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Overview
Comment:
* changes: Updated for 8.5b2 release.
* doc/*.1: Revert doc changes that broke * doc/*.3: `make html` so we can get the release * doc/*.n: out the door.
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | trunk | core-8-5-b2
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA1: b67e3f215e5ed2c3abc44b48bd54a2c3a7ad948a
User & Date: dgp 2007-10-26 20:11:50
Context
2007-10-26
23:52
Make the man->HTML scraper work better. check-in: 84dfc4343b user: dkf tags: trunk
20:11
* changes: Updated for 8.5b2 release.
* doc/*.1: Revert d...
check-in: b67e3f215e user: dgp tags: trunk, core-8-5-b2
16:54
tag: 8.5b2 check-in: 3b4a8c5724 user: dgp tags: trunk
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Changes to ChangeLog.

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2007-10-26  Don Porter	<[email protected]>

	*** 8.5b2 TAGGED FOR RELEASE ***

	* changes:		Updated for 8.5b2 release.





	* README:		Bump version number to 8.5b2.
	* generic/tcl.h:
	* library/init.tcl:
	* tools/tcl.wse.in:
	* unix/configure.in:
	* unix/tcl.spec:




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2007-10-26  Don Porter	<[email protected]>

	*** 8.5b2 TAGGED FOR RELEASE ***

	* changes:		Updated for 8.5b2 release.

	* doc/*.1:		Revert doc changes that broke
	* doc/*.3:		`make html` so we can get the release
	* doc/*.n:		out the door.

	* README:		Bump version number to 8.5b2.
	* generic/tcl.h:
	* library/init.tcl:
	* tools/tcl.wse.in:
	* unix/configure.in:
	* unix/tcl.spec:

Changes to changes.

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Recent user-visible changes to Tcl:

RCS: @(#) $Id: changes,v 1.120 2007/10/26 15:53:43 dgp Exp $

1. No more [command1] [command2] construct for grouping multiple
commands on a single command line.

2. Semi-colon now available for grouping commands on a line.

3. For a command to span multiple lines, must now use backslash-return
................................................................................

2007-10-11 (bug fix)[1805887] [string is int -failindex] for 0o, 0b (porter)

2007-10-15 (bug fix)[1813528] Tcl_ParseBraces read past buffer (mistachkin)

2007-10-25 (bug fix)[1726873] intermittent crash in threads (vasiljevic)

New doc macros for improved formatting.  Docs updated to use. (fellows)

--- Released 8.5b2, October 26, 2007 --- See ChangeLog for details ---

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Recent user-visible changes to Tcl:

RCS: @(#) $Id: changes,v 1.121 2007/10/26 20:11:50 dgp Exp $

1. No more [command1] [command2] construct for grouping multiple
commands on a single command line.

2. Semi-colon now available for grouping commands on a line.

3. For a command to span multiple lines, must now use backslash-return
................................................................................

2007-10-11 (bug fix)[1805887] [string is int -failindex] for 0o, 0b (porter)

2007-10-15 (bug fix)[1813528] Tcl_ParseBraces read past buffer (mistachkin)

2007-10-25 (bug fix)[1726873] intermittent crash in threads (vasiljevic)



--- Released 8.5b2, October 26, 2007 --- See ChangeLog for details ---

Changes to doc/AppInit.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: AppInit.3,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_AppInit 3 7.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_AppInit \- perform application-specific initialization
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.AS Tcl_Interp *interp
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter for the application.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_AppInit\fR is a
.QW hook
procedure that is invoked by
the main programs for Tcl applications such as \fBtclsh\fR and \fBwish\fR.
Its purpose is to allow new Tcl applications to be created without
modifying the main programs provided as part of Tcl and Tk.
To create a new application you write a new version of
\fBTcl_AppInit\fR to replace the default version provided by Tcl,
then link your new \fBTcl_AppInit\fR with the Tcl library.
.PP






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: AppInit.3,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_AppInit 3 7.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_AppInit \- perform application-specific initialization
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.AS Tcl_Interp *interp
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter for the application.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP


\fBTcl_AppInit\fR is a ``hook'' procedure that is invoked by
the main programs for Tcl applications such as \fBtclsh\fR and \fBwish\fR.
Its purpose is to allow new Tcl applications to be created without
modifying the main programs provided as part of Tcl and Tk.
To create a new application you write a new version of
\fBTcl_AppInit\fR to replace the default version provided by Tcl,
then link your new \fBTcl_AppInit\fR with the Tcl library.
.PP

Changes to doc/BackgdErr.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1992-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: BackgdErr.3,v 1.5 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_BackgroundError 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_BackgroundError \- report Tcl error that occurred in background processing
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which the error occurred.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This procedure is typically invoked when a Tcl error occurs during
.QW "background processing"
such as executing an event handler.
When such an error occurs, the error condition is reported to Tcl
or to a widget or some other C code, and there is not usually any
obvious way for that code to report the error to the user.
In these cases the code calls \fBTcl_BackgroundError\fR with an
\fIinterp\fR argument identifying the interpreter in which the
error occurred.  At the time \fBTcl_BackgroundError\fR is invoked,
the interpreter's result is expected to contain an error message.






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1992-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: BackgdErr.3,v 1.6 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_BackgroundError 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_BackgroundError \- report Tcl error that occurred in background processing
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which the error occurred.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This procedure is typically invoked when a Tcl error occurs during

``background processing'' such as executing an event handler.
When such an error occurs, the error condition is reported to Tcl
or to a widget or some other C code, and there is not usually any
obvious way for that code to report the error to the user.
In these cases the code calls \fBTcl_BackgroundError\fR with an
\fIinterp\fR argument identifying the interpreter in which the
error occurred.  At the time \fBTcl_BackgroundError\fR is invoked,
the interpreter's result is expected to contain an error message.

Changes to doc/CrtChannel.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1996-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1997-2000 Ajuba Solutions.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: CrtChannel.3,v 1.36 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_CreateChannel 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_CreateChannel, Tcl_GetChannelInstanceData, Tcl_GetChannelType, Tcl_GetChannelName, Tcl_GetChannelHandle, Tcl_GetChannelMode, Tcl_GetChannelBufferSize, Tcl_SetChannelBufferSize, Tcl_NotifyChannel, Tcl_BadChannelOption, Tcl_ChannelName, Tcl_ChannelVersion, Tcl_ChannelBlockModeProc, Tcl_ChannelCloseProc, Tcl_ChannelClose2Proc, Tcl_ChannelInputProc, Tcl_ChannelOutputProc, Tcl_ChannelSeekProc, Tcl_ChannelWideSeekProc, Tcl_ChannelTruncateProc, Tcl_ChannelSetOptionProc, Tcl_ChannelGetOptionProc, Tcl_ChannelWatchProc, Tcl_ChannelGetHandleProc, Tcl_ChannelFlushProc, Tcl_ChannelHandlerProc, Tcl_ChannelThreadActionProc, Tcl_IsChannelShared, Tcl_IsChannelRegistered, Tcl_CutChannel, Tcl_SpliceChannel, Tcl_IsChannelExisting, Tcl_ClearChannelHandlers, Tcl_GetChannelThread, Tcl_ChannelBuffered \- procedures for creating and manipulating channels
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.CS
    bad option "-blah": should be one of -blocking,
    -buffering, -buffersize, -eofchar, -translation,
    -peername, or -sockname
.CE
when called with \fIoptionList\fR="peername sockname"
.PP
.QW blah
is the \fIoptionName\fR argument and
.QW "<specific options>"
is a space separated list of specific option words.
The function takes good care of inserting minus signs before
each option, commas after, and an
.QW or
before the last option.
.SH "OLD CHANNEL TYPES"
The original (8.3.1 and below) \fBTcl_ChannelType\fR structure contains
the following fields:
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_ChannelType {
        char *\fItypeName\fR;






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1996-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1997-2000 Ajuba Solutions.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: CrtChannel.3,v 1.37 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_CreateChannel 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_CreateChannel, Tcl_GetChannelInstanceData, Tcl_GetChannelType, Tcl_GetChannelName, Tcl_GetChannelHandle, Tcl_GetChannelMode, Tcl_GetChannelBufferSize, Tcl_SetChannelBufferSize, Tcl_NotifyChannel, Tcl_BadChannelOption, Tcl_ChannelName, Tcl_ChannelVersion, Tcl_ChannelBlockModeProc, Tcl_ChannelCloseProc, Tcl_ChannelClose2Proc, Tcl_ChannelInputProc, Tcl_ChannelOutputProc, Tcl_ChannelSeekProc, Tcl_ChannelWideSeekProc, Tcl_ChannelTruncateProc, Tcl_ChannelSetOptionProc, Tcl_ChannelGetOptionProc, Tcl_ChannelWatchProc, Tcl_ChannelGetHandleProc, Tcl_ChannelFlushProc, Tcl_ChannelHandlerProc, Tcl_ChannelThreadActionProc, Tcl_IsChannelShared, Tcl_IsChannelRegistered, Tcl_CutChannel, Tcl_SpliceChannel, Tcl_IsChannelExisting, Tcl_ClearChannelHandlers, Tcl_GetChannelThread, Tcl_ChannelBuffered \- procedures for creating and manipulating channels
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.CS
    bad option "-blah": should be one of -blocking,
    -buffering, -buffersize, -eofchar, -translation,
    -peername, or -sockname
.CE
when called with \fIoptionList\fR="peername sockname"
.PP

``blah'' is the \fIoptionName\fR argument and ``<specific options>''

is a space separated list of specific option words.
The function takes good care of inserting minus signs before
each option, commas after, and an ``or'' before the last option.


.SH "OLD CHANNEL TYPES"
The original (8.3.1 and below) \fBTcl_ChannelType\fR structure contains
the following fields:
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_ChannelType {
        char *\fItypeName\fR;

Changes to doc/CrtSlave.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: CrtSlave.3,v 1.17 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_CreateSlave 3 7.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_IsSafe, Tcl_MakeSafe, Tcl_CreateSlave, Tcl_GetSlave, Tcl_GetMaster, Tcl_GetInterpPath, Tcl_CreateAlias, Tcl_CreateAliasObj, Tcl_GetAlias, Tcl_GetAliasObj, Tcl_ExposeCommand, Tcl_HideCommand \- manage multiple Tcl interpreters, aliases and hidden commands
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const char *const" **targetInterpPtr out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to execute the specified command.
.AP "const char" *slaveName in
Name of slave interpreter to create or manipulate.
.AP int isSafe in
If non-zero, a
.QW safe
slave that is suitable for running untrusted code
is created, otherwise a trusted slave is created.
.AP Tcl_Interp *slaveInterp in
Interpreter to use for creating the source command for an alias (see
below).
.AP "const char" *slaveCmd in
Name of source command for alias.
.AP Tcl_Interp *targetInterp in
................................................................................
then the \fBresult\fR field of the interpreter contains an error message.
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateSlave\fR creates a new interpreter as a slave of \fIinterp\fR.
It also creates a slave command named \fIslaveName\fR in \fIinterp\fR which 
allows \fIinterp\fR to manipulate the new slave. 
If \fIisSafe\fR is zero, the command creates a trusted slave in which Tcl
code has access to all the Tcl commands.
If it is \fB1\fR, the command creates a
.QW safe
slave in which Tcl code has access only to set of Tcl commands defined as
.QW "Safe Tcl" ;
see the manual entry for the Tcl \fBinterp\fR command for details.
If the creation of the new slave interpreter failed, \fBNULL\fR is returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_IsSafe\fR returns \fB1\fR if \fIinterp\fR is
.QW safe
(was created with the \fBTCL_SAFE_INTERPRETER\fR flag specified),
\fB0\fR otherwise.
.PP
\fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR marks \fIinterp\fR as
.QW safe ,
so that future
calls to \fBTcl_IsSafe\fR will return 1.  It also removes all known
potentially-unsafe core functionality (both commands and variables)
from \fIinterp\fR.  However, it cannot know what parts of an extension
or application are safe and does not make any attempt to remove those
parts, so safety is not guaranteed after calling \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR.
Callers will want to take care with their use of \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR
to avoid false claims of safety.  For many situations, \fBTcl_CreateSlave\fR





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: CrtSlave.3,v 1.18 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_CreateSlave 3 7.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_IsSafe, Tcl_MakeSafe, Tcl_CreateSlave, Tcl_GetSlave, Tcl_GetMaster, Tcl_GetInterpPath, Tcl_CreateAlias, Tcl_CreateAliasObj, Tcl_GetAlias, Tcl_GetAliasObj, Tcl_ExposeCommand, Tcl_HideCommand \- manage multiple Tcl interpreters, aliases and hidden commands
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const char *const" **targetInterpPtr out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to execute the specified command.
.AP "const char" *slaveName in
Name of slave interpreter to create or manipulate.
.AP int isSafe in


If non-zero, a ``safe'' slave that is suitable for running untrusted code
is created, otherwise a trusted slave is created.
.AP Tcl_Interp *slaveInterp in
Interpreter to use for creating the source command for an alias (see
below).
.AP "const char" *slaveCmd in
Name of source command for alias.
.AP Tcl_Interp *targetInterp in
................................................................................
then the \fBresult\fR field of the interpreter contains an error message.
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateSlave\fR creates a new interpreter as a slave of \fIinterp\fR.
It also creates a slave command named \fIslaveName\fR in \fIinterp\fR which 
allows \fIinterp\fR to manipulate the new slave. 
If \fIisSafe\fR is zero, the command creates a trusted slave in which Tcl
code has access to all the Tcl commands.
If it is \fB1\fR, the command creates a ``safe'' slave in which Tcl code

has access only to set of Tcl commands defined as ``Safe Tcl''; see the

manual entry for the Tcl \fBinterp\fR command for details.
If the creation of the new slave interpreter failed, \fBNULL\fR is returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_IsSafe\fR returns \fB1\fR if \fIinterp\fR is ``safe'' (was created

with the \fBTCL_SAFE_INTERPRETER\fR flag specified),
\fB0\fR otherwise.
.PP
\fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR marks \fIinterp\fR as ``safe'', so that future


calls to \fBTcl_IsSafe\fR will return 1.  It also removes all known
potentially-unsafe core functionality (both commands and variables)
from \fIinterp\fR.  However, it cannot know what parts of an extension
or application are safe and does not make any attempt to remove those
parts, so safety is not guaranteed after calling \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR.
Callers will want to take care with their use of \fBTcl_MakeSafe\fR
to avoid false claims of safety.  For many situations, \fBTcl_CreateSlave\fR

Changes to doc/DString.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: DString.3,v 1.14 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_DString 3 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_DStringInit, Tcl_DStringAppend, Tcl_DStringAppendElement, Tcl_DStringStartSublist, Tcl_DStringEndSublist, Tcl_DStringLength, Tcl_DStringValue, Tcl_DStringSetLength, Tcl_DStringTrunc, Tcl_DStringFree, Tcl_DStringResult, Tcl_DStringGetResult \- manipulate dynamic strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR is similar to \fBTcl_DStringAppend\fR
except that it doesn't take a \fIlength\fR argument (it appends
all of \fIelement\fR) and it converts the string to a proper list element
before appending.
\fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR adds a separator space before the
new list element unless the new list element is the first in a
list or sub-list (i.e. either the current string is empty, or it
contains the single character
.QW { ,
or the last two characters of the current string are
.QW " {" ).
\fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR returns a pointer to the
characters of the new string.
.PP
\fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR and \fBTcl_DStringEndSublist\fR can be
used to create nested lists.
To append a list element that is itself a sublist, first
call \fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR, then call \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: DString.3,v 1.15 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_DString 3 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_DStringInit, Tcl_DStringAppend, Tcl_DStringAppendElement, Tcl_DStringStartSublist, Tcl_DStringEndSublist, Tcl_DStringLength, Tcl_DStringValue, Tcl_DStringSetLength, Tcl_DStringTrunc, Tcl_DStringFree, Tcl_DStringResult, Tcl_DStringGetResult \- manipulate dynamic strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR is similar to \fBTcl_DStringAppend\fR
except that it doesn't take a \fIlength\fR argument (it appends
all of \fIelement\fR) and it converts the string to a proper list element
before appending.
\fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR adds a separator space before the
new list element unless the new list element is the first in a
list or sub-list (i.e. either the current string is empty, or it
contains the single character ``{'', or the last two characters of

the current string are `` {'').

\fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR returns a pointer to the
characters of the new string.
.PP
\fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR and \fBTcl_DStringEndSublist\fR can be
used to create nested lists.
To append a list element that is itself a sublist, first
call \fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR, then call \fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR

Changes to doc/Encoding.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Encoding.3,v 1.26 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_GetEncoding 3 "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_GetEncoding, Tcl_FreeEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingFromObj, Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString, Tcl_ExternalToUtf, Tcl_UtfToExternalDString, Tcl_UtfToExternal, Tcl_WinTCharToUtf, Tcl_WinUtfToTChar, Tcl_GetEncodingName, Tcl_SetSystemEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingNameFromEnvironment, Tcl_GetEncodingNames, Tcl_CreateEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_SetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir, Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir \- procedures for creating and using encodings
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
ignored.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir\fR and \fBTcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir\fR
are obsolete interfaces best replaced with calls to
\fBTcl_GetEncodingSearchPath\fR and \fBTcl_SetEncodingSearchPath\fR.
They are called to access and set the first element of the \fIsearchPath\fR
list.  Since Tcl searches \fIsearchPath\fR for encoding data files in
list order, these routines establish the
.QW default
directory in which to find encoding data files.
.VE 8.5
.SH "ENCODING FILES"
Space would prohibit precompiling into Tcl every possible encoding
algorithm, so many encodings are stored on disk as dynamically-loadable
encoding files.  This behavior also allows the user to create additional
encoding files that can be loaded using the same mechanism.  These
encoding files contain information about the tables and/or escape
sequences used to map between an external encoding and Unicode.  The
external encoding may consist of single-byte, multi-byte, or double-byte
characters.  
.PP
Each dynamically-loadable encoding is represented as a text file.  The
initial line of the file, beginning with a
.QW #
symbol, is a comment
that provides a human-readable description of the file.  The next line
identifies the type of encoding file.  It can be one of the following
letters:
.IP "[1] \fBS\fR"
A single-byte encoding, where one character is always one byte long in the
encoding.  An example is \fBiso8859-1\fR, used by many European languages.
.IP "[2] \fBD\fR"
................................................................................
.PP
In the file, the first column represents an option and the second column
is the associated value.  \fBinit\fR is a string to emit or expect before
the first character is converted, while \fBfinal\fR is a string to emit
or expect after the last character.  All other options are names of
table-based encodings; the associated value is the escape-sequence that
marks that encoding.  Tcl syntax is used for the values; in the above
example, for instance,
.QW \fB{}\fR
represents the empty string and
.QW \fB\ex1b\fR
represents character 27.
.PP
When \fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR encounters an encoding \fIname\fR that has not
been loaded, it attempts to load an encoding file called \fIname\fB.enc\fR
from the \fBencoding\fR subdirectory of each directory that Tcl searches
for its script library.  If the encoding file exists, but is
malformed, an error message will be left in \fIinterp\fR.
.SH KEYWORDS
utf, encoding, convert





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Encoding.3,v 1.27 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_GetEncoding 3 "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_GetEncoding, Tcl_FreeEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingFromObj, Tcl_ExternalToUtfDString, Tcl_ExternalToUtf, Tcl_UtfToExternalDString, Tcl_UtfToExternal, Tcl_WinTCharToUtf, Tcl_WinUtfToTChar, Tcl_GetEncodingName, Tcl_SetSystemEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingNameFromEnvironment, Tcl_GetEncodingNames, Tcl_CreateEncoding, Tcl_GetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_SetEncodingSearchPath, Tcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir, Tcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir \- procedures for creating and using encodings
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
ignored.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetDefaultEncodingDir\fR and \fBTcl_SetDefaultEncodingDir\fR
are obsolete interfaces best replaced with calls to
\fBTcl_GetEncodingSearchPath\fR and \fBTcl_SetEncodingSearchPath\fR.
They are called to access and set the first element of the \fIsearchPath\fR
list.  Since Tcl searches \fIsearchPath\fR for encoding data files in
list order, these routines establish the ``default'' directory in which

to find encoding data files.
.VE 8.5
.SH "ENCODING FILES"
Space would prohibit precompiling into Tcl every possible encoding
algorithm, so many encodings are stored on disk as dynamically-loadable
encoding files.  This behavior also allows the user to create additional
encoding files that can be loaded using the same mechanism.  These
encoding files contain information about the tables and/or escape
sequences used to map between an external encoding and Unicode.  The
external encoding may consist of single-byte, multi-byte, or double-byte
characters.  
.PP
Each dynamically-loadable encoding is represented as a text file.  The
initial line of the file, beginning with a ``#'' symbol, is a comment


that provides a human-readable description of the file.  The next line
identifies the type of encoding file.  It can be one of the following
letters:
.IP "[1] \fBS\fR"
A single-byte encoding, where one character is always one byte long in the
encoding.  An example is \fBiso8859-1\fR, used by many European languages.
.IP "[2] \fBD\fR"
................................................................................
.PP
In the file, the first column represents an option and the second column
is the associated value.  \fBinit\fR is a string to emit or expect before
the first character is converted, while \fBfinal\fR is a string to emit
or expect after the last character.  All other options are names of
table-based encodings; the associated value is the escape-sequence that
marks that encoding.  Tcl syntax is used for the values; in the above


example, for instance, ``\fB{}\fR'' represents the empty string and

``\fB\\x1b\fR'' represents character 27.
.PP
When \fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR encounters an encoding \fIname\fR that has not
been loaded, it attempts to load an encoding file called \fIname\fB.enc\fR
from the \fBencoding\fR subdirectory of each directory that Tcl searches
for its script library.  If the encoding file exists, but is
malformed, an error message will be left in \fIinterp\fR.
.SH KEYWORDS
utf, encoding, convert

Changes to doc/Eval.3.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Eval.3,v 1.24 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_Eval 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_EvalObjEx, Tcl_EvalFile, Tcl_EvalObjv, Tcl_Eval, Tcl_EvalEx, Tcl_GlobalEval, Tcl_GlobalEvalObj, Tcl_VarEval, Tcl_VarEvalVA \- execute Tcl scripts
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.PP
\fBTcl_EvalFile\fR reads the file given by \fIfileName\fR and evaluates
its contents as a Tcl script.  It returns the same information as
\fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR.
If the file couldn't be read then a Tcl error is returned to describe
why the file couldn't be read.
The eofchar for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms.
If you require a
.QW ^Z
in code for string comparison, you can use
.QW \e032
or
.QW \eu001a ,
which will be safely substituted by the Tcl interpreter into
.QW ^Z .

