following forms may be used: .IP [1] A number: if positive, it refers to the event with that number (all events are numbered starting at 1). If the number is negative, it selects an event relative to the current event (\fB\-1\fR refers to the previous event, \fB\-2\fR to the one before that, and so on). Event \fB0\fR refers to the current event. ................................................................................ .SH "HISTORY REVISION" .PP Pre-8.0 Tcl had a complex history revision mechanism. The current mechanism is more limited, and the old history operations \fBsubstitute\fR and \fBwords\fR have been removed. (As a consolation, the \fBclear\fR operation was added.) .PP The history option \fBredo\fR results in much simpler .QW "history revision" . When this option is invoked then the most recent event is modified to eliminate the history command and replace it with the result of the history command. If you want to redo an event without modifying history, then use the \fBevent\fR operation to retrieve some event, and the \fBadd\fR operation to add it to history and execute it. .SH KEYWORDS event, history, record   | | < | | <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 .. 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: history.n,v 1.6 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH history n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME history \- Manipulate the history list ................................................................................ \fBhistory \fR?\fIoption\fR? ?\fIarg arg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBhistory\fR command performs one of several operations related to recently-executed commands recorded in a history list. Each of these recorded commands is referred to as an event''. When specifying an event to the \fBhistory\fR command, the following forms may be used: .IP [1] A number: if positive, it refers to the event with that number (all events are numbered starting at 1). If the number is negative, it selects an event relative to the current event (\fB\-1\fR refers to the previous event, \fB\-2\fR to the one before that, and so on). Event \fB0\fR refers to the current event. ................................................................................ .SH "HISTORY REVISION" .PP Pre-8.0 Tcl had a complex history revision mechanism. The current mechanism is more limited, and the old history operations \fBsubstitute\fR and \fBwords\fR have been removed. (As a consolation, the \fBclear\fR operation was added.) .PP The history option \fBredo\fR results in much simpler history revision''. When this option is invoked then the most recent event is modified to eliminate the history command and replace it with the result of the history command. If you want to redo an event without modifying history, then use the \fBevent\fR operation to retrieve some event, and the \fBadd\fR operation to add it to history and execute it. .SH KEYWORDS event, history, record  Changes to doc/http.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 ... 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 ... 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 ... 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 ... 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 ... 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541  '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Ajuba Solutions. '\" Copyright (c) 2004 ActiveState Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: http.n,v 1.26 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH "http" n 2.5 http "Tcl Bundled Packages" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME http \- Client-side implementation of the HTTP/1.0 protocol ................................................................................ flags and values that define the configuration: .RS .TP \fB\-accept\fR \fImimetypes\fR The Accept header of the request. The default is */*, which means that all types of documents are accepted. Otherwise you can supply a comma-separated list of mime type patterns that you are willing to receive. For example, .QW "image/gif, image/jpeg, text/*" . .TP \fB\-proxyhost\fR \fIhostname\fR The name of the proxy host, if any. If this value is the empty string, the URL host is contacted directly. .TP \fB\-proxyport\fR \fInumber\fR The proxy port number. ................................................................................ returned by specifying the empty string (\fB{}\fR), although \fIiso8859-1\fR is recommended to restore similar behavior but without the \fB::http::formatQuery\fR throwing an error processing non-latin-1 characters. .TP \fB\-useragent\fR \fIstring\fR The value of the User-Agent header in the HTTP request. The default is .QW "\fBTcl http client package 2.5\fR" . .RE .TP \fB::http::geturl\fR \fIurl\fR ?\fIoptions\fR? The \fB::http::geturl\fR command is the main procedure in the package. The \fB\-query\fR option causes a POST operation and the \fB\-validate\fR option causes a HEAD operation; otherwise, a GET operation is performed. The \fB::http::geturl\fR command ................................................................................ set token [::http::geturl https://my.secure.site/] .CE .RE .TP \fB::http::unregister\fR \fIproto\fR This procedure unregisters a protocol handler that was previously registered via \fB::http::register\fR. .SH "ERRORS" The \fB::http::geturl\fR procedure will raise errors in the following cases: invalid command line options, an invalid URL, a URL on a non-existent host, or a URL at a bad port on an existing host. These errors mean that it ................................................................................ These are described below. .TP ok If the HTTP transaction completes entirely, then status will be \fBok\fR. However, you should still check the \fB::http::code\fR value to get the HTTP status. The \fB::http::ncode\fR procedure provides just the numeric error (e.g., 200, 404 or 500) while the \fB::http::code\fR procedure returns a value like .QW "HTTP 404 File not found" . .TP eof If the server closes the socket without replying, then no error is raised, but the status of the transaction will be \fBeof\fR. .TP error The error message will also be stored in the \fBerror\fR status ................................................................................ responds and closes the socket. The error message is saved in the \fBposterror\fR status array element and then \fB::http::geturl\fR attempts to complete the transaction. If it can read the server's response it will end up with an \fBok\fR status, otherwise it will have an \fBeof\fR status. .SH "STATE ARRAY" The \fB::http::geturl\fR procedure returns a \fItoken\fR that can be used to get to the state of the HTTP transaction in the form of a Tcl array. Use this construct to create an easy-to-use array variable: .CS upvar #0 token state .CE ................................................................................ return token } proc httpCopyProgress {args} { puts -nonewline stderr . flush stderr } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" safe(n), socket(n), safesock(n) .SH KEYWORDS security policy, socket   | | < < | > | < > > >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 ... 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 ... 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 ... 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 ... 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 ... 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542  '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Ajuba Solutions. '\" Copyright (c) 2004 ActiveState Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: http.n,v 1.27 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH "http" n 2.5 http "Tcl Bundled Packages" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME http \- Client-side implementation of the HTTP/1.0 protocol ................................................................................ flags and values that define the configuration: .RS .TP \fB\-accept\fR \fImimetypes\fR The Accept header of the request. The default is */*, which means that all types of documents are accepted. Otherwise you can supply a comma-separated list of mime type patterns that you are willing to receive. For example, "image/gif, image/jpeg, text/*". .TP \fB\-proxyhost\fR \fIhostname\fR The name of the proxy host, if any. If this value is the empty string, the URL host is contacted directly. .TP \fB\-proxyport\fR \fInumber\fR The proxy port number. ................................................................................ returned by specifying the empty string (\fB{}\fR), although \fIiso8859-1\fR is recommended to restore similar behavior but without the \fB::http::formatQuery\fR throwing an error processing non-latin-1 characters. .TP \fB\-useragent\fR \fIstring\fR The value of the User-Agent header in the HTTP request. The default is \fB"Tcl http client package 2.4."\fR .RE .TP \fB::http::geturl\fR \fIurl\fR ?\fIoptions\fR? The \fB::http::geturl\fR command is the main procedure in the package. The \fB\-query\fR option causes a POST operation and the \fB\-validate\fR option causes a HEAD operation; otherwise, a GET operation is performed. The \fB::http::geturl\fR command ................................................................................ set token [::http::geturl https://my.secure.site/] .CE .RE .TP \fB::http::unregister\fR \fIproto\fR This procedure unregisters a protocol handler that was previously registered via \fB::http::register\fR. .SH "ERRORS" The \fB::http::geturl\fR procedure will raise errors in the following cases: invalid command line options, an invalid URL, a URL on a non-existent host, or a URL at a bad port on an existing host. These errors mean that it ................................................................................ These are described below. .TP ok If the HTTP transaction completes entirely, then status will be \fBok\fR. However, you should still check the \fB::http::code\fR value to get the HTTP status. The \fB::http::ncode\fR procedure provides just the numeric error (e.g., 200, 404 or 500) while the \fB::http::code\fR procedure returns a value like "HTTP 404 File not found". .TP eof If the server closes the socket without replying, then no error is raised, but the status of the transaction will be \fBeof\fR. .TP error The error message will also be stored in the \fBerror\fR status ................................................................................ responds and closes the socket. The error message is saved in the \fBposterror\fR status array element and then \fB::http::geturl\fR attempts to complete the transaction. If it can read the server's response it will end up with an \fBok\fR status, otherwise it will have an \fBeof\fR status. .SH "STATE ARRAY" The \fB::http::geturl\fR procedure returns a \fItoken\fR that can be used to get to the state of the HTTP transaction in the form of a Tcl array. Use this construct to create an easy-to-use array variable: .CS upvar #0 token state .CE ................................................................................ return token } proc httpCopyProgress {args} { puts -nonewline stderr . flush stderr } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" safe(n), socket(n), safesock(n) .SH KEYWORDS security policy, socket  Changes to doc/if.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: if.n,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH if n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME if \- Execute scripts conditionally ................................................................................ if it is true then \fIbody1\fR is executed by passing it to the Tcl interpreter. Otherwise \fIexpr2\fR is evaluated as an expression and if it is true then \fBbody2\fR is executed, and so on. If none of the expressions evaluates to true then \fIbodyN\fR is executed. The \fBthen\fR and \fBelse\fR arguments are optional .QW noise words to make the command easier to read. There may be any number of \fBelseif\fR clauses, including zero. \fIBodyN\fR may also be omitted as long as \fBelse\fR is omitted too. The return value from the command is the result of the body script that was executed, or an empty string if none of the expressions was non-zero and there was no \fIbodyN\fR. .SH EXAMPLES A simple conditional:   | < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: if.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH if n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME if \- Execute scripts conditionally ................................................................................ if it is true then \fIbody1\fR is executed by passing it to the Tcl interpreter. Otherwise \fIexpr2\fR is evaluated as an expression and if it is true then \fBbody2\fR is executed, and so on. If none of the expressions evaluates to true then \fIbodyN\fR is executed. The \fBthen\fR and \fBelse\fR arguments are optional noise words'' to make the command easier to read. There may be any number of \fBelseif\fR clauses, including zero. \fIBodyN\fR may also be omitted as long as \fBelse\fR is omitted too. The return value from the command is the result of the body script that was executed, or an empty string if none of the expressions was non-zero and there was no \fIbodyN\fR. .SH EXAMPLES A simple conditional:  Changes to doc/info.n.  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 .. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 .. 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 ... 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329  '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1997 Bell Labs Innovations for Lucent Technologies '\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 Ajuba Solutions '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: info.n,v 1.20 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH info n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME info \- Return information about the state of the Tcl interpreter ................................................................................ \fBinfo \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command provides information about various internals of the Tcl interpreter. The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are: .TP \fBinfo args \fIprocname\fR Returns a list containing the names of the arguments to procedure \fIprocname\fR, in order. \fIProcname\fR must be the name of a Tcl command procedure. .TP \fBinfo body \fIprocname\fR ................................................................................ If \fInumber\fR is positive (> 0) then it selects a particular stack level (1 refers to the top-most active command, i.e., \fBinfo frame\fR itself, 2 to the command it was called from, and so on); otherwise it gives a level relative to the current command (0 refers to the current command, i.e., \fBinfo frame\fR itself, -1 to its caller, and so on). .sp This is similar to how \fBinfo level\fR works, except that this subcommand reports all frames, like \fBsource\fRd scripts, \fBeval\fRs, \fBuplevel\fRs, etc. .sp Note that for nested commands, like .QW "foo [[bar [[x]]]]" only .QW "x" will be seen by an \fBinfo frame\fR invoked within .QW "x" . This is the same as for \fBinfo level\fR and error stack traces. .sp The result dictionary may contain the keys listed below, with the specified meanings for their values: .RS .TP \fItype\fR This entry is always present and describes the nature of the location ................................................................................ using a sequence of namespace names separated by double colons (\fB::\fR), and may have pattern matching special characters at the end to specify a set of variables in that namespace. If \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name, the resulting list of variable names has each matching namespace variable qualified with the name of its namespace. Note that a currently-visible variable may not yet .QW "exist" if it has not been set (e.g. a variable declared but not set by \fBvariable\fR). .SH EXAMPLE This command prints out a procedure suitable for saving in a Tcl script: .PP .CS proc printProc {procName} {   | | | | | < < < | < | | < <  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 .. 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 .. 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 ... 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323  '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1993-1997 Bell Labs Innovations for Lucent Technologies '\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 Ajuba Solutions '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: info.n,v 1.21 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH info n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME info \- Return information about the state of the Tcl interpreter ................................................................................ \fBinfo \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command provides information about various internals of the Tcl interpreter. The legal \fIoption\fR's (which may be abbreviated) are: .TP \fBinfo args \fIprocname\fR Returns a list containing the names of the arguments to procedure \fIprocname\fR, in order. \fIProcname\fR must be the name of a Tcl command procedure. .TP \fBinfo body \fIprocname\fR ................................................................................ If \fInumber\fR is positive (> 0) then it selects a particular stack level (1 refers to the top-most active command, i.e., \fBinfo frame\fR itself, 2 to the command it was called from, and so on); otherwise it gives a level relative to the current command (0 refers to the current command, i.e., \fBinfo frame\fR itself, -1 to its caller, and so on). .sp This is similar to how \fBinfo level\fR works, except that this subcommand reports all frames, like \fBsource\fR'd scripts, \fBeval\fR's, \fBuplevel\fR's, etc. .sp Note that for nested commands, like "foo [[bar [[x]]]]" only "x" will be seen by an \fBinfo frame\fR invoked within "x". This is the same as for \fBinfo level\fR and error stack traces. .sp The result dictionary may contain the keys listed below, with the specified meanings for their values: .RS .TP \fItype\fR This entry is always present and describes the nature of the location ................................................................................ using a sequence of namespace names separated by double colons (\fB::\fR), and may have pattern matching special characters at the end to specify a set of variables in that namespace. If \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name, the resulting list of variable names has each matching namespace variable qualified with the name of its namespace. Note that a currently-visible variable may not yet "exist" if it has not been set (e.g. a variable declared but not set by \fBvariable\fR). .SH EXAMPLE This command prints out a procedure suitable for saving in a Tcl script: .PP .CS proc printProc {procName} {  Changes to doc/interp.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 ... 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2004 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: interp.n,v 1.30 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH interp n 7.6 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME interp \- Create and manipulate Tcl interpreters ................................................................................ This command creates an alias between one slave and another (see the \fBalias\fR slave command below for creating aliases between a slave and its master). In this command, either of the slave interpreters may be anywhere in the hierarchy of interpreters under the interpreter invoking the command. \fISrcPath\fR and \fIsrcCmd\fR identify the source of the alias. \fISrcPath\fR is a Tcl list whose elements select a particular interpreter. For example, .QW "\fBa b\fR" identifies an interpreter \fBb\fR, which is a slave of interpreter \fBa\fR, which is a slave of the invoking interpreter. An empty list specifies the interpreter invoking the command. \fIsrcCmd\fR gives the name of a new command, which will be created in the source interpreter. \fITargetPath\fR and \fItargetCmd\fR specify a target interpreter and command, and the \fIarg\fR arguments, if any, specify additional arguments to \fItargetCmd\fR which are prepended to any arguments specified ................................................................................ When the source for an alias is invoked in the slave interpreter, the usual Tcl substitutions are performed when parsing that command. These substitutions are carried out in the source interpreter just as they would be for any other command invoked in that interpreter. The command procedure for the source command takes its arguments and merges them with the \fItargetCmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs for the alias to create a new array of arguments. If the words of \fIsrcCmd\fR were .QW "\fIsrcCmd arg1 arg2 ... argN\fR" , the new set of words will be .QW "\fItargetCmd arg arg ... arg arg1 arg2 ... argN\fR" , where \fItargetCmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs are the values supplied when the alias was created. \fITargetCmd\fR is then used to locate a command procedure in the target interpreter, and that command procedure is invoked with the new set of arguments. An error occurs if there is no command named \fItargetCmd\fR in the target interpreter. No additional substitutions are performed on the words: the target command procedure is invoked directly, without   | | < < | < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 ... 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2004 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: interp.n,v 1.31 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH interp n 7.6 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME interp \- Create and manipulate Tcl interpreters ................................................................................ This command creates an alias between one slave and another (see the \fBalias\fR slave command below for creating aliases between a slave and its master). In this command, either of the slave interpreters may be anywhere in the hierarchy of interpreters under the interpreter invoking the command. \fISrcPath\fR and \fIsrcCmd\fR identify the source of the alias. \fISrcPath\fR is a Tcl list whose elements select a particular interpreter. For example, \fBa b\fR'' identifies an interpreter \fBb\fR, which is a slave of interpreter \fBa\fR, which is a slave of the invoking interpreter. An empty list specifies the interpreter invoking the command. \fIsrcCmd\fR gives the name of a new command, which will be created in the source interpreter. \fITargetPath\fR and \fItargetCmd\fR specify a target interpreter and command, and the \fIarg\fR arguments, if any, specify additional arguments to \fItargetCmd\fR which are prepended to any arguments specified ................................................................................ When the source for an alias is invoked in the slave interpreter, the usual Tcl substitutions are performed when parsing that command. These substitutions are carried out in the source interpreter just as they would be for any other command invoked in that interpreter. The command procedure for the source command takes its arguments and merges them with the \fItargetCmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs for the alias to create a new array of arguments. If the words of \fIsrcCmd\fR were \fIsrcCmd arg1 arg2 ... argN\fR'', the new set of words will be \fItargetCmd arg arg ... arg arg1 arg2 ... argN\fR'', where \fItargetCmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs are the values supplied when the alias was created. \fITargetCmd\fR is then used to locate a command procedure in the target interpreter, and that command procedure is invoked with the new set of arguments. An error occurs if there is no command named \fItargetCmd\fR in the target interpreter. No additional substitutions are performed on the words: the target command procedure is invoked directly, without  Changes to doc/join.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: join.n,v 1.6 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH join n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME join \- Create a string by joining together list elements .SH SYNOPSIS \fBjoin \fIlist \fR?\fIjoinString\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fIlist\fR argument must be a valid Tcl list. This command returns the string formed by joining all of the elements of \fIlist\fR together with \fIjoinString\fR separating each adjacent pair of elements. The \fIjoinString\fR argument defaults to a space character. .SH EXAMPLES Making a comma-separated list: .CS .ta 2i set data {1 2 3 4 5} \fBjoin\fR data ", " \fB\(->\fI 1, 2, 3, 4, 5\fR .CE .PP Using \fBjoin\fR to flatten a list by a single level: .CS .ta 2i set data {1 {2 3} 4 {5 {6 7} 8}} \fBjoin\fR data \fB\(->\fI 1 2 3 4 5 {6 7} 8\fR .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), split(n) .SH KEYWORDS element, join, list, separator   | > < | < | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: join.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH join n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME join \- Create a string by joining together list elements .SH SYNOPSIS \fBjoin \fIlist \fR?\fIjoinString\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fIlist\fR argument must be a valid Tcl list. This command returns the string formed by joining all of the elements of \fIlist\fR together with \fIjoinString\fR separating each adjacent pair of elements. The \fIjoinString\fR argument defaults to a space character. .SH EXAMPLES Making a comma-separated list: .CS set data {1 2 3 4 5} \fBjoin\fR data ", " \fB=> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5\fR .CE .PP Using \fBjoin\fR to flatten a list by a single level: .CS set data {1 {2 3} 4 {5 {6 7} 8}} \fBjoin\fR data \fB=> 1 2 3 4 5 {6 7} 8\fR .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), split(n) .SH KEYWORDS element, join, list, separator  Changes to doc/lappend.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lappend.n,v 1.12 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lappend n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lappend \- Append list elements onto a variable ................................................................................ and appends each of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to that list as a separate element, with spaces between elements. If \fIvarName\fR doesn't exist, it is created as a list with elements given by the \fIvalue\fR arguments. \fBLappend\fR is similar to \fBappend\fR except that the \fIvalue\fRs are appended as list elements rather than raw text. This command provides a relatively efficient way to build up large lists. For example, .QW "\fBlappend a b\fR" is much more efficient than .QW "\fBset a [concat a [list b]]\fR" , especially when \fBa\fR is long. .SH EXAMPLE Using \fBlappend\fR to build up a list of numbers. .CS % set var 1 1 % \fBlappend\fR var 2 1 2   | | < < | |  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lappend.n,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lappend n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lappend \- Append list elements onto a variable ................................................................................ and appends each of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to that list as a separate element, with spaces between elements. If \fIvarName\fR doesn't exist, it is created as a list with elements given by the \fIvalue\fR arguments. \fBLappend\fR is similar to \fBappend\fR except that the \fIvalue\fRs are appended as list elements rather than raw text. This command provides a relatively efficient way to build up large lists. For example, \fBlappend a b\fR'' is much more efficient than \fBset a [concat a [list b]]\fR'' when \fBa\fR is long. .SH EXAMPLE Using \fBlappend\fR to build up a list of numbers. .CS % set var 1 1 % \fBlappend\fR var 2 1 2  Changes to doc/lassign.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 Karl Lehenbauer & Mark Diekhans '\" Copyright (c) 2004 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lassign.n,v 1.2 2007/10/25 09:31:52 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lassign n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lassign \- Assign list elements to variables .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlassign \fIlist varName \fR?\fIvarName ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command treats the value \fIlist\fR as a list and assigns successive elements from that list to the variables given by the \fIvarName\fR arguments in order. If there are more variable names than list elements, the remaining variables are set to the empty string. If there are more list elements than variables, a list of unassigned elements is returned. .SH EXAMPLES An illustration of how multiple assignment works, and what happens when there are either too few or too many elements. .CS .ta 2.5i lassign {a b c} x y z \fB\(->\fI Empty return\fR puts x \fB\(->\fI Prints "a"\fR puts y \fB\(->\fI Prints "b"\fR puts z \fB\(->\fI Prints "c"\fR lassign {d e} x y z \fB\(->\fI Empty return\fR puts x \fB\(->\fI Prints "d"\fR puts y \fB\(->\fI Prints "e"\fR puts z \fB\(->\fI Prints ""\fR lassign {f g h i} x y \fB\(->\fI Returns "h i"\fR puts x \fB\(->\fI Prints "f"\fR puts y \fB\(->\fI Prints "g"\fR .CE .PP The \fBlassign\fR command has other uses. It can be used to create the analogue of the .QW shift command in many shell languages like this: .CS set ::argv [lassign ::argv argumentToReadOff] .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" lindex(n), list(n), lset(n), set(n) .SH KEYWORDS assign, element, list, multiple, set, variable   | > < | > | | < | > | | < | > | < < < < | >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 Karl Lehenbauer & Mark Diekhans '\" Copyright (c) 2004 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lassign.n,v 1.3 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lassign n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lassign \- Assign list elements to variables .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlassign \fIlist varName \fR?\fIvarName ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command treats the value \fIlist\fR as a list and assigns successive elements from that list to the variables given by the \fIvarName\fR arguments in order. If there are more variable names than list elements, the remaining variables are set to the empty string. If there are more list elements than variables, a list of unassigned elements is returned. .SH EXAMPLES An illustration of how multiple assignment works, and what happens when there are either too few or too many elements. .CS lassign {a b c} x y z ;# Empty return puts x ;# Prints "a" puts y ;# Prints "b" puts z ;# Prints "c" lassign {d e} x y z ;# Empty return puts x ;# Prints "d" puts y ;# Prints "e" puts z ;# Prints "" lassign {f g h i} x y ;# Returns "h i" puts x ;# Prints "f" puts y ;# Prints "g" .CE The \fBlassign\fR command has other uses. It can be used to create the analogue of the "shift" command in many shell languages like this: .CS set ::argv [lassign ::argv argumentToReadOff] .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" lindex(n), list(n), lset(n), set(n) .SH KEYWORDS assign, element, list, multiple, set, variable  Changes to doc/library.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 ... 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 ... 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 ... 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 ... 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 ... 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1991-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: library.n,v 1.19 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  .so man.macros .TH library n "8.0" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME auto_execok, auto_import, auto_load, auto_mkindex, auto_mkindex_old, auto_qualify, auto_reset, tcl_findLibrary, parray, tcl_endOfWord, tcl_startOfNextWord, tcl_startOfPreviousWord, tcl_wordBreakAfter, tcl_wordBreakBefore \- standard library of Tcl procedures .SH SYNOPSIS .nf ................................................................................ \fBsource [file join [info library] init.tcl]\fR .CE If the library procedure \fBTcl_Init\fR is invoked from an application's \fBTcl_AppInit\fR procedure, this happens automatically. The code in \fBinit.tcl\fR will define the \fBunknown\fR procedure and arrange for the other procedures to be loaded on-demand using the auto-load mechanism defined below. .SH "COMMAND PROCEDURES" .PP The following procedures are provided in the Tcl library: .TP \fBauto_execok \fIcmd\fR Determines whether there is an executable file or shell builtin by the name \fIcmd\fR. If so, it returns a list of arguments to be ................................................................................ \fBAuto_mkindex_old\fR parses the Tcl scripts in a relatively unsophisticated way: if any line contains the word \fBproc\fR as its first characters then it is assumed to be a procedure definition and the next word of the line is taken as the procedure's name. Procedure definitions that don't appear in this way (e.g. they have spaces before the \fBproc\fR) will not be indexed. If your script contains .QW dangerous code, such as global initialization code or procedure names with special characters like \fB\fR, \fB*\fR, \fB[\fR or \fB]\fR, you are safer using auto_mkindex_old. .RE .TP \fBauto_reset\fR Destroys all the information cached by \fBauto_execok\fR and \fBauto_load\fR. This information will be re-read from disk the next ................................................................................ .TP \fBtcl_findLibrary \fIbasename version patch initScript enVarName varName\fR This is a standard search procedure for use by extensions during their initialization. They call this procedure to look for their script library in several standard directories. The last component of the name of the library directory is normally \fIbasenameversion\fR (e.g., tk8.0), but it might be .QW library when in the build hierarchies. The \fIinitScript\fR file will be sourced into the interpreter once it is found. The directory in which this file is found is stored into the global variable \fIvarName\fR. If this variable is already defined (e.g., by C code during application initialization) then no searching is done. Otherwise the search looks in these directories: the directory named by the environment variable \fIenVarName\fR; ................................................................................ .TP \fBtcl_wordBreakBefore \fIstr start\fR Returns the index of the first word boundary before the starting index \fIstart\fR in the string \fIstr\fR. Returns \-1 if there are no more boundaries before the starting point in the given string. The index returned refers to the second character of the pair that comprises a boundary. .SH "VARIABLES" .PP The following global variables are defined or used by the procedures in the Tcl library: .TP \fBauto_execs\fR Used by \fBauto_execok\fR to record information about whether ................................................................................ assigned to the \fBtcl_library\fR variable and therefore returned by the command \fBinfo library\fR). If this variable isn't set then a default value is used. .TP \fBenv(TCLLIBPATH)\fR If set, then it must contain a valid Tcl list giving directories to search during auto-load operations. Directories must be specified in Tcl format, using .QW / as the path separator, regardless of platform. This variable is only used when initializing the \fBauto_path\fR variable. .TP \fBtcl_nonwordchars\fR This variable contains a regular expression that is used by routines like \fBtcl_endOfWord\fR to identify whether a character is part of a word or not. If the pattern matches a character, the character is considered to be a non-word character. On Windows platforms, spaces, ................................................................................ \fBtcl_wordchars\fR This variable contains a regular expression that is used by routines like \fBtcl_endOfWord\fR to identify whether a character is part of a word or not. If the pattern matches a character, the character is considered to be a word character. On Windows platforms, words are comprised of any character that is not a space, tab, or newline. Under Unix, words are comprised of numbers, letters or underscores. .SH "SEE ALSO" info(n), re_syntax(n) .SH KEYWORDS auto-exec, auto-load, library, unknown, word, whitespace   | > < < | | < < > < < | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 ... 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 ... 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 ... 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 ... 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 ... 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1991-1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: library.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  .so man.macros .TH library n "8.0" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME auto_execok, auto_import, auto_load, auto_mkindex, auto_mkindex_old, auto_qualify, auto_reset, tcl_findLibrary, parray, tcl_endOfWord, tcl_startOfNextWord, tcl_startOfPreviousWord, tcl_wordBreakAfter, tcl_wordBreakBefore \- standard library of Tcl procedures .SH SYNOPSIS .nf ................................................................................ \fBsource [file join [info library] init.tcl]\fR .CE If the library procedure \fBTcl_Init\fR is invoked from an application's \fBTcl_AppInit\fR procedure, this happens automatically. The code in \fBinit.tcl\fR will define the \fBunknown\fR procedure and arrange for the other procedures to be loaded on-demand using the auto-load mechanism defined below. .SH "COMMAND PROCEDURES" .PP The following procedures are provided in the Tcl library: .TP \fBauto_execok \fIcmd\fR Determines whether there is an executable file or shell builtin by the name \fIcmd\fR. If so, it returns a list of arguments to be ................................................................................ \fBAuto_mkindex_old\fR parses the Tcl scripts in a relatively unsophisticated way: if any line contains the word \fBproc\fR as its first characters then it is assumed to be a procedure definition and the next word of the line is taken as the procedure's name. Procedure definitions that don't appear in this way (e.g. they have spaces before the \fBproc\fR) will not be indexed. If your script contains "dangerous" code, such as global initialization code or procedure names with special characters like \fB\fR, \fB*\fR, \fB[\fR or \fB]\fR, you are safer using auto_mkindex_old. .RE .TP \fBauto_reset\fR Destroys all the information cached by \fBauto_execok\fR and \fBauto_load\fR. This information will be re-read from disk the next ................................................................................ .TP \fBtcl_findLibrary \fIbasename version patch initScript enVarName varName\fR This is a standard search procedure for use by extensions during their initialization. They call this procedure to look for their script library in several standard directories. The last component of the name of the library directory is normally \fIbasenameversion\fR (e.g., tk8.0), but it might be "library" when in the build hierarchies. The \fIinitScript\fR file will be sourced into the interpreter once it is found. The directory in which this file is found is stored into the global variable \fIvarName\fR. If this variable is already defined (e.g., by C code during application initialization) then no searching is done. Otherwise the search looks in these directories: the directory named by the environment variable \fIenVarName\fR; ................................................................................ .TP \fBtcl_wordBreakBefore \fIstr start\fR Returns the index of the first word boundary before the starting index \fIstart\fR in the string \fIstr\fR. Returns \-1 if there are no more boundaries before the starting point in the given string. The index returned refers to the second character of the pair that comprises a boundary. .SH "VARIABLES" .PP The following global variables are defined or used by the procedures in the Tcl library: .TP \fBauto_execs\fR Used by \fBauto_execok\fR to record information about whether ................................................................................ assigned to the \fBtcl_library\fR variable and therefore returned by the command \fBinfo library\fR). If this variable isn't set then a default value is used. .TP \fBenv(TCLLIBPATH)\fR If set, then it must contain a valid Tcl list giving directories to search during auto-load operations. Directories must be specified in Tcl format, using "/" as the path separator, regardless of platform. This variable is only used when initializing the \fBauto_path\fR variable. .TP \fBtcl_nonwordchars\fR This variable contains a regular expression that is used by routines like \fBtcl_endOfWord\fR to identify whether a character is part of a word or not. If the pattern matches a character, the character is considered to be a non-word character. On Windows platforms, spaces, ................................................................................ \fBtcl_wordchars\fR This variable contains a regular expression that is used by routines like \fBtcl_endOfWord\fR to identify whether a character is part of a word or not. If the pattern matches a character, the character is considered to be a word character. On Windows platforms, words are comprised of any character that is not a space, tab, or newline. Under Unix, words are comprised of numbers, letters or underscores. .SH "SEE ALSO" info(n), re_syntax(n) .SH KEYWORDS auto-exec, auto-load, library, unknown, word, whitespace  Changes to doc/lindex.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 by Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lindex.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lindex n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lindex \- Retrieve an element from a list ................................................................................ lindex a {1 2 3} .CE is synonymous with .CS lindex [lindex [lindex a 1] 2] 3 .CE .SH EXAMPLES .PP Demonstrating how the index list system works. .CS .ta 5i \fBlindex\fR {a b c} \fB\(->\fI a b c\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} {} \fB\(->\fI a b c\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} 0 \fB\(->\fI a\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} 2 \fB\(->\fI c\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} end \fB\(->\fI c\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} end-1 \fB\(->\fI b\fR \fBlindex\fR {{a b c} {d e f} {g h i}} 2 1 \fB\(->\fI h\fR \fBlindex\fR {{a b c} {d e f} {g h i}} {2 1} \fB\(->\fI h\fR \fBlindex\fR {{{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}} 1 1 0 \fB\(->\fI g\fR \fBlindex\fR {{{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}} {1 1 0} \fB\(->\fI g\fR .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS element, index, list   | < < < | | | | | | | | | | >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 by Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lindex.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lindex n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lindex \- Retrieve an element from a list ................................................................................ lindex a {1 2 3} .CE is synonymous with .CS lindex [lindex [lindex a 1] 2] 3 .CE .SH EXAMPLES .CS \fBlindex\fR {a b c} \fI=> a b c\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} {} \fI=> a b c\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} 0 \fI=> a\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} 2 \fI=> c\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} end \fI=> c\fR \fBlindex\fR {a b c} end-1 \fI=> b\fR \fBlindex\fR {{a b c} {d e f} {g h i}} 2 1 \fI=> h\fR \fBlindex\fR {{a b c} {d e f} {g h i}} {2 1} \fI=> h\fR \fBlindex\fR {{{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}} 1 1 0 \fI=> g\fR \fBlindex\fR {{{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}} {1 1 0} \fI=> g\fR .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS element, index, list  Changes to doc/llength.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .. 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: llength.n,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH llength n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME llength \- Count the number of elements in a list .SH SYNOPSIS \fBllength \fIlist\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP Treats \fIlist\fR as a list and returns a decimal string giving the number of elements in it. .SH EXAMPLES The result is the number of elements: .CS % \fBllength\fR {a b c d e} 5 % \fBllength\fR {a b c} 3 ................................................................................ .CE .PP An empty list is not necessarily an empty string: .CS % set var { }; puts "[string length var],[\fBllength\fR var]" 1,0 .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), lsearch(n), lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n) .SH KEYWORDS element, list, length   | > > > >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 .. 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: llength.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH llength n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME llength \- Count the number of elements in a list .SH SYNOPSIS \fBllength \fIlist\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP Treats \fIlist\fR as a list and returns a decimal string giving the number of elements in it. .SH EXAMPLES The result is the number of elements: .CS % \fBllength\fR {a b c d e} 5 % \fBllength\fR {a b c} 3 ................................................................................ .CE .PP An empty list is not necessarily an empty string: .CS % set var { }; puts "[string length var],[\fBllength\fR var]" 1,0 .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), lsearch(n), lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n) .SH KEYWORDS element, list, length  Changes to doc/load.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: load.n,v 1.18 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH load n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME load \- Load machine code and initialize new commands ................................................................................ package by that name, and uses it if it is found. If several different files have been \fBload\fRed with different versions of the package, Tcl picks the file that was loaded first. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .TP \fBWindows\fR\0\0\0\0\0 . When a load fails with a .QW "library not found" error, it is also possible that a dependent library was not found. To see the dependent libraries, type .QW "dumpbin -imports " in a DOS console to see what the library must import. When loading a DLL in the current directory, Windows will ignore .QW ./ as a path specifier and use a search heuristic to find the DLL instead. To avoid this, load the DLL with: .CS \fBload\fR [file join [pwd] mylib.DLL] .CE .SH BUGS .PP If the same file is \fBload\fRed by different \fIfileName\fRs, it will   | | < | < | | | < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: load.n,v 1.19 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH load n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME load \- Load machine code and initialize new commands ................................................................................ package by that name, and uses it if it is found. If several different files have been \fBload\fRed with different versions of the package, Tcl picks the file that was loaded first. .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .TP \fBWindows\fR\0\0\0\0\0 . When a load fails with "library not found" error, it is also possible that a dependent library was not found. To see the dependent libraries, type dumpbin -imports '' in a DOS console to see what the library must import. When loading a DLL in the current directory, Windows will ignore ./'' as a path specifier and use a search heuristic to find the DLL instead. To avoid this, load the DLL with: .CS \fBload\fR [file join [pwd] mylib.DLL] .CE .SH BUGS .PP If the same file is \fBload\fRed by different \fIfileName\fRs, it will  Changes to doc/lrange.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lrange.n,v 1.13 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lrange n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lrange \- Return one or more adjacent elements from a list ................................................................................ end of the list. .VE If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is treated as if it were zero. If \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the number of elements in the list, then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR. If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty string is returned. Note: .QW "\fBlrange \fIlist first first\fR" does not always produce the same result as .QW "\fBlindex \fIlist first\fR" (although it often does for simple fields that aren't enclosed in braces); it does, however, produce exactly the same results as .QW "\fBlist [lindex \fIlist first\fB]\fR" . .SH EXAMPLES Selecting the first two elements: .CS % \fBlrange\fR {a b c d e} 0 1 a b .CE .PP   | < | < | < | <  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lrange.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lrange n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lrange \- Return one or more adjacent elements from a list ................................................................................ end of the list. .VE If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is treated as if it were zero. If \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the number of elements in the list, then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR. If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty string is returned. Note: \fBlrange \fIlist first first\fR'' does not always produce the same result as \fBlindex \fIlist first\fR'' (although it often does for simple fields that aren't enclosed in braces); it does, however, produce exactly the same results as \fBlist [lindex \fIlist first\fB]\fR'' .SH EXAMPLES Selecting the first two elements: .CS % \fBlrange\fR {a b c d e} 0 1 a b .CE .PP  Changes to doc/lrepeat.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2003 by Simon Geard. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lrepeat.n,v 1.3 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lrepeat n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lrepeat \- Build a list by repeating elements .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlrepeat \fInumber element1 \fR?\fIelement2 element3 ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBlrepeat\fR command creates a list of size \fInumber\fR \(mu \fInumber of elements\fR by repeating \fInumber\fR times the sequence of elements \fIelement1 element2 ...\fR. The \fInumber\fR must be a positive integer, and each \fIelementN\fR can be any Tcl value. .PP Note that .QW "\fBlrepeat 1 arg ...\fR" is identical to .QW "\fBlist arg ...\fR" , though the \fIarg\fR is required with \fBlrepeat\fR. .SH EXAMPLES .CS .ta 3i lrepeat 3 a \fB\(->\fI a a a\fR lrepeat 3 [lrepeat 3 0] \fB\(->\fI {0 0 0} {0 0 0} {0 0 0}\fR lrepeat 3 a b c \fB\(->\fI a b c a b c a b c\fR lrepeat 3 [lrepeat 2 a] b c \fB\(->\fI {a a} b c {a a} b c {a a} b c\fR .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n) .SH KEYWORDS element, index, list   | | | | < < < | < | | < | | | |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2003 by Simon Geard. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lrepeat.n,v 1.4 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lrepeat n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lrepeat \- Build a list by repeating elements .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlrepeat \fInumber element1 \fR?\fIelement2 element3 ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBlrepeat\fR command creates a list of size \fInumber * number of elements\fR by repeating \fInumber\fR times the sequence of elements \fIelement1 element2 ...\fR. \fInumber\fR must be a positive integer, \fIelementn\fR can be any Tcl value. Note that \fBlrepeat 1 arg ...\fR is identical to \fBlist arg ...\fR, though the \fIarg\fR is required with \fBlrepeat\fR. .SH EXAMPLES .CS lrepeat 3 a => a a a lrepeat 3 [lrepeat 3 0] => {0 0 0} {0 0 0} {0 0 0} lrepeat 3 a b c => a b c a b c a b c lrepeat 3 [lrepeat 2 a] b c => {a a} b c {a a} b c {a a} b c .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n) .SH KEYWORDS element, index, list  Changes to doc/lreplace.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 .. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 .. 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lreplace.n,v 1.14 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lreplace n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lreplace \- Replace elements in a list with new elements .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlreplace \fIlist first last \fR?\fIelement element ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBlreplace\fR returns a new list formed by replacing one or more elements of \fIlist\fR with the \fIelement\fR arguments. .VS 8.5 \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are index values specifying the first and last elements of the range to replace. ................................................................................ the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR, supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the list. 0 refers to the first element of the list, and \fBend\fR refers to the last element of the list. If \fIlist\fR is empty, then \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are ignored. .VE .PP If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is considered to refer to the first element of the list. For non-empty lists, the element indicated by \fIfirst\fR must exist. .PP If \fIlast\fR is less than zero but greater than \fIfirst\fR, then any specified elements will be prepended to the list. If \fIlast\fR is less than \fIfirst\fR then no elements are deleted; the new elements are simply inserted before \fIfirst\fR. .PP The \fIelement\fR arguments specify zero or more new arguments to be added to the list in place of those that were deleted. Each \fIelement\fR argument will become a separate element of the list. If no \fIelement\fR arguments are specified, then the elements between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are simply deleted. If \fIlist\fR is empty, any \fIelement\fR arguments are added to the end of the list. .SH EXAMPLES ................................................................................ Deleting the last element from a list in a variable: .CS % set var {a b c d e} a b c d e % set var [\fBlreplace\fR var end end] a b c d .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), lset(n), lrange(n), lsort(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS element, list, replace   | > | | | > > >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 .. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 .. 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lreplace.n,v 1.15 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lreplace n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lreplace \- Replace elements in a list with new elements .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlreplace \fIlist first last \fR?\fIelement element ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fBlreplace\fR returns a new list formed by replacing one or more elements of \fIlist\fR with the \fIelement\fR arguments. .VS 8.5 \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are index values specifying the first and last elements of the range to replace. ................................................................................ the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR, supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the list. 0 refers to the first element of the list, and \fBend\fR refers to the last element of the list. If \fIlist\fR is empty, then \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are ignored. .VE If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is considered to refer to the first element of the list. For non-empty lists, the element indicated by \fIfirst\fR must exist. If \fIlast\fR is less than zero but greater than \fIfirst\fR, then any specified elements will be prepended to the list. If \fIlast\fR is less than \fIfirst\fR then no elements are deleted; the new elements are simply inserted before \fIfirst\fR. The \fIelement\fR arguments specify zero or more new arguments to be added to the list in place of those that were deleted. Each \fIelement\fR argument will become a separate element of the list. If no \fIelement\fR arguments are specified, then the elements between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are simply deleted. If \fIlist\fR is empty, any \fIelement\fR arguments are added to the end of the list. .SH EXAMPLES ................................................................................ Deleting the last element from a list in a variable: .CS % set var {a b c d e} a b c d e % set var [\fBlreplace\fR var end end] a b c d .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), lset(n), lrange(n), lsort(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS element, list, replace  Changes to doc/lreverse.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31  .\" -*- nroff -*- .\" Copyright (c) 2006 by Donal K. Fellows. All rights reserved. .\" .\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution .\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. .\" .\" RCS: @(#) Id: lreverse.n,v 1.3 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp  .\" .so man.macros .TH lreverse n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lreverse \- Reverse the order of a list .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlreverse \fIlist\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBlreverse\fR command returns a list that has the same elements as its input list, \fIlist\fR, except with the elements in the reverse order. .SH EXAMPLES .CS .ta 3i \fBlreverse\fR {a a b c} \fB\(->\fI c b a a\fR \fBlreverse\fR {a b {c d} e f} \fB\(->\fI f e {c d} b a\fR .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lsearch(n), lsort(n) .SH KEYWORDS element, list, reverse  | | | | | | | | | < | | >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31  '\" -*- nroff -*- '\" Copyright (c) 2006 by Donal K. Fellows. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lreverse.n,v 1.4 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lreverse n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lreverse \- Reverse the order of a list .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlreverse \fIlist\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBlreverse\fR command returns a list that has the same elements as its input list, \fIlist\fR, except with the elements in the reverse order. .SH EXAMPLES .CS \fBlreverse\fR {a a b c} => c b a a \fBlreverse\fR {a b {c d} e f} => f e {c d} b a .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lsearch(n), lsort(n) .SH KEYWORDS element, list, reverse  Changes to doc/lsearch.n.  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 .. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 .. 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211  '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Donal K. Fellows. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lsearch.n,v 1.28 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lsearch n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lsearch \- See if a list contains a particular element .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlsearch \fR?\fIoptions\fR? \fIlist pattern\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command searches the elements of \fIlist\fR to see if one of them matches \fIpattern\fR. If so, the command returns the index of the first matching element (unless the options \fB\-all\fR or \fB\-inline\fR are specified.) If not, the command returns \fB\-1\fR. The \fIoption\fR arguments ................................................................................ \fIpattern\fR and must have one of the values below: .SS "MATCHING STYLE OPTIONS" If all matching style options are omitted, the default matching style is \fB\-glob\fR. If more than one matching style is specified, the last matching style given takes precedence. .TP \fB\-exact\fR . \fIPattern\fR is a literal string that is compared for exact equality against each list element. .TP \fB\-glob\fR . \fIPattern\fR is a glob-style pattern which is matched against each list element using the same rules as the \fBstring match\fR command. .TP \fB\-regexp\fR . \fIPattern\fR is treated as a regular expression and matched against each list element using the rules described in the \fBre_syntax\fR reference page. .TP \fB\-sorted\fR . The list elements are in sorted order. If this option is specified, \fBlsearch\fR will use a more efficient searching algorithm to search \fIlist\fR. If no other options are specified, \fIlist\fR is assumed to be sorted in increasing order, and to contain ASCII strings. This option is mutually exclusive with \fB\-glob\fR and \fB\-regexp\fR, and is treated exactly like \fB-exact\fR when either \fB\-all\fR or \fB\-not\fR are specified. ................................................................................ . Changes the result to be the list of all matching indices (or all matching values if \fB\-inline\fR is specified as well.) If indices are returned, the indices will be in numeric order. If values are returned, the order of the values will be the order of those values within the input \fIlist\fR. .TP \fB\-inline\fR . The matching value is returned instead of its index (or an empty string if no value matches.) If \fB\-all\fR is also specified, then the result of the command is the list of all values that matched. .TP \fB\-not\fR . This negates the sense of the match, returning the index of the first non-matching value in the list. .TP \fB\-start\fR\0\fIindex\fR . The list is searched starting at position \fIindex\fR. .VS 8.5 The interpretation of the \fIindex\fR value is the same as for the command \fBstring index\fR, supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the list. .VE 8.5 .SS "CONTENTS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS" These options describe how to interpret the items in the list being searched. They are only meaningful when used with the \fB\-exact\fR and \fB\-sorted\fR options. If more than one is specified, the last one takes precedence. The default is \fB\-ascii\fR. .TP \fB\-ascii\fR . The list elements are to be examined as Unicode strings (the name is for backward-compatibility reasons.) .TP \fB\-dictionary\fR . The list elements are to be compared using dictionary-style comparisons (see \fBlsort\fR for a fuller description). Note that this only makes a meaningful difference from the \fB\-ascii\fR option when the \fB\-sorted\fR option is given, because values are only dictionary-equal when exactly equal. .TP \fB\-integer\fR . The list elements are to be compared as integers. .VS 8.5 .TP \fB\-nocase\fR . Causes comparisons to be handled in a case-insensitive manner. Has no effect if combined with the \fB\-dictionary\fR, \fB\-integer\fR, or \fB\-real\fR options. .VE 8.5 .TP \fB\-real\fR . The list elements are to be compared as floating-point values. .SS "SORTED LIST OPTIONS" These options (only meaningful with the \fB\-sorted\fR option) specify how the list is sorted. If more than one is given, the last one takes precedence. The default option is \fB\-increasing\fR. .TP \fB\-decreasing\fR . The list elements are sorted in decreasing order. This option is only meaningful when used with \fB\-sorted\fR. .TP \fB\-increasing\fR . The list elements are sorted in increasing order. This option is only meaningful when used with \fB\-sorted\fR. .SS "NESTED LIST OPTIONS" .VS 8.5 These options are used to search lists of lists. They may be used with any other options. .TP \fB\-index\fR\0\fIindexList\fR . This option is designed for use when searching within nested lists. The \fIindexList\fR argument gives a path of indices (much as might be used with the \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR commands) within each element to allow the location of the term being matched against. .TP \fB\-subindices\fR . If this option is given, the index result from this command (or every index result when \fB\-all\fR is also specified) will be a complete path (suitable for use with \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR) within the overall list to the term found. This option has no effect unless the \fI\-index\fR is also specified, and is just a convenience short-cut. .VE 8.5 .SH EXAMPLES Basic searching: .CS .ta 2i \fBlsearch\fR {a b c d e} c \fB\(->\fI 2\fR \fBlsearch\fR -all {a b c a b c} c \fB\(->\fI 2 5\fR .CE .PP Using \fBlsearch\fR to filter lists: .CS .ta 2i \fBlsearch\fR -inline {a20 b35 c47} b* \fB\(->\fI b35\fR \fBlsearch\fR -inline -not {a20 b35 c47} b* \fB\(->\fI a20\fR \fBlsearch\fR -all -inline -not {a20 b35 c47} b* \fB\(->\fI a20 c47\fR \fBlsearch\fR -all -not {a20 b35 c47} b* \fB\(->\fI 0 2\fR .CE This can even do a .QW set-like removal operation: .CS .ta 2i \fBlsearch\fR -all -inline -not -exact {a b c a d e a f g a} a \fB\(->\fI b c d e f g\fR .CE .PP Searching may start part-way through the list: .CS .ta 2i \fBlsearch\fR -start 3 {a b c a b c} c \fB\(->\fI 5\fR .CE .PP It is also possible to search inside elements: .CS .ta 2i \fBlsearch\fR -index 1 -all -inline {{a abc} {b bcd} {c cde}} *bc* \fB\(->\fI {a abc} {b bcd}\fR .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" foreach(n), list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS list, match, pattern, regular expression, search, string .\" Local Variables: .\" mode: nroff .\" End:   | > < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < > | < > < | | | | | < < < | < > < < > < > < | > > > > | | |  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 .. 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 .. 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193  '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Donal K. Fellows. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lsearch.n,v 1.29 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lsearch n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lsearch \- See if a list contains a particular element .SH SYNOPSIS \fBlsearch \fR?\fIoptions\fR? \fIlist pattern\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command searches the elements of \fIlist\fR to see if one of them matches \fIpattern\fR. If so, the command returns the index of the first matching element (unless the options \fB\-all\fR or \fB\-inline\fR are specified.) If not, the command returns \fB\-1\fR. The \fIoption\fR arguments ................................................................................ \fIpattern\fR and must have one of the values below: .SS "MATCHING STYLE OPTIONS" If all matching style options are omitted, the default matching style is \fB\-glob\fR. If more than one matching style is specified, the last matching style given takes precedence. .TP \fB\-exact\fR \fIPattern\fR is a literal string that is compared for exact equality against each list element. .TP \fB\-glob\fR \fIPattern\fR is a glob-style pattern which is matched against each list element using the same rules as the \fBstring match\fR command. .TP \fB\-regexp\fR \fIPattern\fR is treated as a regular expression and matched against each list element using the rules described in the \fBre_syntax\fR reference page. .TP \fB\-sorted\fR The list elements are in sorted order. If this option is specified, \fBlsearch\fR will use a more efficient searching algorithm to search \fIlist\fR. If no other options are specified, \fIlist\fR is assumed to be sorted in increasing order, and to contain ASCII strings. This option is mutually exclusive with \fB\-glob\fR and \fB\-regexp\fR, and is treated exactly like \fB-exact\fR when either \fB\-all\fR or \fB\-not\fR are specified. ................................................................................ . Changes the result to be the list of all matching indices (or all matching values if \fB\-inline\fR is specified as well.) If indices are returned, the indices will be in numeric order. If values are returned, the order of the values will be the order of those values within the input \fIlist\fR. .TP \fB\-inline\fR The matching value is returned instead of its index (or an empty string if no value matches.) If \fB\-all\fR is also specified, then the result of the command is the list of all values that matched. .TP \fB\-not\fR This negates the sense of the match, returning the index of the first non-matching value in the list. .TP \fB\-start\fR\0\fIindex\fR The list is searched starting at position \fIindex\fR. .VS 8.5 The interpretation of the \fIindex\fR value is the same as for the command \fBstring index\fR, supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the list. .VE 8.5 .SS "CONTENTS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS" These options describe how to interpret the items in the list being searched. They are only meaningful when used with the \fB\-exact\fR and \fB\-sorted\fR options. If more than one is specified, the last one takes precedence. The default is \fB\-ascii\fR. .TP \fB\-ascii\fR The list elements are to be examined as Unicode strings (the name is for backward-compatibility reasons.) .TP \fB\-dictionary\fR The list elements are to be compared using dictionary-style comparisons (see \fBlsort\fR for a fuller description). Note that this only makes a meaningful difference from the \fB\-ascii\fR option when the \fB\-sorted\fR option is given, because values are only dictionary-equal when exactly equal. .TP \fB\-integer\fR The list elements are to be compared as integers. .VS 8.5 .TP \fB\-nocase\fR Causes comparisons to be handled in a case-insensitive manner. Has no effect if combined with the \fB\-dictionary\fR, \fB\-integer\fR, or \fB\-real\fR options. .VE 8.5 .TP \fB\-real\fR The list elements are to be compared as floating-point values. .SS "SORTED LIST OPTIONS" These options (only meaningful with the \fB\-sorted\fR option) specify how the list is sorted. If more than one is given, the last one takes precedence. The default option is \fB\-increasing\fR. .TP \fB\-decreasing\fR The list elements are sorted in decreasing order. This option is only meaningful when used with \fB\-sorted\fR. .TP \fB\-increasing\fR The list elements are sorted in increasing order. This option is only meaningful when used with \fB\-sorted\fR. .SS "NESTED LIST OPTIONS" .VS 8.5 These options are used to search lists of lists. They may be used with any other options. .TP \fB\-index\fR\0\fIindexList\fR This option is designed for use when searching within nested lists. The \fIindexList\fR argument gives a path of indices (much as might be used with the \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR commands) within each element to allow the location of the term being matched against. .TP \fB\-subindices\fR If this option is given, the index result from this command (or every index result when \fB\-all\fR is also specified) will be a complete path (suitable for use with \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR) within the overall list to the term found. This option has no effect unless the \fI\-index\fR is also specified, and is just a convenience short-cut. .VE 8.5 .SH EXAMPLES Basic searching: .CS \fBlsearch\fR {a b c d e} c => 2 \fBlsearch\fR -all {a b c a b c} c => 2 5 .CE Using \fBlsearch\fR to filter lists: .CS \fBlsearch\fR -inline {a20 b35 c47} b* => b35 \fBlsearch\fR -inline -not {a20 b35 c47} b* => a20 \fBlsearch\fR -all -inline -not {a20 b35 c47} b* => a20 c47 \fBlsearch\fR -all -not {a20 b35 c47} b* => 0 2 .CE This can even do a "set-like" removal operation: .CS \fBlsearch\fR -all -inline -not -exact {a b c a d e a f g a} a => b c d e f g .CE Searching may start part-way through the list: .CS \fBlsearch\fR -start 3 {a b c a b c} c => 5 .CE It is also possible to search inside elements: .CS \fBlsearch\fR -index 1 -all -inline {{a abc} {b bcd} {c cde}} *bc* => {a abc} {b bcd} .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" foreach(n), list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS list, match, pattern, regular expression, search, string '\" Local Variables: '\" mode: nroff '\" End:  Changes to doc/lset.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2001 by Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lset.n,v 1.11 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lset n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lset \- Change an element in a list ................................................................................ than or equal to zero. The integer appearing in each \fIindex\fR argument must be strictly less than the length of the corresponding list. In other words, the \fBlset\fR command cannot change the size of a list. If an index is outside the permitted range, an error is reported. .SH EXAMPLES In each of these examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is: .CS .ta 2i set x [list [list a b c] [list d e f] [list g h i]] \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} {g h i} .CE The indicated return value also becomes the new value of \fIx\fR (except in the last case, which is an error which leaves the value of \fIx\fR unchanged.) .CS .ta 2i lset x {j k l} \fB\(->\fR j k l lset x {} {j k l} \fB\(->\fR j k l lset x 0 j \fB\(->\fR j {d e f} {g h i} lset x 2 j \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} j lset x end j \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} j lset x end-1 j \fB\(->\fR {a b c} j {g h i} lset x 2 1 j \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} {g j i} lset x {2 1} j \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} {g j i} lset x {2 3} j \fB\(->\fR \fIlist index out of range\fR .CE In the following examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is: .CS .ta 2i set x [list [list [list a b] [list c d]] \e [list [list e f] [list g h]]] \fB\(->\fR {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}} .CE The indicated return value also becomes the new value of \fIx\fR. .CS .ta 2i lset x 1 1 0 j \fB\(->\fR {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {j h}} lset x {1 1 0} j \fB\(->\fR {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {j h}} .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS element, index, list, replace, set   | < | < | | | | | | | | | < | < | | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2001 by Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lset.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lset n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lset \- Change an element in a list ................................................................................ than or equal to zero. The integer appearing in each \fIindex\fR argument must be strictly less than the length of the corresponding list. In other words, the \fBlset\fR command cannot change the size of a list. If an index is outside the permitted range, an error is reported. .SH EXAMPLES In each of these examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is: .CS set x [list [list a b c] [list d e f] [list g h i]] => {a b c} {d e f} {g h i} .CE The indicated return value also becomes the new value of \fIx\fR (except in the last case, which is an error which leaves the value of \fIx\fR unchanged.) .CS lset x {j k l} => j k l lset x {} {j k l} => j k l lset x 0 j => j {d e f} {g h i} lset x 2 j => {a b c} {d e f} j lset x end j => {a b c} {d e f} j lset x end-1 j => {a b c} j {g h i} lset x 2 1 j => {a b c} {d e f} {g j i} lset x {2 1} j => {a b c} {d e f} {g j i} lset x {2 3} j => \fIlist index out of range\fR .CE In the following examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is: .CS set x [list [list [list a b] [list c d]] \e [list [list e f] [list g h]]] => {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}} .CE The indicated return value also becomes the new value of \fIx\fR. .CS lset x 1 1 0 j => {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {j h}} lset x {1 1 0} j => {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {j h}} .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS element, index, list, replace, set  Changes to doc/lsort.n.  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 .. 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76  '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lsort.n,v 1.23 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lsort n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lsort \- Sort the elements of a list ................................................................................ \fIcommand\fR with the two elements appended as additional arguments. The script should return an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero if the first element is to be considered less than, equal to, or greater than the second, respectively. .TP 20 \fB\-increasing\fR Sort the list in increasing order (i.e. .QW smallest items first). This is the default. .TP 20 \fB\-decreasing\fR Sort the list in decreasing order (i.e. .QW largest items first). .TP 20 \fB\-indices\fR .VS "8.5 (TIP#217)" Return a list of indices into \fIlist\fR in sorted order instead of the values themselves. .VE "8.5 (TIP#217)" .TP 20   | | < | | < <  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 .. 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73  '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: lsort.n,v 1.24 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH lsort n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME lsort \- Sort the elements of a list ................................................................................ \fIcommand\fR with the two elements appended as additional arguments. The script should return an integer less than, equal to, or greater than zero if the first element is to be considered less than, equal to, or greater than the second, respectively. .TP 20 \fB\-increasing\fR Sort the list in increasing order (smallest'' items first). This is the default. .TP 20 \fB\-decreasing\fR Sort the list in decreasing order (largest'' items first). .TP 20 \fB\-indices\fR .VS "8.5 (TIP#217)" Return a list of indices into \fIlist\fR in sorted order instead of the values themselves. .VE "8.5 (TIP#217)" .TP 20  Changes to doc/mathfunc.n.  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 ... 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 ... 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 ... 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: mathfunc.n,v 1.14 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH mathfunc n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Mathematical Functions" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME mathfunc \- Mathematical functions for Tcl expressions ................................................................................ .br \fB::tcl::mathfunc::wide\fR \fIarg\fR .sp .BE .SH "DESCRIPTION" .PP The \fBexpr\fR command handles mathematical functions of the form .QW \fBsin(x)\fR or .QW \fBatan2(y,x)\fR by converting them to calls of the form .QW "\fB[tcl::mathfunc::sin [expr {x}]]\fR" or .QW "\fB[tcl::mathfunc::atan2 [expr {y}] [expr {x}]]\fR" . A number of math functions are available by default within the namespace \fB::tcl::mathfunc\fR; these functions are also available for code apart from \fBexpr\fR, by invoking the given commands directly. .PP Tcl supports the following mathematical functions in expressions, all of which work solely with floating-point numbers unless otherwise noted: ................................................................................ \fBmin\fR \fBpow\fR \fBrand\fR \fBround\fR \fBsin\fR \fBsinh\fR \fBsqrt\fR \fBsrand\fR \fBtan\fR \fBtanh\fR \fBwide\fR .DE .PP .TP \fBabs(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the absolute value of \fIarg\fR. \fIArg\fR may be either integer or floating-point, and the result is returned in the same form. .TP \fBacos(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the arc cosine of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI0\fR,\fIpi\fR] radians. \fIArg\fR should be in the range [\fI-1\fR,\fI1\fR]. .TP \fBasin(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the arc sine of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI-pi/2\fR,\fIpi/2\fR] radians. \fIArg\fR should be in the range [\fI-1\fR,\fI1\fR]. .TP \fBatan(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the arc tangent of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI-pi/2\fR,\fIpi/2\fR] radians. .TP \fBatan2(\fIy, x\fB)\fR . Returns the arc tangent of \fIy\fR/\fIx\fR, in the range [\fI-pi\fR,\fIpi\fR] radians. \fIx\fR and \fIy\fR cannot both be 0. If \fIx\fR is greater than \fI0\fR, this is equivalent to \fBatan(\fIy/x\fB)\fR. .TP \fBbool(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Accepts any numeric value, or any string acceptable to \fBstring is boolean\fR, and returns the corresponding boolean value \fB0\fR or \fB1\fR. Non-zero numbers are true. Other numbers are false. Non-numeric strings produce boolean value in agreement with .QW "\fBstring is true\fR" and .QW "\fBstring is false\fR" . .TP \fBceil(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the smallest integral floating-point value (i.e. with a zero fractional part) not less than \fIarg\fR. The argument may be any numeric value. .TP \fBcos(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the cosine of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians. .TP \fBcosh(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the hyperbolic cosine of \fIarg\fR. If the result would cause an overflow, an error is returned. .TP \fBdouble(\fIarg\fB)\fR . The argument may be any numeric value, If \fIarg\fR is a floating-point value, returns \fIarg\fR, otherwise converts \fIarg\fR to floating-point and returns the converted value. May return \fBInf\fR or \fB-Inf\fR when the argument is a numeric value that exceeds the floating-point range. .TP \fBentier(\fIarg\fB)\fR ................................................................................ The argument may be any numeric value. The integer part of \fIarg\fR is determined and returned. The integer range returned by this function is unlimited, unlike functions \fBint()\fR and \fBwide()\fR which truncate their range to fit in particular storage widths. .VE 8.5 .TP \fBexp(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the exponential of \fIarg\fR, defined as \fIe\fR**\fIarg\fR. If the result would cause an overflow, an error is returned. .TP \fBfloor(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the largest integral floating-point value (i.e. with a zero fractional part) not greater than \fIarg\fR. The argument may be any numeric value. .TP \fBfmod(\fIx, y\fB)\fR . Returns the floating-point remainder of the division of \fIx\fR by \fIy\fR. If \fIy\fR is 0, an error is returned. .TP \fBhypot(\fIx, y\fB)\fR . Computes the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle .QW "\fBsqrt(\fIx\fR*\fIx\fR+\fIy\fR*\fIy\fB)\fR" . .TP \fBint(\fIarg\fB)\fR . The argument may be any numeric value. The integer part of \fIarg\fR is determined, and then the low order bits of that integer value up to the machine word size are returned as an integer value. For reference, the number of bytes in the machine word are stored in \fBtcl_platform(wordSize)\fR. .TP \fBisqrt(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Computes the integer part of the square root of \fIarg\fR. \fIArg\fR must be a positive value, either an integer or a floating point number. Unlike \fBsqrt\fR, which is limited to the precision of a floating point number, \fIisqrt\fR will return a result of arbitrary precision. .TP \fBlog(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the natural logarithm of \fIarg\fR. \fIArg\fR must be a positive value. .TP \fBlog10(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the base 10 logarithm of \fIarg\fR. \fIArg\fR must be a positive value. .TP \fBmax(\fIarg\fB, \fI...\fB)\fR . Accepts one or more numeric arguments. Returns the one argument with the greatest value. .TP \fBmin(\fIarg\fB, \fI...\fB)\fR . Accepts one or more numeric arguments. Returns the one argument with the least value. .TP \fBpow(\fIx, y\fB)\fR . Computes the value of \fIx\fR raised to the power \fIy\fR. If \fIx\fR is negative, \fIy\fR must be an integer value. .TP \fBrand()\fR . Returns a pseudo-random floating-point value in the range (\fI0\fR,\fI1\fR). The generator algorithm is a simple linear congruential generator that is not cryptographically secure. Each result from \fBrand\fR completely determines all future results from subsequent calls to \fBrand\fR, so \fBrand\fR should not be used to generate a sequence of secrets, such as one-time passwords. The seed of the generator is initialized from the internal clock of the machine or may be set with the \fBsrand\fR function. .TP \fBround(\fIarg\fB)\fR . If \fIarg\fR is an integer value, returns \fIarg\fR, otherwise converts \fIarg\fR to integer by rounding and returns the converted value. .TP \fBsin(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the sine of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians. .TP \fBsinh(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the hyperbolic sine of \fIarg\fR. If the result would cause an overflow, an error is returned. .TP \fBsqrt(\fIarg\fB)\fR . The argument may be any non-negative numeric value. Returns a floating-point value that is the square root of \fIarg\fR. May return \fBInf\fR when the argument is a numeric value that exceeds the square of the maximum value of the floating-point range. .TP \fBsrand(\fIarg\fB)\fR . The \fIarg\fR, which must be an integer, is used to reset the seed for the random number generator of \fBrand\fR. Returns the first random number (see \fBrand()\fR) from that seed. Each interpreter has its own seed. .TP \fBtan(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the tangent of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians. .TP \fBtanh(\fIarg\fB)\fR . Returns the hyperbolic tangent of \fIarg\fR. .TP \fBwide(\fIarg\fB)\fR . The argument may be any numeric value. The integer part of \fIarg\fR is determined, and then the low order 64 bits of that integer value are returned as an integer value. .PP In addition to these predefined functions, applications may define additional functions by using \fBproc\fR (or any other method, such as \fBinterp alias\fR or \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR) to define ................................................................................ new commands in the \fBtcl::mathfunc\fR namespace. In addition, an obsolete interface named \fBTcl_CreateMathFunc\fR() is available to extensions that are written in C. The latter interface is not recommended for new implementations. .SH "SEE ALSO" expr(n), namespace(n) .SH "COPYRIGHT" .nf Copyright \(co 1993 The Regents of the University of California. Copyright \(co 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated. Copyright \(co 2005, 2006 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. .fi   | < < < | | < | < < < < < < < | < < < < < < < < < < | < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < < | | | | |  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 ... 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 ... 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 ... 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: mathfunc.n,v 1.15 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH mathfunc n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Mathematical Functions" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME mathfunc \- Mathematical functions for Tcl expressions ................................................................................ .br \fB::tcl::mathfunc::wide\fR \fIarg\fR .sp .BE .SH "DESCRIPTION" .PP The \fBexpr\fR command handles mathematical functions of the form \fBsin(x)\fR or \fBatan2(y,x)\fR by converting them to calls of the form \fB[tcl::mathfunc::sin [expr {x}]]\fR or \fB[tcl::mathfunc::atan2 [expr {y}] [expr {x}]]\fR. A number of math functions are available by default within the namespace \fB::tcl::mathfunc\fR; these functions are also available for code apart from \fBexpr\fR, by invoking the given commands directly. .PP Tcl supports the following mathematical functions in expressions, all of which work solely with floating-point numbers unless otherwise noted: ................................................................................ \fBmin\fR \fBpow\fR \fBrand\fR \fBround\fR \fBsin\fR \fBsinh\fR \fBsqrt\fR \fBsrand\fR \fBtan\fR \fBtanh\fR \fBwide\fR .DE .PP .TP \fBabs(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the absolute value of \fIarg\fR. \fIArg\fR may be either integer or floating-point, and the result is returned in the same form. .TP \fBacos(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the arc cosine of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI0\fR,\fIpi\fR] radians. \fIArg\fR should be in the range [\fI-1\fR,\fI1\fR]. .TP \fBasin(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the arc sine of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI-pi/2\fR,\fIpi/2\fR] radians. \fIArg\fR should be in the range [\fI-1\fR,\fI1\fR]. .TP \fBatan(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the arc tangent of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI-pi/2\fR,\fIpi/2\fR] radians. .TP \fBatan2(\fIy, x\fB)\fR Returns the arc tangent of \fIy\fR/\fIx\fR, in the range [\fI-pi\fR,\fIpi\fR] radians. \fIx\fR and \fIy\fR cannot both be 0. If \fIx\fR is greater than \fI0\fR, this is equivalent to \fBatan(\fIy/x\fB)\fR. .TP \fBbool(\fIarg\fB)\fR Accepts any numeric value, or any string acceptable to \fBstring is boolean\fR, and returns the corresponding boolean value \fB0\fR or \fB1\fR. Non-zero numbers are true. Other numbers are false. Non-numeric strings produce boolean value in agreement with \fBstring is true\fR and \fBstring is false\fR. .TP \fBceil(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the smallest integral floating-point value (i.e. with a zero fractional part) not less than \fIarg\fR. The argument may be any numeric value. .TP \fBcos(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the cosine of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians. .TP \fBcosh(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the hyperbolic cosine of \fIarg\fR. If the result would cause an overflow, an error is returned. .TP \fBdouble(\fIarg\fB)\fR The argument may be any numeric value, If \fIarg\fR is a floating-point value, returns \fIarg\fR, otherwise converts \fIarg\fR to floating-point and returns the converted value. May return \fBInf\fR or \fB-Inf\fR when the argument is a numeric value that exceeds the floating-point range. .TP \fBentier(\fIarg\fB)\fR ................................................................................ The argument may be any numeric value. The integer part of \fIarg\fR is determined and returned. The integer range returned by this function is unlimited, unlike functions \fBint()\fR and \fBwide()\fR which truncate their range to fit in particular storage widths. .VE 8.5 .TP \fBexp(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the exponential of \fIarg\fR, defined as \fIe\fR**\fIarg\fR. If the result would cause an overflow, an error is returned. .TP \fBfloor(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the largest integral floating-point value (i.e. with a zero fractional part) not greater than \fIarg\fR. The argument may be any numeric value. .TP \fBfmod(\fIx, y\fB)\fR Returns the floating-point remainder of the division of \fIx\fR by \fIy\fR. If \fIy\fR is 0, an error is returned. .TP \fBhypot(\fIx, y\fB)\fR Computes the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle \fBsqrt(\fIx\fR*\fIx\fR+\fIy\fR*\fIy\fB)\fR. .TP \fBint(\fIarg\fB)\fR The argument may be any numeric value. The integer part of \fIarg\fR is determined, and then the low order bits of that integer value up to the machine word size are returned as an integer value. For reference, the number of bytes in the machine word are stored in \fBtcl_platform(wordSize)\fR. .TP \fBisqrt(\fIarg\fB)\fR Computes the integer part of the square root of \fIarg\fR. \fIArg\fR must be a positive value, either an integer or a floating point number. Unlike \fBsqrt\fR, which is limited to the precision of a floating point number, \fIisqrt\fR will return a result of arbitrary precision. .TP \fBlog(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the natural logarithm of \fIarg\fR. \fIArg\fR must be a positive value. .TP \fBlog10(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the base 10 logarithm of \fIarg\fR. \fIArg\fR must be a positive value. .TP \fBmax(\fIarg\fB, \fI...\fB)\fR Accepts one or more numeric arguments. Returns the one argument with the greatest value. .TP \fBmin(\fIarg\fB, \fI...\fB)\fR Accepts one or more numeric arguments. Returns the one argument with the least value. .TP \fBpow(\fIx, y\fB)\fR Computes the value of \fIx\fR raised to the power \fIy\fR. If \fIx\fR is negative, \fIy\fR must be an integer value. .TP \fBrand()\fR Returns a pseudo-random floating-point value in the range (\fI0\fR,\fI1\fR). The generator algorithm is a simple linear congruential generator that is not cryptographically secure. Each result from \fBrand\fR completely determines all future results from subsequent calls to \fBrand\fR, so \fBrand\fR should not be used to generate a sequence of secrets, such as one-time passwords. The seed of the generator is initialized from the internal clock of the machine or may be set with the \fBsrand\fR function. .TP \fBround(\fIarg\fB)\fR If \fIarg\fR is an integer value, returns \fIarg\fR, otherwise converts \fIarg\fR to integer by rounding and returns the converted value. .TP \fBsin(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the sine of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians. .TP \fBsinh(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the hyperbolic sine of \fIarg\fR. If the result would cause an overflow, an error is returned. .TP \fBsqrt(\fIarg\fB)\fR The argument may be any non-negative numeric value. Returns a floating-point value that is the square root of \fIarg\fR. May return \fBInf\fR when the argument is a numeric value that exceeds the square of the maximum value of the floating-point range. .TP \fBsrand(\fIarg\fB)\fR The \fIarg\fR, which must be an integer, is used to reset the seed for the random number generator of \fBrand\fR. Returns the first random number (see \fBrand()\fR) from that seed. Each interpreter has its own seed. .TP \fBtan(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the tangent of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians. .TP \fBtanh(\fIarg\fB)\fR Returns the hyperbolic tangent of \fIarg\fR. .TP \fBwide(\fIarg\fB)\fR The argument may be any numeric value. The integer part of \fIarg\fR is determined, and then the low order 64 bits of that integer value are returned as an integer value. .PP In addition to these predefined functions, applications may define additional functions by using \fBproc\fR (or any other method, such as \fBinterp alias\fR or \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR) to define ................................................................................ new commands in the \fBtcl::mathfunc\fR namespace. In addition, an obsolete interface named \fBTcl_CreateMathFunc\fR() is available to extensions that are written in C. The latter interface is not recommended for new implementations. .SH "SEE ALSO" expr(n), namespace(n) .SH "COPYRIGHT" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. .br Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated. .br Copyright (c) 2005, 2006 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>.  Changes to doc/mathop.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138  .\" -*- nroff -*- .\" Copyright (c) 2006 Donal K. Fellows. .\" .\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution .\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. .\" .\" RCS: @(#) Id: mathop.n,v 1.5 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  .\" .so man.macros .TH mathop n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Mathematical Operator Commands" .BS .\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME mathop \- Mathematical operators as Tcl commands ................................................................................ Returns the integral modulus of the first argument with respect to the second. Each \fInumber\fR must have an integral value. .TP \fB**\fR ?\fInumber\fR ...? . Returns the result of raising each value to the power of the result of recursively operating on the result of processing the following arguments, so .QW "\fB** 2 3 4\fR" is the same as .QW "\fB** 2 [** 3 4]\fR" . Each \fInumber\fR may be any numeric value, though the second number must not be fractional if the first is negative. If no arguments are given, the result will be one, and if only one argument is given, the result will be that argument. .TP \fB&\fR ?\fInumber\fR ...? . Returns the bit-wise AND of each of the arbitrarily many arguments. Each   | < < < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 ... 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135  .\" -*- nroff -*- .\" Copyright (c) 2006 Donal K. Fellows. .\" .\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution .\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. .\" .\" RCS: @(#) Id: mathop.n,v 1.6 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  .\" .so man.macros .TH mathop n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Mathematical Operator Commands" .BS .\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME mathop \- Mathematical operators as Tcl commands ................................................................................ Returns the integral modulus of the first argument with respect to the second. Each \fInumber\fR must have an integral value. .TP \fB**\fR ?\fInumber\fR ...? . Returns the result of raising each value to the power of the result of recursively operating on the result of processing the following arguments, so \fB** 2 3 4\fR is the same as \fB** 2 [** 3 4]\fR. Each \fInumber\fR may be any numeric value, though the second number must not be fractional if the first is negative. If no arguments are given, the result will be one, and if only one argument is given, the result will be that argument. .TP \fB&\fR ?\fInumber\fR ...? . Returns the bit-wise AND of each of the arbitrarily many arguments. Each  Changes to doc/memory.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 by Karl Lehenbauer and Mark Diekhans '\" Copyright (c) 2000 by Scriptics Corporation. '\" All rights reserved. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: memory.n,v 1.7 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH memory n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME memory \- Control Tcl memory debugging capabilities .SH SYNOPSIS \fBmemory \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBmemory\fR command gives the Tcl developer control of Tcl's memory debugging capabilities. The memory command has several suboptions, which are described below. It is only available when Tcl has been compiled with memory debugging enabled (when \fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR is defined at compile time), and after \fBTcl_InitMemory\fR has been called. .TP \fBmemory active\fR \fIfile\fR . Write a list of all currently allocated memory to the specified \fIfile\fR. .TP \fBmemory break_on_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR . After the \fIcount\fR allocations have been performed, \fBckalloc\fR outputs a message to this effect and that it is now attempting to enter the C debugger. Tcl will then issue a \fISIGINT\fR signal against itself. If you are running Tcl under a C debugger, it should then enter the debugger command mode. .TP \fBmemory info\fR . Returns a report containing the total allocations and frees since Tcl began, the current packets allocated (the current number of calls to \fBckalloc\fR not met by a corresponding call to \fBckfree\fR), the current bytes allocated, and the maximum number of packets and bytes allocated. .TP \fBmemory init \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR] . Turn on or off the pre-initialization of all allocated memory with bogus bytes. Useful for detecting the use of uninitialized values. .TP \fBmemory onexit\fR \fIfile\fR . Causes a list of all allocated memory to be written to the specified \fIfile\fR during the finalization of Tcl's memory subsystem. Useful for checking that memory is properly cleaned up during process exit. .TP \fBmemory tag\fR \fIstring\fR . Each packet of memory allocated by \fBckalloc\fR can have associated with it a string-valued tag. In the lists of allocated memory generated by \fBmemory active\fR and \fBmemory onexit\fR, the tag for each packet is printed along with other information about the packet. The \fBmemory tag\fR command sets the tag value for subsequent calls to \fBckalloc\fR to be \fIstring\fR. .TP \fBmemory trace \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR] . Turns memory tracing on or off. When memory tracing is on, every call to \fBckalloc\fR causes a line of trace information to be written to \fIstderr\fR, consisting of the word \fIckalloc\fR, followed by the address returned, the amount of memory allocated, and the C filename and line number of the code performing the allocation. For example: .RS .CS ckalloc 40e478 98 tclProc.c 1406 .CE Calls to \fBckfree\fR are traced in the same manner. .RE .TP \fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR . Enable memory tracing after \fIcount\fR \fBckalloc\fRs have been performed. For example, if you enter .QW "\fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc 100\fR" , . after the 100th call to \fBckalloc\fR, memory trace information will begin being displayed for all allocations and frees. Since there can be a lot of memory activity before a problem occurs, judicious use of this option can reduce the slowdown caused by tracing (and the amount of trace information produced), if you can identify a number of allocations that occur before the problem sets in. The current number of memory allocations that have occurred since Tcl started is printed on a guard zone failure. .TP \fBmemory validate \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR] . Turns memory validation on or off. When memory validation is enabled, on every call to \fBckalloc\fR or \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones are checked for every piece of memory currently in existence that was allocated by \fBckalloc\fR. This has a large performance impact and should only be used when overwrite problems are strongly suspected. The advantage of enabling memory validation is that a guard zone overwrite can be detected on the first call to \fBckalloc\fR or \fBckfree\fR after the overwrite occurred, rather than when the specific memory with the overwritten guard zone(s) is freed, which may occur long after the overwrite occurred. .SH "SEE ALSO" ckalloc(3), ckfree(3), Tcl_ValidateAllMemory(3), Tcl_DumpActiveMemory(3), TCL_MEM_DEBUG .SH KEYWORDS memory, debug   | > < < < | < < < | | < | < | < | < > < | >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 by Karl Lehenbauer and Mark Diekhans '\" Copyright (c) 2000 by Scriptics Corporation. '\" All rights reserved. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: memory.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH memory n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME memory \- Control Tcl memory debugging capabilities .SH SYNOPSIS \fBmemory \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBmemory\fR command gives the Tcl developer control of Tcl's memory debugging capabilities. The memory command has several suboptions, which are described below. It is only available when Tcl has been compiled with memory debugging enabled (when \fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR is defined at compile time), and after \fBTcl_InitMemory\fR has been called. .TP \fBmemory active\fR \fIfile\fR Write a list of all currently allocated memory to the specified \fIfile\fR. .TP \fBmemory break_on_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR After the \fIcount\fR allocations have been performed, \fBckalloc\fR outputs a message to this effect and that it is now attempting to enter the C debugger. Tcl will then issue a \fISIGINT\fR signal against itself. If you are running Tcl under a C debugger, it should then enter the debugger command mode. .TP \fBmemory info\fR Returns a report containing the total allocations and frees since Tcl began, the current packets allocated (the current number of calls to \fBckalloc\fR not met by a corresponding call to \fBckfree\fR), the current bytes allocated, and the maximum number of packets and bytes allocated. .TP \fB memory init [on|off]\fR Turn on or off the pre-initialization of all allocated memory with bogus bytes. Useful for detecting the use of uninitialized values. .TP \fBmemory onexit\fR \fIfile\fR Causes a list of all allocated memory to be written to the specified \fIfile\fR during the finalization of Tcl's memory subsystem. Useful for checking that memory is properly cleaned up during process exit. .TP \fBmemory tag\fR \fIstring\fR Each packet of memory allocated by \fBckalloc\fR can have associated with it a string-valued tag. In the lists of allocated memory generated by \fBmemory active\fR and \fBmemory onexit\fR, the tag for each packet is printed along with other information about the packet. The \fBmemory tag\fR command sets the tag value for subsequent calls to \fBckalloc\fR to be \fIstring\fR. .TP \fBmemory trace [on|off]\fR .br Turns memory tracing on or off. When memory tracing is on, every call to \fBckalloc\fR causes a line of trace information to be written to \fIstderr\fR, consisting of the word \fIckalloc\fR, followed by the address returned, the amount of memory allocated, and the C filename and line number of the code performing the allocation. For example: .RS .CS ckalloc 40e478 98 tclProc.c 1406 .CE Calls to \fBckfree\fR are traced in the same manner. .RE .TP \fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR Enable memory tracing after \fIcount\fR \fBckalloc\fR's have been performed. For example, if you enter \fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc 100\fR, after the 100th call to \fBckalloc\fR, memory trace information will begin being displayed for all allocations and frees. Since there can be a lot of memory activity before a problem occurs, judicious use of this option can reduce the slowdown caused by tracing (and the amount of trace information produced), if you can identify a number of allocations that occur before the problem sets in. The current number of memory allocations that have occurred since Tcl started is printed on a guard zone failure. .TP \fBmemory validate [on|off]\fR Turns memory validation on or off. When memory validation is enabled, on every call to \fBckalloc\fR or \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones are checked for every piece of memory currently in existence that was allocated by \fBckalloc\fR. This has a large performance impact and should only be used when overwrite problems are strongly suspected. The advantage of enabling memory validation is that a guard zone overwrite can be detected on the first call to \fBckalloc\fR or \fBckfree\fR after the overwrite occurred, rather than when the specific memory with the overwritten guard zone(s) is freed, which may occur long after the overwrite occurred. .SH "SEE ALSO" ckalloc, ckfree, Tcl_ValidateAllMemory, Tcl_DumpActiveMemory, TCL_MEM_DEBUG .SH KEYWORDS memory, debug  Changes to doc/msgcat.n.  29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 .. 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 ... 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 ... 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 ... 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 ... 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 ... 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335  .sp \fB::msgcat::mcset \fIlocale src-string \fR?\fItranslate-string\fR? .sp \fB::msgcat::mcmset \fIlocale src-trans-list\fR .sp \fB::msgcat::mcunknown \fIlocale src-string\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBmsgcat\fR package provides a set of functions that can be used to manage multi-lingual user interfaces. Text strings are defined in a .QW "message catalog" which is independent from the application, and which can be edited or localized without modifying the application source code. New languages or locales are provided by adding a new file to the message catalog. .PP Use of the message catalog is optional by any application or package, but is encouraged if the application or package ................................................................................ the user, based on the user's language specification. The list is ordered from most specific to least preference. The list is derived from the current locale set in msgcat by \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR, and cannot be set independently. For example, if the current locale is en_US_funky, then \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR .VS 1.4 returns .QW "\fBen_US_funky en_US en {}\fR" . .VE 1.4 .TP \fB::msgcat::mcload \fIdirname\fR Searches the specified directory for files that match the language specifications returned by \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR (note that these are all lowercase), extended by the file extension .QW .msg . Each matching file is read in order, assuming a UTF-8 encoding. The file contents are then evaluated as a Tcl script. This means that Unicode characters may be present in the message file either directly in their UTF-8 encoded form, or by use of the backslash-u quoting recognized by Tcl evaluation. The number of message files which matched the specification and were loaded is returned. .TP ................................................................................ for both. The function returns \fItranslate-string\fR. .TP \fB::msgcat::mcmset \fIlocale src-trans-list\fR Sets the translation for multiple source strings in \fIsrc-trans-list\fR in the specified \fIlocale\fR and the current namespace. \fIsrc-trans-list\fR must have an even number of elements and is in the form .QW "\fIsrc-string translate-string\fR ?\fIsrc-string translate-string ...\fR?}" . The \fB::msgcat::mcmset\fR command can be significantly faster than multiple invocations of \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR. The function returns the number of translations set. .TP \fB::msgcat::mcunknown \fIlocale src-string\fR This routine is called by \fB::msgcat::mc\fR in the case when a translation for \fIsrc-string\fR is not defined in the current locale. The default action is to return ................................................................................ to \fB::msgcat::mc\fR. .SH "LOCALE SPECIFICATION" .PP The locale is specified to \fBmsgcat\fR by a locale string passed to \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR. The locale string consists of a language code, an optional country code, and an optional system-specific code, each separated by .QW _ . The country and language codes are specified in standards ISO-639 and ISO-3166. For example, the locale .QW en specifies English and .QW en_US specifies U.S. English. .PP When the msgcat package is first loaded, the locale is initialized according to the user's environment. The variables \fBenv(LC_ALL)\fR, \fBenv(LC_MESSAGES)\fR, and \fBenv(LANG)\fR are examined in order. The first of them to have a non-empty value is used to determine the initial locale. The value is parsed according to the XPG4 pattern .CS ................................................................................ .CS language[_country][_modifier] .CE On Windows, if none of those environment variables is set, msgcat will attempt to extract locale information from the registry. If all these attempts to discover an initial locale from the user's environment fail, msgcat defaults to an initial locale of .QW C . .PP When a locale is specified by the user, a .QW "best match" search is performed during string translation. For example, if a user specifies .VS 1.4 en_GB_Funky, the locales .QW en_GB_Funky , .QW en_GB , .QW en and .MT (the empty string) .VE 1.4 are searched in order until a matching translation string is found. If no translation string is available, then \fB::msgcat::mcunknown\fR is called. .SH "NAMESPACES AND MESSAGE CATALOGS" .PP ................................................................................ hello from :: hello from ::foo .CE .PP When searching for a translation of a message, the message catalog will search first the current namespace, then the parent of the current namespace, and so on until the global namespace is reached. This allows child namespaces to .QW inherit messages from their parent namespace. .PP For example, executing (in the .QW en locale) the code .CS \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m1 ":: message1" \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m2 ":: message2" \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m3 ":: message3" namespace eval ::foo { \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m2 "::foo message2" \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m3 "::foo message3" ................................................................................ .PP Message files can be located in any directory, subject to the following conditions: .IP [1] All message files for a package are in the same directory. .IP [2] The message file name is a msgcat locale specifier (all lowercase) followed by .QW .msg . For example: .RS .CS es.msg -- spanish en_gb.msg -- United Kingdom English .CE .VS 1.4 \fIException:\fR The message file for the root locale .MT is called \fBROOT.msg\fR. This exception is made so as not to cause peculiar behavior, such as marking the message file as .QW hidden on Unix file systems. .VE 1.4 .RE .IP [3] The file contains a series of calls to \fBmcset\fR and \fBmcmset\fR, setting the necessary translation strings for the language, likely enclosed in a \fBnamespace eval\fR so that all source strings are tied to the namespace of the package. For example, a short \fBes.msg\fR might contain: .RS .CS namespace eval ::mypackage { \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR es "Free Beer!" "Cerveza Gracias!" } .CE .RE .SH "RECOMMENDED MESSAGE SETUP FOR PACKAGES" .PP If a package is installed into a subdirectory of the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR and loaded via \fBpackage require\fR, the following procedure is recommended. .IP [1] During package installation, create a subdirectory \fBmsgs\fR under your package directory. .IP [2] Copy your *.msg files into that directory. .IP [3] Add the following command to your package initialization script: .RS .CS # load language files, stored in msgs subdirectory \fB::msgcat::mcload\fR [file join [file dirname [info script]] msgs] .CE .RE .SH "POSITIONAL CODES FOR FORMAT AND SCAN COMMANDS" .PP It is possible that a message string used as an argument to \fBformat\fR might have positionally dependent parameters that might need to be repositioned. For example, it might be syntactically desirable to rearrange the sentence structure while translating. .CS format "We produced %d units in location %s" num city format "In location %s we produced %d units" city num .CE .PP This can be handled by using the positional parameters: .CS format "We produced %1\\d units in location %2\\s" num city format "In location %2\\s we produced %1\\d units" num city .CE .PP Similarly, positional parameters can be used with \fBscan\fR to extract values from internationalized strings. .PP \fINote:\fR for the specific case of formatting a string, you should take advantage of the fact that the \fB::msgcat::mc\fR command already passes its string through \fBformat\fR internally. .SH CREDITS .PP The message catalog code was developed by Mark Harrison. .SH "SEE ALSO" format(n), scan(n), namespace(n), package(n) .SH KEYWORDS internationalization, i18n, localization, l10n, message, text, translation   > | < | < | | < | < | | | < < | < < < | | < | < < | < < < < < | < | | < < < < | < | < | < | < < < | | < | > < < < < > >  29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 .. 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 ... 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 ... 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 ... 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 ... 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 ... 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306  .sp \fB::msgcat::mcset \fIlocale src-string \fR?\fItranslate-string\fR? .sp \fB::msgcat::mcmset \fIlocale src-trans-list\fR .sp \fB::msgcat::mcunknown \fIlocale src-string\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP The \fBmsgcat\fR package provides a set of functions that can be used to manage multi-lingual user interfaces. Text strings are defined in a message catalog'' which is independent from the application, and which can be edited or localized without modifying the application source code. New languages or locales are provided by adding a new file to the message catalog. .PP Use of the message catalog is optional by any application or package, but is encouraged if the application or package ................................................................................ the user, based on the user's language specification. The list is ordered from most specific to least preference. The list is derived from the current locale set in msgcat by \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR, and cannot be set independently. For example, if the current locale is en_US_funky, then \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR .VS 1.4 returns \fB{en_US_funky en_US en {}}\fR. .VE 1.4 .TP \fB::msgcat::mcload \fIdirname\fR Searches the specified directory for files that match the language specifications returned by \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR (note that these are all lowercase), extended by the file extension .msg''. Each matching file is read in order, assuming a UTF-8 encoding. The file contents are then evaluated as a Tcl script. This means that Unicode characters may be present in the message file either directly in their UTF-8 encoded form, or by use of the backslash-u quoting recognized by Tcl evaluation. The number of message files which matched the specification and were loaded is returned. .TP ................................................................................ for both. The function returns \fItranslate-string\fR. .TP \fB::msgcat::mcmset \fIlocale src-trans-list\fR Sets the translation for multiple source strings in \fIsrc-trans-list\fR in the specified \fIlocale\fR and the current namespace. \fIsrc-trans-list\fR must have an even number of elements and is in the form {\fIsrc-string translate-string\fR ?\fIsrc-string translate-string ...\fR?} \fB::msgcat::mcmset\fR can be significantly faster than multiple invocations of \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR. The function returns the number of translations set. .TP \fB::msgcat::mcunknown \fIlocale src-string\fR This routine is called by \fB::msgcat::mc\fR in the case when a translation for \fIsrc-string\fR is not defined in the current locale. The default action is to return ................................................................................ to \fB::msgcat::mc\fR. .SH "LOCALE SPECIFICATION" .PP The locale is specified to \fBmsgcat\fR by a locale string passed to \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR. The locale string consists of a language code, an optional country code, and an optional system-specific code, each separated by _''. The country and language codes are specified in standards ISO-639 and ISO-3166. For example, the locale en'' specifies English and en_US'' specifies U.S. English. .PP When the msgcat package is first loaded, the locale is initialized according to the user's environment. The variables \fBenv(LC_ALL)\fR, \fBenv(LC_MESSAGES)\fR, and \fBenv(LANG)\fR are examined in order. The first of them to have a non-empty value is used to determine the initial locale. The value is parsed according to the XPG4 pattern .CS ................................................................................ .CS language[_country][_modifier] .CE On Windows, if none of those environment variables is set, msgcat will attempt to extract locale information from the registry. If all these attempts to discover an initial locale from the user's environment fail, msgcat defaults to an initial locale of C''. .PP When a locale is specified by the user, a best match'' search is performed during string translation. For example, if a user specifies .VS 1.4 en_GB_Funky, the locales en_GB_Funky'', en_GB'', en'' and '' (the empty string) .VE 1.4 are searched in order until a matching translation string is found. If no translation string is available, then \fB::msgcat::mcunknown\fR is called. .SH "NAMESPACES AND MESSAGE CATALOGS" .PP ................................................................................ hello from :: hello from ::foo .CE .PP When searching for a translation of a message, the message catalog will search first the current namespace, then the parent of the current namespace, and so on until the global namespace is reached. This allows child namespaces to "inherit" messages from their parent namespace. .PP For example, executing (in the en'' locale) the code .CS \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m1 ":: message1" \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m2 ":: message2" \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m3 ":: message3" namespace eval ::foo { \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m2 "::foo message2" \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m3 "::foo message3" ................................................................................ .PP Message files can be located in any directory, subject to the following conditions: .IP [1] All message files for a package are in the same directory. .IP [2] The message file name is a msgcat locale specifier (all lowercase) followed by .msg''. For example: .CS es.msg -- spanish en_gb.msg -- United Kingdom English .CE .VS 1.4 \fIException:\fR The message file for the root locale '' is called \fBROOT.msg\fR. This exception is made so as not to cause peculiar behavior, such as marking the message file as hidden'' on Unix file systems. .VE 1.4 .IP [3] The file contains a series of calls to \fBmcset\fR and \fBmcmset\fR, setting the necessary translation strings for the language, likely enclosed in a \fBnamespace eval\fR so that all source strings are tied to the namespace of the package. For example, a short \fBes.msg\fR might contain: .CS namespace eval ::mypackage { \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR es "Free Beer!" "Cerveza Gracias!" } .CE .SH "RECOMMENDED MESSAGE SETUP FOR PACKAGES" .PP If a package is installed into a subdirectory of the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR and loaded via \fBpackage require\fR, the following procedure is recommended. .IP [1] During package installation, create a subdirectory \fBmsgs\fR under your package directory. .IP [2] Copy your *.msg files into that directory. .IP [3] Add the following command to your package initialization script: .CS # load language files, stored in msgs subdirectory \fB::msgcat::mcload\fR [file join [file dirname [info script]] msgs] .CE .SH "POSITIONAL CODES FOR FORMAT AND SCAN COMMANDS" .PP It is possible that a message string used as an argument to \fBformat\fR might have positionally dependent parameters that might need to be repositioned. For example, it might be syntactically desirable to rearrange the sentence structure while translating. .CS format "We produced %d units in location %s" num city format "In location %s we produced %d units" city num .CE .PP This can be handled by using the positional parameters: .CS format "We produced %1\\d units in location %2\\s" num city format "In location %2\\s we produced %1\\d units" num city .CE .PP Similarly, positional parameters can be used with \fBscan\fR to extract values from internationalized strings. .SH CREDITS .PP The message catalog code was developed by Mark Harrison. .SH "SEE ALSO" format(n), scan(n), namespace(n), package(n) .SH KEYWORDS internationalization, i18n, localization, l10n, message, text, translation  Changes to doc/namespace.n.  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 .. 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 ... 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 ... 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 ... 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840  '\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" Copyright (c) 2004-2005 Donal K. Fellows. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: namespace.n,v 1.22 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH namespace n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME namespace \- create and manipulate contexts for commands and variables .SH SYNOPSIS \fBnamespace \fR?\fIoption\fR? ?\fIarg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION ................................................................................ The new script has two important properties. First, it can be evaluated in any namespace and will cause \fIscript\fR to be evaluated in the current namespace (the one where the \fBnamespace code\fR command was invoked). Second, additional arguments can be appended to the resulting script and they will be passed to \fIscript\fR as additional arguments. For example, suppose the command .QW "\fBset script [namespace code {foo bar}]\fR" is invoked in namespace \fB::a::b\fR. Then .QW \fBeval\0"script\0x\0y"\fR can be executed in any namespace (assuming the value of \fBscript\fR has been passed in properly) and will have the same effect as the command \fB::namespace eval ::a::b {foo bar x y}\fR. This command is needed because extensions like Tk normally execute callback scripts in the global namespace. ................................................................................ A scoped command captures a command together with its namespace context in a way that allows it to be executed properly later. See the section \fBSCOPED SCRIPTS\fR for some examples of how this is used to create callback scripts. .TP \fBnamespace current\fR Returns the fully-qualified name for the current namespace. The actual name of the global namespace is .MT (i.e., an empty string), but this command returns \fB::\fR for the global namespace as a convenience to programmers. .TP \fBnamespace delete \fR?\fInamespace namespace ...\fR? Each namespace \fInamespace\fR is deleted and all variables, procedures, and child namespaces ................................................................................ \fBnamespace parent\fR ?\fInamespace\fR? Returns the fully-qualified name of the parent namespace for namespace \fInamespace\fR. If \fInamespace\fR is not specified, the fully-qualified name of the current namespace's parent is returned. .TP \fBnamespace path\fR ?\fInamespaceList\fR? .\" Should really have the .TP inside the .VS, but that triggers a groff bug .VS 8.5 Returns the command resolution path of the current namespace. If \fInamespaceList\fR is specified as a list of named namespaces, the current namespace's command resolution path is set to those namespaces and returns the empty list. The default command resolution path is always empty. See the section \fBNAME RESOLUTION\fR below for an explanation of the rules regarding name resolution. ................................................................................ Since namespaces may nest, qualified names are used to refer to commands, variables, and child namespaces contained inside namespaces. Qualified names are similar to the hierarchical path names for Unix files or Tk widgets, except that \fB::\fR is used as the separator instead of \fB/\fR or \fB.\fR. The topmost or global namespace has the name .MT (i.e., an empty string), although \fB::\fR is a synonym. As an example, the name \fB::safe::interp::create\fR refers to the command \fBcreate\fR in the namespace \fBinterp\fR that is a child of namespace \fB::safe\fR, which in turn is a child of the global namespace, \fB::\fR. .PP If you want to access commands and variables from another namespace, you must use some extra syntax. ................................................................................ foobar grill .CE .PP Look up where the command imported in the previous example came from: .CS puts "grill came from [\fBnamespace origin\fR grill]" .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" interp(n), upvar(n), variable(n) .SH KEYWORDS command, ensemble, exported, internal, variable   | | | | < | < | | < | > >  3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 .. 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 ... 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 ... 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 ... 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839  '\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" Copyright (c) 2004-2005 Donal K. Fellows. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: namespace.n,v 1.23 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH namespace n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME namespace \- create and manipulate contexts for commands and variables .SH SYNOPSIS \fBnamespace \fR?\fIoption\fR? ?\fIarg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION ................................................................................ The new script has two important properties. First, it can be evaluated in any namespace and will cause \fIscript\fR to be evaluated in the current namespace (the one where the \fBnamespace code\fR command was invoked). Second, additional arguments can be appended to the resulting script and they will be passed to \fIscript\fR as additional arguments. For example, suppose the command \fBset script [namespace code {foo bar}]\fR is invoked in namespace \fB::a::b\fR. Then \fBeval "script x y"\fR can be executed in any namespace (assuming the value of \fBscript\fR has been passed in properly) and will have the same effect as the command \fB::namespace eval ::a::b {foo bar x y}\fR. This command is needed because extensions like Tk normally execute callback scripts in the global namespace. ................................................................................ A scoped command captures a command together with its namespace context in a way that allows it to be executed properly later. See the section \fBSCOPED SCRIPTS\fR for some examples of how this is used to create callback scripts. .TP \fBnamespace current\fR Returns the fully-qualified name for the current namespace. The actual name of the global namespace is '' (i.e., an empty string), but this command returns \fB::\fR for the global namespace as a convenience to programmers. .TP \fBnamespace delete \fR?\fInamespace namespace ...\fR? Each namespace \fInamespace\fR is deleted and all variables, procedures, and child namespaces ................................................................................ \fBnamespace parent\fR ?\fInamespace\fR? Returns the fully-qualified name of the parent namespace for namespace \fInamespace\fR. If \fInamespace\fR is not specified, the fully-qualified name of the current namespace's parent is returned. .TP \fBnamespace path\fR ?\fInamespaceList\fR? '\" Should really have the .TP inside the .VS, but that triggers a groff bug .VS 8.5 Returns the command resolution path of the current namespace. If \fInamespaceList\fR is specified as a list of named namespaces, the current namespace's command resolution path is set to those namespaces and returns the empty list. The default command resolution path is always empty. See the section \fBNAME RESOLUTION\fR below for an explanation of the rules regarding name resolution. ................................................................................ Since namespaces may nest, qualified names are used to refer to commands, variables, and child namespaces contained inside namespaces. Qualified names are similar to the hierarchical path names for Unix files or Tk widgets, except that \fB::\fR is used as the separator instead of \fB/\fR or \fB.\fR. The topmost or global namespace has the name '' (i.e., an empty string), although \fB::\fR is a synonym. As an example, the name \fB::safe::interp::create\fR refers to the command \fBcreate\fR in the namespace \fBinterp\fR that is a child of namespace \fB::safe\fR, which in turn is a child of the global namespace, \fB::\fR. .PP If you want to access commands and variables from another namespace, you must use some extra syntax. ................................................................................ foobar grill .CE .PP Look up where the command imported in the previous example came from: .CS puts "grill came from [\fBnamespace origin\fR grill]" .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" interp(n), upvar(n), variable(n) .SH KEYWORDS command, ensemble, exported, internal, variable  Changes to doc/open.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 .. 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 .. 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 ... 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 ... 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 ... 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 ... 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 ... 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 ... 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: open.n,v 1.29 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH open n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME open \- Open a file-based or command pipeline channel .SH SYNOPSIS .sp \fBopen \fIfileName\fR .br \fBopen \fIfileName access\fR ................................................................................ create a new empty file. Set the initial access position to the end of the file. .VS 8.5 .PP All of the legal \fIaccess\fR values above may have the character \fBb\fR added as the second or third character in the value to indicate that the opened channel should be configured with the \fB\-translation binary\fR option, making the channel suitable for reading or writing of binary data. .VE 8.5 .PP In the second form, \fIaccess\fR consists of a list of any of the following flags, all of which have the standard POSIX meanings. One of the flags must be either \fBRDONLY\fR, \fBWRONLY\fR or \fBRDWR\fR. .TP 15 ................................................................................ Open the file for both reading and writing. .TP 15 \fBAPPEND\fR Set the file pointer to the end of the file prior to each write. .VS 8.5 .TP 15 \fBBINARY\fR Configure the opened channel with the \fB\-translation binary\fR option. .VE 8.5 .TP 15 \fBCREAT\fR Create the file if it doesn't already exist (without this flag it is an error for the file not to exist). .TP 15 \fBEXCL\fR ................................................................................ \fBTRUNC\fR If the file exists it is truncated to zero length. .PP If a new file is created as part of opening it, \fIpermissions\fR (an integer) is used to set the permissions for the new file in conjunction with the process's file mode creation mask. \fIPermissions\fR defaults to 0666. .SH "COMMAND PIPELINES" .PP If the first character of \fIfileName\fR is .QW | then the remaining characters of \fIfileName\fR are treated as a list of arguments that describe a command pipeline to invoke, in the same style as the arguments for \fBexec\fR. In this case, the channel identifier returned by \fBopen\fR may be used to write to the command's input pipe or read from its output pipe, depending on the value of \fIaccess\fR. If write-only access is used (e.g. \fIaccess\fR is \fBw\fR), then standard output for the pipeline is directed to the current standard output unless overridden by the command. ................................................................................ configuration options specific to serial ports (where supported): .TP \fB\-mode\fR \fIbaud\fB,\fIparity\fB,\fIdata\fB,\fIstop\fR This option is a set of 4 comma-separated values: the baud rate, parity, number of data bits, and number of stop bits for this serial port. The \fIbaud\fR rate is a simple integer that specifies the connection speed. \fIParity\fR is one of the following letters: \fBn\fR, \fBo\fR, \fBe\fR, \fBm\fR, \fBs\fR; respectively signifying the parity options of .QW none , .QW odd , .QW even , .QW mark , or .QW space . \fIData\fR is the number of data bits and should be an integer from 5 to 8, while \fIstop\fR is the number of stop bits and should be the integer 1 or 2. .TP \fB\-handshake\fR \fItype\fR (Windows and Unix). This option is used to setup automatic handshake control. Note that not all handshake types maybe supported by your operating system. The \fItype\fR parameter is case-independent. .sp If \fItype\fR is \fBnone\fR then any handshake is switched off. \fBrtscts\fR activates hardware handshake. Hardware handshake signals are described below. For software handshake \fBxonxoff\fR the handshake characters can be redefined with \fB\-xchar\fR. An additional hardware handshake \fBdtrdsr\fR is available only under Windows. There is no default handshake configuration, the initial value depends on your operating system settings. The \fB\-handshake\fR option cannot be queried. .TP \fB\-queue\fR (Windows and Unix). The \fB\-queue\fR option can only be queried. It returns a list of two integers representing the current number of bytes in the input and output queue respectively. .TP \fB\-timeout\fR \fImsec\fR (Windows and Unix). This option is used to set the timeout for blocking read operations. It specifies the maximum interval between the reception of two bytes in milliseconds. For Unix systems the granularity is 100 milliseconds. The \fB\-timeout\fR option does not affect write operations or nonblocking reads. This option cannot be queried. .TP \fB\-ttycontrol\fR \fI{signal boolean signal boolean ...}\fR (Windows and Unix). This option is used to setup the handshake output lines (see below) permanently or to send a BREAK over the serial line. The \fIsignal\fR names are case-independent. \fB{RTS 1 DTR 0}\fR sets the RTS output to high and the DTR output to low. The BREAK condition (see below) is enabled and disabled with \fB{BREAK 1}\fR and \fB{BREAK 0}\fR respectively. It's not a good idea to change the \fBRTS\fR (or \fBDTR\fR) signal with active hardware handshake \fBrtscts\fR (or \fBdtrdsr\fR). The result is unpredictable. The \fB\-ttycontrol\fR option cannot be queried. .TP \fB\-ttystatus\fR (Windows and Unix). The \fB\-ttystatus\fR option can only be queried. It returns the current modem status and handshake input signals (see below). The result is a list of signal,value pairs with a fixed order, e.g. \fB{CTS 1 DSR 0 RING 1 DCD 0}\fR. The \fIsignal\fR names are returned upper case. .TP \fB\-xchar\fR \fI{xonChar xoffChar}\fR ................................................................................ .TP \fB\-lasterror\fR (Windows only). This option is query only. In case of a serial communication error, \fBread\fR or \fBputs\fR returns a general Tcl file I/O error. \fBfconfigure -lasterror\fR can be called to get a list of error details. See below for an explanation of the various error codes. .SH "SERIAL PORT SIGNALS" .PP RS-232 is the most commonly used standard electrical interface for serial communications. A negative voltage (-3V..-12V) define a mark (on=1) bit and a positive voltage (+3..+12V) define a space (off=0) bit (RS-232C). The following signals are specified for incoming and outgoing data, status lines and handshaking. Here we are using the terms \fIworkstation\fR for ................................................................................ \fBData Terminal Ready:\fR This signal tells the modem that the workstation is ready to establish a link. DTR is often enabled automatically whenever a serial port is opened. .IP \fBDSR(input)\fR \fBData Set Ready:\fR The complement to DTR. Tells the workstation that the modem is ready to establish a link. .IP \fBDCD(input)\fR \fBData Carrier Detect:\fR This line becomes active when a modem detects a .QW Carrier signal. .IP \fBRI(input)\fR \fBRing Indicator:\fR Goes active when the modem detects an incoming call. .IP \fBBREAK\fR A BREAK condition is not a hardware signal line, but a logical zero on the TXD or RXD lines for a long period of time, usually 250 to 500 milliseconds. Normally a receive or transmit data signal stays at the mark (on=1) voltage until the next character is transferred. A BREAK is sometimes used to reset the communications line or change the operating mode of communications hardware. .SH "ERROR CODES (Windows only)" .PP A lot of different errors may occur during serial read operations or during event polling in background. The external device may have been switched off, the data lines may be noisy, system buffers may overrun or your mode settings may be wrong. That's why a reliable software should always \fBcatch\fR serial read operations. In cases of an error Tcl returns a ................................................................................ \fBFRAME\fR A stop-bit error has been detected by your UART. Wrong mode settings with \fBfconfigure -mode\fR or a noisy data line (RXD) may cause this error. .TP 10 \fBBREAK\fR A BREAK condition has been detected by your UART (see above). .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .TP \fBWindows \fR(all versions) . Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are of the form \fBcom\fIX\fB:\fR, where \fIX\fR is a number, generally from 1 to 4. This notation only works for serial ports from 1 to 9, if the system happens to have more than four. An attempt to open a serial port that does not exist or has a number greater than 9 will fail. An alternate form of opening serial ports is to use the filename \fB\e\e.\ecomX\fR, where X is any number that corresponds to a serial port; please note that this method is considerably slower on Windows 95 and Windows 98. .TP \fBWindows NT\fR . When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions between the real console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses standard input or output. If a command pipeline is opened for reading, some of the lines entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator. If a command pipeline is opened for writing, keystrokes entered into the console are not visible until the pipe is closed. This behavior occurs whether the command pipeline is ................................................................................ executing 16-bit or 32-bit applications. These problems only occur because both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at the same time. If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard input or output, but is redirected from or to a file, then the above problems do not occur. .TP \fBWindows 95\fR . A command pipeline that executes a 16-bit DOS application cannot be opened for both reading and writing, since 16-bit DOS applications that receive standard input from a pipe and send standard output to a pipe run synchronously. Command pipelines that do not execute 16-bit DOS applications run asynchronously and can be opened for both reading and writing. .RS .PP When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions between the real console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses standard input or output. If a command pipeline is opened for reading from a 32-bit application, some of the keystrokes entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator. If a command pipeline is opened for writing to a 32-bit application, no output is visible on the console until the pipe is closed. These problems only occur because both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at the same time. If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard input or output, but is redirected from or to a file, then the above problems do not occur. .PP Whether or not Tcl is running interactively, if a command pipeline is opened for reading from a 16-bit DOS application, the call to \fBopen\fR will not return until end-of-file has been received from the command pipeline's standard output. If a command pipeline is opened for writing to a 16-bit DOS application, no data will be sent to the command pipeline's standard output until the pipe is actually closed. This problem occurs because 16-bit DOS applications are run synchronously, as described above. .RE .TP \fBUnix\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0 . Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are generally of the form \fB/dev/tty\fIX\fR, where \fIX\fR is \fBa\fR or \fBb\fR, but the name of any pseudo-file that maps to a serial port may be used. Advanced configuration options are only supported for serial ports when Tcl is built to use the POSIX serial interface. .RS .PP When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions between the console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses standard input. If a command pipeline is opened for reading, some of the lines entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator. This problem only occurs because both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at the same time. If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard input, but is redirected from a file, then the above problem does not occur. .RE .LP See the PORTABILITY ISSUES section of the \fBexec\fR command for additional information not specific to command pipelines about executing applications on the various platforms .SH "EXAMPLE" Open a command pipeline and catch any errors: .CS set fl [\fBopen\fR "| ls this_file_does_not_exist"] set data [read fl] if {[catch {close fl} err]} { puts "ls command failed: err" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" chan(n), close(n), exec(n), fconfigure(n), file(n), filename(n), gets(n), pid(n), puts(n), read(n), fopen(3) .SH KEYWORDS access mode, append, create, file, non-blocking, open, permissions, pipeline, process, serial   | | | | > | < | | | | < < < < < | | | | | | | | > | < | > > < < | < | < | < < | < < > < > | >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 .. 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 .. 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 ... 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 ... 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 ... 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 ... 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 ... 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 ... 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: open.n,v 1.30 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH open n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME open \- Open a file-based or command pipeline channel .SH SYNOPSIS .sp \fBopen \fIfileName\fR .br \fBopen \fIfileName access\fR ................................................................................ create a new empty file. Set the initial access position to the end of the file. .VS 8.5 .PP All of the legal \fIaccess\fR values above may have the character \fBb\fR added as the second or third character in the value to indicate that the opened channel should be configured with the \fB-translation binary\fR option, making the channel suitable for reading or writing of binary data. .VE 8.5 .PP In the second form, \fIaccess\fR consists of a list of any of the following flags, all of which have the standard POSIX meanings. One of the flags must be either \fBRDONLY\fR, \fBWRONLY\fR or \fBRDWR\fR. .TP 15 ................................................................................ Open the file for both reading and writing. .TP 15 \fBAPPEND\fR Set the file pointer to the end of the file prior to each write. .VS 8.5 .TP 15 \fBBINARY\fR Configure the opened channel with the \fB-translation binary\fR option. .VE 8.5 .TP 15 \fBCREAT\fR Create the file if it doesn't already exist (without this flag it is an error for the file not to exist). .TP 15 \fBEXCL\fR ................................................................................ \fBTRUNC\fR If the file exists it is truncated to zero length. .PP If a new file is created as part of opening it, \fIpermissions\fR (an integer) is used to set the permissions for the new file in conjunction with the process's file mode creation mask. \fIPermissions\fR defaults to 0666. .SH "COMMAND PIPELINES" .PP If the first character of \fIfileName\fR is |'' then the remaining characters of \fIfileName\fR are treated as a list of arguments that describe a command pipeline to invoke, in the same style as the arguments for \fBexec\fR. In this case, the channel identifier returned by \fBopen\fR may be used to write to the command's input pipe or read from its output pipe, depending on the value of \fIaccess\fR. If write-only access is used (e.g. \fIaccess\fR is \fBw\fR), then standard output for the pipeline is directed to the current standard output unless overridden by the command. ................................................................................ configuration options specific to serial ports (where supported): .TP \fB\-mode\fR \fIbaud\fB,\fIparity\fB,\fIdata\fB,\fIstop\fR This option is a set of 4 comma-separated values: the baud rate, parity, number of data bits, and number of stop bits for this serial port. The \fIbaud\fR rate is a simple integer that specifies the connection speed. \fIParity\fR is one of the following letters: \fBn\fR, \fBo\fR, \fBe\fR, \fBm\fR, \fBs\fR; respectively signifying the parity options of none'', odd'', even'', mark'', or space''. \fIData\fR is the number of data bits and should be an integer from 5 to 8, while \fIstop\fR is the number of stop bits and should be the integer 1 or 2. .TP \fB\-handshake\fR \fItype\fR (Windows and Unix). This option is used to setup automatic handshake control. Note that not all handshake types maybe supported by your operating system. The \fItype\fR parameter is case-independent. .sp If \fItype\fR is \fBnone\fR then any handshake is switched off. \fBrtscts\fR activates hardware handshake. Hardware handshake signals are described below. For software handshake \fBxonxoff\fR the handshake characters can be redefined with \fB-xchar\fR. An additional hardware handshake \fBdtrdsr\fR is available only under Windows. There is no default handshake configuration, the initial value depends on your operating system settings. The \fB-handshake\fR option cannot be queried. .TP \fB\-queue\fR (Windows and Unix). The \fB-queue\fR option can only be queried. It returns a list of two integers representing the current number of bytes in the input and output queue respectively. .TP \fB\-timeout\fR \fImsec\fR (Windows and Unix). This option is used to set the timeout for blocking read operations. It specifies the maximum interval between the reception of two bytes in milliseconds. For Unix systems the granularity is 100 milliseconds. The \fB-timeout\fR option does not affect write operations or nonblocking reads. This option cannot be queried. .TP \fB\-ttycontrol\fR \fI{signal boolean signal boolean ...}\fR (Windows and Unix). This option is used to setup the handshake output lines (see below) permanently or to send a BREAK over the serial line. The \fIsignal\fR names are case-independent. \fB{RTS 1 DTR 0}\fR sets the RTS output to high and the DTR output to low. The BREAK condition (see below) is enabled and disabled with \fB{BREAK 1}\fR and \fB{BREAK 0}\fR respectively. It's not a good idea to change the \fBRTS\fR (or \fBDTR\fR) signal with active hardware handshake \fBrtscts\fR (or \fBdtrdsr\fR). The result is unpredictable. The \fB-ttycontrol\fR option cannot be queried. .TP \fB\-ttystatus\fR (Windows and Unix). The \fB-ttystatus\fR option can only be queried. It returns the current modem status and handshake input signals (see below). The result is a list of signal,value pairs with a fixed order, e.g. \fB{CTS 1 DSR 0 RING 1 DCD 0}\fR. The \fIsignal\fR names are returned upper case. .TP \fB\-xchar\fR \fI{xonChar xoffChar}\fR ................................................................................ .TP \fB\-lasterror\fR (Windows only). This option is query only. In case of a serial communication error, \fBread\fR or \fBputs\fR returns a general Tcl file I/O error. \fBfconfigure -lasterror\fR can be called to get a list of error details. See below for an explanation of the various error codes. .SH "SERIAL PORT SIGNALS" .PP RS-232 is the most commonly used standard electrical interface for serial communications. A negative voltage (-3V..-12V) define a mark (on=1) bit and a positive voltage (+3..+12V) define a space (off=0) bit (RS-232C). The following signals are specified for incoming and outgoing data, status lines and handshaking. Here we are using the terms \fIworkstation\fR for ................................................................................ \fBData Terminal Ready:\fR This signal tells the modem that the workstation is ready to establish a link. DTR is often enabled automatically whenever a serial port is opened. .IP \fBDSR(input)\fR \fBData Set Ready:\fR The complement to DTR. Tells the workstation that the modem is ready to establish a link. .IP \fBDCD(input)\fR \fBData Carrier Detect:\fR This line becomes active when a modem detects a "Carrier" signal. .IP \fBRI(input)\fR \fBRing Indicator:\fR Goes active when the modem detects an incoming call. .IP \fBBREAK\fR A BREAK condition is not a hardware signal line, but a logical zero on the TXD or RXD lines for a long period of time, usually 250 to 500 milliseconds. Normally a receive or transmit data signal stays at the mark (on=1) voltage until the next character is transferred. A BREAK is sometimes used to reset the communications line or change the operating mode of communications hardware. .SH "ERROR CODES (Windows only)" .PP A lot of different errors may occur during serial read operations or during event polling in background. The external device may have been switched off, the data lines may be noisy, system buffers may overrun or your mode settings may be wrong. That's why a reliable software should always \fBcatch\fR serial read operations. In cases of an error Tcl returns a ................................................................................ \fBFRAME\fR A stop-bit error has been detected by your UART. Wrong mode settings with \fBfconfigure -mode\fR or a noisy data line (RXD) may cause this error. .TP 10 \fBBREAK\fR A BREAK condition has been detected by your UART (see above). .SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES" .TP \fBWindows \fR(all versions) Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are of the form \fBcom\fIX\fB:\fR, where \fIX\fR is a number, generally from 1 to 4. This notation only works for serial ports from 1 to 9, if the system happens to have more than four. An attempt to open a serial port that does not exist or has a number greater than 9 will fail. An alternate form of opening serial ports is to use the filename \fB\e\e.\ecomX\fR, where X is any number that corresponds to a serial port; please note that this method is considerably slower on Windows 95 and Windows 98. .TP \fBWindows NT\fR When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions between the real console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses standard input or output. If a command pipeline is opened for reading, some of the lines entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator. If a command pipeline is opened for writing, keystrokes entered into the console are not visible until the pipe is closed. This behavior occurs whether the command pipeline is ................................................................................ executing 16-bit or 32-bit applications. These problems only occur because both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at the same time. If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard input or output, but is redirected from or to a file, then the above problems do not occur. .TP \fBWindows 95\fR A command pipeline that executes a 16-bit DOS application cannot be opened for both reading and writing, since 16-bit DOS applications that receive standard input from a pipe and send standard output to a pipe run synchronously. Command pipelines that do not execute 16-bit DOS applications run asynchronously and can be opened for both reading and writing. .sp When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions between the real console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses standard input or output. If a command pipeline is opened for reading from a 32-bit application, some of the keystrokes entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator. If a command pipeline is opened for writing to a 32-bit application, no output is visible on the console until the pipe is closed. These problems only occur because both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at the same time. If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard input or output, but is redirected from or to a file, then the above problems do not occur. .sp Whether or not Tcl is running interactively, if a command pipeline is opened for reading from a 16-bit DOS application, the call to \fBopen\fR will not return until end-of-file has been received from the command pipeline's standard output. If a command pipeline is opened for writing to a 16-bit DOS application, no data will be sent to the command pipeline's standard output until the pipe is actually closed. This problem occurs because 16-bit DOS applications are run synchronously, as described above. .TP \fBUnix\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0 Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are generally of the form \fB/dev/tty\fIX\fR, where \fIX\fR is \fBa\fR or \fBb\fR, but the name of any pseudo-file that maps to a serial port may be used. Advanced configuration options are only supported for serial ports when Tcl is built to use the POSIX serial interface. .sp When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions between the console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses standard input. If a command pipeline is opened for reading, some of the lines entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator. This problem only occurs because both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at the same time. If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard input, but is redirected from a file, then the above problem does not occur. .LP See the PORTABILITY ISSUES section of the \fBexec\fR command for additional information not specific to command pipelines about executing applications on the various platforms .SH "EXAMPLE" Open a command pipeline and catch any errors: .CS set fl [\fBopen\fR "| ls this_file_does_not_exist"] set data [read fl] if {[catch {close fl} err]} { puts "ls command failed: err" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), close(n), filename(n), fconfigure(n), gets(n), read(n), puts(n), exec(n), pid(n), fopen(3) .SH KEYWORDS access mode, append, create, file, non-blocking, open, permissions, pipeline, process, serial  Changes to doc/package.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 ... 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 ... 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 ... 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 ... 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: package.n,v 1.19 2007/10/25 10:13:35 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH package n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME package \- Facilities for package loading and version control ................................................................................ \fBpackage unknown \fR?\fIcommand\fR? \fBpackage vcompare \fIversion1 version2\fR \fBpackage versions \fIpackage\fR \fBpackage vsatisfies \fIversion requirement...\fR \fBpackage prefer \fR?\fBlatest\fR|\fBstable\fR? .fi .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command keeps a simple database of the packages available for use by the current interpreter and how to load them into the interpreter. It supports multiple versions of each package and arranges for the correct version of a package to be loaded based on what ................................................................................ .PP A suitable version of the package is any version which satisfies at least one of the requirements, per the rules of \fBpackage vsatisfies\fR. If multiple versions are suitable the implementation with the highest version is chosen. This last part is additionally influenced by the selection mode set with \fBpackage prefer\fR. .PP In the .QW "stable" selection mode the command will select the highest stable version satisfying the requirements, if any. If no stable version satisfies the requirements, the highest unstable version satisfying the requirements will be selected. In the .QW "latest" selection mode the command will accept the highest version satisfying all the requirements, regardless of its stableness. .PP If a version of \fIpackage\fR has already been provided (by invoking the \fBpackage provide\fR command), then its version number must satisfy the \fIrequirement\fRs and the command returns immediately. Otherwise, the command searches the database of information provided by ................................................................................ .TP \fBpackage require \-exact \fIpackage version\fR This form of the command is used when only the given \fIversion\fR of \fIpackage\fR is acceptable to the caller. This command is equivalent to \fBpackage require \fIpackage version\fR-\fIversion\fR. .TP \fBpackage unknown \fR?\fIcommand\fR? . This command supplies a .QW "last resort" command to invoke during \fBpackage require\fR if no suitable version of a package can be found in the \fBpackage ifneeded\fR database. If the \fIcommand\fR argument is supplied, it contains the first part of a command; when the command is invoked during a \fBpackage require\fR command, Tcl appends one or more additional arguments giving the desired package name and requirements. For example, if \fIcommand\fR is \fBfoo bar\fR and later the command ................................................................................ \fBpackage vsatisfies \fIversion requirement...\fR Returns 1 if the \fIversion\fR satisfies at least one of the given requirements, and 0 otherwise. Each \fIrequirement\fR is allowed to have any of the forms: .RS .TP min This form is called .QW "min-bounded" . .TP min- This form is called .QW "min-unbound" . .TP min-max This form is called .QW "bounded" . .RE .RS .PP where .QW "min" and .QW "max" are valid version numbers. The legacy syntax is a special case of the extended syntax, keeping backward compatibility. Regarding satisfaction the rules are: .RE .RS .IP [1] The \fIversion\fR has to pass at least one of the listed \fIrequirement\fRs to be satisfactory. .IP [2] A version satisfies a .QW "bounded" requirement when .RS .IP [a] For \fImin\fR equal to the \fImax\fR if, and only if the \fIversion\fR is equal to the \fImin\fR. .IP [b] Otherwise if, and only if the \fIversion\fR is greater than or equal to the \fImin\fR, and less than the \fImax\fR, where both \fImin\fR and \fImax\fR have been padded internally with .QW a0 . Note that while the comparison to \fImin\fR is inclusive, the comparison to \fImax\fR is exclusive. .RE .IP [3] A .QW "min-bounded" requirement is a .QW "bounded" requirement in disguise, with the \fImax\fR part implicitly specified as the next higher major version number of the \fImin\fR part. A version satisfies it per the rules above. .IP [4] A \fIversion\fR satisfies a .QW "min-unbound" requirement if, and only if it is greater than or equal to the \fImin\fR, where the \fImin\fR has been padded internally with .QW a0 . There is no constraint to a maximum. .RE .TP \fBpackage prefer \fR?\fBlatest\fR|\fBstable\fR? With no arguments, the commands returns either .QW "latest" or .QW "stable" , whichever describes the current mode of selection logic used by \fBpackage require\fR. .RS .PP When passed the argument .QW "latest" , it sets the selection logic mode to .QW "latest" . .PP When passed the argument .QW "stable" , if the mode is already .QW "stable" , that value is kept. If the mode is already .QW "latest" , then the attempt to set it back to .QW "stable" is ineffective and the mode value remains .QW "latest" . .PP When passed any other value as an argument, raise an invalid argument error. .PP When an interpreter is created, its initial selection mode value is set to .QW "stable" unless the environment variable \fBTCL_PKG_PREFER_LATEST\fR is set. If that environment variable is defined (with any value) then the initial (and permanent) selection mode value is set to .QW "latest" . .RE .SH "VERSION NUMBERS" .PP Version numbers consist of one or more decimal numbers separated by dots, such as 2 or 1.162 or 3.1.13.1. The first number is called the major version number. Larger numbers correspond to later versions of a package, with leftmost numbers having greater significance. For example, version 2.1 is later than 1.3 and version 3.4.6 is later than 3.3.5. Missing fields are equivalent to zeroes: version 1.3 is the same as version 1.3.0 and 1.3.0.0, so it is earlier than 1.3.1 or 1.3.0.2. In addition, the letters .QW a (alpha) and/or .QW b (beta) may appear exactly once to replace a dot for separation. These letters semantically add a negative specifier into the version, where .QW a is -2, and .QW b is -1. Each may be specified only once, and .QW a and .QW b are mutually exclusive in a specifier. Thus 1.3a1 becomes (semantically) 1.3.-2.1, 1.3b1 is 1.3.-1.1. Negative numbers are not directly allowed in version specifiers. A version number not containing the letters .QW a or .QW b as specified above is called a \fBstable\fR version, whereas presence of the letters causes the version to be called is \fBunstable\fR. A later version number is assumed to be upwards compatible with an earlier version number as long as both versions have the same major version number. For example, Tcl scripts written for version 2.3 of a package should work unchanged under versions 2.3.2, 2.4, and 2.5.1. Changes in the major version number signify incompatible changes: if code is written to use version 2.1 of a package, it is not guaranteed to work unmodified with either version 1.7.3 or version 3.1. .SH "PACKAGE INDICES" .PP The recommended way to use packages in Tcl is to invoke \fBpackage require\fR and \fBpackage provide\fR commands in scripts, and use the procedure \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR to create package index files. Once you have done this, packages will be loaded automatically in response to \fBpackage require\fR commands. See the documentation for \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR for details. .SH EXAMPLES To state that a Tcl script requires the Tk and http packages, put this at the top of the script: .CS \fBpackage require\fR Tk ................................................................................ if {[catch {\fBpackage require\fR Snack}]} { # Error thrown - package not found. # Set up a dummy interface to work around the absence } else { # We have the package, configure the app to use it } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" msgcat(n), packagens(n), pkgMkIndex(n) .SH KEYWORDS package, version   | > < < | | < < < < | | < | < | < < < < < | | < < | < | < < | < < | < < < < | | < < < < < | | | < < < | < < | | < | | < | < < < < | < < < | < < < | | < < < | | | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 ... 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 ... 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 ... 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 ... 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: package.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH package n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME package \- Facilities for package loading and version control ................................................................................ \fBpackage unknown \fR?\fIcommand\fR? \fBpackage vcompare \fIversion1 version2\fR \fBpackage versions \fIpackage\fR \fBpackage vsatisfies \fIversion requirement...\fR \fBpackage prefer \fR?\fBlatest\fR|\fBstable\fR? .fi .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command keeps a simple database of the packages available for use by the current interpreter and how to load them into the interpreter. It supports multiple versions of each package and arranges for the correct version of a package to be loaded based on what ................................................................................ .PP A suitable version of the package is any version which satisfies at least one of the requirements, per the rules of \fBpackage vsatisfies\fR. If multiple versions are suitable the implementation with the highest version is chosen. This last part is additionally influenced by the selection mode set with \fBpackage prefer\fR. .PP In the "stable" selection mode the command will select the highest stable version satisfying the requirements, if any. If no stable version satisfies the requirements, the highest unstable version satisfying the requirements will be selected. In the "latest" selection mode the command will accept the highest version satisfying all the requirements, regardless of its stableness. .PP If a version of \fIpackage\fR has already been provided (by invoking the \fBpackage provide\fR command), then its version number must satisfy the \fIrequirement\fRs and the command returns immediately. Otherwise, the command searches the database of information provided by ................................................................................ .TP \fBpackage require \-exact \fIpackage version\fR This form of the command is used when only the given \fIversion\fR of \fIpackage\fR is acceptable to the caller. This command is equivalent to \fBpackage require \fIpackage version\fR-\fIversion\fR. .TP \fBpackage unknown \fR?\fIcommand\fR? This command supplies a last resort'' command to invoke during \fBpackage require\fR if no suitable version of a package can be found in the \fBpackage ifneeded\fR database. If the \fIcommand\fR argument is supplied, it contains the first part of a command; when the command is invoked during a \fBpackage require\fR command, Tcl appends one or more additional arguments giving the desired package name and requirements. For example, if \fIcommand\fR is \fBfoo bar\fR and later the command ................................................................................ \fBpackage vsatisfies \fIversion requirement...\fR Returns 1 if the \fIversion\fR satisfies at least one of the given requirements, and 0 otherwise. Each \fIrequirement\fR is allowed to have any of the forms: .RS .TP min This form is called "min-bounded". .TP min- This form is called "min-unbound". .TP min-max This form is called "bounded". .RE .RS .PP where "min" and "max" are valid version numbers. The legacy syntax is a special case of the extended syntax, keeping backward compatibility. Regarding satisfaction the rules are: .RE .RS .IP [1] The \fIversion\fR has to pass at least one of the listed \fIrequirement\fRs to be satisfactory. .IP [2] A version satisfies a "bounded" requirement when .RS .IP [a] For \fImin\fR equal to the \fImax\fR if, and only if the \fIversion\fR is equal to the \fImin\fR. .IP [b] Otherwise if, and only if the \fIversion\fR is greater than or equal to the \fImin\fR, and less than the \fImax\fR, where both \fImin\fR and \fImax\fR have been padded internally with 'a0'. Note that while the comparison to \fImin\fR is inclusive, the comparison to \fImax\fR is exclusive. .RE .IP [3] A "min-bounded" requirement is a "bounded" requirement in disguise, with the \fImax\fR part implicitly specified as the next higher major version number of the \fImin\fR part. A version satisfies it per the rules above. .IP [4] A \fIversion\fR satisfies a "min-unbound" requirement if, and only if it is greater than or equal to the \fImin\fR, where the \fImin\fR has been padded internally with 'a0'. There is no constraint to a maximum. .RE .TP \fBpackage prefer \fR?\fBlatest\fR|\fBstable\fR? With no arguments, the commands returns either "latest" or "stable", whichever describes the current mode of selection logic used by \fBpackage require\fR. .RS .PP When passed the argument "latest", it sets the selection logic mode to "latest". .PP When passed the argument "stable", if the mode is already "stable", that value is kept. If the mode is already "latest", then the attempt to set it back to "stable" is ineffective and the mode value remains "latest". .PP When passed any other value as an argument, raise an invalid argument error. .PP When an interpreter is created, its initial selection mode value is set to "stable" unless the environment variable \fBTCL_PKG_PREFER_LATEST\fR is set. If that environment variable is defined (with any value) then the initial (and permanent) selection mode value is set to "latest". .RE .SH "VERSION NUMBERS" .PP Version numbers consist of one or more decimal numbers separated by dots, such as 2 or 1.162 or 3.1.13.1. The first number is called the major version number. Larger numbers correspond to later versions of a package, with leftmost numbers having greater significance. For example, version 2.1 is later than 1.3 and version 3.4.6 is later than 3.3.5. Missing fields are equivalent to zeroes: version 1.3 is the same as version 1.3.0 and 1.3.0.0, so it is earlier than 1.3.1 or 1.3.0.2. In addition, the letters 'a' (alpha) and/or 'b' (beta) may appear exactly once to replace a dot for separation. These letters semantically add a negative specifier into the version, where 'a' is -2, and 'b' is -1. Each may be specified only once, and 'a' or 'b' are mutually exclusive in a specifier. Thus 1.3a1 becomes (semantically) 1.3.-2.1, 1.3b1 is 1.3.-1.1. Negative numbers are not directly allowed in version specifiers. A version number not containing the letters 'a' or 'b' as specified above is called a \fBstable\fR version, whereas presence of the letters causes the version to be called is \fBunstable\fR. A later version number is assumed to be upwards compatible with an earlier version number as long as both versions have the same major version number. For example, Tcl scripts written for version 2.3 of a package should work unchanged under versions 2.3.2, 2.4, and 2.5.1. Changes in the major version number signify incompatible changes: if code is written to use version 2.1 of a package, it is not guaranteed to work unmodified with either version 1.7.3 or version 3.1. .SH "PACKAGE INDICES" .PP The recommended way to use packages in Tcl is to invoke \fBpackage require\fR and \fBpackage provide\fR commands in scripts, and use the procedure \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR to create package index files. Once you've done this, packages will be loaded automatically in response to \fBpackage require\fR commands. See the documentation for \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR for details. .SH EXAMPLES To state that a Tcl script requires the Tk and http packages, put this at the top of the script: .CS \fBpackage require\fR Tk ................................................................................ if {[catch {\fBpackage require\fR Snack}]} { # Error thrown - package not found. # Set up a dummy interface to work around the absence } else { # We have the package, configure the app to use it } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" msgcat(n), packagens(n), pkgMkIndex(n) .SH KEYWORDS package, version  Changes to doc/packagens.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 .. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 .. 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Scriptics Corporation. '\" All rights reserved. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: packagens.n,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH pkg::create n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME pkg::create \- Construct an appropriate package ifneeded' command for a given package specification ................................................................................ .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fB::pkg::create\fR is a utility procedure that is part of the standard Tcl library. It is used to create an appropriate \fBpackage ifneeded\fR command for a given package specification. It can be used to construct a \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR file for use with the \fBpackage\fR mechanism. .SH OPTIONS The parameters supported are: .TP \fB\-name\fR\0\fIpackageName\fR This parameter specifies the name of the package. It is required. .TP \fB\-version\fR\0\fIpackageVersion\fR ................................................................................ \fB\-source\fR\0\fIfilespec\fR This parameter is similar to the \fB\-load\fR parameter, except that it specifies a Tcl library that must be loaded with the \fBsource\fR command. Any number of \fB\-source\fR parameters may be specified. .PP At least one \fB\-load\fR or \fB\-source\fR parameter must be given. .SH "SEE ALSO" package(n) .SH KEYWORDS auto-load, index, package, version   | > > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 .. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .. 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Scriptics Corporation. '\" All rights reserved. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: packagens.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH pkg::create n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME pkg::create \- Construct an appropriate package ifneeded' command for a given package specification ................................................................................ .SH DESCRIPTION .PP \fB::pkg::create\fR is a utility procedure that is part of the standard Tcl library. It is used to create an appropriate \fBpackage ifneeded\fR command for a given package specification. It can be used to construct a \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR file for use with the \fBpackage\fR mechanism. .SH OPTIONS The parameters supported are: .TP \fB\-name\fR\0\fIpackageName\fR This parameter specifies the name of the package. It is required. .TP \fB\-version\fR\0\fIpackageVersion\fR ................................................................................ \fB\-source\fR\0\fIfilespec\fR This parameter is similar to the \fB\-load\fR parameter, except that it specifies a Tcl library that must be loaded with the \fBsource\fR command. Any number of \fB\-source\fR parameters may be specified. .PP At least one \fB\-load\fR or \fB\-source\fR parameter must be given. .SH "SEE ALSO" package(n) .SH KEYWORDS auto-load, index, package, version  Changes to doc/pkgMkIndex.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 ... 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 ... 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 ... 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 ... 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: pkgMkIndex.n,v 1.19 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH pkg_mkIndex n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME pkg_mkIndex \- Build an index for automatic loading of packages ................................................................................ a call to \fBTcl_PkgProvide\fR. .IP [2] Create the index by invoking \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR. The \fIdir\fR argument gives the name of a directory and each \fIpattern\fR argument is a \fBglob\fR-style pattern that selects script or binary files in \fIdir\fR. The default pattern is \fB*.tcl\fR and \fB*.[info sharedlibextension]\fR. .RS .PP \fBPkg_mkIndex\fR will create a file \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR in \fIdir\fR with package information about all the files given by the \fIpattern\fR arguments. It does this by loading each file into a slave interpreter and seeing what packages and new commands appear (this is why it is essential to have \fBpackage provide\fR commands or \fBTcl_PkgProvide\fR calls in the files, as described above). If you have a package split among scripts and binary files, or if you have dependencies among files, you may have to use the \fB\-load\fR option or adjust the order in which \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR processes the files. See COMPLEX CASES below. .RE .IP [3] Install the package as a subdirectory of one of the directories given by the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR variable. If \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR contains more than one directory, machine-dependent packages (e.g., those that contain binary shared libraries) should normally be installed under the first directory and machine-independent packages (e.g., those that contain only Tcl scripts) should be installed under the second directory. The subdirectory should include the package's script and/or binary files as well as the \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR file. As long as the package is installed as a subdirectory of a directory in \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR it will automatically be found during \fBpackage require\fR commands. .RS .PP If you install the package anywhere else, then you must ensure that the directory containing the package is in the \fBauto_path\fR global variable or an immediate subdirectory of one of the directories in \fBauto_path\fR. \fBAuto_path\fR contains a list of directories that are searched by both the auto-loader and the package loader; by default it includes \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR. The package loader also checks all of the subdirectories of the directories in \fBauto_path\fR. You can add a directory to \fBauto_path\fR explicitly in your application, or you can add the directory to your \fBTCLLIBPATH\fR environment variable: if this environment variable is present, Tcl initializes \fBauto_path\fR from it during application startup. .RE .IP [4] Once the above steps have been taken, all you need to do to use a package is to invoke \fBpackage require\fR. For example, if versions 2.1, 2.3, and 3.1 of package \fBTest\fR have been indexed by \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR, the command \fBpackage require Test\fR will make version 3.1 available and the command \fBpackage require \-exact Test 2.1\fR will make version 2.1 available. There may be many versions of a package in the various index files in \fBauto_path\fR, but only one will actually be loaded in a given interpreter, based on the first call to \fBpackage require\fR. Different versions of a package may be loaded in different interpreters. .SH OPTIONS The optional switches are: .TP 15 \fB\-direct\fR The generated index will implement direct loading of the package upon \fBpackage require\fR. This is the default. .TP 15 ................................................................................ .TP 15 \fB\-verbose\fR Generate output during the indexing process. Output is via the \fBtclLog\fR procedure, which by default prints to stderr. .TP 15 \fB\-\-\fR End of the flags, in case \fIdir\fR begins with a dash. .SH "PACKAGES AND THE AUTO-LOADER" .PP The package management facilities overlap somewhat with the auto-loader, in that both arrange for files to be loaded on-demand. However, package management is a higher-level mechanism that uses the auto-loader for the last step in the loading process. It is generally better to index a package with \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR ................................................................................ it can only handle a single version of each package. It is probably not a good idea to index a given package with both \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR and \fBauto_mkindex\fR. If you use \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR to index a package, its commands cannot be invoked until \fBpackage require\fR has been used to select a version; in contrast, packages indexed with \fBauto_mkindex\fR can be used immediately since there is no version control. .SH "HOW IT WORKS" .PP \fBPkg_mkIndex\fR depends on the \fBpackage unknown\fR command, the \fBpackage ifneeded\fR command, and the auto-loader. The first time a \fBpackage require\fR command is invoked, the \fBpackage unknown\fR script is invoked. This is set by Tcl initialization to a script that ................................................................................ was generated, a given file of a given version of a given package isn't actually loaded until the first time one of its commands is invoked. Thus, after invoking \fBpackage require\fR you may not see the package's commands in the interpreter, but you will be able to invoke the commands and they will be auto-loaded. .SH "DIRECT LOADING" .PP Some packages, for instance packages which use namespaces and export commands or those which require special initialization, might select that their package files be loaded immediately upon \fBpackage require\fR instead of delaying the actual loading to the first use of one of the package's command. This is the default mode when generating the package index. It can be overridden by specifying the \fI\-lazy\fR argument. .SH "COMPLEX CASES" Most complex cases of dependencies among scripts and binary files, and packages being split among scripts and binary files are handled OK. However, you may have to adjust the order in which files are processed by \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR. These issues are described in detail below. .PP ................................................................................ If you have a package that is split across scripts and a binary file, then you should avoid the \fB\-load\fR flag. The problem is that if you load a package before computing the index it masks any other files that provide part of the same package. If you must use \fB\-load\fR, then you must specify the scripts first; otherwise the package loaded from the binary file may mask the package defined by the scripts. .SH "SEE ALSO" package(n) .SH KEYWORDS auto-load, index, package, version   | | < | | < < > > > > > > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 ... 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 ... 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 ... 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 ... 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: pkgMkIndex.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH pkg_mkIndex n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME pkg_mkIndex \- Build an index for automatic loading of packages ................................................................................ a call to \fBTcl_PkgProvide\fR. .IP [2] Create the index by invoking \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR. The \fIdir\fR argument gives the name of a directory and each \fIpattern\fR argument is a \fBglob\fR-style pattern that selects script or binary files in \fIdir\fR. The default pattern is \fB*.tcl\fR and \fB*.[info sharedlibextension]\fR. .br \fBPkg_mkIndex\fR will create a file \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR in \fIdir\fR with package information about all the files given by the \fIpattern\fR arguments. It does this by loading each file into a slave interpreter and seeing what packages and new commands appear (this is why it is essential to have \fBpackage provide\fR commands or \fBTcl_PkgProvide\fR calls in the files, as described above). If you have a package split among scripts and binary files, or if you have dependencies among files, you may have to use the \fB\-load\fR option or adjust the order in which \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR processes the files. See COMPLEX CASES below. .IP [3] Install the package as a subdirectory of one of the directories given by the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR variable. If \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR contains more than one directory, machine-dependent packages (e.g., those that contain binary shared libraries) should normally be installed under the first directory and machine-independent packages (e.g., those that contain only Tcl scripts) should be installed under the second directory. The subdirectory should include the package's script and/or binary files as well as the \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR file. As long as the package is installed as a subdirectory of a directory in \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR it will automatically be found during \fBpackage require\fR commands. .br If you install the package anywhere else, then you must ensure that the directory containing the package is in the \fBauto_path\fR global variable or an immediate subdirectory of one of the directories in \fBauto_path\fR. \fBAuto_path\fR contains a list of directories that are searched by both the auto-loader and the package loader; by default it includes \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR. The package loader also checks all of the subdirectories of the directories in \fBauto_path\fR. You can add a directory to \fBauto_path\fR explicitly in your application, or you can add the directory to your \fBTCLLIBPATH\fR environment variable: if this environment variable is present, Tcl initializes \fBauto_path\fR from it during application startup. .IP [4] Once the above steps have been taken, all you need to do to use a package is to invoke \fBpackage require\fR. For example, if versions 2.1, 2.3, and 3.1 of package \fBTest\fR have been indexed by \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR, the command \fBpackage require Test\fR will make version 3.1 available and the command \fBpackage require \-exact Test 2.1\fR will make version 2.1 available. There may be many versions of a package in the various index files in \fBauto_path\fR, but only one will actually be loaded in a given interpreter, based on the first call to \fBpackage require\fR. Different versions of a package may be loaded in different interpreters. .SH OPTIONS The optional switches are: .TP 15 \fB\-direct\fR The generated index will implement direct loading of the package upon \fBpackage require\fR. This is the default. .TP 15 ................................................................................ .TP 15 \fB\-verbose\fR Generate output during the indexing process. Output is via the \fBtclLog\fR procedure, which by default prints to stderr. .TP 15 \fB\-\-\fR End of the flags, in case \fIdir\fR begins with a dash. .SH "PACKAGES AND THE AUTO-LOADER" .PP The package management facilities overlap somewhat with the auto-loader, in that both arrange for files to be loaded on-demand. However, package management is a higher-level mechanism that uses the auto-loader for the last step in the loading process. It is generally better to index a package with \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR ................................................................................ it can only handle a single version of each package. It is probably not a good idea to index a given package with both \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR and \fBauto_mkindex\fR. If you use \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR to index a package, its commands cannot be invoked until \fBpackage require\fR has been used to select a version; in contrast, packages indexed with \fBauto_mkindex\fR can be used immediately since there is no version control. .SH "HOW IT WORKS" .PP \fBPkg_mkIndex\fR depends on the \fBpackage unknown\fR command, the \fBpackage ifneeded\fR command, and the auto-loader. The first time a \fBpackage require\fR command is invoked, the \fBpackage unknown\fR script is invoked. This is set by Tcl initialization to a script that ................................................................................ was generated, a given file of a given version of a given package isn't actually loaded until the first time one of its commands is invoked. Thus, after invoking \fBpackage require\fR you may not see the package's commands in the interpreter, but you will be able to invoke the commands and they will be auto-loaded. .SH "DIRECT LOADING" .PP Some packages, for instance packages which use namespaces and export commands or those which require special initialization, might select that their package files be loaded immediately upon \fBpackage require\fR instead of delaying the actual loading to the first use of one of the package's command. This is the default mode when generating the package index. It can be overridden by specifying the \fI\-lazy\fR argument. .SH "COMPLEX CASES" Most complex cases of dependencies among scripts and binary files, and packages being split among scripts and binary files are handled OK. However, you may have to adjust the order in which files are processed by \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR. These issues are described in detail below. .PP ................................................................................ If you have a package that is split across scripts and a binary file, then you should avoid the \fB\-load\fR flag. The problem is that if you load a package before computing the index it masks any other files that provide part of the same package. If you must use \fB\-load\fR, then you must specify the scripts first; otherwise the package loaded from the binary file may mask the package defined by the scripts. .SH "SEE ALSO" package(n) .SH KEYWORDS auto-load, index, package, version  Changes to doc/re_syntax.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 .. 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 ... 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 ... 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 ... 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 ... 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 ... 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 ... 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 ... 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 ... 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 ... 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: re_syntax.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 12:25:06 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH re_syntax n "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME re_syntax \- Syntax of Tcl regular expressions .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP A \fIregular expression\fR describes strings of characters. It's a pattern that matches certain strings and doesn't match others. .SH "DIFFERENT FLAVORS OF REs" Regular expressions .PQ RE s , as defined by POSIX, come in two flavors: \fIextended\fR REs .PQ ERE s and \fIbasic\fR REs .PQ BRE s . EREs are roughly those of the traditional \fIegrep\fR, while BREs are roughly those of the traditional \fIed\fR. This implementation adds a third flavor, \fIadvanced\fR REs .PQ ARE s , basically EREs with some significant extensions. .PP This manual page primarily describes AREs. BREs mostly exist for backward compatibility in some old programs; they will be discussed at the end. POSIX EREs are almost an exact subset of AREs. Features of AREs that are not present in EREs will be indicated. .SH "REGULAR EXPRESSION SYNTAX" .PP Tcl regular expressions are implemented using the package written by Henry Spencer, based on the 1003.2 spec and some (not quite all) of the Perl5 extensions (thanks, Henry!). Much of the description of regular expressions below is copied verbatim from his manual entry. .PP An ARE is one or more \fIbranches\fR, separated by .QW \fB|\fR , matching anything that matches any of the branches. .PP A branch is zero or more \fIconstraints\fR or \fIquantified atoms\fR, concatenated. It matches a match for the first, followed by a match for the second, etc; an empty branch matches the empty string. .PP ................................................................................ .PP An atom is one of: .RS 2 .IP \fB(\fIre\fB)\fR 6 matches a match for \fIre\fR (\fIre\fR is any regular expression) with the match noted for possible reporting .IP \fB(?:\fIre\fB)\fR as previous, but does no reporting (a .QW non-capturing set of parentheses) .IP \fB()\fR matches an empty string, noted for possible reporting .IP \fB(?:)\fR matches an empty string, without reporting .IP \fB[\fIchars\fB]\fR a \fIbracket expression\fR, matching any one of the \fIchars\fR (see \fBBRACKET EXPRESSIONS\fR for more detail) .IP \fB.\fR matches any single character .IP \fB\e\fIk\fR matches the non-alphanumeric character \fIk\fR taken as an ordinary character, e.g. .QW \fB\e\e\fR matches a backslash character .IP \fB\e\fIc\fR where \fIc\fR is alphanumeric (possibly followed by other characters), an \fIescape\fR (AREs only), see \fBESCAPES\fR below .IP \fB{\fR when followed by a character other than a digit, matches the left-brace character .QW \fB{\fR ; when followed by a digit, it is the beginning of a \fIbound\fR (see above) .IP \fIx\fR where \fIx\fR is a single character with no other significance, matches that character. .RE .PP A \fIconstraint\fR matches an empty string when specific conditions are met. A constraint may not be followed by a quantifier. The ................................................................................ \fInegative lookahead\fR (AREs only), matches at any point where no substring matching \fIre\fR begins .RE .PP The lookahead constraints may not contain back references (see later), and all parentheses within them are considered non-capturing. .PP An RE may not end with .QW \fB\e\fR . .SH "BRACKET EXPRESSIONS" A \fIbracket expression\fR is a list of characters enclosed in .QW \fB[\|]\fR . It normally matches any single character from the list (but see below). If the list begins with .QW \fB^\fR , it matches any single character (but see below) \fInot\fR from the rest of the list. .PP If two characters in the list are separated by .QW \fB\-\fR , this is shorthand for the full \fIrange\fR of characters between those two (inclusive) in the collating sequence, e.g. .QW \fB[0\-9]\fR in Unicode matches any conventional decimal digit. Two ranges may not share an endpoint, so e.g. .QW \fBa\-c\-e\fR is illegal. Ranges are very collating-sequence-dependent, and portable programs should avoid relying on them. .PP To include a literal .QW \fB]\fR or .QW \fB\-\fR in the list, the simplest method is to enclose it in .QW \fB[.\fR and .QW \fB.]\fR to make it a collating element (see below). Alternatively, make it the first character (following a possible .QW \fB^\fR ), or (AREs only) precede it with .QW \fB\e\fR . Alternatively, for .QW \fB\-\fR , make it the last character, or the second endpoint of a range. To use a literal .QW \fB\-\fR as the first endpoint of a range, make it a collating element or (AREs only) precede it with .QW \fB\e\fR . With the exception of these, some combinations using .QW \fB[\fR (see next paragraphs), and escapes, all other special characters lose their special significance within a bracket expression. .PP Within a bracket expression, a collating element (a character, a multi-character sequence that collates as if it were a single character, or a collating-sequence name for either) enclosed in .QW \fB[.\fR and .QW \fB.]\fR stands for the sequence of characters of that collating element. The sequence is a single element of the bracket expression's list. A bracket expression in a locale that has multi-character collating elements can thus match more than one character. So (insidiously), a bracket expression that starts with .QW \fB^\fR can match multi-character collating elements even if none of them appear in the bracket expression! (\fINote:\fR Tcl currently has no multi-character collating elements. This information is only for illustration.) .PP For example, assume the collating sequence includes a .QW \fBch\fR multi-character collating element. Then the RE .QW \fB[[.ch.]]*c\fR (zero or more .QW \fBch\fR 's followed by .QW \fBc\fR ) matches the first five characters of .QW \fBchchcc\fR . Also, the RE .QW \fB[^c]b\fR matches all of .QW \fBchb\fR (because .QW \fB[^c]\fR matches the multi-character .QW \fBch\fR ). .PP Within a bracket expression, a collating element enclosed in .QW \fB[=\fR and .QW \fB=]\fR is an equivalence class, standing for the sequences of characters of all collating elements equivalent to that one, including itself. (If there are no other equivalent collating elements, the treatment is as if the enclosing delimiters were .QW \fB[.\fR \& and .QW \fB.]\fR .) For example, if .QW \fBo\fR and .QW \fB\N'244'\fR are the members of an equivalence class, then .QW \fB[[=o=]]\fR , .QW \fB[[=\N'244'=]]\fR , and .QW \fB[o\N'244']\fR \& are all synonymous. An equivalence class may not be an endpoint of a range. (\fINote:\fR Tcl currently implements only the Unicode locale. It doesn't define any equivalence classes. The examples above are just illustrations.) .PP Within a bracket expression, the name of a \fIcharacter class\fR enclosed in .QW \fB[:\fR and .QW \fB:]\fR stands for the list of all characters (not all collating elements!) belonging to that class. Standard character classes are: .IP \fBalpha\fR 8 A letter. .IP \fBupper\fR 8 An upper-case letter. .IP \fBlower\fR 8 A lower-case letter. ................................................................................ .IP \fBdigit\fR 8 A decimal digit. .IP \fBxdigit\fR 8 A hexadecimal digit. .IP \fBalnum\fR 8 An alphanumeric (letter or digit). .IP \fBprint\fR 8 A .QW "printable" (same as graph, except also including space). .IP \fBblank\fR 8 A space or tab character. .IP \fBspace\fR 8 A character producing white space in displayed text. .IP \fBpunct\fR 8 A punctuation character. .IP \fBgraph\fR 8 ................................................................................ A control character. .PP A locale may provide others. (Note that the current Tcl implementation has only one locale: the Unicode locale.) A character class may not be used as an endpoint of a range. .PP There are two special cases of bracket expressions: the bracket expressions .QW \fB[[:<:]]\fR and .QW \fB[[:>:]]\fR are constraints, matching empty strings at the beginning and end of a word respectively. .\" note, discussion of escapes below references this definition of word A word is defined as a sequence of word characters that is neither preceded nor followed by word characters. A word character is an \fIalnum\fR character or an underscore .PQ \fB_\fR "" . These special bracket expressions are deprecated; users of AREs should use constraint escapes instead (see below). .SH ESCAPES Escapes (AREs only), which begin with a .QW \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character, come in several varieties: character entry, class shorthands, constraint escapes, and back references. A .QW \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character but not constituting a valid escape is illegal in AREs. In EREs, there are no escapes: outside a bracket expression, a .QW \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character merely stands for that character as an ordinary character, and inside a bracket expression, .QW \fB\e\fR is an ordinary character. (The latter is the one actual incompatibility between EREs and AREs.) .PP Character-entry escapes (AREs only) exist to make it easier to specify non-printing and otherwise inconvenient characters in REs: .RS 2 .TP 5 \fB\ea\fR ................................................................................ applications where there are multiple levels of backslash processing .TP \fB\ec\fIX\fR (where \fIX\fR is any character) the character whose low-order 5 bits are the same as those of \fIX\fR, and whose other bits are all zero .TP \fB\ee\fR the character whose collating-sequence name is .QW \fBESC\fR , or failing that, the character with octal value 033 .TP \fB\ef\fR formfeed, as in C .TP \fB\en\fR newline, as in C .TP ................................................................................ .TP \fB\e\fIxyz\fR (where \fIxyz\fR is exactly three octal digits, and is not a back reference (see below)) the character whose octal value is \fB0\fIxyz\fR .RE .PP Hexadecimal digits are .QR 0 9 , .QR a f , and .QR A F . Octal digits are .QR 0 7 . .PP The character-entry escapes are always taken as ordinary characters. For example, .QW \fB\e135\fR is .QW \fB]\fR in Unicode, but .QW \fB\e135\fR does not terminate a bracket expression. Beware, however, that some applications (e.g., C compilers and the Tcl interpreter if the regular expression is not quoted with braces) interpret such sequences themselves before the regular-expression package gets to see them, which may require doubling (quadrupling, etc.) the .QW \fB\e\fR . .PP Class-shorthand escapes (AREs only) provide shorthands for certain commonly-used character classes: .RS 2 .TP 10 \fB\ed\fR \fB[[:digit:]]\fR ................................................................................ \fB\eS\fR \fB[^[:space:]]\fR .TP \fB\eW\fR \fB[^[:alnum:]_]\fR (note underscore) .RE .PP Within bracket expressions, .QW \fB\ed\fR , .QW \fB\es\fR , and .QW \fB\ew\fR \& lose their outer brackets, and .QW \fB\eD\fR , .QW \fB\eS\fR , and .QW \fB\eW\fR \& are illegal. (So, for example, .QW \fB[a-c\ed]\fR is equivalent to .QW \fB[a-c[:digit:]]\fR . Also, .QW \fB[a-c\eD]\fR , which is equivalent to .QW \fB[a-c^[:digit:]]\fR , is illegal.) .PP A constraint escape (AREs only) is a constraint, matching the empty string if specific conditions are met, written as an escape: .RS 2 .TP 6 \fB\eA\fR matches only at the beginning of the string (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below, for how this differs from .QW \fB^\fR ) .TP \fB\em\fR matches only at the beginning of a word .TP \fB\eM\fR matches only at the end of a word .TP ................................................................................ matches only at the beginning or end of a word .TP \fB\eY\fR matches only at a point that is not the beginning or end of a word .TP \fB\eZ\fR matches only at the end of the string (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below, for how this differs from .QW \fB\fR ) .TP \fB\e\fIm\fR (where \fIm\fR is a nonzero digit) a \fIback reference\fR, see below .TP \fB\e\fImnn\fR (where \fIm\fR is a nonzero digit, and \fInn\fR is some more digits, and the decimal value \fImnn\fR is not greater than the number of closing capturing parentheses seen so far) a \fIback reference\fR, see below .RE .PP A word is defined as in the specification of .QW \fB[[:<:]]\fR and .QW \fB[[:>:]]\fR above. Constraint escapes are illegal within bracket expressions. .PP A back reference (AREs only) matches the same string matched by the parenthesized subexpression specified by the number, so that (e.g.) .QW \fB([bc])\e1\fR matches .QW \fBbb\fR or .QW \fBcc\fR but not .QW \fBbc\fR . The subexpression must entirely precede the back reference in the RE. Subexpressions are numbered in the order of their leading parentheses. Non-capturing parentheses do not define subexpressions. .PP There is an inherent historical ambiguity between octal character-entry escapes and back references, which is resolved by heuristics, as hinted at above. A leading zero always indicates an octal escape. A single non-zero digit, not followed by another digit, ................................................................................ back reference), and otherwise is taken as octal. .SH "METASYNTAX" In addition to the main syntax described above, there are some special forms and miscellaneous syntactic facilities available. .PP Normally the flavor of RE being used is specified by application-dependent means. However, this can be overridden by a \fIdirector\fR. If an RE of any flavor begins with .QW \fB***:\fR , the rest of the RE is an ARE. If an RE of any flavor begins with .QW \fB***=\fR , the rest of the RE is taken to be a literal string, with all characters considered ordinary characters. .PP An ARE may begin with \fIembedded options\fR: a sequence .QW \fB(?\fIxyz\fB)\fR where .QW \fIxyz\fR is one or more alphabetic characters) specifies options affecting the rest of the RE. These supplement, and can override, any options specified by the application. The available option letters are: .RS 2 .TP 3 \fBb\fR rest of RE is a BRE .TP 3 \fBc\fR ................................................................................ \fBn\fR newline-sensitive matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below) .TP 3 \fBp\fR partial newline-sensitive matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below) .TP 3 \fBq\fR rest of RE is a literal .PQ quoted string, all ordinary characters .TP 3 \fBs\fR non-newline-sensitive matching (usual default) .TP 3 \fBt\fR tight syntax (usual default; see below) .TP 3 \fBw\fR inverse partial newline-sensitive .PQ weird matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below) .TP 3 \fBx\fR expanded syntax (see below) .RE .PP Embedded options take effect at the .QW \fB)\fR terminating the sequence. They are available only at the start of an ARE, and may not be used later within it. .PP In addition to the usual (\fItight\fR) RE syntax, in which all characters are significant, there is an \fIexpanded\fR syntax, available in all flavors of RE with the \fB-expanded\fR switch, or in AREs with the embedded x option. In the expanded syntax, white-space characters are ignored and all characters between a \fB#\fR and the following newline (or the end of the RE) are ignored, permitting paragraphing and commenting a complex RE. There are three exceptions to that basic rule: .IP \(bu 3 a white-space character or .QW \fB#\fR preceded by .QW \fB\e\fR is retained .IP \(bu 3 white space or .QW \fB#\fR within a bracket expression is retained .IP \(bu 3 white space and comments are illegal within multi-character symbols like the ARE .QW \fB(?:\fR or the BRE .QW \fB\e(\fR .PP Expanded-syntax white-space characters are blank, tab, newline, and any character that belongs to the \fIspace\fR character class. .PP Finally, in an ARE, outside bracket expressions, the sequence .QW \fB(?#\fIttt\fB)\fR (where \fIttt\fR is any text not containing a .QW \fB)\fR ) is a comment, completely ignored. Again, this is not allowed between the characters of multi-character symbols like .QW \fB(?:\fR . Such comments are more a historical artifact than a useful facility, and their use is deprecated; use the expanded syntax instead. .PP \fINone\fR of these metasyntax extensions is available if the application (or an initial .QW \fB***=\fR director) has specified that the user's input be treated as a literal string rather than as an RE. .SH MATCHING In the event that an RE could match more than one substring of a given string, the RE matches the one starting earliest in the string. If the RE could match more than one substring starting at that point, its choice is determined by its \fIpreference\fR: either the longest substring, or the shortest. .PP Most atoms, and all constraints, have no preference. A parenthesized RE has the same preference (possibly none) as the RE. A quantified atom with quantifier .QW \fB{\fIm\fB}\fR or .QW \fB{\fIm\fB}?\fR has the same preference (possibly none) as the atom itself. A quantified atom with other normal quantifiers (including .QW \fB{\fIm\fB,\fIn\fB}\fR with \fIm\fR equal to \fIn\fR) prefers longest match. A quantified atom with other non-greedy quantifiers (including .QW \fB{\fIm\fB,\fIn\fB}?\fR with \fIm\fR equal to \fIn\fR) prefers shortest match. A branch has the same preference as the first quantified atom in it which has a preference. An RE consisting of two or more branches connected by the .QW \fB|\fR operator prefers longest match. .PP Subject to the constraints imposed by the rules for matching the whole RE, subexpressions also match the longest or shortest possible substrings, based on their preferences, with subexpressions starting earlier in the RE taking priority over ones starting later. Note that outer subexpressions thus take priority over their component subexpressions. .PP Note that the quantifiers .QW \fB{1,1}\fR and .QW \fB{1,1}?\fR can be used to force longest and shortest preference, respectively, on a subexpression or a whole RE. .PP Match lengths are measured in characters, not collating elements. An empty string is considered longer than no match at all. For example, .QW \fBbb*\fR matches the three middle characters of .QW \fBabbbc\fR , .QW \fB(week|wee)(night|knights)\fR matches all ten characters of .QW \fBweeknights\fR , when .QW \fB(.*).*\fR is matched against .QW \fBabc\fR the parenthesized subexpression matches all three characters, and when .QW \fB(a*)*\fR is matched against .QW \fBbc\fR both the whole RE and the parenthesized subexpression match an empty string. .PP If case-independent matching is specified, the effect is much as if all case distinctions had vanished from the alphabet. When an alphabetic that exists in multiple cases appears as an ordinary character outside a bracket expression, it is effectively transformed into a bracket expression containing both cases, so that .QW \fBx\fR becomes .QW \fB[xX]\fR . When it appears inside a bracket expression, all case counterparts of it are added to the bracket expression, so that .QW \fB[x]\fR becomes .QW \fB[xX]\fR and .QW \fB[^x]\fR becomes .QW \fB[^xX]\fR. .PP If newline-sensitive matching is specified, .QW \fB.\fR and bracket expressions using .QW \fB^\fR will never match the newline character (so that matches will never cross newlines unless the RE explicitly arranges it) and .QW \fB^\fR and .QW \fB\fR will match the empty string after and before a newline respectively, in addition to matching at beginning and end of string respectively. ARE .QW \fB\eA\fR and .QW \fB\eZ\fR continue to match beginning or end of string \fIonly\fR. .PP If partial newline-sensitive matching is specified, this affects .QW \fB.\fR and bracket expressions as with newline-sensitive matching, but not .QW \fB^\fR and .QW \fB\fR. .PP If inverse partial newline-sensitive matching is specified, this affects .QW \fB^\fR and .QW \fB\fR as with newline-sensitive matching, but not .QW \fB.\fR and bracket expressions. This isn't very useful but is provided for symmetry. .SH "LIMITS AND COMPATIBILITY" No particular limit is imposed on the length of REs. Programs intended to be highly portable should not employ REs longer than 256 bytes, as a POSIX-compliant implementation can refuse to accept such REs. .PP The only feature of AREs that is actually incompatible with POSIX EREs is that .QW \fB\e\fR does not lose its special significance inside bracket expressions. All other ARE features use syntax which is illegal or has undefined or unspecified effects in POSIX EREs; the .QW \fB***\fR syntax of directors likewise is outside the POSIX syntax for both BREs and EREs. .PP Many of the ARE extensions are borrowed from Perl, but some have been changed to clean them up, and a few Perl extensions are not present. Incompatibilities of note include .QW \fB\eb\fR , .QW \fB\eB\fR , the lack of special treatment for a trailing newline, the addition of complemented bracket expressions to the things affected by newline-sensitive matching, the restrictions on parentheses and back references in lookahead constraints, and the longest/shortest-match (rather than first-match) matching semantics. .PP The matching rules for REs containing both normal and non-greedy quantifiers have changed since early beta-test versions of this package. (The new rules are much simpler and cleaner, but don't work as hard at guessing the user's real intentions.) .PP Henry Spencer's original 1986 \fIregexp\fR package, still in widespread use (e.g., in pre-8.1 releases of Tcl), implemented an early version of today's EREs. There are four incompatibilities between \fIregexp\fR's near-EREs .PQ RRE "s for short" and AREs. In roughly increasing order of significance: .IP \(bu 3 In AREs, .QW \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character is either an escape or an error, while in RREs, it was just another way of writing the alphanumeric. This should not be a problem because there was no reason to write such a sequence in RREs. .IP \(bu 3 .QW \fB{\fR followed by a digit in an ARE is the beginning of a bound, while in RREs, .QW \fB{\fR was always an ordinary character. Such sequences should be rare, and will often result in an error because following characters will not look like a valid bound. .IP \(bu 3 In AREs, .QW \fB\e\fR remains a special character within .QW \fB[\|]\fR , so a literal .QW \fB\e\fR within .QW \fB[\|]\fR must be written .QW \fB\e\e\fR . .QW \fB\e\e\fR also gives a literal .QW \fB\e\fR within .QW \fB[\|]\fR in RREs, but only truly paranoid programmers routinely doubled the backslash. .IP \(bu 3 AREs report the longest/shortest match for the RE, rather than the first found in a specified search order. This may affect some RREs which were written in the expectation that the first match would be reported. (The careful crafting of RREs to optimize the search order for fast matching is obsolete (AREs examine all possible matches in parallel, and their performance is largely insensitive to their complexity) but cases where the search order was exploited to deliberately find a match which was \fInot\fR the longest/shortest will need rewriting.) .SH "BASIC REGULAR EXPRESSIONS" BREs differ from EREs in several respects. .QW \fB|\fR , .QW \fB+\fR , and .QW \fB?\fR are ordinary characters and there is no equivalent for their functionality. The delimiters for bounds are .QW \fB\e{\fR and .QW \fB\e}\fR , with .QW \fB{\fR and .QW \fB}\fR by themselves ordinary characters. The parentheses for nested subexpressions are .QW \fB\e(\fR and .QW \fB\e)\fR , with .QW \fB(\fR and .QW \fB)\fR by themselves ordinary characters. .QW \fB^\fR is an ordinary character except at the beginning of the RE or the beginning of a parenthesized subexpression, .QW \fB\fR is an ordinary character except at the end of the RE or the end of a parenthesized subexpression, and .QW \fB*\fR is an ordinary character if it appears at the beginning of the RE or the beginning of a parenthesized subexpression (after a possible leading .QW \fB^\fR ). Finally, single-digit back references are available, and .QW \fB\e<\fR and .QW \fB\e>\fR are synonyms for .QW \fB[[:<:]]\fR and .QW \fB[[:>:]]\fR respectively; no other escapes are available. .SH "SEE ALSO" RegExp(3), regexp(n), regsub(n), lsearch(n), switch(n), text(n) .SH KEYWORDS match, regular expression, string .\" Local Variables: .\" mode: nroff .\" End:   | < < | < | < | < | | < | < | | < | | < | | < < | | < | < | < | | < | | < | | | < < < | < < < | | < < < | < | < < | | < | < | | < < < | | < | | < | < < < < < | < < < < < < < > | < | < < < | | < < < < < < < > | < < < < | < < < < | | < < | < < < < | | | < | | < < | < < < | < < | | < | | < < < < | < < < < < | < | | < | < < < < | < < < < | < < | < < < | < | < | < | < < < | > | < < < < < < | | < | < | | < < | | < < | | < | | < | | | < < < | < < | | < < < < | < | | < | < < | | < < < < | < | | < < | | < < < | < | < | < < < < | < < < < < | | < < < | < < < < < < < > | | < < < | < < < < | | < < < < | | < < < < < < | < | < < | | < | < < | | < | < < | < | < < | < < | < < < < < | < < | < < < | | < < < < | | < < < < < < < > | < < < < < < < < | < | | < | < < | < | < < < | < < < > > > | | |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 .. 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 ... 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 ... 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 ... 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 ... 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 ... 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 ... 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 ... 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 ... 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 ... 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: re_syntax.n,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH re_syntax n "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .SH NAME re_syntax \- Syntax of Tcl regular expressions .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP A \fIregular expression\fR describes strings of characters. It's a pattern that matches certain strings and doesn't match others. .SH "DIFFERENT FLAVORS OF REs" Regular expressions (RE''s), as defined by POSIX, come in two flavors: \fIextended\fR REs (EREs'') and \fIbasic\fR REs (BREs''). EREs are roughly those of the traditional \fIegrep\fR, while BREs are roughly those of the traditional \fIed\fR. This implementation adds a third flavor, \fIadvanced\fR REs (AREs''), basically EREs with some significant extensions. .PP This manual page primarily describes AREs. BREs mostly exist for backward compatibility in some old programs; they will be discussed at the end. POSIX EREs are almost an exact subset of AREs. Features of AREs that are not present in EREs will be indicated. .SH "REGULAR EXPRESSION SYNTAX" .PP Tcl regular expressions are implemented using the package written by Henry Spencer, based on the 1003.2 spec and some (not quite all) of the Perl5 extensions (thanks, Henry!). Much of the description of regular expressions below is copied verbatim from his manual entry. .PP An ARE is one or more \fIbranches\fR, separated by \fB|\fR', matching anything that matches any of the branches. .PP A branch is zero or more \fIconstraints\fR or \fIquantified atoms\fR, concatenated. It matches a match for the first, followed by a match for the second, etc; an empty branch matches the empty string. .PP ................................................................................ .PP An atom is one of: .RS 2 .IP \fB(\fIre\fB)\fR 6 matches a match for \fIre\fR (\fIre\fR is any regular expression) with the match noted for possible reporting .IP \fB(?:\fIre\fB)\fR as previous, but does no reporting (a non-capturing'' set of parentheses) .IP \fB()\fR matches an empty string, noted for possible reporting .IP \fB(?:)\fR matches an empty string, without reporting .IP \fB[\fIchars\fB]\fR a \fIbracket expression\fR, matching any one of the \fIchars\fR (see \fBBRACKET EXPRESSIONS\fR for more detail) .IP \fB.\fR matches any single character .IP \fB\e\fIk\fR matches the non-alphanumeric character \fIk\fR taken as an ordinary character, e.g. \fB\e\e\fR matches a backslash character .IP \fB\e\fIc\fR where \fIc\fR is alphanumeric (possibly followed by other characters), an \fIescape\fR (AREs only), see \fBESCAPES\fR below .IP \fB{\fR when followed by a character other than a digit, matches the left-brace character \fB{\fR'; when followed by a digit, it is the beginning of a \fIbound\fR (see above) .IP \fIx\fR where \fIx\fR is a single character with no other significance, matches that character. .RE .PP A \fIconstraint\fR matches an empty string when specific conditions are met. A constraint may not be followed by a quantifier. The ................................................................................ \fInegative lookahead\fR (AREs only), matches at any point where no substring matching \fIre\fR begins .RE .PP The lookahead constraints may not contain back references (see later), and all parentheses within them are considered non-capturing. .PP An RE may not end with \fB\e\fR'. .SH "BRACKET EXPRESSIONS" A \fIbracket expression\fR is a list of characters enclosed in \fB[\|]\fR'. It normally matches any single character from the list (but see below). If the list begins with \fB^\fR', it matches any single character (but see below) \fInot\fR from the rest of the list. .PP If two characters in the list are separated by \fB\-\fR', this is shorthand for the full \fIrange\fR of characters between those two (inclusive) in the collating sequence, e.g. \fB[0\-9]\fR in Unicode matches any conventional decimal digit. Two ranges may not share an endpoint, so e.g. \fBa\-c\-e\fR is illegal. Ranges are very collating-sequence-dependent, and portable programs should avoid relying on them. .PP To include a literal \fB]\fR or \fB\-\fR in the list, the simplest method is to enclose it in \fB[.\fR and \fB.]\fR to make it a collating element (see below). Alternatively, make it the first character (following a possible \fB^\fR'), or (AREs only) precede it with \fB\e\fR'. Alternatively, for \fB\-\fR', make it the last character, or the second endpoint of a range. To use a literal \fB\-\fR as the first endpoint of a range, make it a collating element or (AREs only) precede it with \fB\e\fR'. With the exception of these, some combinations using \fB[\fR (see next paragraphs), and escapes, all other special characters lose their special significance within a bracket expression. .PP Within a bracket expression, a collating element (a character, a multi-character sequence that collates as if it were a single character, or a collating-sequence name for either) enclosed in \fB[.\fR and \fB.]\fR stands for the sequence of characters of that collating element. The sequence is a single element of the bracket expression's list. A bracket expression in a locale that has multi-character collating elements can thus match more than one character. So (insidiously), a bracket expression that starts with \fB^\fR can match multi-character collating elements even if none of them appear in the bracket expression! (\fINote:\fR Tcl currently has no multi-character collating elements. This information is only for illustration.) .PP For example, assume the collating sequence includes a \fBch\fR multi-character collating element. Then the RE \fB[[.ch.]]*c\fR (zero or more \fBch\fR's followed by \fBc\fR) matches the first five characters of \fBchchcc\fR'. Also, the RE \fB[^c]b\fR matches all of \fBchb\fR' (because \fB[^c]\fR matches the multi-character \fBch\fR). .PP Within a bracket expression, a collating element enclosed in \fB[=\fR and \fB=]\fR is an equivalence class, standing for the sequences of characters of all collating elements equivalent to that one, including itself. (If there are no other equivalent collating elements, the treatment is as if the enclosing delimiters were \fB[.\fR'\& and \fB.]\fR'.) For example, if \fBo\fR and \fB\o'o^'\fR are the members of an equivalence class, then \fB[[=o=]]\fR', \fB[[=\o'o^'=]]\fR', and \fB[o\o'o^']\fR'\& are all synonymous. An equivalence class may not be an endpoint of a range. (\fINote:\fR Tcl currently implements only the Unicode locale. It doesn't define any equivalence classes. The examples above are just illustrations.) .PP Within a bracket expression, the name of a \fIcharacter class\fR enclosed in \fB[:\fR and \fB:]\fR stands for the list of all characters (not all collating elements!) belonging to that class. Standard character classes are: .IP \fBalpha\fR 8 A letter. .IP \fBupper\fR 8 An upper-case letter. .IP \fBlower\fR 8 A lower-case letter. ................................................................................ .IP \fBdigit\fR 8 A decimal digit. .IP \fBxdigit\fR 8 A hexadecimal digit. .IP \fBalnum\fR 8 An alphanumeric (letter or digit). .IP \fBprint\fR 8 A "printable" (same as graph, except also including space). .IP \fBblank\fR 8 A space or tab character. .IP \fBspace\fR 8 A character producing white space in displayed text. .IP \fBpunct\fR 8 A punctuation character. .IP \fBgraph\fR 8 ................................................................................ A control character. .PP A locale may provide others. (Note that the current Tcl implementation has only one locale: the Unicode locale.) A character class may not be used as an endpoint of a range. .PP There are two special cases of bracket expressions: the bracket expressions \fB[[:<:]]\fR and \fB[[:>:]]\fR are constraints, matching empty strings at the beginning and end of a word respectively. '\" note, discussion of escapes below references this definition of word A word is defined as a sequence of word characters that is neither preceded nor followed by word characters. A word character is an \fIalnum\fR character or an underscore (\fB_\fR). These special bracket expressions are deprecated; users of AREs should use constraint escapes instead (see below). .SH ESCAPES Escapes (AREs only), which begin with a \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character, come in several varieties: character entry, class shorthands, constraint escapes, and back references. A \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character but not constituting a valid escape is illegal in AREs. In EREs, there are no escapes: outside a bracket expression, a \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character merely stands for that character as an ordinary character, and inside a bracket expression, \fB\e\fR is an ordinary character. (The latter is the one actual incompatibility between EREs and AREs.) .PP Character-entry escapes (AREs only) exist to make it easier to specify non-printing and otherwise inconvenient characters in REs: .RS 2 .TP 5 \fB\ea\fR ................................................................................ applications where there are multiple levels of backslash processing .TP \fB\ec\fIX\fR (where \fIX\fR is any character) the character whose low-order 5 bits are the same as those of \fIX\fR, and whose other bits are all zero .TP \fB\ee\fR the character whose collating-sequence name is \fBESC\fR', or failing that, the character with octal value 033 .TP \fB\ef\fR formfeed, as in C .TP \fB\en\fR newline, as in C .TP ................................................................................ .TP \fB\e\fIxyz\fR (where \fIxyz\fR is exactly three octal digits, and is not a back reference (see below)) the character whose octal value is \fB0\fIxyz\fR .RE .PP Hexadecimal digits are \fB0\fR'-\fB9\fR', \fBa\fR'-\fBf\fR', and \fBA\fR'-\fBF\fR'. Octal digits are \fB0\fR'-\fB7\fR'. .PP The character-entry escapes are always taken as ordinary characters. For example, \fB\e135\fR is \fB]\fR in Unicode, but \fB\e135\fR does not terminate a bracket expression. Beware, however, that some applications (e.g., C compilers and the Tcl interpreter if the regular expression is not quoted with braces) interpret such sequences themselves before the regular-expression package gets to see them, which may require doubling (quadrupling, etc.) the \fB\e\fR'. .PP Class-shorthand escapes (AREs only) provide shorthands for certain commonly-used character classes: .RS 2 .TP 10 \fB\ed\fR \fB[[:digit:]]\fR ................................................................................ \fB\eS\fR \fB[^[:space:]]\fR .TP \fB\eW\fR \fB[^[:alnum:]_]\fR (note underscore) .RE .PP Within bracket expressions, \fB\ed\fR', \fB\es\fR', and \fB\ew\fR'\& lose their outer brackets, and \fB\eD\fR', \fB\eS\fR', and \fB\eW\fR'\& are illegal. (So, for example, \fB[a-c\ed]\fR is equivalent to \fB[a-c[:digit:]]\fR. Also, \fB[a-c\eD]\fR, which is equivalent to \fB[a-c^[:digit:]]\fR, is illegal.) .PP A constraint escape (AREs only) is a constraint, matching the empty string if specific conditions are met, written as an escape: .RS 2 .TP 6 \fB\eA\fR matches only at the beginning of the string (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below, for how this differs from \fB^\fR') .TP \fB\em\fR matches only at the beginning of a word .TP \fB\eM\fR matches only at the end of a word .TP ................................................................................ matches only at the beginning or end of a word .TP \fB\eY\fR matches only at a point that is not the beginning or end of a word .TP \fB\eZ\fR matches only at the end of the string (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below, for how this differs from \fB\fR') .TP \fB\e\fIm\fR (where \fIm\fR is a nonzero digit) a \fIback reference\fR, see below .TP \fB\e\fImnn\fR (where \fIm\fR is a nonzero digit, and \fInn\fR is some more digits, and the decimal value \fImnn\fR is not greater than the number of closing capturing parentheses seen so far) a \fIback reference\fR, see below .RE .PP A word is defined as in the specification of \fB[[:<:]]\fR and \fB[[:>:]]\fR above. Constraint escapes are illegal within bracket expressions. .PP A back reference (AREs only) matches the same string matched by the parenthesized subexpression specified by the number, so that (e.g.) \fB([bc])\e1\fR matches \fBbb\fR or \fBcc\fR but not \fBbc\fR'. The subexpression must entirely precede the back reference in the RE. Subexpressions are numbered in the order of their leading parentheses. Non-capturing parentheses do not define subexpressions. .PP There is an inherent historical ambiguity between octal character-entry escapes and back references, which is resolved by heuristics, as hinted at above. A leading zero always indicates an octal escape. A single non-zero digit, not followed by another digit, ................................................................................ back reference), and otherwise is taken as octal. .SH "METASYNTAX" In addition to the main syntax described above, there are some special forms and miscellaneous syntactic facilities available. .PP Normally the flavor of RE being used is specified by application-dependent means. However, this can be overridden by a \fIdirector\fR. If an RE of any flavor begins with \fB***:\fR', the rest of the RE is an ARE. If an RE of any flavor begins with \fB***=\fR', the rest of the RE is taken to be a literal string, with all characters considered ordinary characters. .PP An ARE may begin with \fIembedded options\fR: a sequence \fB(?\fIxyz\fB)\fR (where \fIxyz\fR is one or more alphabetic characters) specifies options affecting the rest of the RE. These supplement, and can override, any options specified by the application. The available option letters are: .RS 2 .TP 3 \fBb\fR rest of RE is a BRE .TP 3 \fBc\fR ................................................................................ \fBn\fR newline-sensitive matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below) .TP 3 \fBp\fR partial newline-sensitive matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below) .TP 3 \fBq\fR rest of RE is a literal (quoted'') string, all ordinary characters .TP 3 \fBs\fR non-newline-sensitive matching (usual default) .TP 3 \fBt\fR tight syntax (usual default; see below) .TP 3 \fBw\fR inverse partial newline-sensitive (weird'') matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below) .TP 3 \fBx\fR expanded syntax (see below) .RE .PP Embedded options take effect at the \fB)\fR terminating the sequence. They are available only at the start of an ARE, and may not be used later within it. .PP In addition to the usual (\fItight\fR) RE syntax, in which all characters are significant, there is an \fIexpanded\fR syntax, available in all flavors of RE with the \fB-expanded\fR switch, or in AREs with the embedded x option. In the expanded syntax, white-space characters are ignored and all characters between a \fB#\fR and the following newline (or the end of the RE) are ignored, permitting paragraphing and commenting a complex RE. There are three exceptions to that basic rule: .IP \(bu 3 a white-space character or \fB#\fR' preceded by \fB\e\fR' is retained .IP \(bu 3 white space or \fB#\fR' within a bracket expression is retained .IP \(bu 3 white space and comments are illegal within multi-character symbols like the ARE \fB(?:\fR' or the BRE \fB\e(\fR' .PP Expanded-syntax white-space characters are blank, tab, newline, and any character that belongs to the \fIspace\fR character class. .PP Finally, in an ARE, outside bracket expressions, the sequence \fB(?#\fIttt\fB)\fR' (where \fIttt\fR is any text not containing a \fB)\fR') is a comment, completely ignored. Again, this is not allowed between the characters of multi-character symbols like \fB(?:\fR'. Such comments are more a historical artifact than a useful facility, and their use is deprecated; use the expanded syntax instead. .PP \fINone\fR of these metasyntax extensions is available if the application (or an initial \fB***=\fR director) has specified that the user's input be treated as a literal string rather than as an RE. .SH MATCHING In the event that an RE could match more than one substring of a given string, the RE matches the one starting earliest in the string. If the RE could match more than one substring starting at that point, its choice is determined by its \fIpreference\fR: either the longest substring, or the shortest. .PP Most atoms, and all constraints, have no preference. A parenthesized RE has the same preference (possibly none) as the RE. A quantified atom with quantifier \fB{\fIm\fB}\fR or \fB{\fIm\fB}?\fR has the same preference (possibly none) as the atom itself. A quantified atom with other normal quantifiers (including \fB{\fIm\fB,\fIn\fB}\fR with \fIm\fR equal to \fIn\fR) prefers longest match. A quantified atom with other non-greedy quantifiers (including \fB{\fIm\fB,\fIn\fB}?\fR with \fIm\fR equal to \fIn\fR) prefers shortest match. A branch has the same preference as the first quantified atom in it which has a preference. An RE consisting of two or more branches connected by the \fB|\fR operator prefers longest match. .PP Subject to the constraints imposed by the rules for matching the whole RE, subexpressions also match the longest or shortest possible substrings, based on their preferences, with subexpressions starting earlier in the RE taking priority over ones starting later. Note that outer subexpressions thus take priority over their component subexpressions. .PP Note that the quantifiers \fB{1,1}\fR and \fB{1,1}?\fR can be used to force longest and shortest preference, respectively, on a subexpression or a whole RE. .PP Match lengths are measured in characters, not collating elements. An empty string is considered longer than no match at all. For example, \fBbb*\fR matches the three middle characters of \fBabbbc\fR', \fB(week|wee)(night|knights)\fR matches all ten characters of \fBweeknights\fR', when \fB(.*).*\fR is matched against \fBabc\fR the parenthesized subexpression matches all three characters, and when \fB(a*)*\fR is matched against \fBbc\fR both the whole RE and the parenthesized subexpression match an empty string. .PP If case-independent matching is specified, the effect is much as if all case distinctions had vanished from the alphabet. When an alphabetic that exists in multiple cases appears as an ordinary character outside a bracket expression, it is effectively transformed into a bracket expression containing both cases, so that \fBx\fR becomes \fB[xX]\fR'. When it appears inside a bracket expression, all case counterparts of it are added to the bracket expression, so that \fB[x]\fR becomes \fB[xX]\fR and \fB[^x]\fR becomes \fB[^xX]\fR'. .PP If newline-sensitive matching is specified, \fB.\fR and bracket expressions using \fB^\fR will never match the newline character (so that matches will never cross newlines unless the RE explicitly arranges it) and \fB^\fR and \fB\fR will match the empty string after and before a newline respectively, in addition to matching at beginning and end of string respectively. ARE \fB\eA\fR and \fB\eZ\fR continue to match beginning or end of string \fIonly\fR. .PP If partial newline-sensitive matching is specified, this affects \fB.\fR and bracket expressions as with newline-sensitive matching, but not \fB^\fR and \fB\fR'. .PP If inverse partial newline-sensitive matching is specified, this affects \fB^\fR and \fB\fR as with newline-sensitive matching, but not \fB.\fR and bracket expressions. This isn't very useful but is provided for symmetry. .SH "LIMITS AND COMPATIBILITY" No particular limit is imposed on the length of REs. Programs intended to be highly portable should not employ REs longer than 256 bytes, as a POSIX-compliant implementation can refuse to accept such REs. .PP The only feature of AREs that is actually incompatible with POSIX EREs is that \fB\e\fR does not lose its special significance inside bracket expressions. All other ARE features use syntax which is illegal or has undefined or unspecified effects in POSIX EREs; the \fB***\fR syntax of directors likewise is outside the POSIX syntax for both BREs and EREs. .PP Many of the ARE extensions are borrowed from Perl, but some have been changed to clean them up, and a few Perl extensions are not present. Incompatibilities of note include \fB\eb\fR', \fB\eB\fR', the lack of special treatment for a trailing newline, the addition of complemented bracket expressions to the things affected by newline-sensitive matching, the restrictions on parentheses and back references in lookahead constraints, and the longest/shortest-match (rather than first-match) matching semantics. .PP The matching rules for REs containing both normal and non-greedy quantifiers have changed since early beta-test versions of this package. (The new rules are much simpler and cleaner, but don't work as hard at guessing the user's real intentions.) .PP Henry Spencer's original 1986 \fIregexp\fR package, still in widespread use (e.g., in pre-8.1 releases of Tcl), implemented an early version of today's EREs. There are four incompatibilities between \fIregexp\fR's near-EREs (RREs' for short) and AREs. In roughly increasing order of significance: .IP \(bu 3 In AREs, \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character is either an escape or an error, while in RREs, it was just another way of writing the alphanumeric. This should not be a problem because there was no reason to write such a sequence in RREs. .IP \(bu 3 \fB{\fR followed by a digit in an ARE is the beginning of a bound, while in RREs, \fB{\fR was always an ordinary character. Such sequences should be rare, and will often result in an error because following characters will not look like a valid bound. .IP \(bu 3 In AREs, \fB\e\fR remains a special character within \fB[\|]\fR', so a literal \fB\e\fR within \fB[\|]\fR must be written \fB\e\e\fR'. \fB\e\e\fR also gives a literal \fB\e\fR within \fB[\|]\fR in RREs, but only truly paranoid programmers routinely doubled the backslash. .IP \(bu 3 AREs report the longest/shortest match for the RE, rather than the first found in a specified search order. This may affect some RREs which were written in the expectation that the first match would be reported. (The careful crafting of RREs to optimize the search order for fast matching is obsolete (AREs examine all possible matches in parallel, and their performance is largely insensitive to their complexity) but cases where the search order was exploited to deliberately find a match which was \fInot\fR the longest/shortest will need rewriting.) .SH "BASIC REGULAR EXPRESSIONS" BREs differ from EREs in several respects. \fB|\fR', \fB+\fR', and \fB?\fR are ordinary characters and there is no equivalent for their functionality. The delimiters for bounds are \fB\e{\fR and \fB\e}\fR', with \fB{\fR and \fB}\fR by themselves ordinary characters. The parentheses for nested subexpressions are \fB\e(\fR and \fB\e)\fR', with \fB(\fR and \fB)\fR by themselves ordinary characters. \fB^\fR is an ordinary character except at the beginning of the RE or the beginning of a parenthesized subexpression, \fB\fR is an ordinary character except at the end of the RE or the end of a parenthesized subexpression, and \fB*\fR is an ordinary character if it appears at the beginning of the RE or the beginning of a parenthesized subexpression (after a possible leading \fB^\fR'). Finally, single-digit back references are available, and \fB\e<\fR and \fB\e>\fR are synonyms for \fB[[:<:]]\fR and \fB[[:>:]]\fR respectively; no other escapes are available. .SH "SEE ALSO" RegExp(3), regexp(n), regsub(n), lsearch(n), switch(n), text(n) .SH KEYWORDS match, regular expression, string '\" Local Variables: '\" mode: nroff '\" End:  Changes to doc/read.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 .. 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: read.n,v 1.12 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH read n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME read \- Read from a channel ................................................................................ the command returns before reaching the end of the file. .PP \fBRead\fR translates end-of-line sequences in the input into newline characters according to the \fB\-translation\fR option for the channel. See the \fBfconfigure\fR manual entry for a discussion on ways in which \fBfconfigure\fR will alter input. .SH "USE WITH SERIAL PORTS" .\" Note: this advice actually applies to many versions of Tcl For most applications a channel connected to a serial port should be configured to be nonblocking: \fBfconfigure \fIchannelId \fB\-blocking \fI0\fR. Then \fBread\fR behaves much like described above. Care must be taken when using \fBread\fR on blocking serial ports: .TP \fBread \fIchannelId numChars\fR In this form \fBread\fR blocks until \fInumChars\fR have been received ................................................................................ with each line in the file corresponding to an element in the list: .CS set fl [open /proc/meminfo] set data [\fBread\fR fl] close fl set lines [split data \\n] .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), eof(n), fblocked(n), fconfigure(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3) .SH KEYWORDS blocking, channel, end of line, end of file, nonblocking, read, translation, encoding   | > | > > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 .. 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: read.n,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH read n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME read \- Read from a channel ................................................................................ the command returns before reaching the end of the file. .PP \fBRead\fR translates end-of-line sequences in the input into newline characters according to the \fB\-translation\fR option for the channel. See the \fBfconfigure\fR manual entry for a discussion on ways in which \fBfconfigure\fR will alter input. .SH "USE WITH SERIAL PORTS" '\" Note: this advice actually applies to many versions of Tcl For most applications a channel connected to a serial port should be configured to be nonblocking: \fBfconfigure \fIchannelId \fB\-blocking \fI0\fR. Then \fBread\fR behaves much like described above. Care must be taken when using \fBread\fR on blocking serial ports: .TP \fBread \fIchannelId numChars\fR In this form \fBread\fR blocks until \fInumChars\fR have been received ................................................................................ with each line in the file corresponding to an element in the list: .CS set fl [open /proc/meminfo] set data [\fBread\fR fl] close fl set lines [split data \\n] .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), eof(n), fblocked(n), fconfigure(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3) .SH KEYWORDS blocking, channel, end of line, end of file, nonblocking, read, translation, encoding  Changes to doc/refchan.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 .. 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 ... 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2006 Andreas Kupries '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: refchan.n,v 1.6 2007/10/25 09:44:22 dkf Exp  .so man.macros .TH reflectedchan n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME reflectedchan \- Command handler API of reflected channels, version 1 .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ (e.g. \fBbreak\fR, etc.) is treated as (and converted to) an error. .PP \fBNote:\fR If the creation of the channel was aborted due to failures here, then the \fBfinalize\fR subcommand will not be called. .PP The \fImode\fR argument tells the handler whether the channel was opened for reading, writing, or both. It is a list containing any of the strings .QW "\fBread\fR" or .QW "\fBwrite\fR" . The list will always contain at least one element. .PP The subcommand must throw an error if the chosen mode is not supported by the \fIcmdPrefix\fR. .RE .TP \fIcmdPrefix \fBfinalize \fIchannelId\fR . ................................................................................ aborted during \fBinitialize\fR (See above). .RE .TP \fIcmdPrefix \fBwatch \fIchannelId eventspec\fR . This subcommand notifies the \fIcmdPrefix\fR that the specified \fIchannelId\fR is interested in the events listed in the \fIeventspec\fR. This argument is a list containing any of .QW "\fBread\fR" and .QW "\fBwrite\fR" . The list may be empty, which signals that the channel does not wish to be notified of any events. In that situation, the handler should disable event generation completely. .RS .PP \fBWarning:\fR Any return value of the subcommand is ignored. This includes all errors thrown by the subcommand, break, continue, and custom return codes. ................................................................................ greater than or equal to zero. .PP If the subcommand throws an error the command which caused its invocation (usually \fBseek\fR, or \fBtell\fR) will appear to have thrown this error. Any exception beyond \fIerror\fR (e.g. \fIbreak\fR, etc.) is treated as and converted to an error. .PP The offset/base combination of 0/\fBcurrent\fR signals a \fBtell\fR request, i.e. seek nothing relative to the current location, making the new location identical to the current one, which is then returned. .RE .TP \fIcmdPrefix \fBconfigure \fIchannelId option value\fR . This \fIoptional\fR subcommand is for setting the type-specific options of   | | < < < | | < < < | |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 .. 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 ... 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2006 Andreas Kupries '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: refchan.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp  .so man.macros .TH reflectedchan n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME reflectedchan \- Command handler API of reflected channels, version 1 .SH SYNOPSIS ................................................................................ (e.g. \fBbreak\fR, etc.) is treated as (and converted to) an error. .PP \fBNote:\fR If the creation of the channel was aborted due to failures here, then the \fBfinalize\fR subcommand will not be called. .PP The \fImode\fR argument tells the handler whether the channel was opened for reading, writing, or both. It is a list containing any of the strings "\fBread\fR" or "\fBwrite\fR". The list will always contain at least one element. .PP The subcommand must throw an error if the chosen mode is not supported by the \fIcmdPrefix\fR. .RE .TP \fIcmdPrefix \fBfinalize \fIchannelId\fR . ................................................................................ aborted during \fBinitialize\fR (See above). .RE .TP \fIcmdPrefix \fBwatch \fIchannelId eventspec\fR . This subcommand notifies the \fIcmdPrefix\fR that the specified \fIchannelId\fR is interested in the events listed in the \fIeventspec\fR. This argument is a list containing any of "\fBread\fR" and "\fBwrite\fR". The list may be empty, which signals that the channel does not wish to be notified of any events. In that situation, the handler should disable event generation completely. .RS .PP \fBWarning:\fR Any return value of the subcommand is ignored. This includes all errors thrown by the subcommand, break, continue, and custom return codes. ................................................................................ greater than or equal to zero. .PP If the subcommand throws an error the command which caused its invocation (usually \fBseek\fR, or \fBtell\fR) will appear to have thrown this error. Any exception beyond \fIerror\fR (e.g. \fIbreak\fR, etc.) is treated as and converted to an error. .PP The offset/base combination of 0/"\fBcurrent\fR" signals a \fBtell\fR request, i.e. seek nothing relative to the current location, making the new location identical to the current one, which is then returned. .RE .TP \fIcmdPrefix \fBconfigure \fIchannelId option value\fR . This \fIoptional\fR subcommand is for setting the type-specific options of  Changes to doc/regexp.n.  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 .. 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 ... 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 ... 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) Id: regexp.n,v 1.22 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp  '\" .so man.macros .TH regexp n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME regexp \- Match a regular expression against a string .SH SYNOPSIS \fBregexp \fR?\fIswitches\fR? \fIexp string \fR?\fImatchVar\fR? ?\fIsubMatchVar subMatchVar ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP Determines whether the regular expression \fIexp\fR matches part or ................................................................................ will contain a list of two decimal strings giving the indices in \fIstring\fR of the first and last characters in the matching range of characters. .TP 15 \fB\-line\fR Enables newline-sensitive matching. By default, newline is a completely ordinary character with no special meaning. With this flag, .QW [^ bracket expressions and .QW . never match newline, .QW ^ matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal function, and .QW  matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function. This flag is equivalent to specifying both \fB\-linestop\fR and \fB\-lineanchor\fR, or the \fB(?n)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-linestop\fR Changes the behavior of .QW [^ bracket expressions and .QW . so that they stop at newlines. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?p)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-lineanchor\fR Changes the behavior of .QW ^ and .QW  (the .QW anchors ) so they match the beginning and end of a line respectively. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?w)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-nocase\fR Causes upper-case characters in \fIstring\fR to be treated as lower case during the matching process. ................................................................................ Causes the command to return, as a list, the data that would otherwise be placed in match variables. When using \fB-inline\fR, match variables may not be specified. If used with \fB-all\fR, the list will be concatenated at each iteration, such that a flat list is always returned. For each match iteration, the command will append the overall match data, plus one element for each subexpression in the regular expression. Examples are: .RS .CS .ta 2i \fBregexp\fR -inline -- {\\w(\\w)} " inlined " \fB\(->\fI in n\fR \fBregexp\fR -all -inline -- {\\w(\\w)} " inlined " \fB\(->\fI in n li i ne e\fR .CE .RE .TP 15 \fB\-start\fR \fIindex\fR Specifies a character index offset into the string to start matching the regular expression at. .VS 8.5 The \fIindex\fR value is interpreted in the same manner as the \fIindex\fR argument to \fBstring index\fR. .VE 8.5 When using this switch, .QW ^ will not match the beginning of the line, and \\A will still match the start of the string at \fIindex\fR. If \fB\-indices\fR is specified, the indices will be indexed starting from the absolute beginning of the input string. \fIindex\fR will be constrained to the bounds of the input string. .TP 15 \fB\-\|\-\fR Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will be treated as \fIexp\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .PP If there are more \fIsubMatchVar\fRs than parenthesized subexpressions within \fIexp\fR, or if a particular subexpression in \fIexp\fR doesn't match the string (e.g. because it was in a portion of the expression that wasn't matched), then the corresponding \fIsubMatchVar\fR will be set to .QW "\fB\-1 \-1\fR" if \fB\-indices\fR has been specified or to an empty string otherwise. .SH EXAMPLES Find the first occurrence of a word starting with \fBfoo\fR in a string that is not actually an instance of \fBfoobar\fR, and get the letters following it up to the end of the word into a variable: .CS \fBregexp\fR {\$$(\\w*)} $string \-> restOfWord .CE ................................................................................ .CE .PP List all words (consisting of all sequences of non-whitespace characters) in a string: .CS \fBregexp\fR \-all \-inline {\\S+}$string .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" re_syntax(n), regsub(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS match, regular expression, string   | > < < | < < < < < | | < < < < | < < < < < < < < | < > | | < | < | | < | > > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 .. 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 .. 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 ... 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: regexp.n,v 1.23 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH regexp n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME regexp \- Match a regular expression against a string .SH SYNOPSIS \fBregexp \fR?\fIswitches\fR? \fIexp string \fR?\fImatchVar\fR? ?\fIsubMatchVar subMatchVar ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP Determines whether the regular expression \fIexp\fR matches part or ................................................................................ will contain a list of two decimal strings giving the indices in \fIstring\fR of the first and last characters in the matching range of characters. .TP 15 \fB\-line\fR Enables newline-sensitive matching. By default, newline is a completely ordinary character with no special meaning. With this flag, [^' bracket expressions and .' never match newline, ^' matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal function, and $' matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function. This flag is equivalent to specifying both \fB\-linestop\fR and \fB\-lineanchor\fR, or the \fB(?n)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-linestop\fR Changes the behavior of [^' bracket expressions and .' so that they stop at newlines. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?p)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-lineanchor\fR Changes the behavior of ^' and $' (the anchors'') so they match the beginning and end of a line respectively. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?w)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-nocase\fR Causes upper-case characters in \fIstring\fR to be treated as lower case during the matching process. ................................................................................ Causes the command to return, as a list, the data that would otherwise be placed in match variables. When using \fB-inline\fR, match variables may not be specified. If used with \fB-all\fR, the list will be concatenated at each iteration, such that a flat list is always returned. For each match iteration, the command will append the overall match data, plus one element for each subexpression in the regular expression. Examples are: .CS regexp -inline -- {\\w(\\w)} " inlined " => {in n} regexp -all -inline -- {\\w(\\w)} " inlined " => {in n li i ne e} .CE .TP 15 \fB\-start\fR \fIindex\fR Specifies a character index offset into the string to start matching the regular expression at. .VS 8.5 The \fIindex\fR value is interpreted in the same manner as the \fIindex\fR argument to \fBstring index\fR. .VE 8.5 When using this switch, ^' will not match the beginning of the line, and \\A will still match the start of the string at \fIindex\fR. If \fB\-indices\fR is specified, the indices will be indexed starting from the absolute beginning of the input string. \fIindex\fR will be constrained to the bounds of the input string. .TP 15 \fB\-\|\-\fR Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will be treated as \fIexp\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. .PP If there are more \fIsubMatchVar\fR's than parenthesized subexpressions within \fIexp\fR, or if a particular subexpression in \fIexp\fR doesn't match the string (e.g. because it was in a portion of the expression that wasn't matched), then the corresponding \fIsubMatchVar\fR will be set to \fB\-1 \-1\fR'' if \fB\-indices\fR has been specified or to an empty string otherwise. .SH EXAMPLES Find the first occurrence of a word starting with \fBfoo\fR in a string that is not actually an instance of \fBfoobar\fR, and get the letters following it up to the end of the word into a variable: .CS \fBregexp\fR {\\)(\\w*)} $string \-> restOfWord .CE ................................................................................ .CE .PP List all words (consisting of all sequences of non-whitespace characters) in a string: .CS \fBregexp\fR \-all \-inline {\\S+}$string .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" re_syntax(n), regsub(n), .VS 8.5 string(n) .VE .SH KEYWORDS match, regular expression, string 