.PP
\fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR executes a single pre-parsed command instead of a
script.  The \fIobjc\fR and \fIobjv\fR arguments contain the values
of the words for the Tcl command, one word in each object in
\fIobjv\fR.  \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR evaluates the command and returns
a completion code and result just like \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR.
The caller of \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR has to manage the reference count of the






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'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Eval.3,v 1.25 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_Eval 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_EvalObjEx, Tcl_EvalFile, Tcl_EvalObjv, Tcl_Eval, Tcl_EvalEx, Tcl_GlobalEval, Tcl_GlobalEvalObj, Tcl_VarEval, Tcl_VarEvalVA \- execute Tcl scripts
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.PP
\fBTcl_EvalFile\fR reads the file given by \fIfileName\fR and evaluates
its contents as a Tcl script.  It returns the same information as
\fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR.
If the file couldn't be read then a Tcl error is returned to describe
why the file couldn't be read.
The eofchar for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms.


If you require a ``^Z'' in code for string comparison, you can use



``\\032'' or ``\\u001a'', which will be safely substituted by the Tcl

interpreter into ``^Z''.
.PP
\fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR executes a single pre-parsed command instead of a
script.  The \fIobjc\fR and \fIobjv\fR arguments contain the values
of the words for the Tcl command, one word in each object in
\fIobjv\fR.  \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR evaluates the command and returns
a completion code and result just like \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR.
The caller of \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR has to manage the reference count of the

Changes to doc/ExprLong.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: ExprLong.3,v 1.12 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_ExprLong 3 7.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_ExprLong, Tcl_ExprDouble, Tcl_ExprBoolean, Tcl_ExprString \- evaluate an expression
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
an error is returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_ExprBoolean\fR stores a 0/1 integer value at \fI*booleanPtr\fR.
If the expression's actual value is an integer or floating-point
number, then they store 0 at \fI*booleanPtr\fR if
the value was zero and 1 otherwise.
If the expression's actual value is a non-numeric string then
it must be one of the values accepted by \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR such as
.QW yes
or
.QW no ,
or else an error occurs.
.PP
\fBTcl_ExprString\fR returns the value of the expression as a
string stored in the interpreter's result.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_ExprLongObj, Tcl_ExprDoubleObj, Tcl_ExprBooleanObj, Tcl_ExprObj

.SH KEYWORDS
boolean, double, evaluate, expression, integer, object, string






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: ExprLong.3,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_ExprLong 3 7.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_ExprLong, Tcl_ExprDouble, Tcl_ExprBoolean, Tcl_ExprString \- evaluate an expression
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
an error is returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_ExprBoolean\fR stores a 0/1 integer value at \fI*booleanPtr\fR.
If the expression's actual value is an integer or floating-point
number, then they store 0 at \fI*booleanPtr\fR if
the value was zero and 1 otherwise.
If the expression's actual value is a non-numeric string then
it must be one of the values accepted by \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR



such as ``yes'' or ``no'', or else an error occurs.
.PP
\fBTcl_ExprString\fR returns the value of the expression as a
string stored in the interpreter's result.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_ExprLongObj, Tcl_ExprDoubleObj, Tcl_ExprBooleanObj, Tcl_ExprObj

.SH KEYWORDS
boolean, double, evaluate, expression, integer, object, string

Changes to doc/ExprLongObj.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1996-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: ExprLongObj.3,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_ExprLongObj 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_ExprLongObj, Tcl_ExprDoubleObj, Tcl_ExprBooleanObj, Tcl_ExprObj \- evaluate an expression
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
an error is returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_ExprBooleanObj\fR stores a 0/1 integer value at \fI*booleanPtr\fR.
If the expression's actual value is an integer or floating-point
number, then they store 0 at \fI*booleanPtr\fR if
the value was zero and 1 otherwise.
If the expression's actual value is a non-numeric string then
it must be one of the values accepted by \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR such as
.QW yes
or
.QW no ,
or else an error occurs.
.PP
If \fBTcl_ExprObj\fR successfully evaluates the expression,
it stores a pointer to the Tcl object
containing the expression's value at \fI*resultPtrPtr\fR.
In this case, the caller is responsible for calling
\fBTcl_DecrRefCount\fR to decrement the object's reference count
when it is finished with the object.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_ExprLong, Tcl_ExprDouble, Tcl_ExprBoolean, Tcl_ExprString, Tcl_GetObjResult

.SH KEYWORDS
boolean, double, evaluate, expression, integer, object, string





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1996-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: ExprLongObj.3,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_ExprLongObj 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_ExprLongObj, Tcl_ExprDoubleObj, Tcl_ExprBooleanObj, Tcl_ExprObj \- evaluate an expression
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
an error is returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_ExprBooleanObj\fR stores a 0/1 integer value at \fI*booleanPtr\fR.
If the expression's actual value is an integer or floating-point
number, then they store 0 at \fI*booleanPtr\fR if
the value was zero and 1 otherwise.
If the expression's actual value is a non-numeric string then
it must be one of the values accepted by \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR



such as ``yes'' or ``no'', or else an error occurs.
.PP
If \fBTcl_ExprObj\fR successfully evaluates the expression,
it stores a pointer to the Tcl object
containing the expression's value at \fI*resultPtrPtr\fR.
In this case, the caller is responsible for calling
\fBTcl_DecrRefCount\fR to decrement the object's reference count
when it is finished with the object.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_ExprLong, Tcl_ExprDouble, Tcl_ExprBoolean, Tcl_ExprString, Tcl_GetObjResult

.SH KEYWORDS
boolean, double, evaluate, expression, integer, object, string

Changes to doc/FileSystem.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Vincent Darley
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: FileSystem.3,v 1.58 2007/10/24 14:29:37 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Filesystem 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_FSRegister, Tcl_FSUnregister, Tcl_FSData, Tcl_FSMountsChanged, Tcl_FSGetFileSystemForPath, Tcl_FSGetPathType, Tcl_FSCopyFile, Tcl_FSCopyDirectory, Tcl_FSCreateDirectory, Tcl_FSDeleteFile, Tcl_FSRemoveDirectory, Tcl_FSRenameFile, Tcl_FSListVolumes, Tcl_FSEvalFile, Tcl_FSEvalFileEx, Tcl_FSLoadFile, Tcl_FSMatchInDirectory, Tcl_FSLink, Tcl_FSLstat, Tcl_FSUtime, Tcl_FSFileAttrsGet, Tcl_FSFileAttrsSet, Tcl_FSFileAttrStrings, Tcl_FSStat, Tcl_FSAccess, Tcl_FSOpenFileChannel, Tcl_FSGetCwd, Tcl_FSChdir, Tcl_FSPathSeparator, Tcl_FSJoinPath, Tcl_FSSplitPath, Tcl_FSEqualPaths, Tcl_FSGetNormalizedPath, Tcl_FSJoinToPath, Tcl_FSConvertToPathType, Tcl_FSGetInternalRep, Tcl_FSGetTranslatedPath, Tcl_FSGetTranslatedStringPath, Tcl_FSNewNativePath, Tcl_FSGetNativePath, Tcl_FSFileSystemInfo, Tcl_AllocStatBuf \- procedures to interact with any filesystem
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
its contents as a Tcl script.  It returns the same information as
\fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR.
If \fIencodingName\fR is NULL, the system encoding is used for
reading the file contents.
If the file couldn't be read then a Tcl error is returned to describe
why the file couldn't be read.
The eofchar for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms.
If you require a
.QW ^Z
in code for string comparison, you can use
.QW \e032
or
.QW \eu001a ,
which will be safely substituted by the Tcl interpreter into
.QW ^Z .

\fBTcl_FSEvalFile\fR is a simpler version of
\fBTcl_FSEvalFileEx\fR that always uses the system encoding
when reading the file.
.VE 8.5
.PP
\fBTcl_FSLoadFile\fR dynamically loads a binary code file into memory and
returns the addresses of two procedures within that file, if they are
................................................................................
a particular filesystem with a file path, and deal with the internal
handling of path representations, for example copying and freeing such
representations.
.SS TYPENAME
.PP
The \fItypeName\fR field contains a null-terminated string that
identifies the type of the filesystem implemented, e.g.
.QW native ,
.QW zip
or
.QW vfs .
.SS "STRUCTURE LENGTH"
.PP
The \fIstructureLength\fR field is generally implemented as
\fIsizeof(Tcl_Filesystem)\fR, and is there to allow easier
binary backwards compatibility if the size of the structure
changes in a future Tcl release.
.SS VERSION





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Vincent Darley
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: FileSystem.3,v 1.59 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Filesystem 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_FSRegister, Tcl_FSUnregister, Tcl_FSData, Tcl_FSMountsChanged, Tcl_FSGetFileSystemForPath, Tcl_FSGetPathType, Tcl_FSCopyFile, Tcl_FSCopyDirectory, Tcl_FSCreateDirectory, Tcl_FSDeleteFile, Tcl_FSRemoveDirectory, Tcl_FSRenameFile, Tcl_FSListVolumes, Tcl_FSEvalFile, Tcl_FSEvalFileEx, Tcl_FSLoadFile, Tcl_FSMatchInDirectory, Tcl_FSLink, Tcl_FSLstat, Tcl_FSUtime, Tcl_FSFileAttrsGet, Tcl_FSFileAttrsSet, Tcl_FSFileAttrStrings, Tcl_FSStat, Tcl_FSAccess, Tcl_FSOpenFileChannel, Tcl_FSGetCwd, Tcl_FSChdir, Tcl_FSPathSeparator, Tcl_FSJoinPath, Tcl_FSSplitPath, Tcl_FSEqualPaths, Tcl_FSGetNormalizedPath, Tcl_FSJoinToPath, Tcl_FSConvertToPathType, Tcl_FSGetInternalRep, Tcl_FSGetTranslatedPath, Tcl_FSGetTranslatedStringPath, Tcl_FSNewNativePath, Tcl_FSGetNativePath, Tcl_FSFileSystemInfo, Tcl_AllocStatBuf \- procedures to interact with any filesystem
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
its contents as a Tcl script.  It returns the same information as
\fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR.
If \fIencodingName\fR is NULL, the system encoding is used for
reading the file contents.
If the file couldn't be read then a Tcl error is returned to describe
why the file couldn't be read.
The eofchar for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms.


If you require a ``^Z'' in code for string comparison, you can use



``\\032'' or ``\\u001a'', which will be safely substituted by the Tcl

interpreter into ``^Z''.
\fBTcl_FSEvalFile\fR is a simpler version of
\fBTcl_FSEvalFileEx\fR that always uses the system encoding
when reading the file.
.VE 8.5
.PP
\fBTcl_FSLoadFile\fR dynamically loads a binary code file into memory and
returns the addresses of two procedures within that file, if they are
................................................................................
a particular filesystem with a file path, and deal with the internal
handling of path representations, for example copying and freeing such
representations.
.SS TYPENAME
.PP
The \fItypeName\fR field contains a null-terminated string that
identifies the type of the filesystem implemented, e.g.
``native'' or ``zip'' or ```vfs''.



.SS "STRUCTURE LENGTH"
.PP
The \fIstructureLength\fR field is generally implemented as
\fIsizeof(Tcl_Filesystem)\fR, and is there to allow easier
binary backwards compatibility if the size of the structure
changes in a future Tcl release.
.SS VERSION

Changes to doc/GetInt.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: GetInt.3,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_GetInt 3 "" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_GetInt, Tcl_GetDouble, Tcl_GetBoolean \- convert from string to integer, double, or boolean
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
desired type then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned, an error message is left
in the interpreter's result, and nothing is stored at *\fIintPtr\fR
or *\fIdoublePtr\fR or *\fIboolPtr\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetInt\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a collection
of integer digits, optionally signed and optionally preceded by
white space.  If the first two characters of \fIsrc\fR
after the optional white space and sign are
.QW 0x
then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in hexadecimal form;  otherwise,
if the first such character is
.QW 0
then \fIsrc\fR
is expected to be in octal form;  otherwise, \fIsrc\fR is
expected to be in decimal form.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetDouble\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a floating-point
number, which is:  white space;  a sign; a sequence of digits;  a
decimal point;  a sequence of digits;  the letter
.QW e ;
a signed decimal exponent ; and more white space.
Any of the fields may be omitted, except that
the digits either before or after the decimal point must be present
and if the
.QW e
is present then it must be followed by the exponent number.

.PP
\fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to specify a boolean
value.  If \fIsrc\fR is any of \fB0\fR, \fBfalse\fR,
\fBno\fR, or \fBoff\fR, then \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR stores a zero
value at \fI*boolPtr\fR.
If \fIsrc\fR is any of \fB1\fR, \fBtrue\fR, \fByes\fR, or \fBon\fR,
then 1 is stored at \fI*boolPtr\fR.
Any of these values may be abbreviated, and upper-case spellings
are also acceptable.

.SH KEYWORDS
boolean, conversion, double, floating-point, integer






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: GetInt.3,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_GetInt 3 "" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_GetInt, Tcl_GetDouble, Tcl_GetBoolean \- convert from string to integer, double, or boolean
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
desired type then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned, an error message is left
in the interpreter's result, and nothing is stored at *\fIintPtr\fR
or *\fIdoublePtr\fR or *\fIboolPtr\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetInt\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a collection
of integer digits, optionally signed and optionally preceded by
white space.  If the first two characters of \fIsrc\fR
after the optional white space and sign are ``0x''

then \fIsrc\fR is expected to be in hexadecimal form;  otherwise,
if the first such character is ``0'' then \fIsrc\fR


is expected to be in octal form;  otherwise, \fIsrc\fR is
expected to be in decimal form.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetDouble\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to consist of a floating-point
number, which is:  white space;  a sign; a sequence of digits;  a
decimal point;  a sequence of digits;  the letter ``e'';  a

signed decimal exponent ; and more white space.
Any of the fields may be omitted, except that
the digits either before or after the decimal point must be present


and if the ``e'' is present then it must be followed by the
exponent number.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR expects \fIsrc\fR to specify a boolean
value.  If \fIsrc\fR is any of \fB0\fR, \fBfalse\fR,
\fBno\fR, or \fBoff\fR, then \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR stores a zero
value at \fI*boolPtr\fR.
If \fIsrc\fR is any of \fB1\fR, \fBtrue\fR, \fByes\fR, or \fBon\fR,
then 1 is stored at \fI*boolPtr\fR.
Any of these values may be abbreviated, and upper-case spellings
are also acceptable.

.SH KEYWORDS
boolean, conversion, double, floating-point, integer

Changes to doc/Hash.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Hash.3,v 1.22 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_Hash 3 "" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_InitHashTable, Tcl_InitCustomHashTable, Tcl_InitObjHashTable, Tcl_DeleteHashTable, Tcl_CreateHashEntry, Tcl_DeleteHashEntry, Tcl_FindHashEntry, Tcl_GetHashValue, Tcl_SetHashValue, Tcl_GetHashKey, Tcl_FirstHashEntry, Tcl_NextHashEntry, Tcl_HashStats \- procedures to manage hash tables
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
may have the same value.  Keys can take one of four forms: strings,
one-word values, integer arrays, or custom keys defined by a
Tcl_HashKeyType structure (See section \fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE
STRUCTURE\fR below). All of the keys in a given table have the same
form, which is specified when the table is initialized.
.PP
The value of a hash table entry can be anything that fits in the same
space as a
.QW "char *"
pointer.  Values for hash table entries are
managed entirely by clients, not by the hash module itself.  Typically
each entry's value is a pointer to a data structure managed by client
code.
.PP
Hash tables grow gracefully as the number of entries increases, so
that there are always less than three entries per hash bucket, on
average. This allows for fast lookups regardless of the number of
................................................................................
\fIKeyType\fR must have one of the following values:
.IP \fBTCL_STRING_KEYS\fR 25
Keys are null-terminated strings.
They are passed to hashing routines using the address of the
first character of the string.
.IP \fBTCL_ONE_WORD_KEYS\fR 25
Keys are single-word values;  they are passed to hashing routines
and stored in hash table entries as
.QW "char *"
values.
The pointer value is the key;  it need not (and usually doesn't)
actually point to a string.
.IP \fBTCL_CUSTOM_TYPE_KEYS\fR 25
Keys are of arbitrary type, and are stored in the entry. Hashing
and comparison is determined by \fItypePtr\fR. The Tcl_HashKeyType 
structure is described in the section 
\fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below.
................................................................................
Keys are pointers to an arbitrary type, and are stored in the entry. Hashing
and comparison is determined by \fItypePtr\fR. The Tcl_HashKeyType 
structure is described in the section 
\fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below.
.IP \fIother\fR 25
If \fIkeyType\fR is not one of the above,
then it must be an integer value greater than 1.
In this case the keys will be arrays of
.QW int
values, where \fIkeyType\fR gives the number of ints in each key.
This allows structures to be used as keys.
All keys must have the same size.
Array keys are passed into hashing functions using the address
of the first int in the array.
.PP
\fBTcl_DeleteHashTable\fR deletes all of the entries in a hash
table and frees up the memory associated with the table's
................................................................................
.PP
\fBTcl_FindHashEntry\fR is similar to \fBTcl_CreateHashEntry\fR
except that it doesn't create a new entry if the key doesn't exist;
instead, it returns NULL as result.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetHashValue\fR and \fBTcl_SetHashValue\fR are used to
read and write an entry's value, respectively.
Values are stored and retrieved as type
.QW ClientData ,
which is
large enough to hold a pointer value.  On almost all machines this is
large enough to hold an integer value too.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns the key for a given hash table entry,
either as a pointer to a string, a one-word (e.g.
.QW "char *" )
key, or as a pointer to the first word of an array of integers, depending
on the \fIkeyType\fR used to create a hash table.
In all cases \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns a result with type
.QW "char *" .
When the key is a string or array, the result of \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR
points to information in the table entry;  this information will
remain valid until the entry is deleted or its table is deleted.
.PP
\fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR and \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR may be used
to scan all of the entries in a hash table. A structure of type
.QW Tcl_HashSearch ,
provided by the client, is used to keep track of progress through the
table. \fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR initializes the search record and
returns the first entry in the table (or NULL if the table is
empty).
Each subsequent call to \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR returns the
next entry in the table or
NULL if the end of the table has been reached.
A call to \fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR followed by calls to
\fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR will return each of the entries in






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Hash.3,v 1.23 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_Hash 3 "" Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_InitHashTable, Tcl_InitCustomHashTable, Tcl_InitObjHashTable, Tcl_DeleteHashTable, Tcl_CreateHashEntry, Tcl_DeleteHashEntry, Tcl_FindHashEntry, Tcl_GetHashValue, Tcl_SetHashValue, Tcl_GetHashKey, Tcl_FirstHashEntry, Tcl_NextHashEntry, Tcl_HashStats \- procedures to manage hash tables
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
may have the same value.  Keys can take one of four forms: strings,
one-word values, integer arrays, or custom keys defined by a
Tcl_HashKeyType structure (See section \fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE
STRUCTURE\fR below). All of the keys in a given table have the same
form, which is specified when the table is initialized.
.PP
The value of a hash table entry can be anything that fits in the same


space as a ``char *'' pointer.  Values for hash table entries are
managed entirely by clients, not by the hash module itself.  Typically
each entry's value is a pointer to a data structure managed by client
code.
.PP
Hash tables grow gracefully as the number of entries increases, so
that there are always less than three entries per hash bucket, on
average. This allows for fast lookups regardless of the number of
................................................................................
\fIKeyType\fR must have one of the following values:
.IP \fBTCL_STRING_KEYS\fR 25
Keys are null-terminated strings.
They are passed to hashing routines using the address of the
first character of the string.
.IP \fBTCL_ONE_WORD_KEYS\fR 25
Keys are single-word values;  they are passed to hashing routines
and stored in hash table entries as ``char *'' values.


The pointer value is the key;  it need not (and usually doesn't)
actually point to a string.
.IP \fBTCL_CUSTOM_TYPE_KEYS\fR 25
Keys are of arbitrary type, and are stored in the entry. Hashing
and comparison is determined by \fItypePtr\fR. The Tcl_HashKeyType 
structure is described in the section 
\fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below.
................................................................................
Keys are pointers to an arbitrary type, and are stored in the entry. Hashing
and comparison is determined by \fItypePtr\fR. The Tcl_HashKeyType 
structure is described in the section 
\fBTHE TCL_HASHKEYTYPE STRUCTURE\fR below.
.IP \fIother\fR 25
If \fIkeyType\fR is not one of the above,
then it must be an integer value greater than 1.
In this case the keys will be arrays of ``int'' values, where

\fIkeyType\fR gives the number of ints in each key.
This allows structures to be used as keys.
All keys must have the same size.
Array keys are passed into hashing functions using the address
of the first int in the array.
.PP
\fBTcl_DeleteHashTable\fR deletes all of the entries in a hash
table and frees up the memory associated with the table's
................................................................................
.PP
\fBTcl_FindHashEntry\fR is similar to \fBTcl_CreateHashEntry\fR
except that it doesn't create a new entry if the key doesn't exist;
instead, it returns NULL as result.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetHashValue\fR and \fBTcl_SetHashValue\fR are used to
read and write an entry's value, respectively.
Values are stored and retrieved as type ``ClientData'', which is


large enough to hold a pointer value.  On almost all machines this is
large enough to hold an integer value too.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns the key for a given hash table entry,
either as a pointer to a string, a one-word (``char *'') key, or

as a pointer to the first word of an array of integers, depending
on the \fIkeyType\fR used to create a hash table.
In all cases \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns a result with type
``char *''.
When the key is a string or array, the result of \fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR
points to information in the table entry;  this information will
remain valid until the entry is deleted or its table is deleted.
.PP
\fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR and \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR may be used
to scan all of the entries in a hash table.
A structure of type ``Tcl_HashSearch'', provided by the client,
is used to keep track of progress through the table.
\fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR initializes the search record and
returns the first entry in the table (or NULL if the table is
empty).
Each subsequent call to \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR returns the
next entry in the table or
NULL if the end of the table has been reached.
A call to \fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR followed by calls to
\fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR will return each of the entries in

Changes to doc/LinkVar.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: LinkVar.3,v 1.13 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_LinkVar 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_LinkVar, Tcl_UnlinkVar, Tcl_UpdateLinkedVar \- link Tcl variable to C variable
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
'\" FIXME! Use bignums instead.
attempts to write non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be
rejected with Tcl errors.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR
The C variable is of type \fBint\fR.
If its value is zero then it will read from Tcl as
.QW 0 ;
otherwise it will read from Tcl as
.QW 1 .
Whenever \fIvarName\fR is
modified, the C variable will be set to a 0 or 1 value.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper boolean
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetBooleanFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-boolean values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors.
.TP
................................................................................
The C variable is of type \fBchar *\fR.
If its value is not NULL then it must be a pointer to a string
allocated with \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or \fBckalloc\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is modified the current C string will be
freed and new memory will be allocated to hold a copy of the variable's
new value.
If the C variable contains a NULL pointer then the Tcl variable
will read as
.QW NULL .
.PP
If the \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR flag is present in \fItype\fR then the
variable will be read-only from Tcl, so that its value can only be
changed by modifying the C variable.
Attempts to write the variable from Tcl will be rejected with errors.
.PP
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR removes the link previously set up for the






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: LinkVar.3,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_LinkVar 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_LinkVar, Tcl_UnlinkVar, Tcl_UpdateLinkedVar \- link Tcl variable to C variable
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
'\" FIXME! Use bignums instead.
attempts to write non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be
rejected with Tcl errors.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR
The C variable is of type \fBint\fR.
If its value is zero then it will read from Tcl as ``0'';

otherwise it will read from Tcl as ``1''.

Whenever \fIvarName\fR is
modified, the C variable will be set to a 0 or 1 value.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper boolean
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetBooleanFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-boolean values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors.
.TP
................................................................................
The C variable is of type \fBchar *\fR.
If its value is not NULL then it must be a pointer to a string
allocated with \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or \fBckalloc\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is modified the current C string will be
freed and new memory will be allocated to hold a copy of the variable's
new value.
If the C variable contains a NULL pointer then the Tcl variable
will read as ``NULL''.

.PP
If the \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR flag is present in \fItype\fR then the
variable will be read-only from Tcl, so that its value can only be
changed by modifying the C variable.
Attempts to write the variable from Tcl will be rejected with errors.
.PP
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR removes the link previously set up for the

Changes to doc/Notifier.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Notifier.3,v 1.18 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Notifier 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_CreateEventSource, Tcl_DeleteEventSource, Tcl_SetMaxBlockTime, Tcl_QueueEvent, Tcl_ThreadQueueEvent, Tcl_ThreadAlert, Tcl_GetCurrentThread, Tcl_DeleteEvents, Tcl_InitNotifier, Tcl_FinalizeNotifier, Tcl_WaitForEvent, Tcl_AlertNotifier, Tcl_SetTimer, Tcl_ServiceAll, Tcl_ServiceEvent, Tcl_GetServiceMode, Tcl_SetServiceMode \- the event queue and notifier interfaces
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fBTcl_InitNotifier\fR initializes the notifier state and returns
a handle to the notifier state.  Tcl calls this
procedure when initializing a Tcl interpreter.  Similarly,
\fBTcl_FinalizeNotifier\fR shuts down the notifier, and is
called by \fBTcl_Finalize\fR when shutting down a Tcl interpreter.
.PP
\fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR is the lowest-level procedure in the notifier;
it is responsible for waiting for an
.QW interesting
event to occur or
for a given time to elapse.  Before \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR is invoked,
each of the event sources' setup procedure will have been invoked.
The \fItimePtr\fR argument to
\fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR gives the maximum time to block for an event,
based on calls to \fBTcl_SetMaxBlockTime\fR made by setup procedures
and on other information (such as the \fBTCL_DONT_WAIT\fR bit in
\fIflags\fR).






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Notifier.3,v 1.19 2007/10/26 20:11:51 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Notifier 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_CreateEventSource, Tcl_DeleteEventSource, Tcl_SetMaxBlockTime, Tcl_QueueEvent, Tcl_ThreadQueueEvent, Tcl_ThreadAlert, Tcl_GetCurrentThread, Tcl_DeleteEvents, Tcl_InitNotifier, Tcl_FinalizeNotifier, Tcl_WaitForEvent, Tcl_AlertNotifier, Tcl_SetTimer, Tcl_ServiceAll, Tcl_ServiceEvent, Tcl_GetServiceMode, Tcl_SetServiceMode \- the event queue and notifier interfaces
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fBTcl_InitNotifier\fR initializes the notifier state and returns
a handle to the notifier state.  Tcl calls this
procedure when initializing a Tcl interpreter.  Similarly,
\fBTcl_FinalizeNotifier\fR shuts down the notifier, and is
called by \fBTcl_Finalize\fR when shutting down a Tcl interpreter.
.PP
\fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR is the lowest-level procedure in the notifier;
it is responsible for waiting for an ``interesting'' event to occur or


for a given time to elapse.  Before \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR is invoked,
each of the event sources' setup procedure will have been invoked.
The \fItimePtr\fR argument to
\fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR gives the maximum time to block for an event,
based on calls to \fBTcl_SetMaxBlockTime\fR made by setup procedures
and on other information (such as the \fBTCL_DONT_WAIT\fR bit in
\fIflags\fR).

Changes to doc/PrintDbl.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: PrintDbl.3,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_PrintDouble 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_PrintDouble \- Convert floating value to string
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_PrintDouble\fR generates a string that represents the value
of \fIvalue\fR and stores it in memory at the location given by
\fIdst\fR.  It uses \fB%g\fR format to generate the string, with one
special twist: the string is guaranteed to contain either a
.QW .
or an
.QW e
so that it doesn't look like an integer. Where \fB%g\fR would generate
an integer with no decimal point, \fBTcl_PrintDouble\fR adds
.QW .0 .

.VS 8.5
.PP
If the \fBtcl_precision\fR value is non-zero, the result will have
precisely that many digits of significance.  If the value is zero
(the default), the result will have the fewest digits needed to
represent the number in such a way that \fBTcl_NewDoubleObj\fR
will generate the same number when presented with the given string.
IEEE semantics of rounding to even apply to the conversion.
.VE

.SH KEYWORDS
conversion, double-precision, floating-point, string






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: PrintDbl.3,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_PrintDouble 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_PrintDouble \- Convert floating value to string
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_PrintDouble\fR generates a string that represents the value
of \fIvalue\fR and stores it in memory at the location given by
\fIdst\fR.  It uses \fB%g\fR format to generate the string, with one
special twist: the string is guaranteed to contain either



a ``.'' or an ``e'' so that it doesn't look like an integer.  Where
\fB%g\fR would generate an integer with no decimal point, \fBTcl_PrintDouble\fR

adds ``.0''.
.VS 8.5
.PP
If the \fBtcl_precision\fR value is non-zero, the result will have
precisely that many digits of significance.  If the value is zero
(the default), the result will have the fewest digits needed to
represent the number in such a way that \fBTcl_NewDoubleObj\fR
will generate the same number when presented with the given string.
IEEE semantics of rounding to even apply to the conversion.
.VE

.SH KEYWORDS
conversion, double-precision, floating-point, string

Changes to doc/RegExp.3.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: RegExp.3,v 1.24 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_RegExpMatch 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_RegExpMatch, Tcl_RegExpCompile, Tcl_RegExpExec, Tcl_RegExpRange, Tcl_GetRegExpFromObj, Tcl_RegExpMatchObj, Tcl_RegExpExecObj, Tcl_RegExpGetInfo \- Pattern matching with regular expressions
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
long as the internal representation of \fIpatObj\fR refers to the
compiled form.  The \fIeflags\fR argument is a bit-wise OR of
zero or more of the following flags that control the compilation of
\fIpatObj\fR:
.RS 2
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_ADVANCED\fR
Compile advanced regular expressions
.PQ ARE s .
This mode corresponds to the normal regular expression syntax accepted by the
Tcl \fBregexp\fR and \fBregsub\fR commands.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_EXTENDED\fR
Compile extended regular expressions
.PQ ERE s .
This mode corresponds to the regular expression syntax recognized by Tcl 8.0
and earlier versions. 
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_BASIC\fR
Compile basic regular expressions
.PQ BRE s .
This mode corresponds to the regular expression syntax recognized by common
Unix utilities like \fBsed\fR and \fBgrep\fR.  This is the default if no flags
are specified.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_EXPANDED\fR
Compile the regular expression (basic, extended, or advanced) using an
expanded syntax that allows comments and whitespace.  This mode causes
non-backslashed non-bracket-expression white
space and #-to-end-of-line comments to be ignored.
.TP
................................................................................
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NOCASE\fR
Compile for matching that ignores upper/lower case distinctions.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NEWLINE\fR
Compile for newline-sensitive matching.  By default, newline is a
completely ordinary character with no special meaning in either
regular expressions or strings.  With this flag,
.QW [^
bracket expressions and
.QW .
never match newline,
.QW ^
matches an empty string
after any newline in addition to its normal function, and
.QW $
matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal
function. \fBREG_NEWLINE\fR is the bit-wise OR of \fBREG_NLSTOP\fR and
\fBREG_NLANCH\fR.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NLSTOP\fR
Compile for partial newline-sensitive matching, with the behavior of
.QW [^
bracket expressions and
.QW .
affected, but not the behavior of
.QW ^
and
.QW $ .
In this mode,
.QW [^
bracket expressions and
.QW .

never match newline.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NLANCH\fR
Compile for inverse partial newline-sensitive matching, with the behavior of
.QW ^
and
.QW $
(the
.QW anchors )

affected, but not the behavior of
.QW [^
bracket expressions and
.QW . .
In this mode
.QW ^
matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal function,
and
.QW $
matches an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NOSUB\fR
Compile for matching that reports only success or failure,
not what was matched.  This reduces compile overhead and may improve
performance.  Subsequent calls to \fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR or
\fBTcl_RegExpRange\fR will not report any match information.
.TP
................................................................................
offset value.  Instead the behavior of the anchors is explicitly
controlled by the \fIeflags\fR argument, which is a bit-wise OR of
zero or more of the following flags:
.RS 2
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NOTBOL\fR
The starting character will not be treated as the beginning of a
line or the beginning of the string, so
.QW ^
will not match there. Note that this flag has no effect on how
.QW \fB\eA\fR
matches.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NOTEOL\fR
The last character in the string will not be treated as the end of a
line or the end of the string, so
.QW $
will not match there. Note that this flag has no effect on how
.QW \fB\eZ\fR
matches.
.RE
.PP
\fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR retrieves information about the last match
performed with a given regular expression \fIregexp\fR.  The
\fIinfoPtr\fR argument contains a pointer to a structure that is
defined as follows:
.PP






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'\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: RegExp.3,v 1.25 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_RegExpMatch 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_RegExpMatch, Tcl_RegExpCompile, Tcl_RegExpExec, Tcl_RegExpRange, Tcl_GetRegExpFromObj, Tcl_RegExpMatchObj, Tcl_RegExpExecObj, Tcl_RegExpGetInfo \- Pattern matching with regular expressions
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
long as the internal representation of \fIpatObj\fR refers to the
compiled form.  The \fIeflags\fR argument is a bit-wise OR of
zero or more of the following flags that control the compilation of
\fIpatObj\fR:
.RS 2
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_ADVANCED\fR
Compile advanced regular expressions (`AREs').  This mode corresponds to

the normal regular expression syntax accepted by the Tcl \fBregexp\fR and
\fBregsub\fR commands.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_EXTENDED\fR
Compile extended regular expressions (`EREs').  This mode corresponds

to the regular expression syntax recognized by Tcl 8.0 and earlier
versions. 
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_BASIC\fR
Compile basic regular expressions (`BREs').  This mode corresponds

to the regular expression syntax recognized by common Unix utilities
like \fBsed\fR and \fBgrep\fR.  This is the default if no flags are
specified.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_EXPANDED\fR
Compile the regular expression (basic, extended, or advanced) using an
expanded syntax that allows comments and whitespace.  This mode causes
non-backslashed non-bracket-expression white
space and #-to-end-of-line comments to be ignored.
.TP
................................................................................
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NOCASE\fR
Compile for matching that ignores upper/lower case distinctions.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NEWLINE\fR
Compile for newline-sensitive matching.  By default, newline is a
completely ordinary character with no special meaning in either
regular expressions or strings.  With this flag, `[^' bracket





expressions and `.' never match newline, `^' matches an empty string
after any newline in addition to its normal function, and `$' matches

an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function.
\fBREG_NEWLINE\fR is the bit-wise OR of \fBREG_NLSTOP\fR and
\fBREG_NLANCH\fR.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NLSTOP\fR
Compile for partial newline-sensitive matching,



with the behavior of





`[^' bracket expressions and `.' affected,

but not the behavior of `^' and `$'.  In this mode, `[^' bracket
expressions and `.' never match newline.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NLANCH\fR
Compile for inverse partial newline-sensitive matching,





with the behavior
of `^' and `$' (the ``anchors'') affected, but not the behavior of

`[^' bracket expressions and `.'.  In this mode `^' matches an empty string



after any newline in addition to its normal function, and `$' matches


an empty string before any newline in addition to its normal function.
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NOSUB\fR
Compile for matching that reports only success or failure,
not what was matched.  This reduces compile overhead and may improve
performance.  Subsequent calls to \fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR or
\fBTcl_RegExpRange\fR will not report any match information.
.TP
................................................................................
offset value.  Instead the behavior of the anchors is explicitly
controlled by the \fIeflags\fR argument, which is a bit-wise OR of
zero or more of the following flags:
.RS 2
.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NOTBOL\fR
The starting character will not be treated as the beginning of a
line or the beginning of the string, so `^' will not match there.

Note that this flag has no effect on how `\fB\eA\fR' matches.


.TP
\fBTCL_REG_NOTEOL\fR
The last character in the string will not be treated as the end of a
line or the end of the string, so '$' will not match there.

Note that this flag has no effect on how `\fB\eZ\fR' matches.


.RE
.PP
\fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR retrieves information about the last match
performed with a given regular expression \fIregexp\fR.  The
\fIinfoPtr\fR argument contains a pointer to a structure that is
defined as follows:
.PP

Changes to doc/SetResult.3.

1
2
3
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SetResult.3,v 1.15 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_SetResult 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SetObjResult, Tcl_GetObjResult, Tcl_SetResult, Tcl_GetStringResult, Tcl_AppendResult, Tcl_AppendResultVA, Tcl_AppendElement, Tcl_ResetResult, Tcl_FreeResult \- manipulate Tcl result
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fIelement\fR will be extracted as a single element.
Under normal conditions, \fBTcl_AppendElement\fR will add a space
character to \fIinterp\fR's result just before adding the new
list element, so that the list elements in the result are properly
separated.
However if the new list element is the first in a list or sub-list
(i.e. \fIinterp\fR's current result is empty, or consists of the
single character
.QW { ,
or ends in the characters
.QW " {" )
then no space is added.
.PP
\fBTcl_FreeResult\fR performs part of the work
of \fBTcl_ResetResult\fR.
It frees up the memory associated with \fIinterp\fR's result.
It also sets \fIinterp->freeProc\fR to zero, but doesn't
change \fIinterp->result\fR or clear error state.
\fBTcl_FreeResult\fR is most commonly used when a procedure






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SetResult.3,v 1.16 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_SetResult 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SetObjResult, Tcl_GetObjResult, Tcl_SetResult, Tcl_GetStringResult, Tcl_AppendResult, Tcl_AppendResultVA, Tcl_AppendElement, Tcl_ResetResult, Tcl_FreeResult \- manipulate Tcl result
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fIelement\fR will be extracted as a single element.
Under normal conditions, \fBTcl_AppendElement\fR will add a space
character to \fIinterp\fR's result just before adding the new
list element, so that the list elements in the result are properly
separated.
However if the new list element is the first in a list or sub-list
(i.e. \fIinterp\fR's current result is empty, or consists of the


single character ``{'', or ends in the characters `` {'') then no

space is added.
.PP
\fBTcl_FreeResult\fR performs part of the work
of \fBTcl_ResetResult\fR.
It frees up the memory associated with \fIinterp\fR's result.
It also sets \fIinterp->freeProc\fR to zero, but doesn't
change \fIinterp->result\fR or clear error state.
\fBTcl_FreeResult\fR is most commonly used when a procedure

Changes to doc/SetVar.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SetVar.3,v 1.13 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_SetVar 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SetVar2Ex, Tcl_SetVar, Tcl_SetVar2, Tcl_ObjSetVar2, Tcl_GetVar2Ex, Tcl_GetVar, Tcl_GetVar2, Tcl_ObjGetVar2, Tcl_UnsetVar, Tcl_UnsetVar2 \- manipulate Tcl variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.TP
\fBTCL_LIST_ELEMENT\fR
If this bit is set, then \fInewValue\fR is converted to a valid
Tcl list element before setting (or appending to) the variable.
A separator space is appended before the new list element unless
the list element is going to be the first element in a list or
sublist (i.e. the variable's current value is empty, or contains
the single character
.QW { ,
or ends in
.QW " }" ).
When appending, the original value of the variable must also be
a valid list, so that the operation is the appending of a new
list element onto a list.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetVar\fR and \fBTcl_GetVar2\fR
return the current value of a variable.
The arguments to these procedures are treated in the same way






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SetVar.3,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_SetVar 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SetVar2Ex, Tcl_SetVar, Tcl_SetVar2, Tcl_ObjSetVar2, Tcl_GetVar2Ex, Tcl_GetVar, Tcl_GetVar2, Tcl_ObjGetVar2, Tcl_UnsetVar, Tcl_UnsetVar2 \- manipulate Tcl variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.TP
\fBTCL_LIST_ELEMENT\fR
If this bit is set, then \fInewValue\fR is converted to a valid
Tcl list element before setting (or appending to) the variable.
A separator space is appended before the new list element unless
the list element is going to be the first element in a list or
sublist (i.e. the variable's current value is empty, or contains
the single character ``{'', or ends in `` }'').



When appending, the original value of the variable must also be
a valid list, so that the operation is the appending of a new
list element onto a list.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetVar\fR and \fBTcl_GetVar2\fR
return the current value of a variable.
The arguments to these procedures are treated in the same way

Changes to doc/SplitList.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SplitList.3,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_SplitList 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SplitList, Tcl_Merge, Tcl_ScanElement, Tcl_ConvertElement, Tcl_ScanCountedElement, Tcl_ConvertCountedElement \- manipulate Tcl lists
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
used to generate a portion of an argument for a Tcl command.
In this case, surrounding \fIsrc\fR with curly braces would cause
the command not to be parsed correctly.
.PP
.VS 8.5
By default, \fBTcl_ConvertElement\fR will use quoting in its output
to be sure the first character of an element is not the hash
character (i.e.
.QW # ).
This is to be sure the first element of any list
passed to \fBeval\fR is not mis-parsed as the beginning of a comment.
When a list element is not the first element of a list, this quoting
is not necessary.  When the caller can be sure that the element is
not the first element of a list, it can disable quoting of the leading
hash character by OR-ing the flag value returned by \fBTcl_ScanElement\fR
with \fBTCL_DONT_QUOTE_HASH\fR.
.VE 8.5






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SplitList.3,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_SplitList 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SplitList, Tcl_Merge, Tcl_ScanElement, Tcl_ConvertElement, Tcl_ScanCountedElement, Tcl_ConvertCountedElement \- manipulate Tcl lists
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
used to generate a portion of an argument for a Tcl command.
In this case, surrounding \fIsrc\fR with curly braces would cause
the command not to be parsed correctly.
.PP
.VS 8.5
By default, \fBTcl_ConvertElement\fR will use quoting in its output
to be sure the first character of an element is not the hash


character (``#'').  This is to be sure the first element of any list
passed to \fBeval\fR is not mis-parsed as the beginning of a comment.
When a list element is not the first element of a list, this quoting
is not necessary.  When the caller can be sure that the element is
not the first element of a list, it can disable quoting of the leading
hash character by OR-ing the flag value returned by \fBTcl_ScanElement\fR
with \fBTCL_DONT_QUOTE_HASH\fR.
.VE 8.5

Changes to doc/StdChannels.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 by ActiveState Corporation
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: StdChannels.3,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH "Standard Channels" 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_StandardChannels \- How the Tcl library deals with the standard channels
................................................................................
.PP
Standard channels are initialized by the Tcl library in three cases:
when explicitly requested, when implicitly required before returning
channel information, or when implicitly required during registration
of a new channel.
.PP
These cases differ in how they handle unavailable platform- specific
standard channels.  (A channel is not
.QW available
if it could not be successfully opened; for example, in a Tcl
application run as a Windows NT service.)
.TP
1)
A single standard channel is initialized when it is explicitly
specified in a call to \fBTcl_SetStdChannel\fR.  The states of the
other standard channels are unaffected.
.RS
.PP





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 by ActiveState Corporation
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: StdChannels.3,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH "Standard Channels" 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_StandardChannels \- How the Tcl library deals with the standard channels
................................................................................
.PP
Standard channels are initialized by the Tcl library in three cases:
when explicitly requested, when implicitly required before returning
channel information, or when implicitly required during registration
of a new channel.
.PP
These cases differ in how they handle unavailable platform- specific
standard channels.  (A channel is not ``available'' if it could not be

successfully opened; for example, in a Tcl application run as a
Windows NT service.)
.TP
1)
A single standard channel is initialized when it is explicitly
specified in a call to \fBTcl_SetStdChannel\fR.  The states of the
other standard channels are unaffected.
.RS
.PP

Changes to doc/StrMatch.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: StrMatch.3,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_StringMatch 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_StringMatch, Tcl_StringCaseMatch \- test whether a string matches a pattern
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This utility procedure determines whether a string matches
a given pattern.  If it does, then \fBTcl_StringMatch\fR returns
1.  Otherwise \fBTcl_StringMatch\fR returns 0.  The algorithm
used for matching is the same algorithm used in the
.QW "string match"
Tcl command and is similar to the algorithm used by the C-shell
for file name matching;  see the Tcl manual entry for details.
.PP
In \fBTcl_StringCaseMatch\fR, the algorithm is the same, but you have
the option to make the matching case-insensitive.  If you choose this
(by passing \fBnocase\fR as 1), then the string and pattern are
essentially matched in the lower case.