Changes to doc/registry.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2002 ActiveState Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: registry.n,v 1.16 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH registry n 1.1 registry "Tcl Bundled Packages" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME registry \- Manipulate the Windows registry ................................................................................ The registry value contains a null-terminated string. The data is represented in Tcl as a string. .TP \fBexpand_sz\fR . The registry value contains a null-terminated string that contains unexpanded references to environment variables in the normal Windows style (for example, .QW "%PATH%" ). The data is represented in Tcl as a string. .TP \fBdword\fR . The registry value contains a little-endian 32-bit number. The data is represented in Tcl as a decimal string. .TP \fBdword_big_endian\fR   | | | <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 ... 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2002 ActiveState Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: registry.n,v 1.17 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH registry n 1.1 registry "Tcl Bundled Packages" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME registry \- Manipulate the Windows registry ................................................................................ The registry value contains a null-terminated string. The data is represented in Tcl as a string. .TP \fBexpand_sz\fR . The registry value contains a null-terminated string that contains unexpanded references to environment variables in the normal Windows style (for example, "%PATH%"). The data is represented in Tcl as a string. .TP \fBdword\fR . The registry value contains a little-endian 32-bit number. The data is represented in Tcl as a decimal string. .TP \fBdword_big_endian\fR 

Changes to doc/regsub.n.