.SH KEYWORDS
match, pattern, string






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: StrMatch.3,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_StringMatch 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_StringMatch, Tcl_StringCaseMatch \- test whether a string matches a pattern
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This utility procedure determines whether a string matches
a given pattern.  If it does, then \fBTcl_StringMatch\fR returns
1.  Otherwise \fBTcl_StringMatch\fR returns 0.  The algorithm
used for matching is the same algorithm used in the ``string match''

Tcl command and is similar to the algorithm used by the C-shell
for file name matching;  see the Tcl manual entry for details.
.PP
In \fBTcl_StringCaseMatch\fR, the algorithm is the same, but you have
the option to make the matching case-insensitive.  If you choose this
(by passing \fBnocase\fR as 1), then the string and pattern are
essentially matched in the lower case.

.SH KEYWORDS
match, pattern, string

Changes to doc/SubstObj.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SubstObj.3,v 1.4 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_SubstObj 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SubstObj \- perform substitutions on Tcl objects
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.PP
When the \fBTCL_SUBST_VARIABLES\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR,
sequences that look like variable substitutions for Tcl commands are
replaced by the contents of the named variable.
.PP
When the \fBTCL_SUBST_COMMANDS\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR, sequences
that look like command substitutions for Tcl commands are replaced by
the result of evaluating that script.  Where an uncaught
.QW "continue exception"
occurs during the evaluation of a command substitution, an
empty string is substituted for the command.  Where an uncaught
.QW "break exception"
occurs during the evaluation of a command substitution, the
result of the whole substitution on \fIobjPtr\fR will be truncated at
the point immediately before the start of the command substitution,
and no characters will be added to the result or substitutions
performed after that point.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
subst(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
backslash substitution, command substitution, variable substitution





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: SubstObj.3,v 1.5 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_SubstObj 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SubstObj \- perform substitutions on Tcl objects
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.PP
When the \fBTCL_SUBST_VARIABLES\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR,
sequences that look like variable substitutions for Tcl commands are
replaced by the contents of the named variable.
.PP
When the \fBTCL_SUBST_COMMANDS\fR bit is set in \fIflags\fR, sequences
that look like command substitutions for Tcl commands are replaced by
the result of evaluating that script.  Where an uncaught `continue

exception' occurs during the evaluation of a command substitution, an
empty string is substituted for the command.  Where an uncaught `break

exception' occurs during the evaluation of a command substitution, the
result of the whole substitution on \fIobjPtr\fR will be truncated at
the point immediately before the start of the command substitution,
and no characters will be added to the result or substitutions
performed after that point.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
subst(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
backslash substitution, command substitution, variable substitution

Changes to doc/TCL_MEM_DEBUG.3.

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'\" 
'\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 Karl Lehenbauer and Mark Diekhans.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 by Scriptics Corporation.
'\" All rights reserved.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: TCL_MEM_DEBUG.3,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH TCL_MEM_DEBUG 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
TCL_MEM_DEBUG \- Compile-time flag to enable Tcl memory debugging
.BE
................................................................................
and the Tcl \fBmemory\fR command can be used to validate and examine
memory usage.

.SH "GUARD ZONES"
.PP
When memory debugging is enabled, whenever a call to \fBckalloc\fR is
made, slightly more memory than requested is allocated so the memory debugging
code can keep track of the allocated memory, and eight-byte
.QW "guard zones"
are placed in front of and behind the space that will be
returned to the caller.  (The sizes of the guard zones are defined by the
C #define \fBLOW_GUARD_SIZE\fR and #define \fBHIGH_GUARD_SIZE\fR
in the file \fIgeneric/tclCkalloc.c\fR -- it can
be extended if you suspect large overwrite problems, at some cost in
performance.)  A known pattern is written into the guard zones and, on
a call to \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones of the space being freed are
checked to see if either zone has been modified in any way.  If one
has been, the guard bytes and their new contents are identified, and a
.QW "low guard failed"
or
.QW "high guard failed"
message is issued.  The
.QW "guard failed"
message includes the address of the memory packet and
the file name and line number of the code that called \fBckfree\fR.
This allows you to detect the common sorts of one-off problems, where
not enough space was allocated to contain the data written, for
example.

.SH "DEBUGGING DIFFICULT MEMORY CORRUPTION PROBLEMS"
.PP




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'\" 
'\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 Karl Lehenbauer and Mark Diekhans.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 by Scriptics Corporation.
'\" All rights reserved.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: TCL_MEM_DEBUG.3,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH TCL_MEM_DEBUG 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
TCL_MEM_DEBUG \- Compile-time flag to enable Tcl memory debugging
.BE
................................................................................
and the Tcl \fBmemory\fR command can be used to validate and examine
memory usage.

.SH "GUARD ZONES"
.PP
When memory debugging is enabled, whenever a call to \fBckalloc\fR is
made, slightly more memory than requested is allocated so the memory debugging
code can keep track of the allocated memory, and eight-byte ``guard

zones'' are placed in front of and behind the space that will be
returned to the caller.  (The sizes of the guard zones are defined by the
C #define \fBLOW_GUARD_SIZE\fR and #define \fBHIGH_GUARD_SIZE\fR
in the file \fIgeneric/tclCkalloc.c\fR -- it can
be extended if you suspect large overwrite problems, at some cost in
performance.)  A known pattern is written into the guard zones and, on
a call to \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones of the space being freed are
checked to see if either zone has been modified in any way.  If one
has been, the guard bytes and their new contents are identified, and a



``low guard failed'' or ``high guard failed'' message is issued.  The

``guard failed'' message includes the address of the memory packet and
the file name and line number of the code that called \fBckfree\fR.
This allows you to detect the common sorts of one-off problems, where
not enough space was allocated to contain the data written, for
example.

.SH "DEBUGGING DIFFICULT MEMORY CORRUPTION PROBLEMS"
.PP

Changes to doc/Tcl.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Tcl.n,v 1.15 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\"
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl n "8.5" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl \- Tool Command Language
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
in any way it likes, such as an integer, variable name, list,
or Tcl script.
Different commands interpret their words differently.
.IP "[3] \fBWords.\fR"
Words of a command are separated by white space (except for
newlines, which are command separators).
.IP "[4] \fBDouble quotes.\fR"
If the first character of a word is double-quote
.PQ \N'34'
then the word is terminated by the next double-quote character.
If semi-colons, close brackets, or white space characters
(including newlines) appear between the quotes then they are treated
as ordinary characters and included in the word.
Command substitution, variable substitution, and backslash substitution
are performed on the characters between the quotes as described below.
The double-quotes are not retained as part of the word.
.VS 8.5 br
.IP "[5] \fBArgument expansion.\fR"
If a word starts with the string
.QW {*}
followed by a non-whitespace character, then the leading
.QW {*}
is removed and the rest of the word is parsed and substituted as any
other word. After substitution, the word is parsed again without
substitutions, and its words are added to the command being
substituted. For instance,
.QW "cmd a {*}{b c} d {*}{e f}"
is equivalent to
.QW "cmd a b c d e f" . 
.VE 8.5
.IP "[6] \fBBraces.\fR"
If the first character of a word is an open brace
.PQ {
and rule [5] does not apply, then
the word is terminated by the matching close brace
.PQ } "" .
Braces nest within the word: for each additional open
brace there must be an additional close brace (however,
if an open brace or close brace within the word is
quoted with a backslash then it is not counted in locating the
matching close brace).
No substitutions are performed on the characters between the
braces except for backslash-newline substitutions described
below, nor do semi-colons, newlines, close brackets,
or white space receive any special interpretation.
The word will consist of exactly the characters between the
outer braces, not including the braces themselves.
.IP "[7] \fBCommand substitution.\fR"
If a word contains an open bracket
.PQ [
then Tcl performs \fIcommand substitution\fR.
To do this it invokes the Tcl interpreter recursively to process
the characters following the open bracket as a Tcl script.
The script may contain any number of commands and must be terminated
by a close bracket
.PQ ] "" .
The result of the script (i.e. the result of its last command) is
substituted into the word in place of the brackets and all of the
characters between them.
There may be any number of command substitutions in a single word.
Command substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces.
.IP "[8] \fBVariable substitution.\fR"
If a word contains a dollar-sign
.PQ $
followed by one of the forms described below, then Tcl performs \fIvariable
substitution\fR:  the dollar-sign and the following characters are
replaced in the word by the value of a variable.
Variable substitution may take any of the following forms:
.RS
.TP 15
\fB$\fIname\fR
\fIName\fR is the name of a scalar variable;  the name is a sequence
................................................................................
\fIName\fR is the name of a scalar variable.  It may contain any
characters whatsoever except for close braces.
.LP
There may be any number of variable substitutions in a single word.
Variable substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces.
.RE
.IP "[9] \fBBackslash substitution.\fR"
If a backslash
.PQ \e
appears within a word then \fIbackslash substitution\fR occurs.
In all cases but those described below the backslash is dropped and
the following character is treated as an ordinary
character and included in the word.
This allows characters such as double quotes, close brackets,
and dollar signs to be included in words without triggering
special processing.
The following table lists the backslash sequences that are
................................................................................
and tabs after the newline.  This backslash sequence is unique in that it
is replaced in a separate pre-pass before the command is actually parsed.
This means that it will be replaced even when it occurs between braces,
and the resulting space will be treated as a word separator if it isn't
in braces or quotes.
.TP 7
\e\e
Backslash
.PQ \e "" .
.TP 7
\e\fIooo\fR 
.
The digits \fIooo\fR (one, two, or three of them) give an eight-bit octal 
value for the Unicode character that will be inserted.  The upper bits of the
Unicode character will be 0.
.TP 7
................................................................................
sixteen-bit hexadecimal value for the Unicode character that will be
inserted.
.LP
Backslash substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces,
except for backslash-newline as described above.
.RE
.IP "[10] \fBComments.\fR"
If a hash character
.PQ #
appears at a point where Tcl is
expecting the first character of the first word of a command,
then the hash character and the characters that follow it, up
through the next newline, are treated as a comment and ignored.
The comment character only has significance when it appears
at the beginning of a command.
.IP "[11] \fBOrder of substitution.\fR"
Each character is processed exactly once by the Tcl interpreter






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Tcl.n,v 1.16 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\"
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl n "8.5" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl \- Tool Command Language
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
in any way it likes, such as an integer, variable name, list,
or Tcl script.
Different commands interpret their words differently.
.IP "[3] \fBWords.\fR"
Words of a command are separated by white space (except for
newlines, which are command separators).
.IP "[4] \fBDouble quotes.\fR"
If the first character of a word is double-quote (``"'') then

the word is terminated by the next double-quote character.
If semi-colons, close brackets, or white space characters
(including newlines) appear between the quotes then they are treated
as ordinary characters and included in the word.
Command substitution, variable substitution, and backslash substitution
are performed on the characters between the quotes as described below.
The double-quotes are not retained as part of the word.
.VS 8.5 br
.IP "[5] \fBArgument expansion.\fR"
If a word starts with the string ``{*}'' followed by a 

non-whitespace character, then the leading ``{*}'' is removed

and the rest of the word is parsed and substituted as any other  
word. After substitution, the word is parsed again without
substitutions, and its words are added to the command being
substituted. For instance, ``cmd a {*}{b c} d {*}{e f}'' is


equivalent to ``cmd a b c d e f''. 
.VE 8.5
.IP "[6] \fBBraces.\fR"
If the first character of a word is an open brace (``{'') and

rule [5] does not apply, then
the word is terminated by the matching close brace (``}'').

Braces nest within the word: for each additional open
brace there must be an additional close brace (however,
if an open brace or close brace within the word is
quoted with a backslash then it is not counted in locating the
matching close brace).
No substitutions are performed on the characters between the
braces except for backslash-newline substitutions described
below, nor do semi-colons, newlines, close brackets,
or white space receive any special interpretation.
The word will consist of exactly the characters between the
outer braces, not including the braces themselves.
.IP "[7] \fBCommand substitution.\fR"
If a word contains an open bracket (``['') then Tcl performs

\fIcommand substitution\fR.
To do this it invokes the Tcl interpreter recursively to process
the characters following the open bracket as a Tcl script.
The script may contain any number of commands and must be terminated
by a close bracket (``]'').

The result of the script (i.e. the result of its last command) is
substituted into the word in place of the brackets and all of the
characters between them.
There may be any number of command substitutions in a single word.
Command substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces.
.IP "[8] \fBVariable substitution.\fR"
If a word contains a dollar-sign (``$'') followed by one of the forms

described below, then Tcl performs \fIvariable
substitution\fR:  the dollar-sign and the following characters are
replaced in the word by the value of a variable.
Variable substitution may take any of the following forms:
.RS
.TP 15
\fB$\fIname\fR
\fIName\fR is the name of a scalar variable;  the name is a sequence
................................................................................
\fIName\fR is the name of a scalar variable.  It may contain any
characters whatsoever except for close braces.
.LP
There may be any number of variable substitutions in a single word.
Variable substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces.
.RE
.IP "[9] \fBBackslash substitution.\fR"
If a backslash (``\e'') appears within a word then

\fIbackslash substitution\fR occurs.
In all cases but those described below the backslash is dropped and
the following character is treated as an ordinary
character and included in the word.
This allows characters such as double quotes, close brackets,
and dollar signs to be included in words without triggering
special processing.
The following table lists the backslash sequences that are
................................................................................
and tabs after the newline.  This backslash sequence is unique in that it
is replaced in a separate pre-pass before the command is actually parsed.
This means that it will be replaced even when it occurs between braces,
and the resulting space will be treated as a word separator if it isn't
in braces or quotes.
.TP 7
\e\e
Backslash (``\e'').

.TP 7
\e\fIooo\fR 
.
The digits \fIooo\fR (one, two, or three of them) give an eight-bit octal 
value for the Unicode character that will be inserted.  The upper bits of the
Unicode character will be 0.
.TP 7
................................................................................
sixteen-bit hexadecimal value for the Unicode character that will be
inserted.
.LP
Backslash substitution is not performed on words enclosed in braces,
except for backslash-newline as described above.
.RE
.IP "[10] \fBComments.\fR"


If a hash character (``#'') appears at a point where Tcl is
expecting the first character of the first word of a command,
then the hash character and the characters that follow it, up
through the next newline, are treated as a comment and ignored.
The comment character only has significance when it appears
at the beginning of a command.
.IP "[11] \fBOrder of substitution.\fR"
Each character is processed exactly once by the Tcl interpreter

Changes to doc/Tcl_Main.3.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Tcl_Main.3,v 1.12 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_Main 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_Main, Tcl_SetMainLoop \- main program and event loop definition for Tcl-based applications
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.AP Tcl_MainLoopProc *mainLoopProc in
Address of an application-specific event loop procedure.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_Main\fR can serve as the main program for Tcl-based shell
applications.  A
.QW "shell application"
is a program like tclsh or wish that supports both interactive interpretation
of Tcl and evaluation of a script contained in a file given as
a command line argument.  \fBTcl_Main\fR is offered as a convenience
to developers of shell applications, so they do not have to 
reproduce all of the code for proper initialization of the Tcl
library and interactive shell operation.  Other styles of embedding
Tcl in an application are not supported by \fBTcl_Main\fR.  Those
must be achieved by calling lower level functions in the Tcl library
................................................................................
.PP
In either mode, \fBTcl_Main\fR will define in its master interpreter
the Tcl variables \fIargc\fR, \fIargv\fR, \fIargv0\fR, and
\fItcl_interactive\fR, as described in the documentation for \fBtclsh\fR.
.PP
When it has finished its own initialization, but before it processes
commands, \fBTcl_Main\fR calls the procedure given by the
\fIappInitProc\fR argument.  This procedure provides a
.QW hook
for the application to perform its own initialization of the interpreter
created by \fBTcl_Main\fR, such as defining application-specific
commands.  The procedure must have an interface that matches the
type \fBTcl_AppInitProc\fR:
.CS
typedef int Tcl_AppInitProc(Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE







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'\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Tcl_Main.3,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_Main 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_Main, Tcl_SetMainLoop \- main program and event loop definition for Tcl-based applications
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
.AP Tcl_MainLoopProc *mainLoopProc in
Address of an application-specific event loop procedure.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_Main\fR can serve as the main program for Tcl-based shell
applications.  A ``shell application'' is a program

like tclsh or wish that supports both interactive interpretation
of Tcl and evaluation of a script contained in a file given as
a command line argument.  \fBTcl_Main\fR is offered as a convenience
to developers of shell applications, so they do not have to 
reproduce all of the code for proper initialization of the Tcl
library and interactive shell operation.  Other styles of embedding
Tcl in an application are not supported by \fBTcl_Main\fR.  Those
must be achieved by calling lower level functions in the Tcl library
................................................................................
.PP
In either mode, \fBTcl_Main\fR will define in its master interpreter
the Tcl variables \fIargc\fR, \fIargv\fR, \fIargv0\fR, and
\fItcl_interactive\fR, as described in the documentation for \fBtclsh\fR.
.PP
When it has finished its own initialization, but before it processes
commands, \fBTcl_Main\fR calls the procedure given by the
\fIappInitProc\fR argument.  This procedure provides a ``hook'' for

the application to perform its own initialization of the interpreter
created by \fBTcl_Main\fR, such as defining application-specific
commands.  The procedure must have an interface that matches the
type \fBTcl_AppInitProc\fR:
.CS
typedef int Tcl_AppInitProc(Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE

Changes to doc/TraceVar.3.

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2
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: TraceVar.3,v 1.16 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_TraceVar 3 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_TraceVar, Tcl_TraceVar2, Tcl_UntraceVar, Tcl_UntraceVar2, Tcl_VarTraceInfo, Tcl_VarTraceInfo2 \- monitor accesses to a variable
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................

.SH "UNDEFINED VARIABLES"
.PP
It is legal to set a trace on an undefined variable.
The variable will still appear to be undefined until the
first time its value is set.
If an undefined variable is traced and then unset, the unset will fail
with an error,
.QW "no such variable" ,
but the trace procedure will still be invoked.

.SH "TCL_TRACE_DESTROYED FLAG"
.PP
In an unset callback to \fIproc\fR, the \fBTCL_TRACE_DESTROYED\fR bit
is set in \fIflags\fR if the trace is being removed as part
of the deletion.
Traces on a variable are always removed whenever the variable






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: TraceVar.3,v 1.17 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_TraceVar 3 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_TraceVar, Tcl_TraceVar2, Tcl_UntraceVar, Tcl_UntraceVar2, Tcl_VarTraceInfo, Tcl_VarTraceInfo2 \- monitor accesses to a variable
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................

.SH "UNDEFINED VARIABLES"
.PP
It is legal to set a trace on an undefined variable.
The variable will still appear to be undefined until the
first time its value is set.
If an undefined variable is traced and then unset, the unset will fail

with an error (``no such variable''), but the trace
procedure will still be invoked.

.SH "TCL_TRACE_DESTROYED FLAG"
.PP
In an unset callback to \fIproc\fR, the \fBTCL_TRACE_DESTROYED\fR bit
is set in \fIflags\fR if the trace is being removed as part
of the deletion.
Traces on a variable are always removed whenever the variable

Changes to doc/Translate.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Translate.3,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_TranslateFileName 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_TranslateFileName \- convert file name to native form and replace tilde with home directory
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
char *
\fBTcl_TranslateFileName\fR(\fIinterp\fR, \fIname\fR, \fIbufferPtr\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_DString *bufferPtr in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to report an error, if any.
.AP "const char" *name in
File name, which may start with a
.QW ~ .
.AP Tcl_DString *bufferPtr in/out
If needed, this dynamic string is used to store the new file name.
At the time of the call it should be uninitialized or free.  The
caller must eventually call \fBTcl_DStringFree\fR to free up
anything stored here.
.BE







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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1989-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: Translate.3,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_TranslateFileName 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_TranslateFileName \- convert file name to native form and replace tilde with home directory
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
char *
\fBTcl_TranslateFileName\fR(\fIinterp\fR, \fIname\fR, \fIbufferPtr\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_DString *bufferPtr in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to report an error, if any.
.AP "const char" *name in
File name, which may start with a ``~''.