 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 .. 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 ... 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: regsub.n,v 1.18 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH regsub n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME regsub \- Perform substitutions based on regular expression pattern matching ................................................................................ present. (Regular expression matching is described in the \fBre_syntax\fR reference page.) If there is a match, then while copying \fIstring\fR to \fIvarName\fR (or to the result of this command if \fIvarName\fR is not present) the portion of \fIstring\fR that matched \fIexp\fR is replaced with \fIsubSpec\fR. If \fIsubSpec\fR contains a .QW & or .QW \e0 , then it is replaced in the substitution with the portion of \fIstring\fR that matched \fIexp\fR. If \fIsubSpec\fR contains a .QW \e\fIn\fR , where \fIn\fR is a digit between 1 and 9, then it is replaced in the substitution with the portion of \fIstring\fR that matched the \fIn\fR-th parenthesized subexpression of \fIexp\fR. Additional backslashes may be used in \fIsubSpec\fR to prevent special interpretation of .QW & or .QW \e0 or .QW \e\fIn\fR or backslash. The use of backslashes in \fIsubSpec\fR tends to interact badly with the Tcl parser's use of backslashes, so it's generally safest to enclose \fIsubSpec\fR in braces if it includes backslashes. .LP If the initial arguments to \fBregsub\fR start with \fB\-\fR then they are treated as switches. The following switches are ................................................................................ currently supported: .TP 10 \fB\-all\fR All ranges in \fIstring\fR that match \fIexp\fR are found and substitution is performed for each of these ranges. Without this switch only the first matching range is found and substituted. If \fB\-all\fR is specified, then .QW & and .QW \e\fIn\fR sequences are handled for each substitution using the information from the corresponding match. .TP 15 \fB\-expanded\fR Enables use of the expanded regular expression syntax where whitespace and comments are ignored. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?x)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-line\fR Enables newline-sensitive matching. By default, newline is a completely ordinary character with no special meaning. With this flag, .QW [^ bracket expressions and .QW . never match newline, .QW ^ matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal function, and .QW $matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function. This flag is equivalent to specifying both \fB\-linestop\fR and \fB\-lineanchor\fR, or the \fB(?n)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-linestop\fR Changes the behavior of .QW [^ bracket expressions and .QW . so that they stop at newlines. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?p)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-lineanchor\fR Changes the behavior of .QW ^ and .QW$ (the .QW anchors ) so they match the beginning and end of a line respectively. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?w)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 10 \fB\-nocase\fR Upper-case characters in \fIstring\fR will be converted to lower-case before matching against \fIexp\fR; however, substitutions specified ................................................................................ \fB\-start\fR \fIindex\fR Specifies a character index offset into the string to start matching the regular expression at. .VS 8.5 The \fIindex\fR value is interpreted in the same manner as the \fIindex\fR argument to \fBstring index\fR. .VE 8.5 When using this switch, .QW ^ will not match the beginning of the line, and \\A will still match the start of the string at \fIindex\fR. \fIindex\fR will be constrained to the bounds of the input string. .TP 10 \fB\-\|\-\fR Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will be treated as \fIexp\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.   | | < < < | | < < | < < < < < | | < < < < < | < < < < < | | < < < | | < < < < < < | <  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 .. 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: regsub.n,v 1.19 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH regsub n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME regsub \- Perform substitutions based on regular expression pattern matching ................................................................................ present. (Regular expression matching is described in the \fBre_syntax\fR reference page.) If there is a match, then while copying \fIstring\fR to \fIvarName\fR (or to the result of this command if \fIvarName\fR is not present) the portion of \fIstring\fR that matched \fIexp\fR is replaced with \fIsubSpec\fR. If \fIsubSpec\fR contains a &'' or \e0'', then it is replaced in the substitution with the portion of \fIstring\fR that matched \fIexp\fR. If \fIsubSpec\fR contains a \e\fIn\fR'', where \fIn\fR is a digit between 1 and 9, then it is replaced in the substitution with the portion of \fIstring\fR that matched the \fIn\fR-th parenthesized subexpression of \fIexp\fR. Additional backslashes may be used in \fIsubSpec\fR to prevent special interpretation of &'' or \e0'' or \e\fIn\fR'' or backslash. The use of backslashes in \fIsubSpec\fR tends to interact badly with the Tcl parser's use of backslashes, so it's generally safest to enclose \fIsubSpec\fR in braces if it includes backslashes. .LP If the initial arguments to \fBregsub\fR start with \fB\-\fR then they are treated as switches. The following switches are ................................................................................ currently supported: .TP 10 \fB\-all\fR All ranges in \fIstring\fR that match \fIexp\fR are found and substitution is performed for each of these ranges. Without this switch only the first matching range is found and substituted. If \fB\-all\fR is specified, then &'' and \e\fIn\fR'' sequences are handled for each substitution using the information from the corresponding match. .TP 15 \fB\-expanded\fR Enables use of the expanded regular expression syntax where whitespace and comments are ignored. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?x)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-line\fR Enables newline-sensitive matching. By default, newline is a completely ordinary character with no special meaning. With this flag, [^' bracket expressions and .' never match newline, ^' matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal function, and $' matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function. This flag is equivalent to specifying both \fB\-linestop\fR and \fB\-lineanchor\fR, or the \fB(?n)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-linestop\fR Changes the behavior of [^' bracket expressions and .' so that they stop at newlines. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?p)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 15 \fB\-lineanchor\fR Changes the behavior of ^' and $' (the anchors'') so they match the beginning and end of a line respectively. This is the same as specifying the \fB(?w)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page). .TP 10 \fB\-nocase\fR Upper-case characters in \fIstring\fR will be converted to lower-case before matching against \fIexp\fR; however, substitutions specified ................................................................................ \fB\-start\fR \fIindex\fR Specifies a character index offset into the string to start matching the regular expression at. .VS 8.5 The \fIindex\fR value is interpreted in the same manner as the \fIindex\fR argument to \fBstring index\fR. .VE 8.5 When using this switch, ^' will not match the beginning of the line, and \\A will still match the start of the string at \fIindex\fR. \fIindex\fR will be constrained to the bounds of the input string. .TP 10 \fB\-\|\-\fR Marks the end of switches. The argument following this one will be treated as \fIexp\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR. 

Changes to doc/return.n.

 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 .. 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 .. 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 ... 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 ... 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 ... 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 ... 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2003. (not subject to US copyright) '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: return.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 09:49:18 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH return n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME return \- Return from a procedure, or set return code of a script ................................................................................ .SH SYNOPSIS \fBreturn \fR?\fIresult\fR? .sp \fBreturn \fR?\fB-code \fIcode\fR? ?\fIresult\fR? .sp \fBreturn \fR?\fIoption value \fR...? ?\fIresult\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP In its simplest usage, the \fBreturn\fR command is used without options in the body of a procedure to immediately return control to the caller of the procedure. If a \fIresult\fR argument is provided, its value becomes the result of the procedure passed back to the caller. If \fIresult\fR is not specified then an empty string will be returned ................................................................................ the \fBreturn\fR command will cause script evaluation to immediately cease, and the value \fIresult\fR (or an empty string) will be returned as the result of the \fBsource\fR command. .SH "EXCEPTIONAL RETURN CODES" .PP In addition to the result of a procedure, the return code of a procedure may also be set by \fBreturn\fR through use of the \fB\-code\fR option. In the usual case where the \fB\-code\fR option isn't specified the procedure will return normally. However, the \fB\-code\fR option may be used to generate an exceptional return from the procedure. \fICode\fR may have any of the following values: .TP 13 \fBok (\fRor \fB0)\fR Normal return: same as if the option is omitted. The return code of the procedure is 0 (\fBTCL_OK\fR). .TP 13 \fBerror (1)\fR Error return: the return code of the procedure is 1 (\fBTCL_ERROR\fR). The procedure command behaves in its calling context as if it were the command \fBerror \fIresult\fR. See below for additional ................................................................................ were the command \fBcontinue\fR. .TP 13 \fIvalue\fR \fIValue\fR must be an integer; it will be returned as the return code for the current procedure. .LP When a procedure wants to signal that it has received invalid arguments from its caller, it may use .QW "\fBreturn \-code error\fR" with \fIresult\fR set to a suitable error message. Otherwise usage of the \fBreturn -code\fR option is mostly limited to procedures that implement a new control structure. .PP The \fBreturn -code\fR command acts similarly within script files that are evaluated by the \fBsource\fR command. During the evaluation of the contents of a file as a script by \fBsource\fR, an invocation of the .QW "\fBreturn -code \fIcode\fR" command will cause the return code of \fBsource\fR to be \fIcode\fR. .SH "RETURN OPTIONS" .PP .VS 8.5 In addition to a result and a return code, evaluation of a command in Tcl also produces a dictionary of return options. In general usage, all \fIoption value\fR pairs given as arguments to \fBreturn\fR become entries in the return options dictionary, and any values at all are acceptable except as noted below. The \fBcatch\fR command may be used to capture all of this information \(em the return code, the result, and the return options dictionary \(em that arise from evaluation of a script. .VE 8.5 .PP As documented above, the \fB\-code\fR entry in the return options dictionary receives special treatment by Tcl. There are other return options also recognized and treated specially by Tcl. They are: .TP \fB\-errorcode \fIlist\fR The \fB\-errorcode\fR option receives special treatment only when the value of the \fB\-code\fR option is \fBTCL_ERROR\fR. Then the \fIlist\fR value is meant to be additional information about the error, presented as a Tcl list for further processing by programs. If no \fB\-errorcode\fR option is provided to \fBreturn\fR when the \fB\-code error\fR option is provided, Tcl will set the value of the \fB\-errorcode\fR entry in the return options dictionary to the default value of \fBNONE\fR. The \fB\-errorcode\fR return option will also be stored in the global variable \fBerrorCode\fR. .TP \fB\-errorinfo \fIinfo\fR The \fB\-errorinfo\fR option receives special treatment only when the value of the \fB\-code\fR option is \fBTCL_ERROR\fR. Then \fIinfo\fR is the initial stack trace, meant to provide to a human reader additional information about the context in which the error occurred. The stack trace will also be stored in the global variable \fBerrorInfo\fR. If no \fB\-errorinfo\fR option is provided to \fBreturn\fR when the \fB\-code error\fR option is provided, Tcl will provide its own initial stack trace value in the entry for \fB\-errorinfo\fR. Tcl's initial stack trace will include only the call to the procedure, and stack unwinding will append information about higher stack levels, but there will be no information about the context of the error within the procedure. Typically the \fIinfo\fR value is supplied from the value of \fB\-errorinfo\fR in a return options dictionary captured by the \fBcatch\fR command (or from the copy of that information stored in the global variable \fBerrorInfo\fR). .TP \fB\-level \fIlevel\fR .VS 8.5 The \fB\-level\fR and \fB\-code\fR options work together to set the return code to be returned by one of the commands currently being evaluated. The \fIlevel\fR value must be a non-negative integer representing a number of levels on the call stack. It defines the number of levels up the stack at which the return code of a command currently being evaluated should be \fIcode\fR. If no \fB\-level\fR option is provided, the default value of \fIlevel\fR is 1, so that \fBreturn\fR sets the return code that the current procedure returns to its caller, 1 level up the call stack. The mechanism by which these options work is described in more detail below. .VE 8.5 .TP \fB\-options \fIoptions\fR .VS 8.5 The value \fIoptions\fR must be a valid dictionary. The entries of that dictionary are treated as additional \fIoption value\fR pairs for the \fBreturn\fR command. .VE 8.5 .SH "RETURN CODE HANDLING MECHANISMS" .PP ................................................................................ of the call stack. It is also the mechanism by which commands like \fBbreak\fR, \fBcontinue\fR, and \fBreturn\fR cause script evaluation to terminate without evaluating all commands in sequence. .PP Some of Tcl's built-in commands evaluate scripts as part of their functioning. These commands can make use of exceptional return codes to enable special features. For example, the built-in Tcl commands that provide loops \(em such as \fBwhile\fR, \fBfor\fR, and \fBforeach\fR \(em evaluate a script that is the body of the loop. If evaluation of the loop body returns the return code of \fBTCL_BREAK\fR or \fBTCL_CONTINUE\fR, the loop command can react in such a way as to give the \fBbreak\fR and \fBcontinue\fR commands their documented interpretation in loops. .PP .VS 8.5 Procedure invocation also involves evaluation of a script, the body of the procedure. Procedure invocation provides special treatment when evaluation of the procedure body returns the return code \fBTCL_RETURN\fR. In that circumstance, the \fB\-level\fR entry in the return options dictionary is decremented. If after decrementing, the value of the \fB\-level\fR entry is 0, then the value of the \fB\-code\fR entry becomes the return code of the procedure. If after decrementing, the value of the \fB\-level\fR entry is greater than zero, then the return code of the procedure is \fBTCL_RETURN\fR. If the procedure invocation occurred during the evaluation of the body of another procedure, the process will repeat itself up the call stack, decrementing the value of the \fB\-level\fR entry at each level, so that the \fIcode\fR will be the return code of the current command \fIlevel\fR levels up the call stack. The \fBsource\fR command performs the same handling of the \fBTCL_RETURN\fR return code, which explains the similarity of \fBreturn\fR invocation during a \fBsource\fR to \fBreturn\fR invocation within a procedure. .PP The return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself triggers this special handling by procedure invocation. If \fBreturn\fR is provided the option \fB\-level 0\fR, then the return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself will be the value \fIcode\fR of the \fB\-code\fR option (or \fBTCL_OK\fR by default). Any other value for the \fB\-level\fR option (including the default value of 1) will cause the return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself to be \fBTCL_RETURN\fR, triggering a return from the enclosing procedure. .VE 8.5 .SH EXAMPLES First, a simple example of using \fBreturn\fR to return from a procedure, interrupting the procedure body. .CS ................................................................................ Next, an example of using \fBreturn\fR to set the value returned by the procedure. .CS proc returnX {} {\fBreturn\fR X} puts [returnX] ;# prints "X" .CE .PP Next, a more complete example, using .QW "\fBreturn \-code error\fR" to report invalid arguments. .CS proc factorial {n} { if {![string is integer $n] || ($n < 0)} { \fBreturn\fR -code error \e "expected non-negative integer,\e but got \e"$n\e"" } if {$n < 2} { \fBreturn\fR 1 } set m [expr {$n - 1}] set code [catch {factorial$m} factor] if {$code != 0} { \fBreturn\fR -code$code $factor } set product [expr {$n * $factor}] if {$product < 0} { \fBreturn\fR -code error \e "overflow computing factorial of $n" } \fBreturn\fR$product } .CE .PP Next, a procedure replacement for \fBbreak\fR. ................................................................................ .CS proc myBreak {} { \fBreturn\fR -code break } .CE .PP .VS 8.5 With the \fB\-level 0\fR option, \fBreturn\fR itself can serve as a replacement for \fBbreak\fR. .CS interp alias {} Break {} \fBreturn\fR -level 0 -code break .CE .PP An example of using \fBcatch\fR and \fBreturn \-options\fR to re-raise a caught error: .CS proc doSomething {} { set resource [allocate] catch { # Long script of operations # that might raise an error ................................................................................ } set options [dict merge {-level 1} $args] dict incr options -level \fBreturn\fR -options$options $result } .CE .VE 8.5 .SH "SEE ALSO" break(n), catch(n), continue(n), dict(n), error(n), proc(n), source(n), tclvars(n) .SH KEYWORDS break, catch, continue, error, procedure, return   | > | | | < < | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | < | | | | | | > | < >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .. 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 .. 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 ... 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 ... 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 ... 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 ... 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2003. (not subject to US copyright) '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#)$Id: return.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $'\" .so man.macros .TH return n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME return \- Return from a procedure, or set return code of a script ................................................................................ .SH SYNOPSIS \fBreturn \fR?\fIresult\fR? .sp \fBreturn \fR?\fB-code \fIcode\fR? ?\fIresult\fR? .sp \fBreturn \fR?\fIoption value \fR...? ?\fIresult\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP In its simplest usage, the \fBreturn\fR command is used without options in the body of a procedure to immediately return control to the caller of the procedure. If a \fIresult\fR argument is provided, its value becomes the result of the procedure passed back to the caller. If \fIresult\fR is not specified then an empty string will be returned ................................................................................ the \fBreturn\fR command will cause script evaluation to immediately cease, and the value \fIresult\fR (or an empty string) will be returned as the result of the \fBsource\fR command. .SH "EXCEPTIONAL RETURN CODES" .PP In addition to the result of a procedure, the return code of a procedure may also be set by \fBreturn\fR through use of the \fB-code\fR option. In the usual case where the \fB\-code\fR option isn't specified the procedure will return normally. However, the \fB\-code\fR option may be used to generate an exceptional return from the procedure. \fICode\fR may have any of the following values: .TP 13 \fBok (or 0)\fR Normal return: same as if the option is omitted. The return code of the procedure is 0 (\fBTCL_OK\fR). .TP 13 \fBerror (1)\fR Error return: the return code of the procedure is 1 (\fBTCL_ERROR\fR). The procedure command behaves in its calling context as if it were the command \fBerror \fIresult\fR. See below for additional ................................................................................ were the command \fBcontinue\fR. .TP 13 \fIvalue\fR \fIValue\fR must be an integer; it will be returned as the return code for the current procedure. .LP When a procedure wants to signal that it has received invalid arguments from its caller, it may use \fBreturn -code error\fR with \fIresult\fR set to a suitable error message. Otherwise usage of the \fBreturn -code\fR option is mostly limited to procedures that implement a new control structure. .PP The \fBreturn -code\fR command acts similarly within script files that are evaluated by the \fBsource\fR command. During the evaluation of the contents of a file as a script by \fBsource\fR, an invocation of the \fBreturn -code \fIcode\fR command will cause the return code of \fBsource\fR to be \fIcode\fR. .SH "RETURN OPTIONS" .PP .VS 8.5 In addition to a result and a return code, evaluation of a command in Tcl also produces a dictionary of return options. In general usage, all \fIoption value\fR pairs given as arguments to \fBreturn\fR become entries in the return options dictionary, and any values at all are acceptable except as noted below. The \fBcatch\fR command may be used to capture all of this information -- the return code, the result, and the return options dictionary -- that arise from evaluation of a script. .VE 8.5 .PP As documented above, the \fB-code\fR entry in the return options dictionary receives special treatment by Tcl. There are other return options also recognized and treated specially by Tcl. They are: .TP \fB-errorcode \fIlist\fR The \fB-errorcode\fR option receives special treatment only when the value of the \fB-code\fR option is \fBTCL_ERROR\fR. Then the \fIlist\fR value is meant to be additional information about the error, presented as a Tcl list for further processing by programs. If no \fB-errorcode\fR option is provided to \fBreturn\fR when the \fB-code error\fR option is provided, Tcl will set the value of the \fB-errorcode\fR entry in the return options dictionary to the default value of \fBNONE\fR. The \fB-errorcode\fR return option will also be stored in the global variable \fBerrorCode\fR. .TP \fB-errorinfo \fIinfo\fR The \fB-errorinfo\fR option receives special treatment only when the value of the \fB-code\fR option is \fBTCL_ERROR\fR. Then \fIinfo\fR is the initial stack trace, meant to provide to a human reader additional information about the context in which the error occurred. The stack trace will also be stored in the global variable \fBerrorInfo\fR. If no \fB-errorinfo\fR option is provided to \fBreturn\fR when the \fB-code error\fR option is provided, Tcl will provide its own initial stack trace value in the entry for \fB-errorinfo\fR. Tcl's initial stack trace will include only the call to the procedure, and stack unwinding will append information about higher stack levels, but there will be no information about the context of the error within the procedure. Typically the \fIinfo\fR value is supplied from the value of \fB-errorinfo\fR in a return options dictionary captured by the \fBcatch\fR command (or from the copy of that information stored in the global variable \fBerrorInfo\fR). .TP \fB-level \fIlevel\fR .VS 8.5 The \fB-level\fR and \fB-code\fR options work together to set the return code to be returned by one of the commands currently being evaluated. The \fIlevel\fR value must be a non-negative integer representing a number of levels on the call stack. It defines the number of levels up the stack at which the return code of a command currently being evaluated should be \fIcode\fR. If no \fB-level\fR option is provided, the default value of \fIlevel\fR is 1, so that \fBreturn\fR sets the return code that the current procedure returns to its caller, 1 level up the call stack. The mechanism by which these options work is described in more detail below. .VE 8.5 .TP \fB-options \fIoptions\fR .VS 8.5 The value \fIoptions\fR must be a valid dictionary. The entries of that dictionary are treated as additional \fIoption value\fR pairs for the \fBreturn\fR command. .VE 8.5 .SH "RETURN CODE HANDLING MECHANISMS" .PP ................................................................................ of the call stack. It is also the mechanism by which commands like \fBbreak\fR, \fBcontinue\fR, and \fBreturn\fR cause script evaluation to terminate without evaluating all commands in sequence. .PP Some of Tcl's built-in commands evaluate scripts as part of their functioning. These commands can make use of exceptional return codes to enable special features. For example, the built-in Tcl commands that provide loops -- such as \fBwhile\fR, \fBfor\fR, and \fBforeach\fR -- evaluate a script that is the body of the loop. If evaluation of the loop body returns the return code of \fBTCL_BREAK\fR or \fBTCL_CONTINUE\fR, the loop command can react in such a way as to give the \fBbreak\fR and \fBcontinue\fR commands their documented interpretation in loops. .PP .VS 8.5 Procedure invocation also involves evaluation of a script, the body of the procedure. Procedure invocation provides special treatment when evaluation of the procedure body returns the return code \fBTCL_RETURN\fR. In that circumstance, the \fB-level\fR entry in the return options dictionary is decremented. If after decrementing, the value of the \fB-level\fR entry is 0, then the value of the \fB-code\fR entry becomes the return code of the procedure. If after decrementing, the value of the \fB-level\fR entry is greater than zero, then the return code of the procedure is \fBTCL_RETURN\fR. If the procedure invocation occurred during the evaluation of the body of another procedure, the process will repeat itself up the call stack, decrementing the value of the \fB-level\fR entry at each level, so that the \fIcode\fR will be the return code of the current command \fIlevel\fR levels up the call stack. The \fBsource\fR command performs the same handling of the \fBTCL_RETURN\fR return code, which explains the similarity of \fBreturn\fR invocation during a \fBsource\fR to \fBreturn\fR invocation within a procedure. .PP The return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself triggers this special handling by procedure invocation. If \fBreturn\fR is provided the option \fB-level 0\fR, then the return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself will be the value \fIcode\fR of the \fB-code\fR option (or \fBTCL_OK\fR by default). Any other value for the \fB-level\fR option (including the default value of 1) will cause the return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself to be \fBTCL_RETURN\fR, triggering a return from the enclosing procedure. .VE 8.5 .SH EXAMPLES First, a simple example of using \fBreturn\fR to return from a procedure, interrupting the procedure body. .CS ................................................................................ Next, an example of using \fBreturn\fR to set the value returned by the procedure. .CS proc returnX {} {\fBreturn\fR X} puts [returnX] ;# prints "X" .CE .PP Next, a more complete example, using \fBreturn -code error\fR to report invalid arguments. .CS proc factorial {n} { if {![string is integer$n] || ($n < 0)} { \fBreturn\fR -code error \\ "expected non-negative integer,\\ but got \\"$n\\"" } if {$n < 2} { \fBreturn\fR 1 } set m [expr {$n - 1}] set code [catch {factorial $m} factor] if {$code != 0} { \fBreturn\fR -code $code$factor } set product [expr {$n *$factor}] if {$product < 0} { \fBreturn\fR -code error \\ "overflow computing factorial of$n" } \fBreturn\fR $product } .CE .PP Next, a procedure replacement for \fBbreak\fR. ................................................................................ .CS proc myBreak {} { \fBreturn\fR -code break } .CE .PP .VS 8.5 With the \fB-level 0\fR option, \fBreturn\fR itself can serve as a replacement for \fBbreak\fR. .CS interp alias {} Break {} \fBreturn\fR -level 0 -code break .CE .PP An example of using \fBcatch\fR and \fBreturn -options\fR to re-raise a caught error: .CS proc doSomething {} { set resource [allocate] catch { # Long script of operations # that might raise an error ................................................................................ } set options [dict merge {-level 1}$args] dict incr options -level \fBreturn\fR -options $options$result } .CE .VE 8.5 .SH "SEE ALSO" break(n), catch(n), continue(n), dict(n), error(n), proc(n), source(n), tclvars(n) .SH KEYWORDS break, catch, continue, error, procedure, return 

Changes to doc/scan.n.