.AP Tcl_DString *bufferPtr in/out
If needed, this dynamic string is used to store the new file name.
At the time of the call it should be uninitialized or free.  The
caller must eventually call \fBTcl_DStringFree\fR to free up
anything stored here.
.BE

Changes to doc/WrongNumArgs.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: WrongNumArgs.3,v 1.9 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_WrongNumArgs 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_WrongNumArgs \- generate standard error message for wrong number of arguments
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fBTcl_WrongNumArgs\fR is a utility procedure that is invoked by
command procedures when they discover that they have received the
wrong number of arguments.  \fBTcl_WrongNumArgs\fR generates a
standard error message and stores it in the result object of
\fIinterp\fR.  The message includes the \fIobjc\fR initial
elements of \fIobjv\fR plus \fImessage\fR.  For example, if
\fIobjv\fR consists of the values \fBfoo\fR and \fBbar\fR,
\fIobjc\fR is 1, and \fImessage\fR is
.QW "\fBfileName count\fR"
then \fIinterp\fR's result object will be set to the following
string:
.CS
wrong # args: should be "foo fileName count"
.CE
If \fIobjc\fR is 2, the result will be set to the following string:
.CS





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: WrongNumArgs.3,v 1.10 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH Tcl_WrongNumArgs 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_WrongNumArgs \- generate standard error message for wrong number of arguments
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fBTcl_WrongNumArgs\fR is a utility procedure that is invoked by
command procedures when they discover that they have received the
wrong number of arguments.  \fBTcl_WrongNumArgs\fR generates a
standard error message and stores it in the result object of
\fIinterp\fR.  The message includes the \fIobjc\fR initial
elements of \fIobjv\fR plus \fImessage\fR.  For example, if
\fIobjv\fR consists of the values \fBfoo\fR and \fBbar\fR,
\fIobjc\fR is 1, and \fImessage\fR is ``\fBfileName count\fR''

then \fIinterp\fR's result object will be set to the following
string:
.CS
wrong # args: should be "foo fileName count"
.CE
If \fIobjc\fR is 2, the result will be set to the following string:
.CS

Changes to doc/after.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1990-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: after.n,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH after n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
after \- Execute a command after a time delay
................................................................................
proc doOneStep {} {
   if {[::my_calc::one_step]} {
      \fBafter idle\fR [list \fBafter\fR 0 doOneStep]
   }
}
doOneStep
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
concat(n), interp(n), update(n), vwait(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
cancel, delay, idle callback, sleep, time






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>


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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1990-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: after.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH after n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
after \- Execute a command after a time delay
................................................................................
proc doOneStep {} {
   if {[::my_calc::one_step]} {
      \fBafter idle\fR [list \fBafter\fR 0 doOneStep]
   }
}
doOneStep
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
concat(n), interp(n), update(n), vwait(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
cancel, delay, idle callback, sleep, time

Changes to doc/append.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: append.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH append n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
append \- Append to variable
................................................................................
of variable \fIvarName\fR.  If \fIvarName\fR doesn't exist,
it is given a value equal to the concatenation of all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments.
The result of this command is the new value stored in variable
\fIvarName\fR.
This command provides an efficient way to build up long
variables incrementally.
For example,
.QW "\fBappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
.QW "\fBset a $a$b\fR" ,
especially when \fB$a\fR is long.
.SH EXAMPLE
Building a string of comma-separated numbers piecemeal using a loop.
.CS
set var 0
for {set i 1} {$i<=10} {incr i} {
   \fBappend\fR var "," $i
}
puts $var
# Prints 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
concat(n), lappend(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
append, variable






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: append.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH append n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
append \- Append to variable
................................................................................
of variable \fIvarName\fR.  If \fIvarName\fR doesn't exist,
it is given a value equal to the concatenation of all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments.
The result of this command is the new value stored in variable
\fIvarName\fR.
This command provides an efficient way to build up long
variables incrementally.


For example, ``\fBappend a $b\fR'' is much more efficient than
``\fBset a $a$b\fR'' if \fB$a\fR is long.

.SH EXAMPLE
Building a string of comma-separated numbers piecemeal using a loop.
.CS
set var 0
for {set i 1} {$i<=10} {incr i} {
   \fBappend\fR var "," $i
}
puts $var
# Prints 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
concat(n), lappend(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
append, variable

Changes to doc/apply.n.

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the \fBvariable\fR command or the \fBupvar\fR command.
.PP
The invocation of \fBapply\fR adds a call frame to Tcl's evaluation stack
(the stack of frames accessed via \fBuplevel\fR). The execution of \fIbody\fR
proceeds in this call frame, in the namespace given by \fInamespace\fR or
in the global namespace if none was specified. If given, \fInamespace\fR is
interpreted relative to the global namespace even if its name does not start
with
.QW :: . 
.PP
The semantics of \fBapply\fR can also be described by:
.PP
.CS
proc apply {fun args} {
   set len [llength $fun]
   if {($len < 2) || ($len > 3)} {
................................................................................
   return -options $opt $res
}
.CE
.SH EXAMPLES
This shows how to make a simple general command that applies a transformation
to each element of a list.
.CS
.ta 2i
proc map {lambda list} {
   set result {}
   foreach $item $list {
      lappend result [\fBapply\fR $lambda $item]
   }
   return $result
}
map {x {return [string length $x]:$x}} {a bb ccc dddd}
	 \fB\(->\fI 1:a 2:bb 3:ccc 4:dddd\fR
map {x {expr {$x**2 + 3*$x - 2}}} {-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4}
	 \fB\(->\fI 2 -2 -4 -4 -2 2 8 16 26\fR
.CE
.PP
The \fBapply\fR command is also useful for defining callbacks for use in the
\fBtrace\fR command:
.CS
.ta 2i
set vbl "123abc"
trace add variable vbl write {\fBapply\fR {v1 v2 op} {
   upvar 1 $v1 v
   puts "updated variable to \e"$v\e""
}}
set vbl 123
	 \fB\(->\fI updated variable to "123"\fR
set vbl abc
	 \fB\(->\fI updated variable to "abc"\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
proc(n), uplevel(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
argument, procedure, anonymous function






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<



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<





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90

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the \fBvariable\fR command or the \fBupvar\fR command.
.PP
The invocation of \fBapply\fR adds a call frame to Tcl's evaluation stack
(the stack of frames accessed via \fBuplevel\fR). The execution of \fIbody\fR
proceeds in this call frame, in the namespace given by \fInamespace\fR or
in the global namespace if none was specified. If given, \fInamespace\fR is
interpreted relative to the global namespace even if its name does not start
with '::'. 

.PP
The semantics of \fBapply\fR can also be described by:
.PP
.CS
proc apply {fun args} {
   set len [llength $fun]
   if {($len < 2) || ($len > 3)} {
................................................................................
   return -options $opt $res
}
.CE
.SH EXAMPLES
This shows how to make a simple general command that applies a transformation
to each element of a list.
.CS

proc map {lambda list} {
   set result {}
   foreach $item $list {
      lappend result [\fBapply\fR $lambda $item]
   }
   return $result
}
map {x {return [string length $x]:$x}} {a bb ccc dddd}
      \fI=> 1:a 2:bb 3:ccc 4:dddd\fR
map {x {expr {$x**2 + 3*$x - 2}}} {-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4}
      \fI=> 2 -2 -4 -4 -2 2 8 16 26\fR
.CE
.PP
The \fBapply\fR command is also useful for defining callbacks for use in the
\fBtrace\fR command:
.CS

set vbl "123abc"
trace add variable vbl write {\fBapply\fR {v1 v2 op} {
   upvar 1 $v1 v
   puts "updated variable to \\"$v\\""
}}
set vbl 123

set vbl abc

.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
proc(n), uplevel(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
argument, procedure, anonymous function

Changes to doc/array.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: array.n,v 1.17 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH array n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
array \- Manipulate array variables
................................................................................
   blue  4
   white 9
}

foreach {color count} [\fBarray get\fR colorcount] {
   puts "Color: $color Count: $count"
}
  \(-> Color: blue Count: 4
    Color: white Count: 9
    Color: green Count: 5
    Color: red Count: 1

foreach color [\fBarray names\fR colorcount] {
   puts "Color: $color Count: $colorcount($color)"
}
  \(-> Color: blue Count: 4
    Color: white Count: 9
    Color: green Count: 5
    Color: red Count: 1

foreach color [lsort [\fBarray names\fR colorcount]] {
   puts "Color: $color Count: $colorcount($color)"
}
  \(-> Color: blue Count: 4
    Color: green Count: 5
    Color: red Count: 1
    Color: white Count: 9

\fBarray statistics\fR colorcount
  \(-> 4 entries in table, 4 buckets
    number of buckets with 0 entries: 1
    number of buckets with 1 entries: 2
    number of buckets with 2 entries: 1
    number of buckets with 3 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 4 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 5 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 6 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 7 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 8 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 9 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 10 or more entries: 0
    average search distance for entry: 1.2
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), string(n), variable(n), trace(n), foreach(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
array, element names, search






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>


>


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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: array.n,v 1.18 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH array n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
array \- Manipulate array variables
................................................................................
   blue  4
   white 9
}

foreach {color count} [\fBarray get\fR colorcount] {
   puts "Color: $color Count: $count"
}
 => Color: blue Count: 4
    Color: white Count: 9
    Color: green Count: 5
    Color: red Count: 1

foreach color [\fBarray names\fR colorcount] {
   puts "Color: $color Count: $colorcount($color)"
}
 => Color: blue Count: 4
    Color: white Count: 9
    Color: green Count: 5
    Color: red Count: 1

foreach color [lsort [\fBarray names\fR colorcount]] {
   puts "Color: $color Count: $colorcount($color)"
}
 => Color: blue Count: 4
    Color: green Count: 5
    Color: red Count: 1
    Color: white Count: 9

\fBarray statistics\fR colorcount
 => 4 entries in table, 4 buckets
    number of buckets with 0 entries: 1
    number of buckets with 1 entries: 2
    number of buckets with 2 entries: 1
    number of buckets with 3 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 4 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 5 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 6 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 7 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 8 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 9 entries: 0
    number of buckets with 10 or more entries: 0
    average search distance for entry: 1.2
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), string(n), variable(n), trace(n), foreach(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
array, element names, search

Changes to doc/bgerror.n.

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2
3
4
5
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9
10
11
12
13
14
15
..
82
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84
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89
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91
92
'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1990-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: bgerror.n,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH bgerror n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
bgerror \- Command invoked to process background errors
................................................................................
proc bgerror {message} {
    set timestamp [clock format [clock seconds]]
    set fl [open mylog.txt {WRONLY CREAT APPEND}]
    puts $fl "$timestamp: bgerror in $::argv '$message'"
    close $fl
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
after(n), interp(n), tclvars(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
background error, reporting






|







 







>


>


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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1990-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: bgerror.n,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH bgerror n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
bgerror \- Command invoked to process background errors
................................................................................
proc bgerror {message} {
    set timestamp [clock format [clock seconds]]
    set fl [open mylog.txt {WRONLY CREAT APPEND}]
    puts $fl "$timestamp: bgerror in $::argv '$message'"
    close $fl
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
after(n), interp(n), tclvars(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
background error, reporting

Changes to doc/binary.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: binary.n,v 1.31 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH binary n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
binary \- Insert and extract fields from binary strings
................................................................................
\fBbinary format\fR B5B* 11100 111000011010
.CE
will return a string equivalent to \fB\\xe0\\xe1\\xa0\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBh\fR 5
Stores a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in low-to-high
within each byte in the output string.  \fIArg\fR must contain a
sequence of characters in the set
.QW 0123456789abcdefABCDEF .
The resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the hex digits
being formatted in low-to-high order within each byte.  If \fIarg\fR
has fewer than \fIcount\fR digits, then zeros will be used for the
remaining digits.  If \fIarg\fR has more than the specified number of
digits, the extra digits will be ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is
\fB*\fR, then all of the digits in \fIarg\fR will be formatted.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one digit will be formatted.  If the
number of digits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the
................................................................................
\fIcount\fR is a non-negative decimal integer or \fB*\fR, which
normally indicates that all of the remaining items in the data are to
be used.  If there are not enough bytes left after the current cursor
position to satisfy the current field specifier, then the
corresponding variable is left untouched and \fBbinary scan\fR returns
immediately with the number of variables that were set.  If there are
not enough arguments for all of the fields in the format string that
consume arguments, then an error is generated. The flag character
.QW u
may be given to cause some types to be read as unsigned values. The flag
is accepted for all field types but is ignored for non-integer fields.
.PP
A similar example as with \fBbinary format\fR should explain the
relation between field specifiers and arguments in case of the binary
scan subcommand:
.CS
................................................................................
long data size values.  In doing this, values that have their high
bit set (0x80 for chars, 0x8000 for shorts, 0x80000000 for ints),
will be sign extended.  Thus the following will occur:
.CS
set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000]
\fBbinary scan\fR $signShort s1 val; \fI# val == 0xFFFF8000\fR
.CE
If you require unsigned values you can include the
.QW u
flag character following the field type. For example, to read an
unsigned short value:
.CS
set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000]
\fBbinary scan\fR $signShort su1 val; \fI# val == 0x00008000\fR
.CE
.PP
Each type-count pair moves an imaginary cursor through the binary data,
reading bytes from the current position.  The cursor is initially
................................................................................
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR "abc efghi  \\000" A* var1
.CE
will return \fB1\fR with \fBabc efghi\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBb\fR 5
The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR binary digits in
low-to-high order represented as a sequence of
.QW 1
and
.QW 0
characters.  The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with
the bits being taken in low-to-high order within each byte.  Any extra
bits in the last byte are ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then
all of the remaining bits in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one bit will be scanned.  For example,
.RS
.CS
................................................................................
.CE
will return \fB2\fR with \fB01110\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB1000011100000101\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBH\fR 5
The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in
high-to-low order represented as a sequence of characters in the set
.QW 0123456789abcdef .
The data bytes are scanned in first to last
order with the hex digits being taken in high-to-low order within each
byte. Any extra bits in the last byte are ignored. If \fIcount\fR is
\fB*\fR, then all of the remaining hex digits in \fIstring\fR will be
scanned. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one hex digit will be
scanned. For example,
.RS
.CS
................................................................................
    if {![\fBbinary scan\fR [read $channel 4] I length]} {
        error "missing length"
    }
    set data [read $channel $length]
    return [encoding convertfrom utf-8 $data]
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
format(n), scan(n), tclvars(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
binary, format, scan





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: binary.n,v 1.32 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH binary n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
binary \- Insert and extract fields from binary strings
................................................................................
\fBbinary format\fR B5B* 11100 111000011010
.CE
will return a string equivalent to \fB\\xe0\\xe1\\xa0\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBh\fR 5
Stores a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in low-to-high
within each byte in the output string.  \fIArg\fR must contain a
sequence of characters in the set ``0123456789abcdefABCDEF''.  The

resulting bytes are emitted in first to last order with the hex digits
being formatted in low-to-high order within each byte.  If \fIarg\fR
has fewer than \fIcount\fR digits, then zeros will be used for the
remaining digits.  If \fIarg\fR has more than the specified number of
digits, the extra digits will be ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is
\fB*\fR, then all of the digits in \fIarg\fR will be formatted.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one digit will be formatted.  If the
number of digits formatted does not end at a byte boundary, the
................................................................................
\fIcount\fR is a non-negative decimal integer or \fB*\fR, which
normally indicates that all of the remaining items in the data are to
be used.  If there are not enough bytes left after the current cursor
position to satisfy the current field specifier, then the
corresponding variable is left untouched and \fBbinary scan\fR returns
immediately with the number of variables that were set.  If there are
not enough arguments for all of the fields in the format string that
consume arguments, then an error is generated. The flag character 'u'

may be given to cause some types to be read as unsigned values. The flag
is accepted for all field types but is ignored for non-integer fields.
.PP
A similar example as with \fBbinary format\fR should explain the
relation between field specifiers and arguments in case of the binary
scan subcommand:
.CS
................................................................................
long data size values.  In doing this, values that have their high
bit set (0x80 for chars, 0x8000 for shorts, 0x80000000 for ints),
will be sign extended.  Thus the following will occur:
.CS
set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000]
\fBbinary scan\fR $signShort s1 val; \fI# val == 0xFFFF8000\fR
.CE
If you require unsigned values you can include the 'u' flag character following

the field type. For example, to read an unsigned short value:

.CS
set signShort [\fBbinary format\fR s1 0x8000]
\fBbinary scan\fR $signShort su1 val; \fI# val == 0x00008000\fR
.CE
.PP
Each type-count pair moves an imaginary cursor through the binary data,
reading bytes from the current position.  The cursor is initially
................................................................................
.CS
\fBbinary scan\fR "abc efghi  \\000" A* var1
.CE
will return \fB1\fR with \fBabc efghi\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBb\fR 5
The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR binary digits in
low-to-high order represented as a sequence of ``1'' and ``0''



characters.  The data bytes are scanned in first to last order with
the bits being taken in low-to-high order within each byte.  Any extra
bits in the last byte are ignored.  If \fIcount\fR is \fB*\fR, then
all of the remaining bits in \fIstring\fR will be scanned.  If
\fIcount\fR is omitted, then one bit will be scanned.  For example,
.RS
.CS
................................................................................
.CE
will return \fB2\fR with \fB01110\fR stored in \fIvar1\fR and
\fB1000011100000101\fR stored in \fIvar2\fR.
.RE
.IP \fBH\fR 5
The data is turned into a string of \fIcount\fR hexadecimal digits in
high-to-low order represented as a sequence of characters in the set

``0123456789abcdef''. The data bytes are scanned in first to last
order with the hex digits being taken in high-to-low order within each
byte. Any extra bits in the last byte are ignored. If \fIcount\fR is
\fB*\fR, then all of the remaining hex digits in \fIstring\fR will be
scanned. If \fIcount\fR is omitted, then one hex digit will be
scanned. For example,
.RS
.CS
................................................................................
    if {![\fBbinary scan\fR [read $channel 4] I length]} {
        error "missing length"
    }
    set data [read $channel $length]
    return [encoding convertfrom utf-8 $data]
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
format(n), scan(n), tclvars(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
binary, format, scan

Changes to doc/break.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: break.n,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH break n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
break \- Abort looping command
................................................................................
for {set x 0} {$x<10} {incr x} {
   if {$x > 5} {
      \fBbreak\fR
   }
   puts "x is $x"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
catch(n), continue(n), for(n), foreach(n), return(n), while(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
abort, break, loop






|







 







>


>


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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: break.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH break n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
break \- Abort looping command
................................................................................
for {set x 0} {$x<10} {incr x} {
   if {$x > 5} {
      \fBbreak\fR
   }
   puts "x is $x"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
catch(n), continue(n), for(n), foreach(n), return(n), while(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
abort, break, loop

Changes to doc/catch.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2003.  (not subject to US copyright)
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: catch.n,v 1.14 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH catch n "8.5" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
catch \- Evaluate script and trap exceptional returns
................................................................................
    puts stderr "Could not open $someFile for writing\\n$fid"
    exit 1
}
.CE
.PP
There are more complex examples of \fBcatch\fR usage in the
documentation for the \fBreturn\fR command.

.SH "SEE ALSO" 
break(n), continue(n), dict(n), error(n), return(n), tclvars(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
catch, error






|







 







>


>


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'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2003.  (not subject to US copyright)
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: catch.n,v 1.15 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH catch n "8.5" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
catch \- Evaluate script and trap exceptional returns
................................................................................
    puts stderr "Could not open $someFile for writing\\n$fid"
    exit 1
}
.CE
.PP
There are more complex examples of \fBcatch\fR usage in the
documentation for the \fBreturn\fR command.

.SH "SEE ALSO" 
break(n), continue(n), dict(n), error(n), return(n), tclvars(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
catch, error

Changes to doc/cd.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: cd.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH cd n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
cd \- Change working directory
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
Change to the directory \fBlib\fR that is a sibling directory of the
current one:
.CS
\fBcd\fR ../lib
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
filename(n), glob(n), pwd(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
working directory






|







 







>


>


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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: cd.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH cd n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
cd \- Change working directory
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
Change to the directory \fBlib\fR that is a sibling directory of the
current one:
.CS
\fBcd\fR ../lib
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
filename(n), glob(n), pwd(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
working directory

Changes to doc/chan.n.

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'\" 
'\" Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: chan.n,v 1.12 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
.so man.macros
.TH chan n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
chan \- Read, write and manipulate channels
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fInot\fR made.  If \fIinputChan\fR is closed, then all data already
queued for \fIoutputChan\fR is written out.
.PP
Note that \fIinputChan\fR can become readable during a background
copy.  You should turn off any \fBchan event\fR or \fBfileevent\fR
handlers during a background copy so those handlers do not interfere
with the copy.  Any I/O attempted by a \fBchan event\fR or
\fBfileevent\fR handler will get a
.QW "channel busy"
error.
.PP
\fBChan copy\fR translates end-of-line sequences in \fIinputChan\fR
and \fIoutputChan\fR according to the \fB\-translation\fR option for
these channels (see \fBchan configure\fR above).  The translations
mean that the number of bytes read from \fIinputChan\fR can be
different than the number of bytes written to \fIoutputChan\fR.  Only
the number of bytes written to \fIoutputChan\fR is reported, either as
................................................................................
returned as the result of the \fBchan create\fR command, and the
channel is open. Use either \fBclose\fR or \fBchan close\fR to remove
the channel.
.RS
.PP
The argument \fImode\fR specifies if the new channel is opened for
reading, writing, or both. It has to be a list containing any of the
strings
.QW "\fBread\fR"
or
.QW "\fBwrite\fR" .
The list must have at least one
element, as a channel you can neither write to nor read from makes no
sense. The handler command for the new channel must support the chosen
mode, or an error is thrown.
.PP
The command prefix is executed in the global namespace, at the top of
call stack, following the appending of arguments as described in the
\fBreflectedchan\fR manual page. Command resolution happens at the
................................................................................
writable.  File event handlers are most commonly used to allow data to
be received from another process on an event-driven basis, so that the
receiver can continue to interact with the user or with other channels
while waiting for the data to arrive.  If an application invokes
\fBchan gets\fR or \fBchan read\fR on a blocking channel when there is
no input data available, the process will block; until the input data
arrives, it will not be able to service other events, so it will
appear to the user to
.QW "freeze up" .
With \fBchan event\fR, the
process can tell when data is present and only invoke \fBchan gets\fR
or \fBchan read\fR when they won't block.
.PP
A channel is considered to be readable if there is unread data
available on the underlying device.  A channel is also considered to
be readable if there is unread data in an input buffer, except in the
special case where the most recent attempt to read from the channel
................................................................................
.
Produces a list of all channel names. If \fIpattern\fR is specified,
only those channel names that match it (according to the rules of
\fBstring match\fR) will be returned.
.TP
\fBchan pending \fImode channelId\fR
.
Depending on whether \fImode\fR is
.QW "input"
or
.QW "output" ,
returns the number of 
bytes of input or output (respectively) currently buffered 
internally for \fIchannelId\fR (especially useful in a readable event 
callback to impose application-specific limits on input line lengths to avoid
a potential denial-of-service attack where a hostile user crafts
an extremely long line that exceeds the available memory to buffer it).
Returns -1 if the channel was not opened for the mode in question.
.TP
\fBchan postevent \fIchannelId eventSpec\fR
.
This subcommand is used by command handlers specified with \fBchan
create\fR. It notifies the channel represented by the handle
\fIchannelId\fR that the event(s) listed in the \fIeventSpec\fR have
occurred. The argument has to be a list containing any of the strings
.QW "\fBread\fR"
and
.QW "\fBwrite\fR" .
The list must contain at least one
element as it does not make sense to invoke the command if there are
no events to post.
.RS
.PP
Note that this subcommand can only be used with channel handles that
were created/opened by \fBchan create\fR. All other channels will
cause this subcommand to report an error.





|







 







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'\" 
'\" Copyright (c) 2005-2006 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: chan.n,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
.so man.macros
.TH chan n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
chan \- Read, write and manipulate channels
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
\fInot\fR made.  If \fIinputChan\fR is closed, then all data already
queued for \fIoutputChan\fR is written out.
.PP
Note that \fIinputChan\fR can become readable during a background
copy.  You should turn off any \fBchan event\fR or \fBfileevent\fR
handlers during a background copy so those handlers do not interfere
with the copy.  Any I/O attempted by a \fBchan event\fR or
\fBfileevent\fR handler will get a "channel busy" error.