 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: scan.n,v 1.20 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH scan n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME scan \- Parse string using conversion specifiers in the style of sscanf ................................................................................ first skips any white-space characters in \fIstring\fR (unless the conversion character is \fB[\fR or \fBc\fR). Then it converts the next input characters according to the conversion specifier and stores the result in the variable given by the next argument to \fBscan\fR. .PP If the \fB%\fR is followed by a decimal number and a \fB$\fR, as in .QW \fB%2$d\fR , then the variable to use is not taken from the next sequential argument. Instead, it is taken from the argument indicated by the number, where 1 corresponds to the first \fIvarName\fR. If there are any positional specifiers in \fIformat\fR then all of the specifiers must be positional. Every \fIvarName\fR on the argument list must correspond to exactly one conversion specifier or an error is generated, or in the inline case, any position can be specified at most once and the empty positions will be filled in with empty strings.   | < |  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: scan.n,v 1.21 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH scan n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME scan \- Parse string using conversion specifiers in the style of sscanf ................................................................................ first skips any white-space characters in \fIstring\fR (unless the conversion character is \fB[\fR or \fBc\fR). Then it converts the next input characters according to the conversion specifier and stores the result in the variable given by the next argument to \fBscan\fR. .PP If the \fB%\fR is followed by a decimal number and a \fB$\fR, as in \fB%2$d\fR'', then the variable to use is not taken from the next sequential argument. Instead, it is taken from the argument indicated by the number, where 1 corresponds to the first \fIvarName\fR. If there are any positional specifiers in \fIformat\fR then all of the specifiers must be positional. Every \fIvarName\fR on the argument list must correspond to exactly one conversion specifier or an error is generated, or in the inline case, any position can be specified at most once and the empty positions will be filled in with empty strings. 

Changes to doc/source.n.

 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: source.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH source n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME source \- Evaluate a file or resource as a Tcl script ................................................................................ .SH SYNOPSIS \fBsource \fIfileName\fR .sp .VS 8.5 \fBsource\fR \fB\-encoding \fIencodingName fileName\fR .VE 8.5 .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command takes the contents of the specified file or resource and passes it to the Tcl interpreter as a text script. The return value from \fBsource\fR is the return value of the last command executed in the script. If an error occurs in evaluating the contents of the script then the \fBsource\fR command will return that error. If a \fBreturn\fR command is invoked from within the script then the remainder of the file will be skipped and the \fBsource\fR command will return normally with the result from the \fBreturn\fR command. .PP The end-of-file character for files is .QW \e032 (^Z) for all platforms. The source command will read files up to this character. This restriction does not exist for the \fBread\fR or \fBgets\fR commands, allowing for files containing code and data segments (scripted documents). If you require a .QW ^Z in code for string comparison, you can use .QW \e032 or .QW \eu001a , which will be safely substituted by the Tcl interpreter into .QW ^Z . .PP .VS 8.5 The \fB-encoding\fR option is used to specify the encoding of the data stored in \fIfileName\fR. When the \fB-encoding\fR option is omitted, the system encoding is assumed. .VE 8.5 .SH EXAMPLE Run the script in the file \fBfoo.tcl\fR and then the script in the file \fBbar.tcl\fR: .CS \fBsource\fR foo.tcl \fBsource\fR bar.tcl .CE .PP Alternatively: .CS foreach scriptFile {foo.tcl bar.tcl} { \fBsource\fR $scriptFile } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), cd(n), encoding(n), info(n) .SH KEYWORDS file, script   | > | < | < < < | < < < | | < < > >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#)$Id: source.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $'\" .so man.macros .TH source n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME source \- Evaluate a file or resource as a Tcl script ................................................................................ .SH SYNOPSIS \fBsource \fIfileName\fR .sp .VS 8.5 \fBsource\fR \fB\-encoding \fIencodingName fileName\fR .VE 8.5 .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command takes the contents of the specified file or resource and passes it to the Tcl interpreter as a text script. The return value from \fBsource\fR is the return value of the last command executed in the script. If an error occurs in evaluating the contents of the script then the \fBsource\fR command will return that error. If a \fBreturn\fR command is invoked from within the script then the remainder of the file will be skipped and the \fBsource\fR command will return normally with the result from the \fBreturn\fR command. .PP The end-of-file character for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms. The source command will read files up to this character. This restriction does not exist for the \fBread\fR or \fBgets\fR commands, allowing for files containing code and data segments (scripted documents). If you require a ^Z'' in code for string comparison, you can use \\032'' or \\u001a'', which will be safely substituted by the Tcl interpreter into ^Z''. .PP .VS 8.5 The \fB-encoding\fR option is used to specify the encoding of the data stored in \fIfileName\fR. When the \fB-encoding\fR option is omitted, the system encoding is assumed. .VE 8.5 .SH EXAMPLE Run the script in the file \fBfoo.tcl\fR and then the script in the file \fBbar.tcl\fR: .CS \fBsource\fR foo.tcl \fBsource\fR bar.tcl .CE Alternatively: .CS foreach scriptFile {foo.tcl bar.tcl} { \fBsource\fR$scriptFile } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" file(n), cd(n), encoding(n), info(n) .SH KEYWORDS file, script 

Changes to doc/split.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .. 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 .. 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: split.n,v 1.6 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH split n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME split \- Split a string into a proper Tcl list .SH SYNOPSIS \fBsplit \fIstring \fR?\fIsplitChars\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP Returns a list created by splitting \fIstring\fR at each character that is in the \fIsplitChars\fR argument. Each element of the result list will consist of the characters from \fIstring\fR that lie between instances of the characters in \fIsplitChars\fR. ................................................................................ character of \fIstring\fR is in \fIsplitChars\fR. If \fIsplitChars\fR is an empty string then each character of \fIstring\fR becomes a separate element of the result list. \fISplitChars\fR defaults to the standard white-space characters. .SH EXAMPLES Divide up a USENET group name into its hierarchical components: .CS .ta 2i \fBsplit\fR "comp.lang.tcl.announce" . \fB\(->\fI comp lang tcl announce\fR .CE .PP See how the \fBsplit\fR command splits on \fIevery\fR character in \fIsplitChars\fR, which can result in information loss if you are not careful: .CS .ta 2i \fBsplit\fR "alpha beta gamma" "temp" \fB\(->\fI al {ha b} {} {a ga} {} a\fR .CE .PP Extract the list words from a string that is not a well-formed list: .CS .ta 2i \fBsplit\fR "Example with {unbalanced brace character" \fB\(->\fI Example with \\{unbalanced brace character\fR .CE .PP Split a string into its constituent characters .CS .ta 2i \fBsplit\fR "Hello world" {} \fB\(->\fI H e l l o { } w o r l d\fR .CE .SS "PARSING RECORD-ORIENTED FILES" Parse a Unix /etc/passwd file, which consists of one entry per line, with each line consisting of a colon-separated list of fields: .CS ## Read the file set fid [open /etc/passwd] ................................................................................ ## Assign fields to variables and print some out... lassign $fields \\ userName password uid grp longName homeDir shell puts "$longName uses [file tail $shell] for a login shell" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" join(n), list(n), string(n) .SH KEYWORDS list, split, string   | > < | < | < | < | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 .. 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 .. 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#)$Id: split.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $'\" .so man.macros .TH split n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME split \- Split a string into a proper Tcl list .SH SYNOPSIS \fBsplit \fIstring \fR?\fIsplitChars\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP Returns a list created by splitting \fIstring\fR at each character that is in the \fIsplitChars\fR argument. Each element of the result list will consist of the characters from \fIstring\fR that lie between instances of the characters in \fIsplitChars\fR. ................................................................................ character of \fIstring\fR is in \fIsplitChars\fR. If \fIsplitChars\fR is an empty string then each character of \fIstring\fR becomes a separate element of the result list. \fISplitChars\fR defaults to the standard white-space characters. .SH EXAMPLES Divide up a USENET group name into its hierarchical components: .CS \fBsplit\fR "comp.lang.tcl.announce" . \fI=> comp lang tcl announce\fR .CE .PP See how the \fBsplit\fR command splits on \fIevery\fR character in \fIsplitChars\fR, which can result in information loss if you are not careful: .CS \fBsplit\fR "alpha beta gamma" "temp" \fI=> al {ha b} {} {a ga} {} a\fR .CE .PP Extract the list words from a string that is not a well-formed list: .CS \fBsplit\fR "Example with {unbalanced brace character" \fI=> Example with \\{unbalanced brace character\fR .CE .PP Split a string into its constituent characters .CS \fBsplit\fR "Hello world" {} \fI=> H e l l o { } w o r l d\fR .CE .SS "PARSING RECORD-ORIENTED FILES" Parse a Unix /etc/passwd file, which consists of one entry per line, with each line consisting of a colon-separated list of fields: .CS ## Read the file set fid [open /etc/passwd] ................................................................................ ## Assign fields to variables and print some out... lassign$fields \\ userName password uid grp longName homeDir shell puts "$longName uses [file tail$shell] for a login shell" } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" join(n), list(n), string(n) .SH KEYWORDS list, split, string 

Changes to doc/string.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 .. 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 ... 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 ... 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 ... 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 ... 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 ... 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 ... 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419  .\" .\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. .\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. .\" .\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution .\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. .\" .\" RCS: @(#) $Id: string.n,v 1.37 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp$ .\" .so man.macros .TH string n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME string \- Manipulate strings .SH SYNOPSIS \fBstring \fIoption arg \fR?\fIarg ...?\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP Performs one of several string operations, depending on \fIoption\fR. The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are: .TP \fBstring bytelength \fIstring\fR . Returns a decimal string giving the number of bytes used to represent \fIstring\fR in memory. Because UTF\-8 uses one to three bytes to represent Unicode characters, the byte length will not be the same as the character length in general. The cases where a script cares about the byte length are rare. In almost all cases, you should use the \fBstring length\fR operation (including determining the length of a Tcl ByteArray object). Refer to the \fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR manual entry for more details on the UTF\-8 representation. .TP \fBstring compare\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB\-length int\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR . Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR and \fIstring2\fR. Returns \-1, 0, or 1, depending on whether \fIstring1\fR is lexicographically less than, equal to, or greater than \fIstring2\fR. If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only the first \fIlength\fR characters are used in the comparison. If \fB\-length\fR is negative, it is ignored. If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then the strings are compared in a case-insensitive manner. .TP \fBstring equal\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB-length int\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR . Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR and \fIstring2\fR. Returns 1 if \fIstring1\fR and \fIstring2\fR are identical, or 0 when not. If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only the first \fIlength\fR characters are used in the comparison. If \fB\-length\fR is negative, it is ignored. If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then the strings are compared in a case-insensitive manner. .TP \fBstring first \fIneedleString haystackString\fR ?\fIstartIndex\fR? . Search \fIhaystackString\fR for a sequence of characters that exactly match the characters in \fIneedleString\fR. If found, return the index of the first character in the first such match within \fIhaystackString\fR. If not found, return \-1. If \fIstartIndex\fR is specified (in any of the forms accepted by the \fBindex\fR method), then the search is constrained to start with the character in \fIhaystackString\fR specified by the index. For example, ................................................................................ .CS \fBstring first a 0123456789abcdef 11\fR .CE will return \fB\-1\fR. .RE .TP \fBstring index \fIstring charIndex\fR . Returns the \fIcharIndex\fR'th character of the \fIstring\fR argument. A \fIcharIndex\fR of 0 corresponds to the first character of the string. \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as follows: .VS 8.5 .RS .IP \fIinteger\fR 10 For any index value that passes \fBstring is integer -strict\fR, the char specified at this integral index (e.g. \fB2\fR would refer to the .QW "c" in .QW "abcd" ). .IP \fBend\fR 10 The last char of the string (e.g. \fBend\fR would refer to the .QW "d" in .QW "abcd" ). .IP \fBend\fR\-\fIN\fR 10 The last char of the string minus the specified integer offset \fIN\fR (e.g. \fBend\fR\-1 would refer to the .QW "c" in .QW "abcd" ). .IP \fBend\fR+\fIN\fR 10 The last char of the string plus the specified integer offset \fIN\fR (e.g. \fBend\fR+\-1 would refer to the .QW "c" in "abcd" ). .IP \fIM\fR+\fIN\fR 10 The char specified at the integral index that is the sum of integer values \fIM\fR and \fIN\fR (e.g. \fB1+1\fR would refer to the .QW "c" in .QW "abcd" ). .IP \fIM\fR\-\fIN\fR 10 The char specified at the integral index that is the difference of integer values \fIM\fR and \fIN\fR (e.g. \fB2\-1\fR would refer to the .QW "b" in .QW "abcd" ). .PP In the specifications above, the integer value \fIM\fR contains no trailing whitespace and the integer value \fIN\fR contains no leading whitespace. .PP If \fIcharIndex\fR is less than 0 or greater than or equal to the length of the string then this command returns an empty string. .RE .VE .TP \fBstring is \fIclass\fR ?\fB\-strict\fR? ?\fB\-failindex \fIvarname\fR? \fIstring\fR . Returns 1 if \fIstring\fR is a valid member of the specified character class, otherwise returns 0. If \fB\-strict\fR is specified, then an empty string returns 0, otherwise an empty string will return 1 on any class. If \fB\-failindex\fR is specified, then if the function returns 0, the index in the string where the class was no longer valid will be stored in the variable named \fIvarname\fR. The \fIvarname\fR will not be set if the function returns 1. The following character ................................................................................ .IP \fBinteger\fR 12 Any of the valid string formats for a 32-bit integer value in Tcl, with optional surrounding whitespace. In case of under/overflow in the value, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain \-1. .IP \fBlist\fR 12 Any proper list structure, with optional surrounding whitespace. In case of improper list structure, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain the index of the .QW element where the list parsing fails, or \-1 if this cannot be determined. .IP \fBlower\fR 12 Any Unicode lower case alphabet character. .IP \fBprint\fR 12 Any Unicode printing character, including space. .IP \fBpunct\fR 12 Any Unicode punctuation character. .IP \fBspace\fR 12 ................................................................................ .PP In the case of \fBboolean\fR, \fBtrue\fR and \fBfalse\fR, if the function will return 0, then the \fIvarname\fR will always be set to 0, due to the varied nature of a valid boolean value. .RE .TP \fBstring last \fIneedleString haystackString\fR ?\fIlastIndex\fR? . Search \fIhaystackString\fR for a sequence of characters that exactly match the characters in \fIneedleString\fR. If found, return the index of the first character in the last such match within \fIhaystackString\fR. If there is no match, then return \-1. If \fIlastIndex\fR is specified (in any of the forms accepted by the \fBindex\fR method), then only the characters in \fIhaystackString\fR at or before the specified \fIlastIndex\fR will be considered by the search. For example, ................................................................................ .CS \fBstring last a 0a23456789abcdef 9\fR .CE will return \fB1\fR. .RE .TP \fBstring length \fIstring\fR . Returns a decimal string giving the number of characters in \fIstring\fR. Note that this is not necessarily the same as the number of bytes used to store the string. If the object is a ByteArray object (such as those returned from reading a binary encoded channel), then this will return the actual byte length of the object. .TP \fBstring map\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? \fImapping string\fR . Replaces substrings in \fIstring\fR based on the key-value pairs in \fImapping\fR. \fImapping\fR is a list of \fIkey value key value ...\fR as in the form returned by \fBarray get\fR. Each instance of a key in the string will be replaced with its corresponding value. If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then matching is done without regard to case differences. Both \fIkey\fR and \fIvalue\fR may be multiple characters. Replacement is done in an ordered manner, so the key ................................................................................ .CS \fBstring map {1 0 ab 2 a 3 abc 1} 1abcaababcabababc\fR .CE it will return the string \fB02c322c222c\fR. .RE .TP \fBstring match\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? \fIpattern\fR \fIstring\fR . See if \fIpattern\fR matches \fIstring\fR; return 1 if it does, 0 if it doesn't. If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then the pattern attempts to match against the string in a case insensitive manner. For the two strings to match, their contents must be identical except that the following special sequences may appear in \fIpattern\fR: .RS .IP \fB*\fR 10 ................................................................................ .IP \fB?\fR 10 Matches any single character in \fIstring\fR. .IP \fB[\fIchars\fB]\fR 10 Matches any character in the set given by \fIchars\fR. If a sequence of the form \fIx\fB\-\fIy\fR appears in \fIchars\fR, then any character between \fIx\fR and \fIy\fR, inclusive, will match. When used with \fB\-nocase\fR, the end points of the range are converted to lower case first. Whereas .QW [A\-z] matches .QW _ when matching case-sensitively (since .QW _ falls between the .QW Z and .QW a ), with \fB\-nocase\fR this is considered like .QW [A\-Za\-z] (and probably what was meant in the first place). .IP \fB\e\fIx\fR 10 Matches the single character \fIx\fR. This provides a way of avoiding the special interpretation of the characters \fB*?[]\e\fR in \fIpattern\fR. .RE .TP \fBstring range \fIstring first last\fR . Returns a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the character whose index is \fIlast\fR. An index of 0 refers to the first character of the string. \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero then it is treated as if it were zero, and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the length of the string then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR. If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty string is returned. .TP \fBstring repeat \fIstring count\fR . Returns the concatenation of \fIstring\fR repeated \fIcount\fR number of times. .TP \fBstring replace \fIstring first last\fR ?\fInewstring\fR? . Removes a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the character whose index is \fIlast\fR. An index of 0 refers to the first character of the string. \fIFirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. If \fInewstring\fR is specified, then it is placed in the removed character range. If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero then it is treated as if it were zero, and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the length of the string then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR. If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR or the length of the initial string, or \fIlast\fR is less than 0, then the initial string is returned untouched. .TP \fBstring reverse \fIstring\fR . .VS 8.5 Returns a string that is the same length as \fIstring\fR but with its characters in the reverse order. .VE 8.5 .TP \fBstring tolower \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR? . Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that all upper (or title) case letters have been converted to lower case. If \fIfirst\fR is specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start modifying. If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in the string to stop at (inclusive). \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. .TP \fBstring totitle \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR? . Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that the first character in \fIstring\fR is converted to its Unicode title case variant (or upper case if there is no title case variant) and the rest of the string is converted to lower case. If \fIfirst\fR is specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start modifying. If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in the string to stop at (inclusive). \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. .TP \fBstring toupper \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR? . Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that all lower (or title) case letters have been converted to upper case. If \fIfirst\fR is specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start modifying. If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in the string to stop at (inclusive). \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. .TP \fBstring trim \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR? . Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any leading or trailing characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed. If \fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces, tabs, newlines, and carriage returns). .TP \fBstring trimleft \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR? . Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any leading characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed. If \fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces, tabs, newlines, and carriage returns). .TP \fBstring trimright \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR? . Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any trailing characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed. If \fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces, tabs, newlines, and carriage returns). .TP \fBstring wordend \fIstring charIndex\fR . Returns the index of the character just after the last one in the word containing character \fIcharIndex\fR of \fIstring\fR. \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. A word is considered to be any contiguous range of alphanumeric (Unicode letters or decimal digits) or underscore (Unicode connector punctuation) characters, or any single character other than these. .TP \fBstring wordstart \fIstring charIndex\fR . Returns the index of the first character in the word containing character \fIcharIndex\fR of \fIstring\fR. \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. A word is considered to be any contiguous range of alphanumeric (Unicode letters or decimal digits) or underscore (Unicode connector punctuation) characters, or any single character other than these. .SH EXAMPLE ................................................................................ set length [\fBstring length\fR $string] if {$length == 0} { set isPrefix 0 } else { set isPrefix [\fBstring equal\fR -length $length$string "foobar"] } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" expr(n), list(n) .SH KEYWORDS case conversion, compare, index, match, pattern, string, word, equal, ctype, character, reverse .\" Local Variables: .\" mode: nroff .\" End:   | > < < < < < | < < < | < < < | < < < | < < < | < < < | < < < < | < | < < < < | < < < < < | < < < | < | | < < | < < > < < < < < < < < < < > > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 .. 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 ... 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 ... 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 ... 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 ... 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 ... 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 ... 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372  .\" .\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. .\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. .\" .\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution .\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. .\" .\" RCS: @(#) $Id: string.n,v 1.38 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ .\" .so man.macros .TH string n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS .\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME string \- Manipulate strings .SH SYNOPSIS \fBstring \fIoption arg \fR?\fIarg ...?\fR .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP Performs one of several string operations, depending on \fIoption\fR. The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are: .TP \fBstring bytelength \fIstring\fR Returns a decimal string giving the number of bytes used to represent \fIstring\fR in memory. Because UTF\-8 uses one to three bytes to represent Unicode characters, the byte length will not be the same as the character length in general. The cases where a script cares about the byte length are rare. In almost all cases, you should use the \fBstring length\fR operation (including determining the length of a Tcl ByteArray object). Refer to the \fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR manual entry for more details on the UTF\-8 representation. .TP \fBstring compare\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB\-length int\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR and \fIstring2\fR. Returns \-1, 0, or 1, depending on whether \fIstring1\fR is lexicographically less than, equal to, or greater than \fIstring2\fR. If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only the first \fIlength\fR characters are used in the comparison. If \fB\-length\fR is negative, it is ignored. If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then the strings are compared in a case-insensitive manner. .TP \fBstring equal\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB-length int\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR and \fIstring2\fR. Returns 1 if \fIstring1\fR and \fIstring2\fR are identical, or 0 when not. If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only the first \fIlength\fR characters are used in the comparison. If \fB\-length\fR is negative, it is ignored. If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then the strings are compared in a case-insensitive manner. .TP \fBstring first \fIneedleString haystackString\fR ?\fIstartIndex\fR? Search \fIhaystackString\fR for a sequence of characters that exactly match the characters in \fIneedleString\fR. If found, return the index of the first character in the first such match within \fIhaystackString\fR. If not found, return \-1. If \fIstartIndex\fR is specified (in any of the forms accepted by the \fBindex\fR method), then the search is constrained to start with the character in \fIhaystackString\fR specified by the index. For example, ................................................................................ .CS \fBstring first a 0123456789abcdef 11\fR .CE will return \fB\-1\fR. .RE .TP \fBstring index \fIstring charIndex\fR Returns the \fIcharIndex\fR'th character of the \fIstring\fR argument. A \fIcharIndex\fR of 0 corresponds to the first character of the string. \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as follows: .VS 8.5 .RS .IP \fIinteger\fR 10 For any index value that passes \fBstring is integer -strict\fR, the char specified at this integral index (e.g. \fB2\fR would refer to the "c" in "abcd"). .IP \fBend\fR 10 The last char of the string (e.g. \fBend\fR would refer to the "d" in "abcd"). .IP \fBend\fR\-\fIN\fR 10 The last char of the string minus the specified integer offset \fIN\fR (e.g. \fBend\fR\-1 would refer to the "c" in "abcd"). .IP \fBend\fR+\fIN\fR 10 The last char of the string plus the specified integer offset \fIN\fR (e.g. \fBend\fR+\-1 would refer to the "c" in "abcd"). .IP \fIM\fR+\fIN\fR 10 The char specified at the integral index that is the sum of integer values \fIM\fR and \fIN\fR (e.g. \fB1+1\fR would refer to the "c" in "abcd"). .IP \fIM\fR\-\fIN\fR 10 The char specified at the integral index that is the difference of integer values \fIM\fR and \fIN\fR (e.g. \fB2\-1\fR would refer to the "b" in "abcd"). .PP In the specifications above, the integer value \fIM\fR contains no trailing whitespace and the integer value \fIN\fR contains no leading whitespace. .PP If \fIcharIndex\fR is less than 0 or greater than or equal to the length of the string then this command returns an empty string. .RE .VE .TP \fBstring is \fIclass\fR ?\fB\-strict\fR? ?\fB\-failindex \fIvarname\fR? \fIstring\fR Returns 1 if \fIstring\fR is a valid member of the specified character class, otherwise returns 0. If \fB\-strict\fR is specified, then an empty string returns 0, otherwise an empty string will return 1 on any class. If \fB\-failindex\fR is specified, then if the function returns 0, the index in the string where the class was no longer valid will be stored in the variable named \fIvarname\fR. The \fIvarname\fR will not be set if the function returns 1. The following character ................................................................................ .IP \fBinteger\fR 12 Any of the valid string formats for a 32-bit integer value in Tcl, with optional surrounding whitespace. In case of under/overflow in the value, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain \-1. .IP \fBlist\fR 12 Any proper list structure, with optional surrounding whitespace. In case of improper list structure, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain the index of the "element" where the list parsing fails, or \-1 if this cannot be determined. .IP \fBlower\fR 12 Any Unicode lower case alphabet character. .IP \fBprint\fR 12 Any Unicode printing character, including space. .IP \fBpunct\fR 12 Any Unicode punctuation character. .IP \fBspace\fR 12 ................................................................................ .PP In the case of \fBboolean\fR, \fBtrue\fR and \fBfalse\fR, if the function will return 0, then the \fIvarname\fR will always be set to 0, due to the varied nature of a valid boolean value. .RE .TP \fBstring last \fIneedleString haystackString\fR ?\fIlastIndex\fR? Search \fIhaystackString\fR for a sequence of characters that exactly match the characters in \fIneedleString\fR. If found, return the index of the first character in the last such match within \fIhaystackString\fR. If there is no match, then return \-1. If \fIlastIndex\fR is specified (in any of the forms accepted by the \fBindex\fR method), then only the characters in \fIhaystackString\fR at or before the specified \fIlastIndex\fR will be considered by the search. For example, ................................................................................ .CS \fBstring last a 0a23456789abcdef 9\fR .CE will return \fB1\fR. .RE .TP \fBstring length \fIstring\fR Returns a decimal string giving the number of characters in \fIstring\fR. Note that this is not necessarily the same as the number of bytes used to store the string. If the object is a ByteArray object (such as those returned from reading a binary encoded channel), then this will return the actual byte length of the object. .TP \fBstring map\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? \fImapping string\fR Replaces substrings in \fIstring\fR based on the key-value pairs in \fImapping\fR. \fImapping\fR is a list of \fIkey value key value ...\fR as in the form returned by \fBarray get\fR. Each instance of a key in the string will be replaced with its corresponding value. If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then matching is done without regard to case differences. Both \fIkey\fR and \fIvalue\fR may be multiple characters. Replacement is done in an ordered manner, so the key ................................................................................ .CS \fBstring map {1 0 ab 2 a 3 abc 1} 1abcaababcabababc\fR .CE it will return the string \fB02c322c222c\fR. .RE .TP \fBstring match\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? \fIpattern\fR \fIstring\fR See if \fIpattern\fR matches \fIstring\fR; return 1 if it does, 0 if it doesn't. If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then the pattern attempts to match against the string in a case insensitive manner. For the two strings to match, their contents must be identical except that the following special sequences may appear in \fIpattern\fR: .RS .IP \fB*\fR 10 ................................................................................ .IP \fB?\fR 10 Matches any single character in \fIstring\fR. .IP \fB[\fIchars\fB]\fR 10 Matches any character in the set given by \fIchars\fR. If a sequence of the form \fIx\fB\-\fIy\fR appears in \fIchars\fR, then any character between \fIx\fR and \fIy\fR, inclusive, will match. When used with \fB\-nocase\fR, the end points of the range are converted to lower case first. Whereas {[A\-z]} matches '_' when matching case-sensitively ('_' falls between the 'Z' and 'a'), with \fB\-nocase\fR this is considered like {[A\-Za\-z]} (and probably what was meant in the first place). .IP \fB\e\fIx\fR 10 Matches the single character \fIx\fR. This provides a way of avoiding the special interpretation of the characters \fB*?[]\e\fR in \fIpattern\fR. .RE .TP \fBstring range \fIstring first last\fR Returns a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the character whose index is \fIlast\fR. An index of 0 refers to the first character of the string. \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero then it is treated as if it were zero, and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the length of the string then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR. If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty string is returned. .TP \fBstring repeat \fIstring count\fR Returns \fIstring\fR repeated \fIcount\fR number of times. .TP \fBstring replace \fIstring first last\fR ?\fInewstring\fR? Removes a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the character whose index is \fIlast\fR. An index of 0 refers to the first character of the string. \fIFirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. If \fInewstring\fR is specified, then it is placed in the removed character range. If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero then it is treated as if it were zero, and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the length of the string then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR. If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR or the length of the initial string, or \fIlast\fR is less than 0, then the initial string is returned untouched. .VS 8.5 .TP \fBstring reverse \fIstring\fR Returns a string that is the same length as \fIstring\fR but with its characters in the reverse order. .VE 8.5 .TP \fBstring tolower \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR? Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that all upper (or title) case letters have been converted to lower case. If \fIfirst\fR is specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start modifying. If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in the string to stop at (inclusive). \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. .TP \fBstring totitle \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR? Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that the first character in \fIstring\fR is converted to its Unicode title case variant (or upper case if there is no title case variant) and the rest of the string is converted to lower case. If \fIfirst\fR is specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start modifying. If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in the string to stop at (inclusive). \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. .TP \fBstring toupper \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR? Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that all lower (or title) case letters have been converted to upper case. If \fIfirst\fR is specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start modifying. If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in the string to stop at (inclusive). \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. .TP \fBstring trim \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR? Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any leading or trailing characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed. If \fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces, tabs, newlines, and carriage returns). .TP \fBstring trimleft \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR? Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any leading characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed. If \fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces, tabs, newlines, and carriage returns). .TP \fBstring trimright \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR? Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any trailing characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed. If \fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces, tabs, newlines, and carriage returns). .TP \fBstring wordend \fIstring charIndex\fR Returns the index of the character just after the last one in the word containing character \fIcharIndex\fR of \fIstring\fR. \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. A word is considered to be any contiguous range of alphanumeric (Unicode letters or decimal digits) or underscore (Unicode connector punctuation) characters, or any single character other than these. .TP \fBstring wordstart \fIstring charIndex\fR Returns the index of the first character in the word containing character \fIcharIndex\fR of \fIstring\fR. \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method. A word is considered to be any contiguous range of alphanumeric (Unicode letters or decimal digits) or underscore (Unicode connector punctuation) characters, or any single character other than these. .SH EXAMPLE ................................................................................ set length [\fBstring length\fR $string] if {$length == 0} { set isPrefix 0 } else { set isPrefix [\fBstring equal\fR -length $length$string "foobar"] } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" expr(n), list(n) .SH KEYWORDS case conversion, compare, index, match, pattern, string, word, equal, ctype, character, reverse .\" Local Variables: .\" mode: nroff .\" End: 

Changes to doc/subst.n.

 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149  '\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: subst.n,v 1.11 2007/10/26 12:25:06 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH subst n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME subst \- Perform backslash, command, and variable substitutions ................................................................................ raised the exception. If a continue exception occurs during the evaluation of a command or variable substitution, an empty string will be substituted for that entire command or variable substitution (as long as it is well-formed Tcl.) If a return exception occurs, or any other return code is returned during command or variable substitution, then the returned value is substituted for that substitution. See the EXAMPLES below. In this way, all exceptional return codes are .QW caught by \fBsubst\fR. The \fBsubst\fR command itself will either return an error, or will complete successfully. .SH EXAMPLES .PP When it performs its substitutions, \fIsubst\fR does not give any special treatment to double quotes or curly braces (except within command substitutions) so the script .CS set a 44 \fBsubst\fR {xyz {$a}} .CE returns .QW "\fBxyz {44}\fR" , not .QW "\fBxyz {$a}\fR" and the script .CS set a "p\e} q \e{r" \fBsubst\fR {xyz {$a}} .CE return .QW "\fBxyz {p} q {r}\fR" , not .QW "\fBxyz {p\e} q \e{r}\fR" . .PP When command substitution is performed, it includes any variable substitution necessary to evaluate the script. .CS set a 44 \fBsubst\fR -novariables {$a [format $a]} .CE returns .QW "\fB$a 44\fR" , not .QW "\fB$a$a\fR" . Similarly, when variable substitution is performed, it includes any command substitution necessary to retrieve the value of the variable. .CS proc b {} {return c} array set a {c c [b] tricky} \fBsubst\fR -nocommands {[b] $a([b])} .CE returns .QW "\fB[b] c\fR" , not .QW "\fB[b] tricky\fR". .PP The continue and break exceptions allow command substitutions to prevent substitution of the rest of the command substitution and the rest of \fIstring\fR respectively, giving script authors more options when processing text using \fIsubst\fR. For example, the script .CS \fBsubst\fR {abc,[break],def} .CE returns .QW \fBabc,\fR , not .QW \fBabc,,def\fR and the script .CS \fBsubst\fR {abc,[continue;expr {1+2}],def} .CE returns .QW \fBabc,,def\fR , not .QW \fBabc,3,def\fR . .PP Other exceptional return codes substitute the returned value .CS \fBsubst\fR {abc,[return foo;expr {1+2}],def} .CE returns .QW \fBabc,foo,def\fR , not .QW \fBabc,3,def\fR and .CS \fBsubst\fR {abc,[return -code 10 foo;expr {1+2}],def} .CE also returns .QW \fBabc,foo,def\fR , not .QW \fBabc,3,def\fR . .SH "SEE ALSO" Tcl(n), eval(n), break(n), continue(n) .SH KEYWORDS backslash substitution, command substitution, variable substitution   | < < | < | < < | < | < < < < < < | | < < < < < < < | < | < < < | < < < < | < < >  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121  '\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2001 Donal K. Fellows '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#)$Id: subst.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $'\" .so man.macros .TH subst n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME subst \- Perform backslash, command, and variable substitutions ................................................................................ raised the exception. If a continue exception occurs during the evaluation of a command or variable substitution, an empty string will be substituted for that entire command or variable substitution (as long as it is well-formed Tcl.) If a return exception occurs, or any other return code is returned during command or variable substitution, then the returned value is substituted for that substitution. See the EXAMPLES below. In this way, all exceptional return codes are caught'' by \fBsubst\fR. The \fBsubst\fR command itself will either return an error, or will complete successfully. .SH EXAMPLES .PP When it performs its substitutions, \fIsubst\fR does not give any special treatment to double quotes or curly braces (except within command substitutions) so the script .CS set a 44 \fBsubst\fR {xyz {$a}} .CE returns \fBxyz {44}\fR'', not \fBxyz {$a}\fR'' and the script .CS set a "p\\} q \\{r" \fBsubst\fR {xyz {$a}} .CE return \fBxyz {p} q {r}\fR'', not \fBxyz {p\\} q \\{r}\fR''. .PP When command substitution is performed, it includes any variable substitution necessary to evaluate the script. .CS set a 44 \fBsubst\fR -novariables {$a [format$a]} .CE returns \fB$a 44\fR'', not \fB$a $a\fR''. Similarly, when variable substitution is performed, it includes any command substitution necessary to retrieve the value of the variable. .CS proc b {} {return c} array set a {c c [b] tricky} \fBsubst\fR -nocommands {[b]$a([b])} .CE returns \fB[b] c\fR'', not \fB[b] tricky\fR''. .PP The continue and break exceptions allow command substitutions to prevent substitution of the rest of the command substitution and the rest of \fIstring\fR respectively, giving script authors more options when processing text using \fIsubst\fR. For example, the script .CS \fBsubst\fR {abc,[break],def} .CE returns \fBabc,\fR'', not \fBabc,,def\fR'' and the script .CS \fBsubst\fR {abc,[continue;expr {1+2}],def} .CE returns \fBabc,,def\fR'', not \fBabc,3,def\fR''. .PP Other exceptional return codes substitute the returned value .CS \fBsubst\fR {abc,[return foo;expr {1+2}],def} .CE returns \fBabc,foo,def\fR'', not \fBabc,3,def\fR'' and .CS \fBsubst\fR {abc,[return -code 10 foo;expr {1+2}],def} .CE also returns \fBabc,foo,def\fR'', not \fBabc,3,def\fR''. .SH "SEE ALSO" Tcl(n), eval(n), break(n), continue(n) .SH KEYWORDS backslash substitution, command substitution, variable substitution 

Changes to doc/switch.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: switch.n,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH switch n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME switch \- Evaluate one of several scripts, depending on a given value ................................................................................ since the braces around the whole list make it unnecessary to include a backslash at the end of each line. Since the \fIpattern\fR arguments are in braces in the second form, no command or variable substitutions are performed on them; this makes the behavior of the second form different than the first form in some cases. .PP If a \fIbody\fR is specified as .QW \fB\-\fR it means that the \fIbody\fR for the next pattern should also be used as the body for this pattern (if the next pattern also has a body of .QW \fB\-\fR then the body after that is used, and so on). This feature makes it possible to share a single \fIbody\fR among several patterns. .PP Beware of how you place comments in \fBswitch\fR commands. Comments should only be placed \fBinside\fR the execution body of one of the patterns, and not intermingled with the patterns.   | | < < | <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: switch.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH switch n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME switch \- Evaluate one of several scripts, depending on a given value ................................................................................ since the braces around the whole list make it unnecessary to include a backslash at the end of each line. Since the \fIpattern\fR arguments are in braces in the second form, no command or variable substitutions are performed on them; this makes the behavior of the second form different than the first form in some cases. .PP If a \fIbody\fR is specified as \fB\-\fR'' it means that the \fIbody\fR for the next pattern should also be used as the body for this pattern (if the next pattern also has a body of \fB\-\fR'' then the body after that is used, and so on). This feature makes it possible to share a single \fIbody\fR among several patterns. .PP Beware of how you place comments in \fBswitch\fR commands. Comments should only be placed \fBinside\fR the execution body of one of the patterns, and not intermingled with the patterns. 

Changes to doc/tclsh.1.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 ... 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tclsh.1,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH tclsh 1 "" Tcl "Tcl Applications" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME tclsh \- Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter ................................................................................ read Tcl commands from the named file; \fBtclsh\fR will exit when it reaches the end of the file. The end of the file may be marked either by the physical end of the medium, or by the character, '\\032' ('\\u001a', control-Z). If this character is present in the file, the \fBtclsh\fR application will read text up to but not including the character. An application that requires this character in the file may safely encode it as .QW \e032 , .QW \ex1a , or .QW \eu001a ; or may generate it by use of commands such as \fBformat\fR or \fBbinary\fR. There is no automatic evaluation of \fB.tclshrc\fR when the name of a script file is presented on the \fBtclsh\fR command line, but the script file can always \fBsource\fR it if desired. .PP If you create a Tcl script in a file whose first line is .CS ................................................................................ Contains 1 if \fBtclsh\fR is running interactively (no \fIfileName\fR was specified and standard input is a terminal-like device), 0 otherwise. .SH PROMPTS .PP When \fBtclsh\fR is invoked interactively it normally prompts for each command with .QW "\fB% \fR" . You can change the prompt by setting the variables \fBtcl_prompt1\fR and \fBtcl_prompt2\fR. If variable \fBtcl_prompt1\fR exists then it must consist of a Tcl script to output a prompt; instead of outputting a prompt \fBtclsh\fR will evaluate the script in \fBtcl_prompt1\fR. The variable \fBtcl_prompt2\fR is used in a similar way when a newline is typed but the current command isn't yet complete; if \fBtcl_prompt2\fR isn't set then no prompt is output for   | < < < < | < < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 ... 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tclsh.1,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH tclsh 1 "" Tcl "Tcl Applications" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME tclsh \- Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter ................................................................................ read Tcl commands from the named file; \fBtclsh\fR will exit when it reaches the end of the file. The end of the file may be marked either by the physical end of the medium, or by the character, '\\032' ('\\u001a', control-Z). If this character is present in the file, the \fBtclsh\fR application will read text up to but not including the character. An application that requires this character in the file may safely encode it as \\032'', \\x1a'', or \\u001a''; or may generate it by use of commands such as \fBformat\fR or \fBbinary\fR. There is no automatic evaluation of \fB.tclshrc\fR when the name of a script file is presented on the \fBtclsh\fR command line, but the script file can always \fBsource\fR it if desired. .PP If you create a Tcl script in a file whose first line is .CS ................................................................................ Contains 1 if \fBtclsh\fR is running interactively (no \fIfileName\fR was specified and standard input is a terminal-like device), 0 otherwise. .SH PROMPTS .PP When \fBtclsh\fR is invoked interactively it normally prompts for each command with \fB% \fR''. You can change the prompt by setting the variables \fBtcl_prompt1\fR and \fBtcl_prompt2\fR. If variable \fBtcl_prompt1\fR exists then it must consist of a Tcl script to output a prompt; instead of outputting a prompt \fBtclsh\fR will evaluate the script in \fBtcl_prompt1\fR. The variable \fBtcl_prompt2\fR is used in a similar way when a newline is typed but the current command isn't yet complete; if \fBtcl_prompt2\fR isn't set then no prompt is output for 

Changes to doc/tcltest.n.