.PP
\fBChan copy\fR translates end-of-line sequences in \fIinputChan\fR
and \fIoutputChan\fR according to the \fB\-translation\fR option for
these channels (see \fBchan configure\fR above).  The translations
mean that the number of bytes read from \fIinputChan\fR can be
different than the number of bytes written to \fIoutputChan\fR.  Only
the number of bytes written to \fIoutputChan\fR is reported, either as
................................................................................
returned as the result of the \fBchan create\fR command, and the
channel is open. Use either \fBclose\fR or \fBchan close\fR to remove
the channel.
.RS
.PP
The argument \fImode\fR specifies if the new channel is opened for
reading, writing, or both. It has to be a list containing any of the




strings "\fBread\fR" or "\fBwrite\fR". The list must have at least one
element, as a channel you can neither write to nor read from makes no
sense. The handler command for the new channel must support the chosen
mode, or an error is thrown.
.PP
The command prefix is executed in the global namespace, at the top of
call stack, following the appending of arguments as described in the
\fBreflectedchan\fR manual page. Command resolution happens at the
................................................................................
writable.  File event handlers are most commonly used to allow data to
be received from another process on an event-driven basis, so that the
receiver can continue to interact with the user or with other channels
while waiting for the data to arrive.  If an application invokes
\fBchan gets\fR or \fBchan read\fR on a blocking channel when there is
no input data available, the process will block; until the input data
arrives, it will not be able to service other events, so it will


appear to the user to ``freeze up''.  With \fBchan event\fR, the
process can tell when data is present and only invoke \fBchan gets\fR
or \fBchan read\fR when they won't block.
.PP
A channel is considered to be readable if there is unread data
available on the underlying device.  A channel is also considered to
be readable if there is unread data in an input buffer, except in the
special case where the most recent attempt to read from the channel
................................................................................
.
Produces a list of all channel names. If \fIpattern\fR is specified,
only those channel names that match it (according to the rules of
\fBstring match\fR) will be returned.
.TP
\fBchan pending \fImode channelId\fR
.
Depending on whether \fImode\fR is "input" or "output", returns the number of 




bytes of input or output (respectively) currently buffered 
internally for \fIchannelId\fR (especially useful in a readable event 
callback to impose application-specific limits on input line lengths to avoid
a potential denial-of-service attack where a hostile user crafts
an extremely long line that exceeds the available memory to buffer it).
Returns -1 if the channel was not opened for the mode in question.
.TP
\fBchan postevent \fIchannelId eventSpec\fR
.
This subcommand is used by command handlers specified with \fBchan
create\fR. It notifies the channel represented by the handle
\fIchannelId\fR that the event(s) listed in the \fIeventSpec\fR have
occurred. The argument has to be a list containing any of the strings



"\fBread\fR" and "\fBwrite\fR". The list must contain at least one
element as it does not make sense to invoke the command if there are
no events to post.
.RS
.PP
Note that this subcommand can only be used with channel handles that
were created/opened by \fBchan create\fR. All other channels will
cause this subcommand to report an error.

Changes to doc/clock.n.

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.TH "clock" n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
clock \- Obtain and manipulate dates and times
.SH "SYNOPSIS"
package require \fBTcl 8.5\fR
.sp
\fBclock add\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fIcount unit...\fR? ?\fI\-option value\fR?
.sp
\fBclock clicks\fR ?\fI\-option\fR?
.sp
\fBclock format\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR...?
.sp
\fBclock microseconds\fR 
.sp
\fBclock milliseconds\fR 
.sp
\fBclock scan\fR \fIinputString\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR...?
.sp
\fBclock seconds\fR 
.sp
.BE
.SH "DESCRIPTION"
.PP
The \fBclock\fR command performs several operations that obtain and
manipulate values that represent times.  The command supports several
subcommands that determine what action is carried out by the command.
.TP
\fBclock add\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fIcount unit...\fR? ?\fI\-option value\fR?
Adds a (possibly negative) offset to a time that is expressed as an
integer number of seconds.  See \fBCLOCK ARITHMETIC\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock clicks\fR ?\fI\-option\fR?
If no \fI\-option\fR argument is supplied, returns a high-resolution
time value as a system-dependent integer value.  The unit of the value
is system-dependent but should be the highest resolution clock available
on the system such as a CPU cycle counter.  See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description.
.sp
If the \fI\-option\fR argument is \fI\-milliseconds\fR, then the command
is synonymous with \fBclock milliseconds\fR (see below).  This
usage is obsolete, and \fBclock milliseconds\fR is to be
considered the preferred way of obtaining a count of milliseconds.
.sp
If the \fI\-option\fR argument is \fI\-microseconds\fR, then the command
is synonymous with \fBclock microseconds\fR (see below).  This
usage is obsolete, and \fBclock microseconds\fR is to be
considered the preferred way of obtaining a count of microseconds.
.TP
\fBclock format\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR...?
Formats a time that is expressed as an integer number of seconds into a format
intended for consumption by users or external programs.
See \fBFORMATTING TIMES\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock microseconds\fR 
Returns the current time as an integer number of microseconds.  See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock milliseconds\fR 
Returns the current time as an integer number of milliseconds.  See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock scan\fR \fIinputString\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR...?
Scans a time that is expressed as a character string and produces an
integer number of seconds.
See \fBSCANNING TIMES\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock seconds\fR 
Returns the current time as an integer number of seconds.
.SS "PARAMETERS"
................................................................................
One of the words, \fBseconds\fR, \fBminutes\fR, \fBhours\fR,
\fBdays\fR, \fBweeks\fR, \fBmonths\fR, or \fByears\fR, or
any unique prefix of such a word. Used in conjunction with \fIcount\fR
to identify an interval of time, for example, \fI3 seconds\fR or
\fI1 year\fR.
.SS "OPTIONS"
.TP
\fB\-base\fR time
Specifies that any relative times present in a \fBclock scan\fR command
are to be given relative to \fItime\fR.  \fItime\fR must be expressed as
a count of nominal seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC.
.TP
\fB\-format\fR format
Specifies the desired output format for \fBclock format\fR or the
expected input format for \fBclock scan\fR.  The \fIformat\fR string consists
of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign
.PQ \fI%\fR
interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character
sequences beginning with the per-cent sign.  The permissible format groups,
and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR.
.RS
.PP
On \fBclock format\fR, the default format is
.CS
%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %z %Y
.CE
.PP
On \fBclock scan\fR, the lack of a \fI\-format\fR option indicates that a
.QW "free format scan"
is requested; see \fBFREE FORM SCAN\fR for a description of what happens.
.RE
.TP
\fB\-gmt\fR boolean
If \fIboolean\fR is true, specifies that a time specified to \fBclock add\fR,
\fBclock format\fR or \fBclock scan\fR should be processed in
UTC.  If \fIboolean\fR is false, the processing defaults to the local time
zone.  This usage is obsolete; the correct current usage is to
specify the UTC time zone with
.QW "\fB\-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR"
or any of the equivalent ways to specify it.
.TP
\fB\-locale\fR localeName
Specifies that locale-dependent scanning and formatting (and date arithmetic
for dates preceding the adoption of the Gregorian calendar) is to be done in
the locale identified by \fIlocaleName\fR.  The locale name may be any of
the locales acceptable to the \fBmsgcat\fR package, or it may be the special
name \fIsystem\fR, which represents the current locale of the process, or
the null string, which represents Tcl's default locale.
.sp
The effect of locale on scanning and formatting is discussed in the
descriptions of the individual format groups under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR.
The effect of locale on clock arithmetic is discussed under
\fBCLOCK ARITHMETIC\fR.
.TP
\fB\-timezone\fR zoneName
Specifies that clock arithmetic, formatting, and scanning are to be done
according to the rules for the time zone specified by \fIzoneName\fR.
The permissible values, and their interpretation, are discussed under
\fBTIME ZONES\fR.
On subcommands that expect a \fB\-timezone\fR argument, the default
is to use the \fIcurrent time zone\fR.  The current time zone is
determined, in order of preference, by:
.RS
.IP [1]
the environment variable \fBTCL_TZ\fR.
.IP [2]
the environment variable \fBTZ\fR.
................................................................................
Greenwich.  On 32-bit systems, this approach is likely to have bugs,
particularly for times that lie outside the window (approximately the
years 1902 to 2037) that can be represented in a 32-bit integer.
.SH "CLOCK ARITHMETIC"
The \fBclock add\fR command performs clock arithmetic on a value
(expressed as nominal seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC)
given as its first argument.  The remaining arguments (other than the
possible \fB\-timezone\fR, \fB\-locale\fR and \fB\-gmt\fR options)
are integers and keywords in alternation, where the keywords are chosen
from \fBseconds\fR, \fBminutes\fR, \fBhours\fR,
\fBdays\fR, \fBweeks\fR, \fBmonths\fR, or \fByears\fR, or
any unique prefix of such a word.
.PP
Addition of seconds, minutes and hours is fairly straightforward;
the given time increment (times sixty for minutes, or 3600 for hours)
................................................................................
.SH "FORMATTING TIMES"
The \fBclock format\fR command produces times for display to a user
or writing to an external medium.  The command accepts times that are
expressed in seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC,
as returned by \fBclock seconds\fR, \fBclock scan\fR, \fBclock add\fR,
\fBfile atime\fR or \fBfile mtime\fR.
.PP
If a \fB\-format\fR option is present, the following argument is
a string that specifies how the date and time are to be formatted.
The string consists
of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign
.PQ \fI%\fR
interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character
sequences beginning with the per-cent sign.  The permissible format groups,
and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR.
.PP
If a \fB\-timezone\fR option is present, the following
argument is a string that specifies the time zone in which the date and time
are to be formatted.  As an alternative to
.QW "\fB\-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR" ,
the obsolete usage
.QW "\fB\-gmt\fR \fItrue\fR"
may be used. See \fBTIME ZONES\fR for the permissible variants for the time
zone.
.PP
If a \fB\-locale\fR option is present, the following argument is
a string that specifies the locale in which the time is to be formatted,
in the same format that is used for the \fBmsgcat\fR package.  Note
that the default, if \fB\-locale\fR is not specified, is the root locale
\fB{}\fR rather than the current locale.  The current locale may
be obtained by using






.QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR" .

























In addition, some platforms support a \fBsystem\fR locale that
reflects the user's current choices.  For instance, on Windows, the
format that the user has selected from dates and times in the Control
Panel can be obtained by using the \fBsystem\fR locale.  On
platforms that do not define a user selection of date and time formats
separate from \fBLC_TIME\fR,
.QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBsystem\fR"
is synonymous with
.QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR" .
.SH "SCANNING TIMES"
The \fBclock scan\fR command accepts times that are formatted as
strings and converts them to counts of seconds from the epoch time
of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC.  It normally takes a \fB\-format\fR
option that is followed by a string describing
the expected format of the input.  (See
\fBFREE FORM SCAN\fR for the effect of \fBclock scan\fR
without such an argument.)  The string consists of any number of
characters other than the per-cent sign
.PQ \fI%\fR "" ,
interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character
sequences beginning with the per-cent sign.  The permissible format groups,
and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR.
.PP
If a \fB\-timezone\fR option is present, the following
argument is a string that specifies the time zone in which the date and time
are to be interpreted.  As an alternative to
.QW "\fB\-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR" ,
the obsolete usage
.QW "\fB\-gmt\fR \fItrue\fR"
may be used. See \fBTIME ZONES\fR for the permissible variants for the time
zone.
.PP
If a \fB\-locale\fR option is present, the following argument is
a string that specifies the locale in which the time is to be interpreted,
in the same format that is used for the \fBmsgcat\fR package.  Note
that the default, if \fB\-locale\fR is not specified, is the root locale
.MT
rather than the current locale. The current locale may be obtained by using
.QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR" .
In addition, some platforms support a \fBsystem\fR locale that
reflects the user's current choices.  For instance, on Windows, the
format that the user has selected from dates and times in the Control
Panel can be obtained by using the \fBsystem\fR locale.  On
platforms that do not define a user selection of date and time formats
separate from \fBLC_TIME\fR,
.QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBsystem\fR"
is synonymous with
.QW "\fB\-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR" .
.PP
If a \fB\-base\fR option is present, the following argument is
a time (expressed in seconds from the epoch time) that is used as
a \fIbase time\fR for interpreting relative times.  If no
\fB\-base\fR option is present, the base time is the current time.
.PP
Scanning of times in fixed format works by determining three things:
the date, the time of day, and the time zone.  These three are then
combined into a point in time, which is returned as the number of seconds
from the epoch.
.PP
Before scanning begins, the format string is preprocessed
................................................................................
the minute of the hour, that group combines with the hour.  If the string
further contains a group specifying the second of the minute, that group
combines with the hour and minute.
.IP [3]
If the string contains neither a \fB%s\fR format group nor
a group specifying the hour of the day, then midnight (\fB00:00\fR, the start
of the given date) is used.
The time zone is determined by either the \fB\-timezone\fR or \fB\-gmt\fR
options, or by using the current time zone.
.PP
If a format string lacks a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group,
it is possible for the time to be ambiguous because it appears twice
in the same day, once without and once with Daylight Saving Time.
If this situation occurs, the first occurrence of the time is chosen.
(For this reason, it is wise to have the input string contain the
................................................................................
\fB%N\fR
On output, produces the number of the month (1-12) with one or two digits.
digits.  On input, accepts one or two digits, possibly with leading whitespace,
and interprets them as the number of the month.
.TP
\fB%Od\fR, \fB%Oe\fR, \fB%OH\fR, \fB%OI\fR, \fB%Ok\fR, \fB%Ol\fR, \fB%Om\fR, \fB%OM\fR, \fB%OS\fR, \fB%Ou\fR, \fB%Ow\fR, \fB%Oy\fR
All of these format groups are synonymous with their counterparts
without the
.QW \fBO\fR ,
except that the string is produced and parsed in the locale-dependent
alternative numerals.
.TP
\fB%p\fR
.
On output, produces an indicator for the part of the day, \fBAM\fR
or \fBPM\fR, appropriate to the given locale.  If the script of the
given locale supports multiple letterforms, lowercase is preferred.
On input, matches the representation \fBAM\fR or \fBPM\fR in
the given locale, in either case.
.TP
\fB%P\fR
................................................................................
time zone. This option should, in general, be used on input only when
parsing RFC822 dates. Other uses are fraught with ambiguity; for
instance, the string \fBBST\fR may represent British Summer Time or
Brazilian Standard Time. It is recommended that date/time strings for
use by computers use numeric time zones instead.
.TP
\fB%%\fR
On output, produces a literal
.QW \fB%\fR
character. On input, matches a literal
.QW \fB%\fR
character.
.TP
\fB%+\fR
Synonymous with
.QW "\fB%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y\fR" .
.SH "TIME ZONES"
When the \fBclock\fR command is processing a local time, it has several
possible sources for the time zone to use.  In order of preference, they
are:
.IP [1]
A time zone specified inside a string being parsed and matched by a \fB%z\fR
or \fB%Z\fR format group.
.IP [2]
A time zone specified with the \fB\-timezone\fR option to the \fBclock\fR
command (or, equivalently, by
.QW "\fB\-gmt\fR \fB1\fR" ).
.IP [3]
A time zone specified in an environment variable \fBTCL_TZ\fR.
.IP [4]
A time zone specified in an environment variable \fBTZ\fR.
.IP [5]
The local time zone from the Control Panel on Windows systems.
.IP [6]
................................................................................
.PP
If the time zone begins with a colon, it is one of a
standardized list of names like \fB:America/New_York\fR
that give the rules for various locales.  A complete list
of the location names is too lengthy to be listed here.
On most Tcl installations, the definitions of the locations
are to be found in named files in the directory
.QW "\fI/no_backup/tools/lib/tcl8.5/clock/tzdata\fR" .
On some Unix systems, these
files are omitted, and the definitions are instead
obtained from system files in
.QW "\fI/usr/share/zoneinfo\fR" ,
.QW "\fI/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo\fR"
or
.QW "\fI/usr/local/etc/zoneinfo\fR" .
As a special case, the name \fB:localtime\fR refers to
the local time zone as defined by the C library.
.PP
A time zone string consisting of a plus or minus sign followed by
four or six decimal digits is interpreted as an offset in
hours, minutes, and seconds (if six digits are present) from
UTC.  The plus sign denotes a sign east of Greenwich;
................................................................................
Any other time zone string is processed by prefixing a colon and attempting
to use it as a location name, as above.
.SH "LOCALIZATION"
Developers wishing to localize the date and time formatting and parsing
are referred to \fIhttp://tip.tcl.tk/173\fR for a
specification.
.SH "FREE FORM SCAN"
If the \fBclock scan\fR command is invoked without a \fB\-format\fR
option, then it requests a \fIfree-form scan.\fR  \fI
This form of scan is deprecated.\fR  The reason for the deprecation
is that there are too many ambiguities. (Does the string
.QW 2000
represent a year, a time of day, or a quantity?)  No set of rules
for interpreting free-form dates and times has been found to
give unsurprising results in all cases.
.PP
If free-form scan is used, only the \fB\-base\fR and \fB\-gmt\fR
options are accepted.  The \fB\-timezone\fR and \fB\-locale\fR
options will result in an error if \fB\-format\fR is not supplied.
.PP
For the benefit of users who need to understand legacy code that
uses free-form scan, the documentation for how free-form scan
interprets a string is included here:
.PP
If only a time is
specified, the current date is assumed.  If the \fIinputString\fR
does not contain a
time zone mnemonic, the local time zone is assumed, unless the \fB\-gmt\fR
argument is true, in which case the clock value is calculated assuming
that the specified time is relative to Greenwich Mean Time.
\fB\-gmt\fR, if specified, affects only the computed time value; it does not
impact the interpretation of \fB\-base\fR.
.PP
If the \fB\-base\fR flag is specified, the next argument should contain
an integer clock value.  Only the date in this value is used, not the
time.  This is useful for determining the time on a specific day or
doing other date-relative conversions.
.PP
The \fIinputString\fR argument consists of zero or more specifications of the
following form:
.TP
................................................................................
\fItime\fR
A time of day, which is of the form: \fBhh?:mm?:ss?? ?meridian? ?zone?\fR
or \fBhhmm ?meridian? ?zone?\fR
If no meridian is specified, \fBhh\fR is interpreted on
a 24-hour clock.
.TP
\fIdate\fR
A specific month and day with optional year. The acceptable formats are
.QW "\fBmm/dd\fR?\fB/yy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fBmonthname dd\fR?\fB, yy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fBday, dd monthname \fR?\fByy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fBdd monthname yy\fR" ,
.QW "?\fBCC\fR?\fByymmdd\fR" ,
and
.QW "\fBdd-monthname-\fR?\fBCC\fR?\fByy\fR" .
The default year is the current year.  If the year is less
than 100, we treat the years 00-68 as 2000-2068 and the years 69-99
as 1969-1999.  Not all platforms can represent the years 38-70, so
an error may result if these years are used.
.TP
\fIISO 8601 point-in-time\fR
An ISO 8601 point-in-time specification, such as \fBCCyymmddThhmmss\fR,
where \fBT\fR is the literal
.QW T ,
.QW "\fBCCyymmdd hhmmss\fR" ,
or
.QW \fBCCyymmddThh:mm:ss\fR .
Note that only these three formats are accepted.
The command does \fInot\fR accept the full range of point-in-time
specifications specified in ISO8601.  Other formats can be recognized by
giving an explicit \fI\-format\fR option to the \fBclock scan\fR command.
.TP
\fIrelative time\fR
A specification relative to the current time.  The format is \fBnumber
unit\fR. Acceptable units are \fByear\fR, \fBfortnight\fR, 
\fBmonth\fR, \fBweek\fR, \fBday\fR,
\fBhour\fR, \fBminute\fR (or \fBmin\fR), and \fBsecond\fR (or \fBsec\fR).  The
unit can be specified as a singular or plural, as in \fB3 weeks\fR.