 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 .. 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 ... 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 ... 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 ... 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 ... 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 ... 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 ... 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 .... 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 .... 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 .... 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129  '\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions '\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2002. (not subject to US copyright) '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tcltest.n,v 1.50 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH "tcltest" n 2.3 tcltest "Tcl Bundled Packages" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME tcltest \- Test harness support code and utilities ................................................................................ tcltest package. .PP All the commands provided by the \fBtcltest\fR package are defined in and exported from the \fB::tcltest\fR namespace, as indicated in the \fBSYNOPSIS\fR above. In the following sections, all commands will be described by their simple names, in the interest of brevity. .PP The central command of \fBtcltest\fR is \fBtest\fR that defines and runs a test. Testing with \fBtest\fR involves evaluation of a Tcl script and comparing the result to an expected result, as configured and controlled by a number of options. Several other commands provided by \fBtcltest\fR govern the configuration of \fBtest\fR and the collection of many \fBtest\fR commands into test suites. .PP See \fBCREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST\fR below for an extended example of how to use the commands of \fBtcltest\fR to produce test suites for your Tcl-enabled code. .SH COMMANDS .TP \fBtest\fR \fIname description ?option value ...?\fR Defines and possibly runs a test with the name \fIname\fR and description \fIdescription\fR. The name and description of a test are used in messages reported by \fBtest\fR during the test, as configured by the options of \fBtcltest\fR. The remaining \fIoption value\fR arguments to \fBtest\fR define the test, including the scripts to run, the conditions under which to run them, the expected result, and the means by which the expected and actual results should be compared. See \fBTESTS\fR below for a complete description of the valid options and how they define a test. The \fBtest\fR command returns an empty string. .TP \fBtest\fR \fIname description ?constraints? body result\fR . This form of \fBtest\fR is provided to support test suites written for version 1 of the \fBtcltest\fR package, and also a simpler interface for a common usage. It is the same as .QW "\fBtest\fR \fIname description\fB \-constraints \fIconstraints\fB \-body \fIbody\fB \-result \fIresult\fR" . All other options to \fBtest\fR take their default values. When \fIconstraints\fR is omitted, this form of \fBtest\fR can be distinguished from the first because all \fIoption\fRs begin with .QW \- . .TP \fBloadTestedCommands\fR Evaluates in the caller's context the script specified by \fBconfigure \-load\fR or \fBconfigure \-loadfile\fR. Returns the result of that script evaluation, including any error raised by the script. Use this command and the related configuration options to provide the commands to be tested to the interpreter running the test suite. .TP \fBmakeFile\fR \fIcontents name ?directory?\fR Creates a file named \fIname\fR relative to directory \fIdirectory\fR and write \fIcontents\fR to that file using the encoding \fBencoding system\fR. If \fIcontents\fR does not end with a newline, a newline will be appended so that the file named \fIname\fR does end with a newline. Because the system encoding is used, this command is only suitable for making text files. The file will be removed by the next evaluation of \fBcleanupTests\fR, unless it is removed by \fBremoveFile\fR first. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory \fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR. Returns the full path of the file created. Use this command to create any text file required by a test with contents as needed. .TP \fBremoveFile\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR Forces the file referenced by \fIname\fR to be removed. This file name should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory \fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR. Returns an empty string. Use this command to delete files created by \fBmakeFile\fR. .TP \fBmakeDirectory\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR Creates a directory named \fIname\fR relative to directory \fIdirectory\fR. The directory will be removed by the next evaluation of \fBcleanupTests\fR, unless it is removed by \fBremoveDirectory\fR first. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory \fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR. Returns the full path of the directory created. Use this command to create any directories that are required to exist by a test. .TP \fBremoveDirectory\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR Forces the directory referenced by \fIname\fR to be removed. This directory should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory \fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR. Returns an empty string. Use this command to delete any directories created by \fBmakeDirectory\fR. .TP \fBviewFile\fR \fIfile ?directory?\fR Returns the contents of \fIfile\fR, except for any final newline, just as \fBread -nonewline\fR would return. This file name should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory \fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR. Use this command as a convenient way to turn the contents of a file generated by a test into the result of that test for matching against an expected result. The contents of the file are read using the system encoding, so its usefulness is limited to text files. .TP \fBcleanupTests\fR Intended to clean up and summarize after several tests have been run. Typically called once per test file, at the end of the file after all tests have been completed. For best effectiveness, be sure that the \fBcleanupTests\fR is evaluated even if an error occurs earlier in the test file evaluation. .sp Prints statistics about the tests run and removes files that were created by \fBmakeDirectory\fR and \fBmakeFile\fR since the last \fBcleanupTests\fR. Names of files and directories in the directory \fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR created since the last \fBcleanupTests\fR, but not created by \fBmakeFile\fR or \fBmakeDirectory\fR are printed to \fBoutputChannel\fR. This command also restores the original shell environment, as described by the ::env array. Returns an empty string. .TP \fBrunAllTests\fR This is a master command meant to run an entire suite of tests, spanning multiple files and/or directories, as governed by the configurable options of \fBtcltest\fR. See \fBRUNNING ALL TESTS\fR below for a complete description of the many variations possible with \fBrunAllTests\fR. .SH "CONFIGURATION COMMANDS" .TP \fBconfigure\fR Returns the list of configurable options supported by \fBtcltest\fR. See \fBCONFIGURABLE OPTIONS\fR below for the full list of options, their valid values, and their effect on \fBtcltest\fR operations. .TP ................................................................................ .TP \fBconfigure \fIoption value ?option value ...?\fR Sets the value of each configurable option \fIoption\fR to the corresponding value \fIvalue\fR, in order. Raises an error if an \fIoption\fR is not a supported configurable option, or if \fIvalue\fR is not a valid value for the corresponding \fIoption\fR, or if a \fIvalue\fR is not provided. When an error is raised, the operation of \fBconfigure\fR is halted, and subsequent \fIoption value\fR arguments are not processed. .sp If the environment variable \fB::env(TCLTEST_OPTIONS)\fR exists when the \fBtcltest\fR package is loaded (by .QW "\fBpackage require tcltest\fR" ) then its value is taken as a list of arguments to pass to \fBconfigure\fR. This allows the default values of the configuration options to be set by the environment. .TP \fBcustomMatch \fImode script\fR Registers \fImode\fR as a new legal value of the \fB\-match\fR option to \fBtest\fR. When the \fB\-match \fImode\fR option is passed to \fBtest\fR, the script \fIscript\fR will be evaluated to compare the actual result of evaluating the body of the test to the expected result. To perform the match, the \fIscript\fR is completed with two additional words, the expected result, and the actual result, and the completed script is evaluated in the global namespace. The completed script is expected to return a boolean value indicating whether or not the results match. The built-in matching modes of \fBtest\fR are \fBexact\fR, \fBglob\fR, and \fBregexp\fR. .TP \fBtestConstraint \fIconstraint ?boolean?\fR Sets or returns the boolean value associated with the named \fIconstraint\fR. See \fBTEST CONSTRAINTS\fR below for more information. .TP \fBinterpreter\fR \fI?executableName?\fR Sets or returns the name of the executable to be \fBexec\fRed by \fBrunAllTests\fR to run each test file when \fBconfigure -singleproc\fR is false. The default value for \fBinterpreter\fR is the name of the currently running program as returned by \fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR. .TP \fBoutputChannel\fR \fI?channelID?\fR Sets or returns the output channel ID. This defaults to stdout. Any test that prints test related output should send that output to \fBoutputChannel\fR rather than letting that output default to stdout. .TP \fBerrorChannel\fR \fI?channelID?\fR Sets or returns the error channel ID. This defaults to stderr. Any test that prints error messages should send that output to \fBerrorChannel\fR rather than printing directly to stderr. .SH "SHORTCUT COMMANDS" .TP \fBdebug \fI?level?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -debug \fI?level?\fR. .TP \fBerrorFile \fI?filename?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -errfile \fI?filename?\fR. .TP \fBlimitConstraints \fI?boolean?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -limitconstraints \fI?boolean?\fR. .TP \fBloadFile \fI?filename?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -loadfile \fI?filename?\fR. .TP \fBloadScript \fI?script?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -load \fI?script?\fR. .TP \fBmatch \fI?patternList?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -match \fI?patternList?\fR. .TP \fBmatchDirectories \fI?patternList?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -relateddir \fI?patternList?\fR. .TP \fBmatchFiles \fI?patternList?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -file \fI?patternList?\fR. .TP \fBoutputFile \fI?filename?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -outfile \fI?filename?\fR. .TP \fBpreserveCore \fI?level?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -preservecore \fI?level?\fR. .TP \fBsingleProcess \fI?boolean?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -singleproc \fI?boolean?\fR. .TP \fBskip \fI?patternList?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -skip \fI?patternList?\fR. .TP \fBskipDirectories \fI?patternList?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -asidefromdir \fI?patternList?\fR. .TP \fBskipFiles \fI?patternList?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -notfile \fI?patternList?\fR. .TP \fBtemporaryDirectory \fI?directory?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -tmpdir \fI?directory?\fR. .TP \fBtestsDirectory \fI?directory?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -testdir \fI?directory?\fR. .TP \fBverbose \fI?level?\fR Same as \fBconfigure -verbose \fI?level?\fR. .SH "OTHER COMMANDS" .PP The remaining commands provided by \fBtcltest\fR have better alternatives provided by \fBtcltest\fR or \fBTcl\fR itself. They are retained to support existing test suites, but should be avoided in new code. .TP \fBtest\fR \fIname description optionList\fR This form of \fBtest\fR was provided to enable passing many options spanning several lines to \fBtest\fR as a single argument quoted by braces, rather than needing to backslash quote the newlines between arguments to \fBtest\fR. The \fIoptionList\fR argument is expected to be a list with an even number of elements representing \fIoption\fR and \fIvalue\fR arguments to pass to \fBtest\fR. However, these values are not passed directly, as in the alternate forms of \fBswitch\fR. Instead, this form makes an unfortunate attempt to overthrow Tcl's substitution rules by performing substitutions on some of the list elements as an attempt to implement a .QW "do what I mean" interpretation of a brace-enclosed .QW block . The result is nearly impossible to document clearly, and for that reason this form is not recommended. See the examples in \fBCREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST\fR below to see that this form is really not necessary to avoid backslash-quoted newlines. If you insist on using this form, examine the source code of \fBtcltest\fR if you want to know the substitution details, or just enclose the third through last argument to \fBtest\fR in braces and hope for the best. .TP \fBworkingDirectory\fR \fI?directoryName?\fR Sets or returns the current working directory when the test suite is running. The default value for workingDirectory is the directory in which the test suite was launched. The Tcl commands \fBcd\fR and \fBpwd\fR are sufficient replacements. .TP \fBnormalizeMsg\fR \fImsg\fR Returns the result of removing the .QW extra newlines from \fImsg\fR, where .QW extra is rather imprecise. Tcl offers plenty of string processing commands to modify strings as you wish, and \fBcustomMatch\fR allows flexible matching of actual and expected results. .TP \fBnormalizePath\fR \fIpathVar\fR Resolves symlinks in a path, thus creating a path without internal redirection. It is assumed that \fIpathVar\fR is absolute. \fIpathVar\fR is modified in place. The Tcl command \fBfile normalize\fR is a sufficient replacement. .TP \fBbytestring\fR \fIstring\fR Construct a string that consists of the requested sequence of bytes, as opposed to a string of properly formed UTF-8 characters using the value supplied in \fIstring\fR. This allows the tester to create denormalized or improperly formed strings to pass to C procedures that are supposed to accept strings with embedded NULL types and confirm that a string result has a certain pattern of bytes. This is exactly equivalent to the Tcl command \fBencoding convertfrom identity\fR. .SH TESTS .PP The \fBtest\fR command is the heart of the \fBtcltest\fR package. Its essential function is to evaluate a Tcl script and compare the result with an expected result. The options of \fBtest\fR define the test script, the environment in which to evaluate it, the expected result, and how the compare the actual result to the expected result. Some configuration options of \fBtcltest\fR also influence how \fBtest\fR operates. .PP The valid options for \fBtest\fR are summarized: .PP .CS \fBtest\fR \fIname\fR \fIdescription\fR ?-constraints \fIkeywordList|expression\fR? ?-setup \fIsetupScript\fR? ?-body \fItestScript\fR? ?-cleanup \fIcleanupScript\fR? ................................................................................ ?-match \fImode\fR? .CE .PP The \fIname\fR may be any string. It is conventional to choose a \fIname\fR according to the pattern: .PP .CS \fItarget\fR\-\fImajorNum\fR.\fIminorNum\fR .CE .PP For white-box (regression) tests, the target should be the name of the C function or Tcl procedure being tested. For black-box tests, the target should be the name of the feature being tested. Some conventions call for the names of black-box tests to have the suffix \fB_bb\fR. Related tests should share a major number. As a test suite evolves, it is best to have the same test name continue to correspond to the same test, so that it remains meaningful to say things like .QW "Test foo-1.3 passed in all releases up to 3.4, but began failing in release 3.5." .PP During evaluation of \fBtest\fR, the \fIname\fR will be compared to the lists of string matching patterns returned by \fBconfigure -match\fR, and \fBconfigure -skip\fR. The test will be run only if \fIname\fR matches any of the patterns from \fBconfigure -match\fR and matches none of the patterns from \fBconfigure -skip\fR. .PP The \fIdescription\fR should be a short textual description of the test. The \fIdescription\fR is included in output produced by the test, typically test failure messages. Good \fIdescription\fR values should briefly explain the purpose of the test to users of a test suite. The name of a Tcl or C function being tested should be included in the description for regression tests. If the test case exists to reproduce a bug, include the bug ID in the description. .PP Valid attributes and associated values are: .TP \fB\-constraints \fIkeywordList|expression\fR The optional \fB\-constraints\fR attribute can be list of one or more keywords or an expression. If the \fB\-constraints\fR value is a list of keywords, each of these keywords should be the name of a constraint defined by a call to \fBtestConstraint\fR. If any of the listed constraints is false or does not exist, the test is skipped. If the \fB\-constraints\fR value is an expression, that expression is evaluated. If the expression evaluates to true, then the test is run. Note that the expression form of \fB\-constraints\fR may interfere with the operation of \fBconfigure -constraints\fR and \fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR, and is not recommended. Appropriate constraints should be added to any tests that should not always be run. That is, conditional evaluation of a test should be accomplished by the \fB\-constraints\fR option, not by conditional evaluation of \fBtest\fR. In that way, the same number of tests are always reported by the test suite, though the number skipped may change based on the testing environment. The default value is an empty list. See \fBTEST CONSTRAINTS\fR below for a list of built-in constraints and information on how to add your own constraints. .TP \fB\-setup \fIscript\fR The optional \fB\-setup\fR attribute indicates a \fIscript\fR that will be run before the script indicated by the \fB\-body\fR attribute. If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail. The default value is an empty script. .TP \fB\-body \fIscript\fR The \fB\-body\fR attribute indicates the \fIscript\fR to run to carry out the test. It must return a result that can be checked for correctness. If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail. The default value is an empty script. .TP \fB\-cleanup \fIscript\fR The optional \fB\-cleanup\fR attribute indicates a \fIscript\fR that will be run after the script indicated by the \fB\-body\fR attribute. If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail. The default value is an empty script. .TP \fB\-match \fImode\fR The \fB\-match\fR attribute determines how expected answers supplied by \fB\-result\fR, \fB\-output\fR, and \fB\-errorOutput\fR are compared. Valid values for \fImode\fR are \fBregexp\fR, \fBglob\fR, \fBexact\fR, and any value registered by a prior call to \fBcustomMatch\fR. The default value is \fBexact\fR. .TP \fB\-result \fIexpectedValue\fR The \fB\-result\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which the return value from script will be compared. The default value is an empty string. .TP \fB\-output \fIexpectedValue\fR The \fB\-output\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which any output sent to \fBstdout\fR or \fBoutputChannel\fR during evaluation of the script(s) will be compared. Note that only output printed using \fB::puts\fR is used for comparison. If \fB\-output\fR is not specified, output sent to \fBstdout\fR and \fBoutputChannel\fR is not processed for comparison. .TP \fB\-errorOutput \fIexpectedValue\fR The \fB\-errorOutput\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which any output sent to \fBstderr\fR or \fBerrorChannel\fR during evaluation of the script(s) will be compared. Note that only output printed using \fB::puts\fR is used for comparison. If \fB\-errorOutput\fR is not specified, output sent to \fBstderr\fR and \fBerrorChannel\fR is not processed for comparison. .TP \fB\-returnCodes \fIexpectedCodeList\fR The optional \fB\-returnCodes\fR attribute supplies \fIexpectedCodeList\fR, a list of return codes that may be accepted from evaluation of the \fB\-body\fR script. If evaluation of the \fB\-body\fR script returns a code not in the \fIexpectedCodeList\fR, the test fails. All return codes known to \fBreturn\fR, in both numeric and symbolic form, including extended return codes, are acceptable elements in the \fIexpectedCodeList\fR. Default value is \fB{ok return}\fR. .PP To pass, a test must successfully evaluate its \fB\-setup\fR, \fB\-body\fR, and \fB\-cleanup\fR scripts. The return code of the \fB\-body\fR script and its result must match expected values, and if specified, output and error data from the test must match expected \fB\-output\fR and \fB\-errorOutput\fR values. If any of these conditions are not met, then the test fails. Note that all scripts are evaluated in the context of the caller of \fBtest\fR. .PP As long as \fBtest\fR is called with valid syntax and legal values for all attributes, it will not raise an error. Test failures are instead reported as output written to \fBoutputChannel\fR. In default operation, a successful test produces no output. The output messages produced by \fBtest\fR are controlled by the \fBconfigure \-verbose\fR option as described in \fBCONFIGURABLE OPTIONS\fR below. Any output produced by the test scripts themselves should be produced using \fB::puts\fR to \fBoutputChannel\fR or \fBerrorChannel\fR, so that users of the test suite may easily capture output with the \fBconfigure \-outfile\fR and \fBconfigure \-errfile\fR options, and so that the \fB\-output\fR and \fB\-errorOutput\fR attributes work properly. .SH "TEST CONSTRAINTS" .PP Constraints are used to determine whether or not a test should be skipped. Each constraint has a name, which may be any string, and a boolean value. Each \fBtest\fR has a \fB\-constraints\fR value which is a list of constraint names. There are two modes of constraint control. Most frequently, the default mode is used, indicated by a setting of \fBconfigure \-limitconstraints\fR to false. The test will run only if all constraints in the list are true-valued. Thus, the \fB\-constraints\fR option of \fBtest\fR is a convenient, symbolic way to define any conditions required for the test to be possible or meaningful. For example, a \fBtest\fR with \fB\-constraints unix\fR will only be run if the constraint \fBunix\fR is true, which indicates the test suite is being run on a Unix platform. .PP Each \fBtest\fR should include whatever \fB\-constraints\fR are required to constrain it to run only where appropriate. Several constraints are pre-defined in the \fBtcltest\fR package, listed below. The registration of user-defined constraints is performed by the \fBtestConstraint\fR command. User-defined constraints may appear within a test file, or within the script specified by the \fBconfigure \-load\fR or \fBconfigure \-loadfile\fR options. .PP The following is a list of constraints pre-defined by the \fBtcltest\fR package itself: .TP \fIsingleTestInterp\fR test can only be run if all test files are sourced into a single interpreter ................................................................................ \fIroot\fR test can only run if Unix user is root .TP \fInotRoot\fR test can only run if Unix user is not root .TP \fIeformat\fR test can only run if app has a working version of sprintf with respect to the .QW "e" format of floating-point numbers. .TP \fIstdio\fR test can only be run if \fBinterpreter\fR can be \fBopen\fRed as a pipe. .PP The alternative mode of constraint control is enabled by setting \fBconfigure \-limitconstraints\fR to true. With that configuration setting, all existing constraints other than those in the constraint list returned by \fBconfigure \-constraints\fR are set to false. When the value of \fBconfigure \-constraints\fR is set, all those constraints are set to true. The effect is that when both options \fBconfigure \-constraints\fR and \fBconfigure \-limitconstraints\fR are in use, only those tests including only constraints from the \fBconfigure \-constraints\fR list are run; all others are skipped. For example, one might set up a configuration with .PP .CS \fBconfigure\fR -constraints knownBug \e -limitconstraints true \e -verbose pass .CE .PP to run exactly those tests that exercise known bugs, and discover whether any of them pass, indicating the bug had been fixed. .SH "RUNNING ALL TESTS" .PP The single command \fBrunAllTests\fR is evaluated to run an entire test suite, spanning many files and directories. The configuration options of \fBtcltest\fR control the precise operations. The \fBrunAllTests\fR command begins by printing a summary of its configuration to \fBoutputChannel\fR. .PP Test files to be evaluated are sought in the directory \fBconfigure \-testdir\fR. The list of files in that directory that match any of the patterns in \fBconfigure \-file\fR and match none of the patterns in \fBconfigure \-notfile\fR is generated and sorted. Then each file will be evaluated in turn. If \fBconfigure \-singleproc\fR is true, then each file will be \fBsource\fRd in the caller's context. If it is false, then a copy of \fBinterpreter\fR will be \fBexec\fRd to evaluate each file. The multi-process operation is useful when testing can cause errors so severe that a process terminates. Although such an error may terminate a child process evaluating one file, the master process can continue with the rest of the test suite. In multi-process operation, the configuration of \fBtcltest\fR in the master process is passed to the child processes as command line arguments, with the exception of \fBconfigure \-outfile\fR. The \fBrunAllTests\fR command in the master process collects all output from the child processes and collates their results into one master report. Any reports of individual test failures, or messages requested by a \fBconfigure \-verbose\fR setting are passed directly on to \fBoutputChannel\fR by the master process. .PP After evaluating all selected test files, a summary of the results is printed to \fBoutputChannel\fR. The summary includes the total number of \fBtest\fRs evaluated, broken down into those skipped, those passed, and those failed. The summary also notes the number of files evaluated, and the names of any files with failing tests or errors. A list of the constraints that caused tests to be skipped, and the number of tests skipped for each is also printed. Also, messages are printed if it appears that evaluation of a test file has caused any temporary files to be left behind in \fBconfigure \-tmpdir\fR. .PP Having completed and summarized all selected test files, \fBrunAllTests\fR then recursively acts on subdirectories of \fBconfigure \-testdir\fR. All subdirectories that match any of the patterns in \fBconfigure \-relateddir\fR and do not match any of the patterns in \fBconfigure \-asidefromdir\fR are examined. If a file named \fBall.tcl\fR is found in such a directory, it will be \fBsource\fRd in the caller's context. Whether or not an examined directory contains an \fBall.tcl\fR file, its subdirectories are also scanned against the \fBconfigure \-relateddir\fR and \fBconfigure \-asidefromdir\fR patterns. In this way, many directories in a directory tree can have all their test files evaluated by a single \fBrunAllTests\fR command. .SH "CONFIGURABLE OPTIONS" The \fBconfigure\fR command is used to set and query the configurable options of \fBtcltest\fR. The valid options are: .TP \fB\-singleproc \fIboolean\fR Controls whether or not \fBrunAllTests\fR spawns a child process for each test file. No spawning when \fIboolean\fR is true. Default value is false. .TP \fB\-debug \fIlevel\fR Sets the debug level to \fIlevel\fR, an integer value indicating how much debugging information should be printed to stdout. Note that debug messages always go to stdout, independent of the value of \fBconfigure \-outfile\fR. Default value is 0. Levels are defined as: .RS .IP 0 Do not display any debug information. .IP 1 Display information regarding whether a test is skipped because it doesn't match any of the tests that were specified using by \fBconfigure \-match\fR (userSpecifiedNonMatch) or matches any of the tests specified by \fBconfigure \-skip\fR (userSpecifiedSkip). Also print warnings about possible lack of cleanup or balance in test files. Also print warnings about any re-use of test names. .IP 2 Display the flag array parsed by the command line processor, the contents of the ::env array, and all user-defined variables that exist in the current namespace as they are used. .IP 3 Display information regarding what individual procs in the test harness are doing. .RE .TP \fB\-verbose \fIlevel\fR Sets the type of output verbosity desired to \fIlevel\fR, a list of zero or more of the elements \fBbody\fR, \fBpass\fR, \fBskip\fR, \fBstart\fR, \fBerror\fR and \fBline\fR. Default value is \fB{body error}\fR. Levels are defined as: .RS .IP "body (b)" ................................................................................ .IP "error (e)" Print errorInfo and errorCode, if they exist, when a test return code does not match its expected return code .IP "line (l)" Print source file line information of failed tests .RE The single letter abbreviations noted above are also recognized so that .QW "\fBconfigure \-verbose pt\fR" is the same as .QW "\fBconfigure \-verbose {pass start}\fR" . .TP \fB\-preservecore \fIlevel\fR Sets the core preservation level to \fIlevel\fR. This level determines how stringent checks for core files are. Default value is 0. Levels are defined as: .RS .IP 0 No checking \(em do not check for core files at the end of each test command, but do check for them in \fBrunAllTests\fR after all test files have been evaluated. .IP 1 Also check for core files at the end of each \fBtest\fR command. .IP 2 Check for core files at all times described above, and save a copy of each core file produced in \fBconfigure \-tmpdir\fR. .RE .TP \fB\-limitconstraints \fIboolean\fR Sets the mode by which \fBtest\fR honors constraints as described in \fBTESTS\fR above. Default value is false. .TP \fB\-constraints \fIlist\fR Sets all the constraints in \fIlist\fR to true. Also used in combination with .QW "\fBconfigure \-limitconstraints true\fR" to control an alternative constraint mode as described in \fBTESTS\fR above. Default value is an empty list. .TP \fB\-tmpdir \fIdirectory\fR Sets the temporary directory to be used by \fBmakeFile\fR, \fBmakeDirectory\fR, \fBviewFile\fR, \fBremoveFile\fR, and \fBremoveDirectory\fR as the default directory where temporary files and directories created by test files should be created. Default value is \fBworkingDirectory\fR. .TP \fB\-testdir \fIdirectory\fR Sets the directory searched by \fBrunAllTests\fR for test files and subdirectories. Default value is \fBworkingDirectory\fR. .TP \fB\-file \fIpatternList\fR Sets the list of patterns used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to determine what test files to evaluate. Default value is \fB*.test\fR. .TP \fB\-notfile \fIpatternList\fR Sets the list of patterns used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to determine what test files to skip. Default value is .QW \fBl.*.test\fR , so that any SCCS lock files are skipped. .TP \fB\-relateddir \fIpatternList\fR Sets the list of patterns used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to determine what subdirectories to search for an \fBall.tcl\fR file. Default value is .QW \fB*\fR . .TP \fB\-asidefromdir \fIpatternList\fR Sets the list of patterns used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to determine what subdirectories to skip when searching for an \fBall.tcl\fR file. Default value is an empty list. .TP \fB\-match \fIpatternList\fR Set the list of patterns used by \fBtest\fR to determine whether a test should be run. Default value is .QW \fB*\fR . .TP \fB\-skip \fIpatternList\fR Set the list of patterns used by \fBtest\fR to determine whether a test should be skipped. Default value is an empty list. .TP \fB\-load \fIscript\fR Sets a script to be evaluated by \fBloadTestedCommands\fR. Default value is an empty script. .TP \fB\-loadfile \fIfilename\fR Sets the filename from which to read a script to be evaluated by \fBloadTestedCommands\fR. This is an alternative to \fB\-load\fR. They cannot be used together. .TP \fB\-outfile \fIfilename\fR Sets the file to which all output produced by tcltest should be written. A file named \fIfilename\fR will be \fBopen\fRed for writing, and the resulting channel will be set as the value of \fBoutputChannel\fR. .TP \fB\-errfile \fIfilename\fR Sets the file to which all error output produced by tcltest should be written. A file named \fIfilename\fR will be \fBopen\fRed for writing, and the resulting channel will be set as the value of \fBerrorChannel\fR. .SH "CREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST" .PP The fundamental element of a test suite is the individual \fBtest\fR command. We begin with several examples. .IP [1] Test of a script that returns normally. .RS .PP .CS \fBtest\fR example-1.0 {normal return} { ................................................................................ file attributes $file -owner } -cleanup { removeFile test } -result$::tcl_platform(user) .CE .RE .PP At the next higher layer of organization, several \fBtest\fR commands are gathered together into a single test file. Test files should have names with the \fB.test\fR extension, because that is the default pattern used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to find test files. It is a good rule of thumb to have one test file for each source code file of your project. It is good practice to edit the test file and the source code file together, keeping tests synchronized with code changes. .PP Most of the code in the test file should be the \fBtest\fR commands. Use constraints to skip tests, rather than conditional evaluation of \fBtest\fR. .IP [5] Recommended system for writing conditional tests, using constraints to guard: .RS .PP .CS \fBtestConstraint\fR X [expr $myRequirement] ................................................................................ test badConditionalTest {} { #body } result } .CE .RE .PP Use the \fB\-setup\fR and \fB\-cleanup\fR options to establish and release all context requirements of the test body. Do not make tests depend on prior tests in the file. Those prior tests might be skipped. If several consecutive tests require the same context, the appropriate setup and cleanup scripts may be stored in variable for passing to each tests \fB\-setup\fR and \fB\-cleanup\fR options. This is a better solution than performing setup outside of \fBtest\fR commands, because the setup will only be done if necessary, and any errors during setup will be reported, and not cause the test file to abort. .PP A test file should be able to be combined with other test files and not interfere with them, even when .QW "\fBconfigure -singleproc 1\fR" causes all files to be evaluated in a common interpreter. A simple way to achieve this is to have your tests define all their commands and variables in a namespace that is deleted when the test file evaluation is complete. A good namespace to use is a child namespace \fBtest\fR of the namespace of the module you are testing. .PP A test file should also be able to be evaluated directly as a script, not depending on being called by a master \fBrunAllTests\fR. This means that each test file should process command line arguments to give the tester all the configuration control that \fBtcltest\fR provides. .PP After all \fBtest\fRs in a test file, the command \fBcleanupTests\fR should be called. .IP [7] Here is a sketch of a sample test file illustrating those points: .RS .PP .CS package require tcltest 2.2 ................................................................................ } namespace delete ::example::test .CE .RE .PP The next level of organization is a full test suite, made up of several test files. One script is used to control the entire suite. The basic function of this script is to call \fBrunAllTests\fR after doing any necessary setup. This script is usually named \fBall.tcl\fR because that's the default name used by \fBrunAllTests\fR when combining multiple test suites into one testing run. .IP [8] Here is a sketch of a sample test suite master script: .RS .PP .CS package require Tcl 8.4 package require tcltest 2.2 package require example \fB::tcltest::configure\fR -testdir \e [file dirname [file normalize [info script]]] eval \fB::tcltest::configure\fR$argv \fB::tcltest::runAllTests\fR .CE .RE .SH COMPATIBILITY .PP ................................................................................ A number of commands and variables in the \fB::tcltest\fR namespace provided by earlier releases of \fBtcltest\fR have not been documented here. They are no longer part of the supported public interface of \fBtcltest\fR and should not be used in new test suites. However, to continue to support existing test suites written to the older interface specifications, many of those deprecated commands and variables still work as before. For example, in many circumstances, \fBconfigure\fR will be automatically called shortly after .QW "\fBpackage require tcltest 2.1\fR" succeeds with arguments from the variable \fB::argv\fR. This is to support test suites that depend on the old behavior that \fBtcltest\fR was automatically configured from command line arguments. New test files should not depend on this, but should explicitly include .PP .CS eval \fB::tcltest::configure\fR $::argv .CE .PP to establish a configuration from command line arguments. .SH "KNOWN ISSUES" There are two known issues related to nested evaluations of \fBtest\fR. The first issue relates to the stack level in which test scripts are executed. Tests nested within other tests may be executed at the same stack level as the outermost test. For example, in the following code: .PP .CS \fBtest\fR level-1.1 {level 1} { -body { ................................................................................ } } .CE .PP any script executed in level-2.1 may be executed at the same stack level as the script defined for level-1.1. .PP In addition, while two \fBtest\fRs have been run, results will only be reported by \fBcleanupTests\fR for tests at the same level as test level-1.1. However, test results for all tests run prior to level-1.1 will be available when test level-2.1 runs. What this means is that if you try to access the test results for test level-2.1, it will may say that .QW m tests have run, .QW n tests have been skipped, .QW o tests have passed and .QW p tests have failed, where .QW m , .QW n , .QW o , and .QW p refer to tests that were run at the same test level as test level-1.1. .PP Implementation of output and error comparison in the test command depends on usage of ::puts in your application code. Output is intercepted by redefining the ::puts command while the defined test script is being run. Errors thrown by C procedures or printed directly from C applications will not be caught by the test command. Therefore, usage of the \fB\-output\fR and \fB\-errorOutput\fR options to \fBtest\fR is useful only for pure Tcl applications that use \fB::puts\fR to produce output. .SH KEYWORDS test, test harness, test suite   | | | | | | | < | | | | | < | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | < | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | < < | < | | | | | < < < | | | | | | | | | | | > | < > | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | < | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | < < | | | | | | | | < | < | | | | | | | | | | | | | < | | | | < | | | | | < | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | | < | | | | | | | | < | | | | < < < < < | < < < < < < < > | | | |  4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 .. 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 ... 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 ... 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 ... 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 ... 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 ... 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 ... 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 .... 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 .... 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 .... 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100  '\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions '\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2002. (not subject to US copyright) '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#)$Id: tcltest.n,v 1.51 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $'\" .so man.macros .TH "tcltest" n 2.3 tcltest "Tcl Bundled Packages" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME tcltest \- Test harness support code and utilities ................................................................................ tcltest package. .PP All the commands provided by the \fBtcltest\fR package are defined in and exported from the \fB::tcltest\fR namespace, as indicated in the \fBSYNOPSIS\fR above. In the following sections, all commands will be described by their simple names, in the interest of brevity. .PP The central command of \fBtcltest\fR is [\fBtest\fR] that defines and runs a test. Testing with [\fBtest\fR] involves evaluation of a Tcl script and comparing the result to an expected result, as configured and controlled by a number of options. Several other commands provided by \fBtcltest\fR govern the configuration of [\fBtest\fR] and the collection of many [\fBtest\fR] commands into test suites. .PP See \fBCREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST\fR below for an extended example of how to use the commands of \fBtcltest\fR to produce test suites for your Tcl-enabled code. .SH COMMANDS .TP \fBtest\fR \fIname description ?option value ...?\fR Defines and possibly runs a test with the name \fIname\fR and description \fIdescription\fR. The name and description of a test are used in messages reported by [\fBtest\fR] during the test, as configured by the options of \fBtcltest\fR. The remaining \fIoption value\fR arguments to [\fBtest\fR] define the test, including the scripts to run, the conditions under which to run them, the expected result, and the means by which the expected and actual results should be compared. See \fBTESTS\fR below for a complete description of the valid options and how they define a test. The [\fBtest\fR] command returns an empty string. .TP \fBtest\fR \fIname description ?constraints? body result\fR This form of [\fBtest\fR] is provided to support test suites written for version 1 of the \fBtcltest\fR package, and also a simpler interface for a common usage. It is the same as [\fBtest\fR \fIname description\fB -constraints \fIconstraints\fB -body \fIbody\fB -result \fIresult\fR]. All other options to [\fBtest\fR] take their default values. When \fIconstraints\fR is omitted, this form of [\fBtest\fR] can be distinguished from the first because all \fIoption\fRs begin with -''. .TP \fBloadTestedCommands\fR Evaluates in the caller's context the script specified by [\fBconfigure -load\fR] or [\fBconfigure -loadfile\fR]. Returns the result of that script evaluation, including any error raised by the script. Use this command and the related configuration options to provide the commands to be tested to the interpreter running the test suite. .TP \fBmakeFile\fR \fIcontents name ?directory?\fR Creates a file named \fIname\fR relative to directory \fIdirectory\fR and write \fIcontents\fR to that file using the encoding [\fBencoding system\fR]. If \fIcontents\fR does not end with a newline, a newline will be appended so that the file named \fIname\fR does end with a newline. Because the system encoding is used, this command is only suitable for making text files. The file will be removed by the next evaluation of [\fBcleanupTests\fR], unless it is removed by [\fBremoveFile\fR] first. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR]. Returns the full path of the file created. Use this command to create any text file required by a test with contents as needed. .TP \fBremoveFile\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR Forces the file referenced by \fIname\fR to be removed. This file name should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR]. Returns an empty string. Use this command to delete files created by [\fBmakeFile\fR]. .TP \fBmakeDirectory\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR Creates a directory named \fIname\fR relative to directory \fIdirectory\fR. The directory will be removed by the next evaluation of [\fBcleanupTests\fR], unless it is removed by [\fBremoveDirectory\fR] first. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR]. Returns the full path of the directory created. Use this command to create any directories that are required to exist by a test. .TP \fBremoveDirectory\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR Forces the directory referenced by \fIname\fR to be removed. This directory should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR]. Returns an empty string. Use this command to delete any directories created by [\fBmakeDirectory\fR]. .TP \fBviewFile\fR \fIfile ?directory?\fR Returns the contents of \fIfile\fR, except for any final newline, just as [\fBread -nonewline\fR] would return. This file name should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR. The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR]. Use this command as a convenient way to turn the contents of a file generated by a test into the result of that test for matching against an expected result. The contents of the file are read using the system encoding, so its usefulness is limited to text files. .TP \fBcleanupTests\fR Intended to clean up and summarize after several tests have been run. Typically called once per test file, at the end of the file after all tests have been completed. For best effectiveness, be sure that the [\fBcleanupTests\fR] is evaluated even if an error occurs earlier in the test file evaluation. .sp Prints statistics about the tests run and removes files that were created by [\fBmakeDirectory\fR] and [\fBmakeFile\fR] since the last [\fBcleanupTests\fR]. Names of files and directories in the directory [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR] created since the last [\fBcleanupTests\fR], but not created by [\fBmakeFile\fR] or [\fBmakeDirectory\fR] are printed to [\fBoutputChannel\fR]. This command also restores the original shell environment, as described by the ::env array. Returns an empty string. .TP \fBrunAllTests\fR This is a master command meant to run an entire suite of tests, spanning multiple files and/or directories, as governed by the configurable options of \fBtcltest\fR. See \fBRUNNING ALL TESTS\fR below for a complete description of the many variations possible with [\fBrunAllTests\fR]. .SH "CONFIGURATION COMMANDS" .TP \fBconfigure\fR Returns the list of configurable options supported by \fBtcltest\fR. See \fBCONFIGURABLE OPTIONS\fR below for the full list of options, their valid values, and their effect on \fBtcltest\fR operations. .TP ................................................................................ .TP \fBconfigure \fIoption value ?option value ...?\fR Sets the value of each configurable option \fIoption\fR to the corresponding value \fIvalue\fR, in order. Raises an error if an \fIoption\fR is not a supported configurable option, or if \fIvalue\fR is not a valid value for the corresponding \fIoption\fR, or if a \fIvalue\fR is not provided. When an error is raised, the operation of [\fBconfigure\fR] is halted, and subsequent \fIoption value\fR arguments are not processed. .sp If the environment variable \fB::env(TCLTEST_OPTIONS)\fR exists when the \fBtcltest\fR package is loaded (by [\fBpackage require tcltest\fR]) then its value is taken as a list of arguments to pass to [\fBconfigure\fR]. This allows the default values of the configuration options to be set by the environment. .TP \fBcustomMatch \fImode script\fR Registers \fImode\fR as a new legal value of the \fB-match\fR option to [\fBtest\fR]. When the \fB-match \fImode\fR option is passed to [\fBtest\fR], the script \fIscript\fR will be evaluated to compare the actual result of evaluating the body of the test to the expected result. To perform the match, the \fIscript\fR is completed with two additional words, the expected result, and the actual result, and the completed script is evaluated in the global namespace. The completed script is expected to return a boolean value indicating whether or not the results match. The built-in matching modes of [\fBtest\fR] are \fBexact\fR, \fBglob\fR, and \fBregexp\fR. .TP \fBtestConstraint \fIconstraint ?boolean?\fR Sets or returns the boolean value associated with the named \fIconstraint\fR. See \fBTEST CONSTRAINTS\fR below for more information. .TP \fBinterpreter\fR \fI?executableName?\fR Sets or returns the name of the executable to be [\fBexec\fR]ed by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to run each test file when [\fBconfigure -singleproc\fR] is false. The default value for [\fBinterpreter\fR] is the name of the currently running program as returned by [\fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR]. .TP \fBoutputChannel\fR \fI?channelID?\fR Sets or returns the output channel ID. This defaults to stdout. Any test that prints test related output should send that output to [\fBoutputChannel\fR] rather than letting that output default to stdout. .TP \fBerrorChannel\fR \fI?channelID?\fR Sets or returns the error channel ID. This defaults to stderr. Any test that prints error messages should send that output to [\fBerrorChannel\fR] rather than printing directly to stderr. .SH "SHORTCUT COMMANDS" .TP \fBdebug \fI?level?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -debug \fI?level?\fR]. .TP \fBerrorFile \fI?filename?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -errfile \fI?filename?\fR]. .TP \fBlimitConstraints \fI?boolean?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -limitconstraints \fI?boolean?\fR]. .TP \fBloadFile \fI?filename?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -loadfile \fI?filename?\fR]. .TP \fBloadScript \fI?script?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -load \fI?script?\fR]. .TP \fBmatch \fI?patternList?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -match \fI?patternList?\fR]. .TP \fBmatchDirectories \fI?patternList?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -relateddir \fI?patternList?\fR]. .TP \fBmatchFiles \fI?patternList?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -file \fI?patternList?\fR]. .TP \fBoutputFile \fI?filename?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -outfile \fI?filename?\fR]. .TP \fBpreserveCore \fI?level?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -preservecore \fI?level?\fR]. .TP \fBsingleProcess \fI?boolean?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -singleproc \fI?boolean?\fR]. .TP \fBskip \fI?patternList?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -skip \fI?patternList?\fR]. .TP \fBskipDirectories \fI?patternList?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -asidefromdir \fI?patternList?\fR]. .TP \fBskipFiles \fI?patternList?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -notfile \fI?patternList?\fR]. .TP \fBtemporaryDirectory \fI?directory?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -tmpdir \fI?directory?\fR]. .TP \fBtestsDirectory \fI?directory?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -testdir \fI?directory?\fR]. .TP \fBverbose \fI?level?\fR Same as [\fBconfigure -verbose \fI?level?\fR]. .SH "OTHER COMMANDS" .PP The remaining commands provided by \fBtcltest\fR have better alternatives provided by \fBtcltest\fR or \fBTcl\fR itself. They are retained to support existing test suites, but should be avoided in new code. .TP \fBtest\fR \fIname description optionList\fR This form of [\fBtest\fR] was provided to enable passing many options spanning several lines to [\fBtest\fR] as a single argument quoted by braces, rather than needing to backslash quote the newlines between arguments to [\fBtest\fR]. The \fIoptionList\fR argument is expected to be a list with an even number of elements representing \fIoption\fR and \fIvalue\fR arguments to pass to [\fBtest\fR]. However, these values are not passed directly, as in the alternate forms of [\fBswitch\fR]. Instead, this form makes an unfortunate attempt to overthrow Tcl's substitution rules by performing substitutions on some of the list elements as an attempt to implement a do what I mean'' interpretation of a brace-enclosed block''. The result is nearly impossible to document clearly, and for that reason this form is not recommended. See the examples in \fBCREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST\fR below to see that this form is really not necessary to avoid backslash-quoted newlines. If you insist on using this form, examine the source code of \fBtcltest\fR if you want to know the substitution details, or just enclose the third through last argument to [\fBtest\fR] in braces and hope for the best. .TP \fBworkingDirectory\fR \fI?directoryName?\fR Sets or returns the current working directory when the test suite is running. The default value for workingDirectory is the directory in which the test suite was launched. The Tcl commands [\fBcd\fR] and [\fBpwd\fR] are sufficient replacements. .TP \fBnormalizeMsg\fR \fImsg\fR Returns the result of removing the extra'' newlines from \fImsg\fR, where extra'' is rather imprecise. Tcl offers plenty of string processing commands to modify strings as you wish, and [\fBcustomMatch\fR] allows flexible matching of actual and expected results. .TP \fBnormalizePath\fR \fIpathVar\fR Resolves symlinks in a path, thus creating a path without internal redirection. It is assumed that \fIpathVar\fR is absolute. \fIpathVar\fR is modified in place. The Tcl command [\fBfile normalize\fR] is a sufficient replacement. .TP \fBbytestring\fR \fIstring\fR Construct a string that consists of the requested sequence of bytes, as opposed to a string of properly formed UTF-8 characters using the value supplied in \fIstring\fR. This allows the tester to create denormalized or improperly formed strings to pass to C procedures that are supposed to accept strings with embedded NULL types and confirm that a string result has a certain pattern of bytes. This is exactly equivalent to the Tcl command [\fBencoding convertfrom identity\fR]. .SH TESTS .PP The [\fBtest\fR] command is the heart of the \fBtcltest\fR package. Its essential function is to evaluate a Tcl script and compare the result with an expected result. The options of [\fBtest\fR] define the test script, the environment in which to evaluate it, the expected result, and how the compare the actual result to the expected result. Some configuration options of \fBtcltest\fR also influence how [\fBtest\fR] operates. .PP The valid options for [\fBtest\fR] are summarized: .PP .CS \fBtest\fR \fIname\fR \fIdescription\fR ?-constraints \fIkeywordList|expression\fR? ?-setup \fIsetupScript\fR? ?-body \fItestScript\fR? ?-cleanup \fIcleanupScript\fR? ................................................................................ ?-match \fImode\fR? .CE .PP The \fIname\fR may be any string. It is conventional to choose a \fIname\fR according to the pattern: .PP .CS \fItarget\fR-\fImajorNum\fR.\fIminorNum\fR .CE .PP For white-box (regression) tests, the target should be the name of the C function or Tcl procedure being tested. For black-box tests, the target should be the name of the feature being tested. Some conventions call for the names of black-box tests to have the suffix \fB_bb\fR. Related tests should share a major number. As a test suite evolves, it is best to have the same test name continue to correspond to the same test, so that it remains meaningful to say things like Test foo-1.3 passed in all releases up to 3.4, but began failing in release 3.5.'' .PP During evaluation of [\fBtest\fR], the \fIname\fR will be compared to the lists of string matching patterns returned by [\fBconfigure -match\fR], and [\fBconfigure -skip\fR]. The test will be run only if \fIname\fR matches any of the patterns from [\fBconfigure -match\fR] and matches none of the patterns from [\fBconfigure -skip\fR]. .PP The \fIdescription\fR should be a short textual description of the test. The \fIdescription\fR is included in output produced by the test, typically test failure messages. Good \fIdescription\fR values should briefly explain the purpose of the test to users of a test suite. The name of a Tcl or C function being tested should be included in the description for regression tests. If the test case exists to reproduce a bug, include the bug ID in the description. .PP Valid attributes and associated values are: .TP \fB-constraints \fIkeywordList|expression\fR The optional \fB-constraints\fR attribute can be list of one or more keywords or an expression. If the \fB-constraints\fR value is a list of keywords, each of these keywords should be the name of a constraint defined by a call to [\fBtestConstraint\fR]. If any of the listed constraints is false or does not exist, the test is skipped. If the \fB-constraints\fR value is an expression, that expression is evaluated. If the expression evaluates to true, then the test is run. Note that the expression form of \fB-constraints\fR may interfere with the operation of [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR] and [\fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR], and is not recommended. Appropriate constraints should be added to any tests that should not always be run. That is, conditional evaluation of a test should be accomplished by the \fB-constraints\fR option, not by conditional evaluation of [\fBtest\fR]. In that way, the same number of tests are always reported by the test suite, though the number skipped may change based on the testing environment. The default value is an empty list. See \fBTEST CONSTRAINTS\fR below for a list of built-in constraints and information on how to add your own constraints. .TP \fB-setup \fIscript\fR The optional \fB-setup\fR attribute indicates a \fIscript\fR that will be run before the script indicated by the \fB-body\fR attribute. If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail. The default value is an empty script. .TP \fB-body \fIscript\fR The \fB-body\fR attribute indicates the \fIscript\fR to run to carry out the test. It must return a result that can be checked for correctness. If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail. The default value is an empty script. .TP \fB-cleanup \fIscript\fR The optional \fB-cleanup\fR attribute indicates a \fIscript\fR that will be run after the script indicated by the \fB-body\fR attribute. If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail. The default value is an empty script. .TP \fB-match \fImode\fR The \fB-match\fR attribute determines how expected answers supplied by \fB-result\fR, \fB-output\fR, and \fB-errorOutput\fR are compared. Valid values for \fImode\fR are \fBregexp\fR, \fBglob\fR, \fBexact\fR, and any value registered by a prior call to [\fBcustomMatch\fR]. The default value is \fBexact\fR. .TP \fB-result \fIexpectedValue\fR The \fB-result\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which the return value from script will be compared. The default value is an empty string. .TP \fB-output \fIexpectedValue\fR The \fB-output\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which any output sent to \fBstdout\fR or [\fBoutputChannel\fR] during evaluation of the script(s) will be compared. Note that only output printed using [\fB::puts\fR] is used for comparison. If \fB-output\fR is not specified, output sent to \fBstdout\fR and [\fBoutputChannel\fR] is not processed for comparison. .TP \fB-errorOutput \fIexpectedValue\fR The \fB-errorOutput\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which any output sent to \fBstderr\fR or [\fBerrorChannel\fR] during evaluation of the script(s) will be compared. Note that only output printed using [\fB::puts\fR] is used for comparison. If \fB-errorOutput\fR is not specified, output sent to \fBstderr\fR and [\fBerrorChannel\fR] is not processed for comparison. .TP \fB-returnCodes \fIexpectedCodeList\fR The optional \fB-returnCodes\fR attribute supplies \fIexpectedCodeList\fR, a list of return codes that may be accepted from evaluation of the \fB-body\fR script. If evaluation of the \fB-body\fR script returns a code not in the \fIexpectedCodeList\fR, the test fails. All return codes known to [\fBreturn\fR], in both numeric and symbolic form, including extended return codes, are acceptable elements in the \fIexpectedCodeList\fR. Default value is \fB{ok return}\fR. .PP To pass, a test must successfully evaluate its \fB-setup\fR, \fB-body\fR, and \fB-cleanup\fR scripts. The return code of the \fB-body\fR script and its result must match expected values, and if specified, output and error data from the test must match expected \fB-output\fR and \fB-errorOutput\fR values. If any of these conditions are not met, then the test fails. Note that all scripts are evaluated in the context of the caller of [\fBtest\fR]. .PP As long as [\fBtest\fR] is called with valid syntax and legal values for all attributes, it will not raise an error. Test failures are instead reported as output written to [\fBoutputChannel\fR]. In default operation, a successful test produces no output. The output messages produced by [\fBtest\fR] are controlled by the [\fBconfigure -verbose\fR] option as described in \fBCONFIGURABLE OPTIONS\fR below. Any output produced by the test scripts themselves should be produced using [\fB::puts\fR] to [\fBoutputChannel\fR] or [\fBerrorChannel\fR], so that users of the test suite may easily capture output with the [\fBconfigure -outfile\fR] and [\fBconfigure -errfile\fR] options, and so that the \fB-output\fR and \fB-errorOutput\fR attributes work properly. .SH "TEST CONSTRAINTS" .PP Constraints are used to determine whether or not a test should be skipped. Each constraint has a name, which may be any string, and a boolean value. Each [\fBtest\fR] has a \fB-constraints\fR value which is a list of constraint names. There are two modes of constraint control. Most frequently, the default mode is used, indicated by a setting of [\fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR] to false. The test will run only if all constraints in the list are true-valued. Thus, the \fB-constraints\fR option of [\fBtest\fR] is a convenient, symbolic way to define any conditions required for the test to be possible or meaningful. For example, a [\fBtest\fR] with \fB-constraints unix\fR will only be run if the constraint \fBunix\fR is true, which indicates the test suite is being run on a Unix platform. .PP Each [\fBtest\fR] should include whatever \fB-constraints\fR are required to constrain it to run only where appropriate. Several constraints are pre-defined in the \fBtcltest\fR package, listed below. The registration of user-defined constraints is performed by the [\fBtestConstraint\fR] command. User-defined constraints may appear within a test file, or within the script specified by the [\fBconfigure -load\fR] or [\fBconfigure -loadfile\fR] options. .PP The following is a list of constraints pre-defined by the \fBtcltest\fR package itself: .TP \fIsingleTestInterp\fR test can only be run if all test files are sourced into a single interpreter ................................................................................ \fIroot\fR test can only run if Unix user is root .TP \fInotRoot\fR test can only run if Unix user is not root .TP \fIeformat\fR test can only run if app has a working version of sprintf with respect to the "e" format of floating-point numbers. .TP \fIstdio\fR test can only be run if [\fBinterpreter\fR] can be [\fBopen\fR]ed as a pipe. .PP The alternative mode of constraint control is enabled by setting [\fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR] to true. With that configuration setting, all existing constraints other than those in the constraint list returned by [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR] are set to false. When the value of [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR] is set, all those constraints are set to true. The effect is that when both options [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR] and [\fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR] are in use, only those tests including only constraints from the [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR] list are run; all others are skipped. For example, one might set up a configuration with .PP .CS \fBconfigure\fR -constraints knownBug \e -limitconstraints true \e -verbose pass .CE .PP to run exactly those tests that exercise known bugs, and discover whether any of them pass, indicating the bug had been fixed. .SH "RUNNING ALL TESTS" .PP The single command [\fBrunAllTests\fR] is evaluated to run an entire test suite, spanning many files and directories. The configuration options of \fBtcltest\fR control the precise operations. The [\fBrunAllTests\fR] command begins by printing a summary of its configuration to [\fBoutputChannel\fR]. .PP Test files to be evaluated are sought in the directory [\fBconfigure -testdir\fR]. The list of files in that directory that match any of the patterns in [\fBconfigure -file\fR] and match none of the patterns in [\fBconfigure -notfile\fR] is generated and sorted. Then each file will be evaluated in turn. If [\fBconfigure -singleproc\fR] is true, then each file will be [\fBsource\fR]d in the caller's context. If it is false, then a copy of [\fBinterpreter\fR] will be [\fBexec\fR]d to evaluate each file. The multi-process operation is useful when testing can cause errors so severe that a process terminates. Although such an error may terminate a child process evaluating one file, the master process can continue with the rest of the test suite. In multi-process operation, the configuration of \fBtcltest\fR in the master process is passed to the child processes as command line arguments, with the exception of [\fBconfigure -outfile\fR]. The [\fBrunAllTests\fR] command in the master process collects all output from the child processes and collates their results into one master report. Any reports of individual test failures, or messages requested by a [\fBconfigure -verbose\fR] setting are passed directly on to [\fBoutputChannel\fR] by the master process. .PP After evaluating all selected test files, a summary of the results is printed to [\fBoutputChannel\fR]. The summary includes the total number of [\fBtest\fR]s evaluated, broken down into those skipped, those passed, and those failed. The summary also notes the number of files evaluated, and the names of any files with failing tests or errors. A list of the constraints that caused tests to be skipped, and the number of tests skipped for each is also printed. Also, messages are printed if it appears that evaluation of a test file has caused any temporary files to be left behind in [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR]. .PP Having completed and summarized all selected test files, [\fBrunAllTests\fR] then recursively acts on subdirectories of [\fBconfigure -testdir\fR]. All subdirectories that match any of the patterns in [\fBconfigure -relateddir\fR] and do not match any of the patterns in [\fBconfigure -asidefromdir\fR] are examined. If a file named \fBall.tcl\fR is found in such a directory, it will be [\fBsource\fR]d in the caller's context. Whether or not an examined directory contains an \fBall.tcl\fR file, its subdirectories are also scanned against the [\fBconfigure -relateddir\fR] and [\fBconfigure -asidefromdir\fR] patterns. In this way, many directories in a directory tree can have all their test files evaluated by a single [\fBrunAllTests\fR] command. .SH "CONFIGURABLE OPTIONS" The [\fBconfigure\fR] command is used to set and query the configurable options of \fBtcltest\fR. The valid options are: .TP \fB-singleproc \fIboolean\fR Controls whether or not [\fBrunAllTests\fR] spawns a child process for each test file. No spawning when \fIboolean\fR is true. Default value is false. .TP \fB-debug \fIlevel\fR Sets the debug level to \fIlevel\fR, an integer value indicating how much debugging information should be printed to stdout. Note that debug messages always go to stdout, independent of the value of [\fBconfigure -outfile\fR]. Default value is 0. Levels are defined as: .RS .IP 0 Do not display any debug information. .IP 1 Display information regarding whether a test is skipped because it doesn't match any of the tests that were specified using by [\fBconfigure -match\fR] (userSpecifiedNonMatch) or matches any of the tests specified by [\fBconfigure -skip\fR] (userSpecifiedSkip). Also print warnings about possible lack of cleanup or balance in test files. Also print warnings about any re-use of test names. .IP 2 Display the flag array parsed by the command line processor, the contents of the ::env array, and all user-defined variables that exist in the current namespace as they are used. .IP 3 Display information regarding what individual procs in the test harness are doing. .RE .TP \fB-verbose \fIlevel\fR Sets the type of output verbosity desired to \fIlevel\fR, a list of zero or more of the elements \fBbody\fR, \fBpass\fR, \fBskip\fR, \fBstart\fR, \fBerror\fR and \fBline\fR. Default value is \fB{body error}\fR. Levels are defined as: .RS .IP "body (b)" ................................................................................ .IP "error (e)" Print errorInfo and errorCode, if they exist, when a test return code does not match its expected return code .IP "line (l)" Print source file line information of failed tests .RE The single letter abbreviations noted above are also recognized so that [\fBconfigure -verbose pt\fR] is the same as [\fBconfigure -verbose {pass start}\fR]. .TP \fB-preservecore \fIlevel\fR Sets the core preservation level to \fIlevel\fR. This level determines how stringent checks for core files are. Default value is 0. Levels are defined as: .RS .IP 0 No checking - do not check for core files at the end of each test command, but do check for them in [\fBrunAllTests\fR] after all test files have been evaluated. .IP 1 Also check for core files at the end of each [\fBtest\fR] command. .IP 2 Check for core files at all times described above, and save a copy of each core file produced in [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR]. .RE .TP \fB-limitconstraints \fIboolean\fR Sets the mode by which [\fBtest\fR] honors constraints as described in \fBTESTS\fR above. Default value is false. .TP \fB-constraints \fIlist\fR Sets all the constraints in \fIlist\fR to true. Also used in combination with [\fBconfigure -limitconstraints true\fR] to control an alternative constraint mode as described in \fBTESTS\fR above. Default value is an empty list. .TP \fB-tmpdir \fIdirectory\fR Sets the temporary directory to be used by [\fBmakeFile\fR], [\fBmakeDirectory\fR], [\fBviewFile\fR], [\fBremoveFile\fR], and [\fBremoveDirectory\fR] as the default directory where temporary files and directories created by test files should be created. Default value is [\fBworkingDirectory\fR]. .TP \fB-testdir \fIdirectory\fR Sets the directory searched by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] for test files and subdirectories. Default value is [\fBworkingDirectory\fR]. .TP \fB-file \fIpatternList\fR Sets the list of patterns used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to determine what test files to evaluate. Default value is \fB*.test\fR. .TP \fB-notfile \fIpatternList\fR Sets the list of patterns used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to determine what test files to skip. Default value is \fBl.*.test\fR, so that any SCCS lock files are skipped. .TP \fB-relateddir \fIpatternList\fR Sets the list of patterns used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to determine what subdirectories to search for an \fBall.tcl\fR file. Default value is \fB*\fR. .TP \fB-asidefromdir \fIpatternList\fR Sets the list of patterns used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to determine what subdirectories to skip when searching for an \fBall.tcl\fR file. Default value is an empty list. .TP \fB-match \fIpatternList\fR Set the list of patterns used by [\fBtest\fR] to determine whether a test should be run. Default value is \fB*\fR. .TP \fB-skip \fIpatternList\fR Set the list of patterns used by [\fBtest\fR] to determine whether a test should be skipped. Default value is an empty list. .TP \fB-load \fIscript\fR Sets a script to be evaluated by [\fBloadTestedCommands\fR]. Default value is an empty script. .TP \fB-loadfile \fIfilename\fR Sets the filename from which to read a script to be evaluated by [\fBloadTestedCommands\fR]. This is an alternative to \fB-load\fR. They cannot be used together. .TP \fB-outfile \fIfilename\fR Sets the file to which all output produced by tcltest should be written. A file named \fIfilename\fR will be [\fBopen\fR]ed for writing, and the resulting channel will be set as the value of [\fBoutputChannel\fR]. .TP \fB-errfile \fIfilename\fR Sets the file to which all error output produced by tcltest should be written. A file named \fIfilename\fR will be [\fBopen\fR]ed for writing, and the resulting channel will be set as the value of [\fBerrorChannel\fR]. .SH "CREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST" .PP The fundamental element of a test suite is the individual [\fBtest\fR] command. We begin with several examples. .IP [1] Test of a script that returns normally. .RS .PP .CS \fBtest\fR example-1.0 {normal return} { ................................................................................ file attributes$file -owner } -cleanup { removeFile test } -result $::tcl_platform(user) .CE .RE .PP At the next higher layer of organization, several [\fBtest\fR] commands are gathered together into a single test file. Test files should have names with the \fB.test\fR extension, because that is the default pattern used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to find test files. It is a good rule of thumb to have one test file for each source code file of your project. It is good practice to edit the test file and the source code file together, keeping tests synchronized with code changes. .PP Most of the code in the test file should be the [\fBtest\fR] commands. Use constraints to skip tests, rather than conditional evaluation of [\fBtest\fR]. .IP [5] Recommended system for writing conditional tests, using constraints to guard: .RS .PP .CS \fBtestConstraint\fR X [expr$myRequirement] ................................................................................ test badConditionalTest {} { #body } result } .CE .RE .PP Use the \fB-setup\fR and \fB-cleanup\fR options to establish and release all context requirements of the test body. Do not make tests depend on prior tests in the file. Those prior tests might be skipped. If several consecutive tests require the same context, the appropriate setup and cleanup scripts may be stored in variable for passing to each tests \fB-setup\fR and \fB-cleanup\fR options. This is a better solution than performing setup outside of [\fBtest\fR] commands, because the setup will only be done if necessary, and any errors during setup will be reported, and not cause the test file to abort. .PP A test file should be able to be combined with other test files and not interfere with them, even when [\fBconfigure -singleproc 1\fR] causes all files to be evaluated in a common interpreter. A simple way to achieve this is to have your tests define all their commands and variables in a namespace that is deleted when the test file evaluation is complete. A good namespace to use is a child namespace \fBtest\fR of the namespace of the module you are testing. .PP A test file should also be able to be evaluated directly as a script, not depending on being called by a master [\fBrunAllTests\fR]. This means that each test file should process command line arguments to give the tester all the configuration control that \fBtcltest\fR provides. .PP After all [\fBtest\fR]s in a test file, the command [\fBcleanupTests\fR] should be called. .IP [7] Here is a sketch of a sample test file illustrating those points: .RS .PP .CS package require tcltest 2.2 ................................................................................ } namespace delete ::example::test .CE .RE .PP The next level of organization is a full test suite, made up of several test files. One script is used to control the entire suite. The basic function of this script is to call [\fBrunAllTests\fR] after doing any necessary setup. This script is usually named \fBall.tcl\fR because that's the default name used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] when combining multiple test suites into one testing run. .IP [8] Here is a sketch of a sample test suite master script: .RS .PP .CS package require Tcl 8.4 package require tcltest 2.2 package require example \fB::tcltest::configure\fR -testdir \\ [file dirname [file normalize [info script]]] eval \fB::tcltest::configure\fR $argv \fB::tcltest::runAllTests\fR .CE .RE .SH COMPATIBILITY .PP ................................................................................ A number of commands and variables in the \fB::tcltest\fR namespace provided by earlier releases of \fBtcltest\fR have not been documented here. They are no longer part of the supported public interface of \fBtcltest\fR and should not be used in new test suites. However, to continue to support existing test suites written to the older interface specifications, many of those deprecated commands and variables still work as before. For example, in many circumstances, [\fBconfigure\fR] will be automatically called shortly after [\fBpackage require tcltest 2.1\fR] succeeds with arguments from the variable \fB::argv\fR. This is to support test suites that depend on the old behavior that \fBtcltest\fR was automatically configured from command line arguments. New test files should not depend on this, but should explicitly include .PP .CS eval \fB::tcltest::configure\fR$::argv .CE .PP to establish a configuration from command line arguments. .SH "KNOWN ISSUES" There are two known issues related to nested evaluations of [\fBtest\fR]. The first issue relates to the stack level in which test scripts are executed. Tests nested within other tests may be executed at the same stack level as the outermost test. For example, in the following code: .PP .CS \fBtest\fR level-1.1 {level 1} { -body { ................................................................................ } } .CE .PP any script executed in level-2.1 may be executed at the same stack level as the script defined for level-1.1. .PP In addition, while two [\fBtest\fR]s have been run, results will only be reported by [\fBcleanupTests\fR] for tests at the same level as test level-1.1. However, test results for all tests run prior to level-1.1 will be available when test level-2.1 runs. What this means is that if you try to access the test results for test level-2.1, it will may say that 'm' tests have run, 'n' tests have been skipped, 'o' tests have passed and 'p' tests have failed, where 'm', 'n', 'o', and 'p' refer to tests that were run at the same test level as test level-1.1. .PP Implementation of output and error comparison in the test command depends on usage of ::puts in your application code. Output is intercepted by redefining the ::puts command while the defined test script is being run. Errors thrown by C procedures or printed directly from C applications will not be caught by the test command. Therefore, usage of the \fB-output\fR and \fB-errorOutput\fR options to [\fBtest\fR] is useful only for pure Tcl applications that use [\fB::puts\fR] to produce output. .SH KEYWORDS test, test harness, test suite 