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.TH "clock" n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
clock \- Obtain and manipulate dates and times
.SH "SYNOPSIS"
package require \fBTcl 8.5\fR
.sp
\fBclock add\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fIcount unit...\fR? ?\fI-option value\fR?
.sp
\fBclock clicks\fR ?\fI-option\fR?
.sp
\fBclock format\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fI-option value\fR...?
.sp
\fBclock microseconds\fR 
.sp
\fBclock milliseconds\fR 
.sp
\fBclock scan\fR \fIinputString\fR ?\fI-option value\fR...?
.sp
\fBclock seconds\fR 
.sp
.BE
.SH "DESCRIPTION"
.PP
The \fBclock\fR command performs several operations that obtain and
manipulate values that represent times.  The command supports several
subcommands that determine what action is carried out by the command.
.TP
\fBclock add\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fIcount unit...\fR? ?\fI-option value\fR?
Adds a (possibly negative) offset to a time that is expressed as an
integer number of seconds.  See \fBCLOCK ARITHMETIC\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock clicks\fR ?\fI-option\fR?
If no \fI-option\fR argument is supplied, returns a high-resolution
time value as a system-dependent integer value.  The unit of the value
is system-dependent but should be the highest resolution clock available
on the system such as a CPU cycle counter.  See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description.
.sp
If the \fI-option\fR argument is \fI-milliseconds\fR, then the command
is synonymous with \fBclock milliseconds\fR (see below).  This
usage is obsolete, and \fBclock milliseconds\fR is to be
considered the preferred way of obtaining a count of milliseconds.
.sp
If the \fI-option\fR argument is \fI-microseconds\fR, then the command
is synonymous with \fBclock microseconds\fR (see below).  This
usage is obsolete, and \fBclock microseconds\fR is to be
considered the preferred way of obtaining a count of microseconds.
.TP
\fBclock format\fR \fItimeVal\fR ?\fI-option value\fR...?
Formats a time that is expressed as an integer number of seconds into a format
intended for consumption by users or external programs.
See \fBFORMATTING TIMES\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock microseconds\fR 
Returns the current time as an integer number of microseconds.  See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock milliseconds\fR 
Returns the current time as an integer number of milliseconds.  See \fBHIGH RESOLUTION TIMERS\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock scan\fR \fIinputString\fR ?\fI-option value\fR...?
Scans a time that is expressed as a character string and produces an
integer number of seconds.
See \fBSCANNING TIMES\fR for a full description.
.TP
\fBclock seconds\fR 
Returns the current time as an integer number of seconds.
.SS "PARAMETERS"
................................................................................
One of the words, \fBseconds\fR, \fBminutes\fR, \fBhours\fR,
\fBdays\fR, \fBweeks\fR, \fBmonths\fR, or \fByears\fR, or
any unique prefix of such a word. Used in conjunction with \fIcount\fR
to identify an interval of time, for example, \fI3 seconds\fR or
\fI1 year\fR.
.SS "OPTIONS"
.TP
\fB-base\fR time
Specifies that any relative times present in a \fBclock scan\fR command
are to be given relative to \fItime\fR.  \fItime\fR must be expressed as
a count of nominal seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC.
.TP
\fB-format\fR format
Specifies the desired output format for \fBclock format\fR or the
expected input format for \fBclock scan\fR.  The \fIformat\fR string consists
of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign ('\fI%\fR')

interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character
sequences beginning with the per-cent sign.  The permissible format groups,
and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR.
.RS
.PP
On \fBclock format\fR, the default format is
.CS
%a %b %d %H:%M:%S %z %Y
.CE
.PP
On \fBclock scan\fR, the lack of a \fI-format\fR option indicates that
a "free format scan" is requested; see \fBFREE FORM SCAN\fR for a
description of what happens.
.RE
.TP
\fB-gmt\fR boolean
If \fIboolean\fR is true, specifies that a time specified to \fBclock add\fR,
\fBclock format\fR or \fBclock scan\fR should be processed in
UTC.  If \fIboolean\fR is false, the processing defaults to the local time
zone.  This usage is obsolete; the correct current usage is to
specify the UTC time zone with '\fB-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR' or any of

the equivalent ways to specify it.
.TP
\fB-locale\fR localeName
Specifies that locale-dependent scanning and formatting (and date arithmetic
for dates preceding the adoption of the Gregorian calendar) is to be done in
the locale identified by \fIlocaleName\fR.  The locale name may be any of
the locales acceptable to the \fBmsgcat\fR package, or it may be the special
name \fIsystem\fR, which represents the current locale of the process, or
the null string, which represents Tcl's default locale.
.sp
The effect of locale on scanning and formatting is discussed in the
descriptions of the individual format groups under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR.
The effect of locale on clock arithmetic is discussed under
\fBCLOCK ARITHMETIC\fR.
.TP
\fB-timezone\fR zoneName
Specifies that clock arithmetic, formatting, and scanning are to be done
according to the rules for the time zone specified by \fIzoneName\fR.
The permissible values, and their interpretation, are discussed under
\fBTIME ZONES\fR.
On subcommands that expect a \fB-timezone\fR argument, the default
is to use the \fIcurrent time zone\fR.  The current time zone is
determined, in order of preference, by:
.RS
.IP [1]
the environment variable \fBTCL_TZ\fR.
.IP [2]
the environment variable \fBTZ\fR.
................................................................................
Greenwich.  On 32-bit systems, this approach is likely to have bugs,
particularly for times that lie outside the window (approximately the
years 1902 to 2037) that can be represented in a 32-bit integer.
.SH "CLOCK ARITHMETIC"
The \fBclock add\fR command performs clock arithmetic on a value
(expressed as nominal seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC)
given as its first argument.  The remaining arguments (other than the
possible \fB-timezone\fR, \fB-locale\fR and \fB-gmt\fR options)
are integers and keywords in alternation, where the keywords are chosen
from \fBseconds\fR, \fBminutes\fR, \fBhours\fR,
\fBdays\fR, \fBweeks\fR, \fBmonths\fR, or \fByears\fR, or
any unique prefix of such a word.
.PP
Addition of seconds, minutes and hours is fairly straightforward;
the given time increment (times sixty for minutes, or 3600 for hours)
................................................................................
.SH "FORMATTING TIMES"
The \fBclock format\fR command produces times for display to a user
or writing to an external medium.  The command accepts times that are
expressed in seconds from the epoch time of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC,
as returned by \fBclock seconds\fR, \fBclock scan\fR, \fBclock add\fR,
\fBfile atime\fR or \fBfile mtime\fR.
.PP
If a \fB-format\fR option is present, the following argument is
a string that specifies how the date and time are to be formatted.
The string consists
of any number of characters other than the per-cent sign ('\fI%\fR')

interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character
sequences beginning with the per-cent sign.  The permissible format groups,
and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR.
.PP
If a \fB-timezone\fR option is present, the following
argument is a string that specifies the time zone in which the date and time
are to be formatted.  As an alternative to \fB-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR,

the obsolete usage \fB-gmt\fR \fItrue\fR may be used.  See

\fBTIME ZONES\fR for the permissible variants for the time zone.

.PP
If a \fB-locale\fR option is present, the following argument is
a string that specifies the locale in which the time is to be formatted,
in the same format that is used for the \fBmsgcat\fR package.  Note
that the default, if \fB-locale\fR is not specified, is the root locale
\fB{}\fR rather than the current locale.  The current locale may
be obtained by using \fB-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR.
In addition, some platforms support a \fBsystem\fR locale that
reflects the user's current choices.  For instance, on Windows, the
format that the user has selected from dates and times in the Control
Panel can be obtained by using the \fBsystem\fR locale.  On
platforms that do not define a user selection of date and time formats
separate from \fBLC_TIME\fR, \fB-locale\fR \fBsystem\fR is
synonymous with \fB-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR.
.SH "SCANNING TIMES"
The \fBclock scan\fR command accepts times that are formatted as
strings and converts them to counts of seconds from the epoch time
of 1 January 1970, 00:00 UTC.  It normally takes a \fB-format\fR
option that is followed by a string describing
the expected format of the input.  (See
\fBFREE FORM SCAN\fR for the effect of \fBclock scan\fR
without such an argument.)  The string consists of any number of
characters other than the per-cent sign ('\fI%\fR'),
interspersed with any number of \fIformat groups\fR, which are two-character
sequences beginning with the per-cent sign.  The permissible format groups,
and their interpretation, are described under \fBFORMAT GROUPS\fR.
.PP
If a \fB-timezone\fR option is present, the following
argument is a string that specifies the time zone in which the date and time
are to be interpreted.  As an alternative to \fB-timezone\fR \fI:UTC\fR,
the obsolete usage \fB-gmt\fR \fItrue\fR may be used.  See
\fBTIME ZONES\fR for the permissible variants for the time zone.
.PP
If a \fB-locale\fR option is present, the following argument is
a string that specifies the locale in which the time is to be interpreted,
in the same format that is used for the \fBmsgcat\fR package.  Note
that the default, if \fB-locale\fR is not specified, is the root locale
\fB{}\fR rather than the current locale.  The current locale may
be obtained by using \fB-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR.
In addition, some platforms support a \fBsystem\fR locale that
reflects the user's current choices.  For instance, on Windows, the
format that the user has selected from dates and times in the Control
Panel can be obtained by using the \fBsystem\fR locale.  On
platforms that do not define a user selection of date and time formats
separate from \fBLC_TIME\fR, \fB-locale\fR \fBsystem\fR is


synonymous with \fB-locale\fR \fBcurrent\fR.













.PP


























If a \fB-base\fR option is present, the following argument is
a time (expressed in seconds from the epoch time) that is used as
a \fIbase time\fR for interpreting relative times.  If no
\fB-base\fR option is present, the base time is the current time.
.PP
Scanning of times in fixed format works by determining three things:
the date, the time of day, and the time zone.  These three are then
combined into a point in time, which is returned as the number of seconds
from the epoch.
.PP
Before scanning begins, the format string is preprocessed
................................................................................
the minute of the hour, that group combines with the hour.  If the string
further contains a group specifying the second of the minute, that group
combines with the hour and minute.
.IP [3]
If the string contains neither a \fB%s\fR format group nor
a group specifying the hour of the day, then midnight (\fB00:00\fR, the start
of the given date) is used.
The time zone is determined by either the \fB-timezone\fR or \fB-gmt\fR
options, or by using the current time zone.
.PP
If a format string lacks a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group,
it is possible for the time to be ambiguous because it appears twice
in the same day, once without and once with Daylight Saving Time.
If this situation occurs, the first occurrence of the time is chosen.
(For this reason, it is wise to have the input string contain the
................................................................................
\fB%N\fR
On output, produces the number of the month (1-12) with one or two digits.
digits.  On input, accepts one or two digits, possibly with leading whitespace,
and interprets them as the number of the month.
.TP
\fB%Od\fR, \fB%Oe\fR, \fB%OH\fR, \fB%OI\fR, \fB%Ok\fR, \fB%Ol\fR, \fB%Om\fR, \fB%OM\fR, \fB%OS\fR, \fB%Ou\fR, \fB%Ow\fR, \fB%Oy\fR
All of these format groups are synonymous with their counterparts


without the '\fBO\fR', except that the string is produced and parsed in the
locale-dependent alternative numerals.
.TP
\fB%p\fR

On output, produces an indicator for the part of the day, \fBAM\fR
or \fBPM\fR, appropriate to the given locale.  If the script of the
given locale supports multiple letterforms, lowercase is preferred.
On input, matches the representation \fBAM\fR or \fBPM\fR in
the given locale, in either case.
.TP
\fB%P\fR
................................................................................
time zone. This option should, in general, be used on input only when
parsing RFC822 dates. Other uses are fraught with ambiguity; for
instance, the string \fBBST\fR may represent British Summer Time or
Brazilian Standard Time. It is recommended that date/time strings for
use by computers use numeric time zones instead.
.TP
\fB%%\fR
On output, produces a literal '\fB%\fR' character. On input, matches



a literal '\fB%\fR' character.
.TP
\fB%+\fR

Synonymous with '\fB%a %b %e %H:%M:%S %Z %Y\fR'.
.SH "TIME ZONES"
When the \fBclock\fR command is processing a local time, it has several
possible sources for the time zone to use.  In order of preference, they
are:
.IP [1]
A time zone specified inside a string being parsed and matched by a \fB%z\fR
or \fB%Z\fR format group.
.IP [2]
A time zone specified with the \fB-timezone\fR option to the \fBclock\fR
command (or, equivalently, by \fB-gmt\fR \fB1\fR).

.IP [3]
A time zone specified in an environment variable \fBTCL_TZ\fR.
.IP [4]
A time zone specified in an environment variable \fBTZ\fR.
.IP [5]
The local time zone from the Control Panel on Windows systems.
.IP [6]
................................................................................
.PP
If the time zone begins with a colon, it is one of a
standardized list of names like \fB:America/New_York\fR
that give the rules for various locales.  A complete list
of the location names is too lengthy to be listed here.
On most Tcl installations, the definitions of the locations
are to be found in named files in the directory
 "\fI/no_backup/tools/lib/tcl8.5/clock/tzdata\fR".  On some Unix systems, these

files are omitted, and the definitions are instead
obtained from system files in "\fI/usr/share/zoneinfo\fR",



 "\fI/usr/share/lib/zoneinfo\fR" or "\fI/usr/local/etc/zoneinfo\fR".
As a special case, the name \fB:localtime\fR refers to
the local time zone as defined by the C library.
.PP
A time zone string consisting of a plus or minus sign followed by
four or six decimal digits is interpreted as an offset in
hours, minutes, and seconds (if six digits are present) from
UTC.  The plus sign denotes a sign east of Greenwich;
................................................................................
Any other time zone string is processed by prefixing a colon and attempting
to use it as a location name, as above.
.SH "LOCALIZATION"
Developers wishing to localize the date and time formatting and parsing
are referred to \fIhttp://tip.tcl.tk/173\fR for a
specification.
.SH "FREE FORM SCAN"
If the \fBclock scan\fR command is invoked without a \fB-format\fR
option, then it requests a \fIfree-form scan.\fR  \fI
This form of scan is deprecated.\fR  The reason for the deprecation
is that there are too many ambiguities. (Does the string '2000'

represent a year, a time of day, or a quantity?)  No set of rules
for interpreting free-form dates and times has been found to
give unsurprising results in all cases.
.PP
If free-form scan is used, only the \fB-base\fR and \fB-gmt\fR
options are accepted.  The \fB-timezone\fR and \fB-locale\fR
options will result in an error if \fB-format\fR is not supplied.
.PP
For the benefit of users who need to understand legacy code that
uses free-form scan, the documentation for how free-form scan
interprets a string is included here:
.PP
If only a time is
specified, the current date is assumed.  If the \fIinputString\fR
does not contain a
time zone mnemonic, the local time zone is assumed, unless the \fB-gmt\fR
argument is true, in which case the clock value is calculated assuming
that the specified time is relative to Greenwich Mean Time.
\fB-gmt\fR, if specified, affects only the computed time value; it does not
impact the interpretation of \fB-base\fR.
.PP
If the \fB-base\fR flag is specified, the next argument should contain
an integer clock value.  Only the date in this value is used, not the
time.  This is useful for determining the time on a specific day or
doing other date-relative conversions.
.PP
The \fIinputString\fR argument consists of zero or more specifications of the
following form:
.TP
................................................................................
\fItime\fR
A time of day, which is of the form: \fBhh?:mm?:ss?? ?meridian? ?zone?\fR
or \fBhhmm ?meridian? ?zone?\fR
If no meridian is specified, \fBhh\fR is interpreted on
a 24-hour clock.
.TP
\fIdate\fR
A specific month and day with optional year.  The
acceptable formats are "\fBmm/dd\fR?\fB/yy\fR?",
 "\fBmonthname dd\fR?\fB, yy\fR?",
 "\fBday, dd monthname \fR?\fByy\fR?",
 "\fBdd monthname yy\fR",
 "?\fBCC\fR?\fByymmdd\fR", and

 "\fBdd-monthname-\fR?\fBCC\fR?\fByy\fR".
The default year is the current year.  If the year is less
than 100, we treat the years 00-68 as 2000-2068 and the years 69-99
as 1969-1999.  Not all platforms can represent the years 38-70, so
an error may result if these years are used.
.TP
\fIISO 8601 point-in-time\fR
An ISO 8601 point-in-time specification, such as \fBCCyymmddThhmmss\fR,
where \fBT\fR is the literal T, "\fBCCyymmdd hhmmss\fR", or




\fBCCyymmddThh:mm:ss\fR. Note that only these three formats are accepted.
The command does \fInot\fR accept the full range of point-in-time
specifications specified in ISO8601.  Other formats can be recognized by
giving an explicit \fI-format\fR option to the \fBclock scan\fR command.
.TP
\fIrelative time\fR
A specification relative to the current time.  The format is \fBnumber
unit\fR. Acceptable units are \fByear\fR, \fBfortnight\fR, 
\fBmonth\fR, \fBweek\fR, \fBday\fR,
\fBhour\fR, \fBminute\fR (or \fBmin\fR), and \fBsecond\fR (or \fBsec\fR).  The
unit can be specified as a singular or plural, as in \fB3 weeks\fR.

Changes to doc/close.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: close.n,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH close n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
close \- Close an open channel
................................................................................
    catch {
        uplevel 1 $script
    } result options
    \fBclose\fR $chan
    return -options $options $result
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), socket(n), eof(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, channel, close, nonblocking






|







 







>


>


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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: close.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH close n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
close \- Close an open channel
................................................................................
    catch {
        uplevel 1 $script
    } result options
    \fBclose\fR $chan
    return -options $options $result
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), socket(n), eof(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, channel, close, nonblocking

Changes to doc/concat.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: concat.n,v 1.8 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH concat n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
concat \- Join lists together
................................................................................
It permits any number of arguments;
if no \fIarg\fRs are supplied, the result is an empty string.
.SH EXAMPLES
Although \fBconcat\fR will concatenate lists (so the command:
.CS
\fBconcat\fR a b {c d e} {f {g h}}
.CE
will return
.QW "\fBa b c d e f {g h}\fR"
as its result), it will also
concatenate things that are not lists, and hence the command:
.CS
\fBconcat\fR " a b {c   " d "  e} f"
.CE
will return
.QW "\fBa b {c d e} f\fR"
as its result.
.PP
Note that the concatenation does not remove spaces from the middle of
its arguments, so the command:
.CS
\fBconcat\fR "a   b   c" { d e f }
.CE
will return
.QW "\fBa   b   c d e f\fR"
(i.e. with three spaces between the
.QW \fBa\fR ,
the
.QW \fBb\fR
and the
.QW \fBc\fR ).


.SH "SEE ALSO"
append(n), eval(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
concatenate, join, lists






|







 







<
<
|




<
|
<






<
<
|
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<
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: concat.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH concat n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
concat \- Join lists together
................................................................................
It permits any number of arguments;
if no \fIarg\fRs are supplied, the result is an empty string.
.SH EXAMPLES
Although \fBconcat\fR will concatenate lists (so the command:
.CS
\fBconcat\fR a b {c d e} {f {g h}}
.CE


will return "\fBa b c d e f {g h}\fR" as its result), it will also
concatenate things that are not lists, and hence the command:
.CS
\fBconcat\fR " a b {c   " d "  e} f"
.CE

will return "\fBa b {c d e} f\fR" as its result.

.PP
Note that the concatenation does not remove spaces from the middle of
its arguments, so the command:
.CS
\fBconcat\fR "a   b   c" { d e f }
.CE


will return "\fBa   b   c d e f\fR" (i.e. with three spaces between





the \fBa\fR, the \fBb\fR and the \fBc\fR).

.SH "SEE ALSO"
append(n), eval(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
concatenate, join, lists

Changes to doc/continue.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: continue.n,v 1.8 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH continue n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
continue \- Skip to the next iteration of a loop
................................................................................
for {set x 0} {$x<10} {incr x} {
   if {$x == 5} {
      \fBcontinue\fR
   }
   puts "x is $x"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
break(n), for(n), foreach(n), return(n), while(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
continue, iteration, loop






|







 







>


>


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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: continue.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH continue n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
continue \- Skip to the next iteration of a loop
................................................................................
for {set x 0} {$x<10} {incr x} {
   if {$x == 5} {
      \fBcontinue\fR
   }
   puts "x is $x"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
break(n), for(n), foreach(n), return(n), while(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
continue, iteration, loop

Changes to doc/dde.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: dde.n,v 1.19 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH dde n 1.3 dde "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
dde \- Execute a Dynamic Data Exchange command
................................................................................
.PP
.SH "DDE COMMANDS"
.PP
The following commands are a subset of the full Dynamic Data Exchange
set of commands.
.TP
\fBdde servername \fR?\fB-force\fR? ?\fB-handler \fIproc\fR? ?\fB--\fR? ?\fItopic\fR?
.
\fBdde servername\fR registers the interpreter as a DDE server with
the service name \fBTclEval\fR and the topic name specified by \fItopic\fR.
If no \fItopic\fR is given, \fBdde servername\fR returns the name
of the current topic or the empty string if it is not registered as a
service. If the given \fItopic\fR name is already in use, then a
suffix of the form
.QW " #2"
or
.QW " #3"
is appended to the name to make it
unique. The command's result will be the name actually used. The
\fB\-force\fR option is used to force registration of precisely the
given \fItopic\fR name.
.IP
The \fB-handler\fR option specifies a Tcl procedure that will be called to
process calls to the dde server. If the package has been loaded into a
safe interpreter then a \fB-handler\fR procedure must be defined. The
procedure is called with all the arguments provided by the remote
call.
.TP
\fBdde execute\fR ?\fB\-async\fR? \fIservice topic data\fR
.
\fBdde execute\fR takes the \fIdata\fR and sends it to the server indicated
by \fIservice\fR with the topic indicated by \fItopic\fR. Typically,
\fIservice\fR is the name of an application, and \fItopic\fR is a file to
work on.  The \fIdata\fR field is given to the remote application.
Typically, the application treats the \fIdata\fR field as a script, and the
script is run in the application.  The \fB\-async\fR option requests
asynchronous invocation.  The command returns an error message if the
script did not run, unless the \fB\-async\fR flag was used, in which case
the command returns immediately with no error.
.TP
\fBdde poke \fIservice topic item data\fR
.
\fBdde poke\fR passes the \fIdata\fR to the server indicated by
\fIservice\fR using the \fItopic\fR and \fIitem\fR specified.  Typically,
\fIservice\fR is the name of an application.  \fItopic\fR is application
specific but can be a command to the server or the name of a file to work
on.  The \fIitem\fR is also application specific and is often not used, but
it must always be non-null.  The \fIdata\fR field is given to the remote
application.
.TP
\fBdde request\fR ?\fB\-binary\fR? \fIservice topic item\fR
.
\fBdde request\fR is typically used to get the value of something; the
value of a cell in Microsoft Excel or the text of a selection in
Microsoft Word. \fIservice\fR is typically the name of an application,
\fItopic\fR is typically the name of the file, and \fIitem\fR is
application-specific. The command returns the value of \fIitem\fR as
defined in the application.  Normally this is interpreted to be a
string with terminating null.  If \fB\-binary\fR is specified, the
result is returned as a byte array.
.TP
\fBdde services \fIservice topic\fR
.
\fBdde services\fR returns a list of service-topic pairs that
currently exist on the machine. If \fIservice\fR and \fItopic\fR are
both empty strings ({}), then all service-topic pairs currently
available on the system are returned. If \fIservice\fR is empty and
\fItopic\fR is not, then all services with the specified topic are
returned. If \fIservice\fR is non-empty and \fItopic\fR is, all topics
for a given service are returned. If both are non-empty, if that
service-topic pair currently exists, it is returned; otherwise, an
empty string is returned.
.TP
\fBdde eval\fR ?\fB\-async\fR? \fItopic cmd \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.
\fBdde eval\fR evaluates a command and its arguments using the interpreter
specified by \fItopic\fR. The DDE service must be the \fBTclEval\fR
service.  The \fB\-async\fR option requests asynchronous invocation.  The
command returns an error message if the script did not run, unless the
\fB\-async\fR flag was used, in which case the command returns immediately
with no error.  This command can be used to replace send on Windows.
.SH "DDE AND TCL"
................................................................................
.SH EXAMPLE
This asks Internet Explorer (which must already be running) to go to a
particularly important website:
.CS
package require dde
\fBdde execute\fR iexplore WWW_OpenURL http://www.tcl.tk/
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
tk(n), winfo(n), send(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
application, dde, name, remote execution






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: dde.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH dde n 1.3 dde "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
dde \- Execute a Dynamic Data Exchange command
................................................................................
.PP
.SH "DDE COMMANDS"
.PP
The following commands are a subset of the full Dynamic Data Exchange
set of commands.
.TP
\fBdde servername \fR?\fB-force\fR? ?\fB-handler \fIproc\fR? ?\fB--\fR? ?\fItopic\fR?