Changes to doc/tclvars.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 .. 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 .. 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 ... 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 ... 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 ... 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tclvars.n,v 1.28 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH tclvars n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME tclvars \- Variables used by Tcl ................................................................................ passed to children by commands like \fBexec\fR. If the entire \fBenv\fR array is unset then Tcl will stop monitoring \fBenv\fR accesses and will not update environment variables. .RS Under Windows, the environment variables PATH and COMSPEC in any capitalization are converted automatically to upper case. For instance, the PATH variable could be exported by the operating system as .QW path , .QW Path , .QW PaTh , etc., causing otherwise simple Tcl code to have to support many special cases. All other environment variables inherited by Tcl are left unmodified. Setting an env array variable to blank is the same as unsetting it as this is the behavior of the underlying Windows OS. It should be noted that relying on an existing and empty environment variable won't work on windows and is discouraged for cross-platform usage. .RE .TP ................................................................................ \fBCHILDKILLED\fI pid sigName msg\fR This format is used when a child process has been killed because of a signal. The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier (in decimal). The \fIsigName\fR element will be the symbolic name of the signal that caused the process to terminate; it will be one of the names from the include file signal.h, such as \fBSIGPIPE\fR. The \fImsg\fR element will be a short human-readable message describing the signal, such as .QW "write on pipe with no readers" for \fBSIGPIPE\fR. .TP \fBCHILDSTATUS\fI pid code\fR This format is used when a child process has exited with a non-zero exit status. The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier (in decimal) and the \fIcode\fR element will be the exit code returned by the process (also in decimal). ................................................................................ This format is used when a child process has been suspended because of a signal. The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier, in decimal. The \fIsigName\fR element will be the symbolic name of the signal that caused the process to suspend; this will be one of the names from the include file signal.h, such as \fBSIGTTIN\fR. The \fImsg\fR element will be a short human-readable message describing the signal, such as .QW "background tty read" for \fBSIGTTIN\fR. .TP \fBNONE\fR This format is used for errors where no additional information is available for an error besides the message returned with the error. In these cases the \fB-errorcode\fR return option will consist of a list containing a single element whose ................................................................................ If the first element is \fBPOSIX\fR, then the error occurred during a POSIX kernel call. The \fIerrName\fR element will contain the symbolic name of the error that occurred, such as \fBENOENT\fR; this will be one of the values defined in the include file errno.h. The \fImsg\fR element will be a human-readable message corresponding to \fIerrName\fR, such as .QW "no such file or directory" for the \fBENOENT\fR case. .PP To set the \fB-errorcode\fR return option, applications should use library procedures such as \fBTcl_SetObjErrorCode\fR, \fBTcl_SetReturnOptions\fR, and \fBTcl_PosixError\fR, or they may invoke the \fB-errorcode\fR option of the \fBreturn\fR command. If one of these methods hasn't been used, then the Tcl interpreter will reset the variable to \fBNONE\fR after ................................................................................ will convert as \fI1.4\fR rather than \fI1.3999999999999999\fR even though the latter is nearer to the exact value of the binary number. .RE .VE 8.5 .PP .RS 17 digits is .QW perfect for IEEE floating-point in that it allows double-precision values to be converted to strings and back to binary with no loss of information. However, using 17 digits prevents any rounding, which produces longer, less intuitive results. For example, \fBexpr {1.4}\fR returns 1.3999999999999999 with \fBtcl_precision\fR set to 17, vs. 1.4 if \fBtcl_precision\fR is 12. .RE .PP ................................................................................ .RS This variable and functionality only exist if \fBTCL_COMPILE_DEBUG\fR was defined during Tcl's compilation. .RE .TP \fBtcl_wordchars\fR The value of this variable is a regular expression that can be set to control what are considered .QW word characters, for instances like selecting a word by double-clicking in text in Tk. It is platform dependent. On Windows, it defaults to \fB\\S\fR, meaning anything but a Unicode space character. Otherwise it defaults to \fB\\w\fR, which is any Unicode word character (number, letter, or underscore). .TP \fBtcl_nonwordchars\fR The value of this variable is a regular expression that can be set to control what are considered .QW non-word characters, for instances like selecting a word by double-clicking in text in Tk. It is platform dependent. On Windows, it defaults to \fB\\s\fR, meaning any Unicode space character. Otherwise it defaults to \fB\\W\fR, which is anything but a Unicode word character (number, letter, or underscore). .TP \fBtcl_version\fR When an interpreter is created Tcl initializes this variable to   | | < < < | | < | < < | < < | < < | < < |  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 .. 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 .. 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 ... 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 ... 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 ... 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tclvars.n,v 1.29 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH tclvars n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME tclvars \- Variables used by Tcl ................................................................................ passed to children by commands like \fBexec\fR. If the entire \fBenv\fR array is unset then Tcl will stop monitoring \fBenv\fR accesses and will not update environment variables. .RS Under Windows, the environment variables PATH and COMSPEC in any capitalization are converted automatically to upper case. For instance, the PATH variable could be exported by the operating system as path'', Path'', PaTh'', etc., causing otherwise simple Tcl code to have to support many special cases. All other environment variables inherited by Tcl are left unmodified. Setting an env array variable to blank is the same as unsetting it as this is the behavior of the underlying Windows OS. It should be noted that relying on an existing and empty environment variable won't work on windows and is discouraged for cross-platform usage. .RE .TP ................................................................................ \fBCHILDKILLED\fI pid sigName msg\fR This format is used when a child process has been killed because of a signal. The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier (in decimal). The \fIsigName\fR element will be the symbolic name of the signal that caused the process to terminate; it will be one of the names from the include file signal.h, such as \fBSIGPIPE\fR. The \fImsg\fR element will be a short human-readable message describing the signal, such as write on pipe with no readers'' for \fBSIGPIPE\fR. .TP \fBCHILDSTATUS\fI pid code\fR This format is used when a child process has exited with a non-zero exit status. The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier (in decimal) and the \fIcode\fR element will be the exit code returned by the process (also in decimal). ................................................................................ This format is used when a child process has been suspended because of a signal. The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier, in decimal. The \fIsigName\fR element will be the symbolic name of the signal that caused the process to suspend; this will be one of the names from the include file signal.h, such as \fBSIGTTIN\fR. The \fImsg\fR element will be a short human-readable message describing the signal, such as background tty read'' for \fBSIGTTIN\fR. .TP \fBNONE\fR This format is used for errors where no additional information is available for an error besides the message returned with the error. In these cases the \fB-errorcode\fR return option will consist of a list containing a single element whose ................................................................................ If the first element is \fBPOSIX\fR, then the error occurred during a POSIX kernel call. The \fIerrName\fR element will contain the symbolic name of the error that occurred, such as \fBENOENT\fR; this will be one of the values defined in the include file errno.h. The \fImsg\fR element will be a human-readable message corresponding to \fIerrName\fR, such as no such file or directory'' for the \fBENOENT\fR case. .PP To set the \fB-errorcode\fR return option, applications should use library procedures such as \fBTcl_SetObjErrorCode\fR, \fBTcl_SetReturnOptions\fR, and \fBTcl_PosixError\fR, or they may invoke the \fB-errorcode\fR option of the \fBreturn\fR command. If one of these methods hasn't been used, then the Tcl interpreter will reset the variable to \fBNONE\fR after ................................................................................ will convert as \fI1.4\fR rather than \fI1.3999999999999999\fR even though the latter is nearer to the exact value of the binary number. .RE .VE 8.5 .PP .RS 17 digits is perfect'' for IEEE floating-point in that it allows double-precision values to be converted to strings and back to binary with no loss of information. However, using 17 digits prevents any rounding, which produces longer, less intuitive results. For example, \fBexpr {1.4}\fR returns 1.3999999999999999 with \fBtcl_precision\fR set to 17, vs. 1.4 if \fBtcl_precision\fR is 12. .RE .PP ................................................................................ .RS This variable and functionality only exist if \fBTCL_COMPILE_DEBUG\fR was defined during Tcl's compilation. .RE .TP \fBtcl_wordchars\fR The value of this variable is a regular expression that can be set to control what are considered word'' characters, for instances like selecting a word by double-clicking in text in Tk. It is platform dependent. On Windows, it defaults to \fB\\S\fR, meaning anything but a Unicode space character. Otherwise it defaults to \fB\\w\fR, which is any Unicode word character (number, letter, or underscore). .TP \fBtcl_nonwordchars\fR The value of this variable is a regular expression that can be set to control what are considered non-word'' characters, for instances like selecting a word by double-clicking in text in Tk. It is platform dependent. On Windows, it defaults to \fB\\s\fR, meaning any Unicode space character. Otherwise it defaults to \fB\\W\fR, which is anything but a Unicode word character (number, letter, or underscore). .TP \fBtcl_version\fR When an interpreter is created Tcl initializes this variable to 

Changes to doc/time.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 .. 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: time.n,v 1.6 2007/10/25 10:03:33 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH time n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME time \- Time the execution of a script .SH SYNOPSIS \fBtime \fIscript\fR ?\fIcount\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command will call the Tcl interpreter \fIcount\fR times to evaluate \fIscript\fR (or once if \fIcount\fR isn't specified). It will then return a string of the form .CS \fB503.2 microseconds per iteration\fR .CE which indicates the average amount of time required per iteration, in microseconds. Time is measured in elapsed time, not CPU time. .SH EXAMPLE Estimate how long it takes for a simple Tcl \fBfor\fR loop to count to a thousand: ................................................................................ .CS time { for {set i 0} {$i<1000} {incr i} { # empty body } } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" clock(n) .SH KEYWORDS script, time   | > | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 .. 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#)$Id: time.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $'\" .so man.macros .TH time n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME time \- Time the execution of a script .SH SYNOPSIS \fBtime \fIscript\fR ?\fIcount\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command will call the Tcl interpreter \fIcount\fR times to evaluate \fIscript\fR (or once if \fIcount\fR isn't specified). It will then return a string of the form .CS \fB503 microseconds per iteration\fR .CE which indicates the average amount of time required per iteration, in microseconds. Time is measured in elapsed time, not CPU time. .SH EXAMPLE Estimate how long it takes for a simple Tcl \fBfor\fR loop to count to a thousand: ................................................................................ .CS time { for {set i 0} {$i<1000} {incr i} { # empty body } } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" clock(n) .SH KEYWORDS script, time 

Changes to doc/tm.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 ... 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 ... 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 ... 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2004 Andreas Kupries <[email protected]> '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tm.n,v 1.8 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH tm n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME tm \- Facilities for locating and loading of Tcl Modules ................................................................................ .TP \fB::tcl::tm::path\fR \fBlist\fR Returns a list containing all registered module paths, in the order that they are searched for modules. .TP \fB::tcl::tm::roots\fR \fIpath\fR... Similar to \fBpath add\fR, and layered on top of it. This command takes a list of paths, extends each with .QW "\fBtcl\fIX\fB/site-tcl\fR" , and .QW "\fBtcl\fIX\fB/\fIX\fB.\fIy\fR" , for major version \fIX\fR of the Tcl interpreter and minor version \fIy\fR less than or equal to the minor version of the interpreter, and adds the resulting set of paths to the list of paths to search. .RS .PP This command is used internally by the system to set up the system-specific default paths. ................................................................................ the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR variables are used. All directories on the module path have to obey one restriction: .IP For any two directories, neither is an ancestor directory of the other. .PP This is required to avoid ambiguities in package naming. If for example the two directories .QW \fIfoo/\fR and .QW \fIfoo/cool\fR were on the path a package named .QW \fBcool::ice\fR could be found via the names .QW \fBcool::ice\fR or .QW \fBice\fR , the latter potentially obscuring a package named .QW \fBice\fR , unqualified. .PP Before the search is started, the name of the requested package is translated into a partial path, using the following algorithm: .IP All occurrences of .QW \fB::\fR in the package name are replaced by the appropriate directory separator character for the platform we are on. On Unix, for example, this is .QW \fB/\fR . .PP Example: .IP The requested package is .QW \fBencoding::base64\fR . The generated partial path is .QW \fIencoding/base64\fR .PP After this translation the package is looked for in all module paths, by combining them one-by-one, first to last with the partial path to form a complete search pattern. Note that the search algorithm rejects all files where the filename does not match the regular expression given in the section \fBMODULE DEFINITION\fR. For the remaining files \fIprovide scripts\fR are generated and added to the package ................................................................................ source \fBMF\fR .CE .PP Both package name \fBPNAME\fR and package version \fBPVERSION\fR are extracted from the filename \fBMF\fR according to the definition below: .CS \fBMF\fR = /module_path/\fBPNAME\(fm\fR-\fBPVERSION\fR.tm .CE .PP Where \fBPNAME\(fm\fR is the partial path of the module as defined in section \fBFINDING MODULES\fR, and translated into \fBPNAME\fR by changing all directory separators to .QW \fB::\fR , and \fBmodule_path\fR is the path (from the list of paths to search) that we found the module file under. .PP Note also that we are here creating a connection between package names and paths. Tcl is case-sensitive when it comes to comparing package names, but there are filesystems which are not, like NTFS. Luckily these filesystems do store the case of the name, despite not using the ................................................................................ \fB$::env(TCL8.4_TM_PATH)\fR \fB$::env(TCL8.3_TM_PATH)\fR \fB$::env(TCL8.2_TM_PATH)\fR \fB$::env(TCL8.1_TM_PATH)\fR \fB$::env(TCL8.0_TM_PATH)\fR .CE .RE .SH "SEE ALSO" package(n), Tcl Improvement Proposal #189 .QW "\fITcl Modules\fR" (online at http://tip.tcl.tk/189.html), Tcl Improvement Proposal #190 .QW "\fIImplementation Choices for Tcl Modules\fR" (online at http://tip.tcl.tk/190.html) .SH "KEYWORDS" modules, package   | | < < < | | < < < < | | < < < < | < < | < | | < < | < < | | | | | < > | < | | | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 .. 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 ... 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 ... 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 ... 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 2004 Andreas Kupries <[email protected]> '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#)$Id: tm.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $'\" .so man.macros .TH tm n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME tm \- Facilities for locating and loading of Tcl Modules ................................................................................ .TP \fB::tcl::tm::path\fR \fBlist\fR Returns a list containing all registered module paths, in the order that they are searched for modules. .TP \fB::tcl::tm::roots\fR \fIpath\fR... Similar to \fBpath add\fR, and layered on top of it. This command takes a list of paths, extends each with "\fBtcl\fIX\fB/site-tcl\fR", and "\fBtcl\fIX\fB/\fIX\fB.\fIy\fR", for major version \fIX\fR of the Tcl interpreter and minor version \fIy\fR less than or equal to the minor version of the interpreter, and adds the resulting set of paths to the list of paths to search. .RS .PP This command is used internally by the system to set up the system-specific default paths. ................................................................................ the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR variables are used. All directories on the module path have to obey one restriction: .IP For any two directories, neither is an ancestor directory of the other. .PP This is required to avoid ambiguities in package naming. If for example the two directories "\fIfoo/\fR" and "\fIfoo/cool\fR" were on the path a package named \fBcool::ice\fR could be found via the names \fBcool::ice\fR or \fBice\fR, the latter potentially obscuring a package named \fBice\fR, unqualified. .PP Before the search is started, the name of the requested package is translated into a partial path, using the following algorithm: .IP All occurrences of "\fB::\fR" in the package name are replaced by the appropriate directory separator character for the platform we are on. On Unix, for example, this is "\fB/\fR". .PP Example: .IP The requested package is \fBencoding::base64\fR. The generated partial path is "\fIencoding/base64\fR" .PP After this translation the package is looked for in all module paths, by combining them one-by-one, first to last with the partial path to form a complete search pattern. Note that the search algorithm rejects all files where the filename does not match the regular expression given in the section \fBMODULE DEFINITION\fR. For the remaining files \fIprovide scripts\fR are generated and added to the package ................................................................................ source \fBMF\fR .CE .PP Both package name \fBPNAME\fR and package version \fBPVERSION\fR are extracted from the filename \fBMF\fR according to the definition below: .CS \fBMF\fR = /module_path/\fBPNAME'\fR-\fBPVERSION\fR.tm .CE .PP Where \fBPNAME'\fR is the partial path of the module as defined in section \fBFINDING MODULES\fR, and translated into \fB\fRPNAME by changing all directory separators to "\fB::\fR", and \fBmodule_path\fR is the path (from the list of paths to search) that we found the module file under. .PP Note also that we are here creating a connection between package names and paths. Tcl is case-sensitive when it comes to comparing package names, but there are filesystems which are not, like NTFS. Luckily these filesystems do store the case of the name, despite not using the ................................................................................ \fB$::env(TCL8.4_TM_PATH)\fR \fB$::env(TCL8.3_TM_PATH)\fR \fB$::env(TCL8.2_TM_PATH)\fR \fB$::env(TCL8.1_TM_PATH)\fR \fB$::env(TCL8.0_TM_PATH)\fR .CE .RE .SH "SEE ALSO" package(n), Tcl Improvement Proposal #189 "\fITcl Modules\fR" (online at http://tip.tcl.tk/189.html), Tcl Improvement Proposal #190 "\fIImplementation Choices for Tcl Modules\fR" (online at http://tip.tcl.tk/190.html) .SH "KEYWORDS" modules, package 

Changes to doc/trace.n.

 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .. 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 .. 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 .. 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 ... 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: trace.n,v 1.20 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH trace n "8.4" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME trace \- Monitor variable accesses, command usages and command executions ................................................................................ .SH SYNOPSIS \fBtrace \fIoption\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command causes Tcl commands to be executed whenever certain operations are invoked. The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are: .TP \fBtrace add \fItype name ops ?args?\fR Where \fItype\fR is \fBcommand\fR, \fBexecution\fR, or \fBvariable\fR. .RS .TP \fBtrace add command\fR \fIname ops command\fR Arrange for \fIcommand\fR to be executed whenever command \fIname\fR ................................................................................ .PP \fIOps\fR indicates which operations are of interest, and is a list of one or more of the following items: .TP \fBrename\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR whenever the command is renamed. Note that renaming to the empty string is considered deletion, and will not be traced with .QW rename . .TP \fBdelete\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR when the command is deleted. Commands can be deleted explicitly by using the \fBrename\fR command to rename the command to an empty string. Commands are also deleted when the interpreter is deleted, but traces will not be invoked because there is no interpreter in which to execute them. ................................................................................ number of arguments are appended to \fIcommand\fR so that the actual command is as follows: .CS \fIcommand oldName newName op\fR .CE \fIOldName\fR and \fInewName\fR give the traced command's current (old) name, and the name to which it is being renamed (the empty string if this is a .QW delete operation). \fIOp\fR indicates what operation is being performed on the command, and is one of \fBrename\fR or \fBdelete\fR as defined above. The trace operation cannot be used to stop a command from being deleted. Tcl will always remove the command once the trace is complete. Recursive renaming or deleting will not cause further traces of the same type to be evaluated, so a delete trace which itself deletes the command, or a rename trace which itself renames the ................................................................................ \fBleave\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR whenever the command \fIname\fR is executed, just after the actual execution takes place. .TP \fBenterstep\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR for every Tcl command which is executed inside the procedure \fIname\fR, just before the actual execution takes place. For example if we have .QW "proc foo {} { puts {hello world} }" , then an \fIenterstep\fR trace would be invoked just before .QW "puts {hello world}" is executed. Setting an \fIenterstep\fR trace on a \fIcommand\fR will not result in an error and is simply ignored. .TP \fBleavestep\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR for every Tcl command which is executed inside the procedure \fIname\fR, just after the actual execution takes place. ................................................................................ executed (the traced command for a \fBenter\fR operation, an arbitrary command for a \fBenterstep\fR operation), including all arguments in their fully expanded form. \fIOp\fR indicates what operation is being performed on the command execution, and is one of \fBenter\fR or \fBenterstep\fR as defined above. The trace operation can be used to stop the command from executing, by deleting the command in question. Of course when the command is subsequently executed, an .QW "invalid command" error will occur. .PP For \fBleave\fR and \fBleavestep\fR operations: .CS \fIcommand command-string code result op\fR .CE \fICommand-string\fR gives the complete current command being   | | | < | < < | < | < | | <  2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 .. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 .. 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 .. 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 .. 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 ... 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131  '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: trace.n,v 1.21 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH trace n "8.4" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME trace \- Monitor variable accesses, command usages and command executions ................................................................................ .SH SYNOPSIS \fBtrace \fIoption\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command causes Tcl commands to be executed whenever certain operations are invoked. The legal \fIoption\fR's (which may be abbreviated) are: .TP \fBtrace add \fItype name ops ?args?\fR Where \fItype\fR is \fBcommand\fR, \fBexecution\fR, or \fBvariable\fR. .RS .TP \fBtrace add command\fR \fIname ops command\fR Arrange for \fIcommand\fR to be executed whenever command \fIname\fR ................................................................................ .PP \fIOps\fR indicates which operations are of interest, and is a list of one or more of the following items: .TP \fBrename\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR whenever the command is renamed. Note that renaming to the empty string is considered deletion, and will not be traced with '\fBrename\fR'. .TP \fBdelete\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR when the command is deleted. Commands can be deleted explicitly by using the \fBrename\fR command to rename the command to an empty string. Commands are also deleted when the interpreter is deleted, but traces will not be invoked because there is no interpreter in which to execute them. ................................................................................ number of arguments are appended to \fIcommand\fR so that the actual command is as follows: .CS \fIcommand oldName newName op\fR .CE \fIOldName\fR and \fInewName\fR give the traced command's current (old) name, and the name to which it is being renamed (the empty string if this is a 'delete' operation). \fIOp\fR indicates what operation is being performed on the command, and is one of \fBrename\fR or \fBdelete\fR as defined above. The trace operation cannot be used to stop a command from being deleted. Tcl will always remove the command once the trace is complete. Recursive renaming or deleting will not cause further traces of the same type to be evaluated, so a delete trace which itself deletes the command, or a rename trace which itself renames the ................................................................................ \fBleave\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR whenever the command \fIname\fR is executed, just after the actual execution takes place. .TP \fBenterstep\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR for every Tcl command which is executed inside the procedure \fIname\fR, just before the actual execution takes place. For example if we have 'proc foo {} { puts "hello" }', then an \fIenterstep\fR trace would be invoked just before \fIputs "hello"\fR is executed. Setting an \fIenterstep\fR trace on a \fIcommand\fR will not result in an error and is simply ignored. .TP \fBleavestep\fR Invoke \fIcommand\fR for every Tcl command which is executed inside the procedure \fIname\fR, just after the actual execution takes place. ................................................................................ executed (the traced command for a \fBenter\fR operation, an arbitrary command for a \fBenterstep\fR operation), including all arguments in their fully expanded form. \fIOp\fR indicates what operation is being performed on the command execution, and is one of \fBenter\fR or \fBenterstep\fR as defined above. The trace operation can be used to stop the command from executing, by deleting the command in question. Of course when the command is subsequently executed, an 'invalid command' error will occur. .PP For \fBleave\fR and \fBleavestep\fR operations: .CS \fIcommand command-string code result op\fR .CE \fICommand-string\fR gives the complete current command being 

Changes to doc/update.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1990-1992 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: update.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH update n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME update \- Process pending events and idle callbacks .SH SYNOPSIS \fBupdate\fR ?\fBidletasks\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command is used to bring the application .QW "up to date" by entering the event loop repeatedly until all pending events (including idle callbacks) have been processed. .PP If the \fBidletasks\fR keyword is specified as an argument to the command, then no new events or errors are processed; only idle callbacks are invoked. This causes operations that are normally deferred, such as display   | | <  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1990-1992 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: update.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH update n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME update \- Process pending events and idle callbacks .SH SYNOPSIS \fBupdate\fR ?\fBidletasks\fR? .BE .SH DESCRIPTION .PP This command is used to bring the application up to date'' by entering the event loop repeatedly until all pending events (including idle callbacks) have been processed. .PP If the \fBidletasks\fR keyword is specified as an argument to the command, then no new events or errors are processed; only idle callbacks are invoked. This causes operations that are normally deferred, such as display 

Changes to doc/uplevel.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 .. 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: uplevel.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH uplevel n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME uplevel \- Execute a script in a different stack frame ................................................................................ at level 3, as if called from \fBb\fR. If it in turn executes the command .CS \fBuplevel\fR {set x 42} .CE then the \fBset\fR command will modify the same variable \fBx\fR in \fBb\fR's context: the procedure \fBc\fR does not appear to be on the call stack when \fBd\fR is executing. The command .QW "\fBinfo level\fR" may be used to obtain the level of the current procedure. .PP \fBUplevel\fR makes it possible to implement new control constructs as Tcl procedures (for example, \fBuplevel\fR could be used to implement the \fBwhile\fR construct as a Tcl procedure). .PP The \fBnamespace eval\fR and \fBapply\fR commands offer other ways (besides procedure calls) that the Tcl naming context can change. ................................................................................ \fBuplevel\fR 1 $body if {![\fBuplevel\fR 1$conditionCmd]} { break } } } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" apply(n), namespace(n), upvar(n) .SH KEYWORDS context, level, namespace, stack frame, variables   | | < | > >  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 .. 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 .. 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: uplevel.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH uplevel n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\" Note: do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below! .SH NAME uplevel \- Execute a script in a different stack frame ................................................................................ at level 3, as if called from \fBb\fR. If it in turn executes the command .CS \fBuplevel\fR {set x 42} .CE then the \fBset\fR command will modify the same variable \fBx\fR in \fBb\fR's context: the procedure \fBc\fR does not appear to be on the call stack when \fBd\fR is executing. The command \fBinfo level\fR'' may be used to obtain the level of the current procedure. .PP \fBUplevel\fR makes it possible to implement new control constructs as Tcl procedures (for example, \fBuplevel\fR could be used to implement the \fBwhile\fR construct as a Tcl procedure). .PP The \fBnamespace eval\fR and \fBapply\fR commands offer other ways (besides procedure calls) that the Tcl naming context can change. ................................................................................ \fBuplevel\fR 1 $body if {![\fBuplevel\fR 1$conditionCmd]} { break } } } .CE .SH "SEE ALSO" apply(n), namespace(n), upvar(n) .SH KEYWORDS context, level, namespace, stack frame, variables 

Changes to doc/upvar.n.

 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .. 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 ... 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117  '\" '\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California. '\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc. '\" '\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution '\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES. '\" '\" RCS: @(#) $Id: upvar.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 09:58:53 dkf Exp$ '\" .so man.macros .TH upvar n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands" .BS '\"`