\fBdde servername\fR registers the interpreter as a DDE server with
the service name \fBTclEval\fR and the topic name specified by \fItopic\fR.
If no \fItopic\fR is given, \fBdde servername\fR returns the name
of the current topic or the empty string if it is not registered as a
service. If the given \fItopic\fR name is already in use, then a




suffix of the form ' #2' or ' #3' is appended to the name to make it
unique. The command's result will be the name actually used. The
\fB-force\fR option is used to force registration of precisely the
given \fItopic\fR name.
.IP
The \fB-handler\fR option specifies a Tcl procedure that will be called to
process calls to the dde server. If the package has been loaded into a
safe interpreter then a \fB-handler\fR procedure must be defined. The
procedure is called with all the arguments provided by the remote
call.
.TP
\fBdde execute\fR ?\fB\-async\fR? \fIservice topic data\fR

\fBdde execute\fR takes the \fIdata\fR and sends it to the server indicated
by \fIservice\fR with the topic indicated by \fItopic\fR. Typically,
\fIservice\fR is the name of an application, and \fItopic\fR is a file to
work on.  The \fIdata\fR field is given to the remote application.
Typically, the application treats the \fIdata\fR field as a script, and the
script is run in the application.  The \fB\-async\fR option requests
asynchronous invocation.  The command returns an error message if the
script did not run, unless the \fB\-async\fR flag was used, in which case
the command returns immediately with no error.
.TP
\fBdde poke \fIservice topic item data\fR

\fBdde poke\fR passes the \fIdata\fR to the server indicated by
\fIservice\fR using the \fItopic\fR and \fIitem\fR specified.  Typically,
\fIservice\fR is the name of an application.  \fItopic\fR is application
specific but can be a command to the server or the name of a file to work
on.  The \fIitem\fR is also application specific and is often not used, but
it must always be non-null.  The \fIdata\fR field is given to the remote
application.
.TP
\fBdde request\fR ?\fB\-binary\fR? \fIservice topic item\fR

\fBdde request\fR is typically used to get the value of something; the
value of a cell in Microsoft Excel or the text of a selection in
Microsoft Word. \fIservice\fR is typically the name of an application,
\fItopic\fR is typically the name of the file, and \fIitem\fR is
application-specific. The command returns the value of \fIitem\fR as
defined in the application.  Normally this is interpreted to be a
string with terminating null.  If \fB\-binary\fR is specified, the
result is returned as a byte array.
.TP
\fBdde services \fIservice topic\fR

\fBdde services\fR returns a list of service-topic pairs that
currently exist on the machine. If \fIservice\fR and \fItopic\fR are
both empty strings ({}), then all service-topic pairs currently
available on the system are returned. If \fIservice\fR is empty and
\fItopic\fR is not, then all services with the specified topic are
returned. If \fIservice\fR is non-empty and \fItopic\fR is, all topics
for a given service are returned. If both are non-empty, if that
service-topic pair currently exists, it is returned; otherwise, an
empty string is returned.
.TP
\fBdde eval\fR ?\fB\-async\fR? \fItopic cmd \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?

\fBdde eval\fR evaluates a command and its arguments using the interpreter
specified by \fItopic\fR. The DDE service must be the \fBTclEval\fR
service.  The \fB\-async\fR option requests asynchronous invocation.  The
command returns an error message if the script did not run, unless the
\fB\-async\fR flag was used, in which case the command returns immediately
with no error.  This command can be used to replace send on Windows.
.SH "DDE AND TCL"
................................................................................
.SH EXAMPLE
This asks Internet Explorer (which must already be running) to go to a
particularly important website:
.CS
package require dde
\fBdde execute\fR iexplore WWW_OpenURL http://www.tcl.tk/
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
tk(n), winfo(n), send(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
application, dde, name, remote execution

Changes to doc/dict.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2003 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: dict.n,v 1.13 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\"
.so man.macros
.TH dict n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
dict \- Manipulate dictionaries
................................................................................
   }
}
# Another way to iterate and pick out names...
foreach id [\fBdict keys\fR $employeeInfo] {
   puts "Hello, [\fBdict get\fR $employeeInfo $id forenames]!"
}
.CE
.PP
A localizable version of \fBstring toupper\fR:
.CS
# Set up the basic C locale
set capital [\fBdict create\fR C [\fBdict create\fR]]
foreach c [split {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} ""] {
   \fBdict set\fR capital C $c [string toupper $c]
}
................................................................................

# ... and so on for other supported languages ...

# Now get the mapping for the current locale and use it.
set upperCaseMap [\fBdict get\fR $capital $env(LANG)]
set upperCase [string map $upperCaseMap $string]
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
append(n), array(n), foreach(n), incr(n), list(n), lappend(n), set(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
dictionary, create, update, lookup, iterate, filter





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2003 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: dict.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\"
.so man.macros
.TH dict n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
dict \- Manipulate dictionaries
................................................................................
   }
}
# Another way to iterate and pick out names...
foreach id [\fBdict keys\fR $employeeInfo] {
   puts "Hello, [\fBdict get\fR $employeeInfo $id forenames]!"
}
.CE

A localizable version of \fBstring toupper\fR:
.CS
# Set up the basic C locale
set capital [\fBdict create\fR C [\fBdict create\fR]]
foreach c [split {abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz} ""] {
   \fBdict set\fR capital C $c [string toupper $c]
}
................................................................................

# ... and so on for other supported languages ...

# Now get the mapping for the current locale and use it.
set upperCaseMap [\fBdict get\fR $capital $env(LANG)]
set upperCase [string map $upperCaseMap $string]
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
append(n), array(n), foreach(n), incr(n), list(n), lappend(n), set(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
dictionary, create, update, lookup, iterate, filter

Changes to doc/encoding.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998 by Scriptics Corporation.
'\" 
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: encoding.n,v 1.11 2007/10/26 12:25:06 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH encoding n "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
encoding \- Manipulate encodings
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
that maps to the 00 page in Unicode.  The resulting Tcl strings will
not contain the expected Japanese characters.  Instead, they will
contain a sequence of Latin-1 characters that correspond to the bytes
of the original string.  The \fBencoding\fR command can be used to
convert this string to the expected Japanese Unicode characters.  For
example,
.CS
set s [\fBencoding convertfrom\fR euc-jp "\exA4\exCF"]
.CE
would return the Unicode string
.QW "\eu306F" ,
which is the Hiragana letter HA.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
fconfigure(n), Tcl_GetEncoding(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
encoding





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998 by Scriptics Corporation.
'\" 
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: encoding.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH encoding n "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
encoding \- Manipulate encodings
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
that maps to the 00 page in Unicode.  The resulting Tcl strings will
not contain the expected Japanese characters.  Instead, they will
contain a sequence of Latin-1 characters that correspond to the bytes
of the original string.  The \fBencoding\fR command can be used to
convert this string to the expected Japanese Unicode characters.  For
example,
.CS
set s [\fBencoding convertfrom\fR euc-jp "\\xA4\\xCF"]
.CE
would return the Unicode string "\\u306F", which is the Hiragana

letter HA.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_GetEncoding(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
encoding

Changes to doc/eof.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: eof.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH eof n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
eof \- Check for end of file condition on channel
................................................................................
    if {[\fBeof\fR $f]} {
        close $f
        break
    }
    puts "Read record: $record"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), close(n), fblocked(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
channel, end of file






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: eof.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH eof n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
eof \- Check for end of file condition on channel
................................................................................
    if {[\fBeof\fR $f]} {
        close $f
        break
    }
    puts "Read record: $record"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), close(n), fblocked(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
channel, end of file

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2006 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: exec.n,v 1.18 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH exec n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
exec \- Invoke subprocesses
................................................................................
Marks the end of switches.  The argument following this one will
be treated as the first \fIarg\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.
.PP
If an \fIarg\fR (or pair of \fIarg\fRs) has one of the forms
described below then it is used by \fBexec\fR to control the
flow of input and output among the subprocess(es).
Such arguments will not be passed to the subprocess(es).  In forms
such as
.QW "< \fIfileName\fR" ,
\fIfileName\fR may either be in a separate argument from
.QW <
or in the same argument with no intervening space (i.e.
.QW <\fIfileName\fR ).
.TP 15
|
Separates distinct commands in the pipeline.  The standard output
of the preceding command will be piped into the standard input
of the next command.
.TP 15
|&
................................................................................
all commands are redirected to \fIfileId\fR's file.
The file must have been opened for writing.
.PP
If standard output has not been redirected then the \fBexec\fR
command returns the standard output from the last command
in the pipeline,
.VS 8.5
unless
.QW 2>@1
was specified, in which case standard error is included as well.
.VE 8.5
If any of the commands in the pipeline exit abnormally or
are killed or suspended, then \fBexec\fR will return an error
and the error message will include the pipeline's output followed by
error messages describing the abnormal terminations; the
\fB-errorcode\fR return option will contain additional information
about the last abnormal termination encountered.
................................................................................
is a newline then that character is normally deleted
from the result or error message.
This is consistent with other Tcl return values, which don't
normally end with newlines.
However, if \fB\-keepnewline\fR is specified then the trailing
newline is retained.
.PP
If standard input isn't redirected with
.QW < ,
.QW <<
or
.QW <@
then the standard input for the first command in the
pipeline is taken from the application's current standard input.
.PP
If the last \fIarg\fR is
.QW &
then the pipeline will be executed in background.
In this case the \fBexec\fR command will return a list whose
elements are the process identifiers for all of the subprocesses
in the pipeline.
The standard output from the last command in the pipeline will
go to the application's standard output if it hasn't been
redirected, and error output from all of
the commands in the pipeline will go to the application's
................................................................................
.PP
The first word in each command is taken as the command name;
tilde-substitution is performed on it, and if the result contains
no slashes then the directories
in the PATH environment variable are searched for
an executable by the given name.
If the name contains a slash then it must refer to an executable
reachable from the current directory. No
.QW glob
expansion or other shell-like substitutions
are performed on the arguments to commands.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows\fR (all versions)
.
Reading from or writing to a socket, using the
.QW \[email protected]\0\fIfileId\fR
notation, does not work.  When reading from a socket, a 16-bit DOS
application will hang and a 32-bit application will return immediately with
end-of-file.  When either type of application writes to a socket, the
information is instead sent to the console, if one is present, or is
discarded.
.RS
.PP
................................................................................
backslashes only in paths.  Any arguments to an application that specify a
path name with forward slashes will not automatically be converted to use
the backslash character.  If an argument contains forward slashes as the
path separator, it may or may not be recognized as a path name, depending on
the program.  
.PP
Additionally, when calling a 16-bit DOS or Windows 3.X application, all path
names must use the short, cryptic, path format (e.g., using
.QW applba~1.def
instead of
.QW applbakery.default ),
which can be obtained with the
\fBfile attributes $fileName -shortname\fR command.
.PP
Two or more forward or backward slashes in a row in a path refer to a
network path.  For example, a simple concatenation of the root directory
\fBc:/\fR with a subdirectory \fB/windows/system\fR will yield
\fBc://windows/system\fR (two slashes together), which refers to the mount
point called \fBsystem\fR on the machine called \fBwindows\fR (and the
................................................................................
The Windows NT 16-bit system directory.
.IP \(bu
The Windows NT home directory.
.IP \(bu
The directories listed in the path.
.PP
In order to execute shell built-in commands like \fBdir\fR and \fBcopy\fR,
the caller must prepend the desired command with
.QW "\fBcmd.exe /c\0\fR"
because built-in commands are not implemented using executables.
.RE
.TP
\fBWindows 9x\fR
.
When attempting to execute an application, \fBexec\fR first searches for
the name as it was specified.  Then, in order, \fB.com\fR, \fB.exe\fR, and
................................................................................
The Windows 9x system directory.
.IP \(bu
The Windows 9x home directory.
.IP \(bu
The directories listed in the path.
.PP
In order to execute shell built-in commands like \fBdir\fR and \fBcopy\fR,
the caller must prepend the desired command with
.QW "\fBcommand.com /c\0\fR"
because built-in commands are not implemented using executables.
.PP
Once a 16-bit DOS application has read standard input from a console and 
then quit, all subsequently run 16-bit DOS applications will see the 
standard input as already closed.  32-bit applications do not have this
problem and will run correctly, even after a 16-bit DOS application thinks 
that standard input is closed.  There is no known workaround for this bug
at this time.
.PP
Redirection between the \fBNUL:\fR device and a 16-bit application does not
always work.  When redirecting from \fBNUL:\fR, some applications may hang,
others will get an infinite stream of
.QW 0x01
bytes, and some will actually
correctly get an immediate end-of-file; the behavior seems to depend upon 
something compiled into the application itself.  When redirecting greater than
4K or so to \fBNUL:\fR, some applications will hang.  The above problems do not
happen with 32-bit applications.  
.PP
All DOS 16-bit applications are run synchronously.  All standard input from
a pipe to a 16-bit DOS application is collected into a temporary file; the
................................................................................
same name and be in the path. It can then happen that typing a command
at the DOS prompt finds \fIa different program\fR than the same
command run via \fBexec\fR. This is because of the (documented)
differences in behaviour between \fBexec\fR and DOS batch files.
.PP
When in doubt, use the command \fBauto_execok\fR: it will return the
complete path to the program as seen by the \fBexec\fR command.  This
applies especially when you want to run
.QW "internal"
commands like \fIdir\fR from a Tcl script (if you just want to list
filenames, use the \fBglob\fR command.)  To do that, use this:
.CS
\fBexec\fR {*}[auto_execok dir] *.tcl
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
error(n), open(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
execute, pipeline, redirection, subprocess






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2006 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: exec.n,v 1.19 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH exec n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
exec \- Invoke subprocesses
................................................................................
Marks the end of switches.  The argument following this one will
be treated as the first \fIarg\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.
.PP
If an \fIarg\fR (or pair of \fIarg\fRs) has one of the forms
described below then it is used by \fBexec\fR to control the
flow of input and output among the subprocess(es).
Such arguments will not be passed to the subprocess(es).  In forms

such as ``< \fIfileName\fR'' \fIfileName\fR may either be in a


separate argument from ``<'' or in the same argument with no
intervening space (i.e. ``<\fIfileName\fR'').
.TP 15
|
Separates distinct commands in the pipeline.  The standard output
of the preceding command will be piped into the standard input
of the next command.
.TP 15
|&
................................................................................
all commands are redirected to \fIfileId\fR's file.
The file must have been opened for writing.
.PP
If standard output has not been redirected then the \fBexec\fR
command returns the standard output from the last command
in the pipeline,
.VS 8.5
unless ``2>@1'' was specified, in which case

standard error is included as well.
.VE 8.5
If any of the commands in the pipeline exit abnormally or
are killed or suspended, then \fBexec\fR will return an error
and the error message will include the pipeline's output followed by
error messages describing the abnormal terminations; the
\fB-errorcode\fR return option will contain additional information
about the last abnormal termination encountered.
................................................................................
is a newline then that character is normally deleted
from the result or error message.
This is consistent with other Tcl return values, which don't
normally end with newlines.
However, if \fB\-keepnewline\fR is specified then the trailing
newline is retained.
.PP
If standard input isn't redirected with ``<'' or ``<<''




or ``<@'' then the standard input for the first command in the
pipeline is taken from the application's current standard input.
.PP
If the last \fIarg\fR is ``&'' then the pipeline will be

executed in background.
In this case the \fBexec\fR command will return a list whose
elements are the process identifiers for all of the subprocesses
in the pipeline.
The standard output from the last command in the pipeline will
go to the application's standard output if it hasn't been
redirected, and error output from all of
the commands in the pipeline will go to the application's
................................................................................
.PP
The first word in each command is taken as the command name;
tilde-substitution is performed on it, and if the result contains
no slashes then the directories
in the PATH environment variable are searched for
an executable by the given name.
If the name contains a slash then it must refer to an executable
reachable from the current directory.

No ``glob'' expansion or other shell-like substitutions
are performed on the arguments to commands.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows\fR (all versions)
.
Reading from or writing to a socket, using the ``\[email protected]\0\fIfileId\fR''

notation, does not work.  When reading from a socket, a 16-bit DOS
application will hang and a 32-bit application will return immediately with
end-of-file.  When either type of application writes to a socket, the
information is instead sent to the console, if one is present, or is
discarded.
.RS
.PP
................................................................................
backslashes only in paths.  Any arguments to an application that specify a
path name with forward slashes will not automatically be converted to use
the backslash character.  If an argument contains forward slashes as the
path separator, it may or may not be recognized as a path name, depending on
the program.  
.PP
Additionally, when calling a 16-bit DOS or Windows 3.X application, all path
names must use the short, cryptic, path format (e.g., using ``applba~1.def''



instead of ``applbakery.default''), which can be obtained with the
\fBfile attributes $fileName -shortname\fR command.
.PP
Two or more forward or backward slashes in a row in a path refer to a
network path.  For example, a simple concatenation of the root directory
\fBc:/\fR with a subdirectory \fB/windows/system\fR will yield
\fBc://windows/system\fR (two slashes together), which refers to the mount
point called \fBsystem\fR on the machine called \fBwindows\fR (and the
................................................................................
The Windows NT 16-bit system directory.
.IP \(bu
The Windows NT home directory.
.IP \(bu
The directories listed in the path.
.PP
In order to execute shell built-in commands like \fBdir\fR and \fBcopy\fR,
the caller must prepend the desired command with ``\fBcmd.exe /c\0\fR''

because built-in commands are not implemented using executables.
.RE
.TP
\fBWindows 9x\fR
.
When attempting to execute an application, \fBexec\fR first searches for
the name as it was specified.  Then, in order, \fB.com\fR, \fB.exe\fR, and
................................................................................
The Windows 9x system directory.
.IP \(bu
The Windows 9x home directory.
.IP \(bu
The directories listed in the path.
.PP
In order to execute shell built-in commands like \fBdir\fR and \fBcopy\fR,
the caller must prepend the desired command with ``\fBcommand.com /c\0\fR''

because built-in commands are not implemented using executables.
.PP
Once a 16-bit DOS application has read standard input from a console and 
then quit, all subsequently run 16-bit DOS applications will see the 
standard input as already closed.  32-bit applications do not have this
problem and will run correctly, even after a 16-bit DOS application thinks 
that standard input is closed.  There is no known workaround for this bug
at this time.
.PP
Redirection between the \fBNUL:\fR device and a 16-bit application does not
always work.  When redirecting from \fBNUL:\fR, some applications may hang,
others will get an infinite stream of ``0x01'' bytes, and some will actually


correctly get an immediate end-of-file; the behavior seems to depend upon 
something compiled into the application itself.  When redirecting greater than
4K or so to \fBNUL:\fR, some applications will hang.  The above problems do not
happen with 32-bit applications.  
.PP
All DOS 16-bit applications are run synchronously.  All standard input from
a pipe to a 16-bit DOS application is collected into a temporary file; the
................................................................................
same name and be in the path. It can then happen that typing a command
at the DOS prompt finds \fIa different program\fR than the same
command run via \fBexec\fR. This is because of the (documented)
differences in behaviour between \fBexec\fR and DOS batch files.
.PP
When in doubt, use the command \fBauto_execok\fR: it will return the
complete path to the program as seen by the \fBexec\fR command.  This
applies especially when you want to run "internal" commands like

\fIdir\fR from a Tcl script (if you just want to list filenames, use
the \fBglob\fR command.)  To do that, use this:
.CS
\fBexec\fR {*}[auto_execok dir] *.tcl
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
error(n), open(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
execute, pipeline, redirection, subprocess

Changes to doc/expr.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: expr.n,v 1.26 2007/10/25 09:35:14 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH expr n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
expr \- Evaluate an expression
................................................................................
.PP
For some examples of simple expressions, suppose the variable
\fBa\fR has the value 3 and
the variable \fBb\fR has the value 6.
Then the command on the left side of each of the lines below
will produce the value on the right side of the line:
.CS
.ta 3.5i
\fBexpr\fR 3.1 + $a	\fB\(-> \fI6.1\fR
\fBexpr\fR 2 + "$a.$b"	\fB\(-> \fI5.6\fR
\fBexpr\fR 4*[llength "6 2"]	\fB\(-> \fI8\fR
\fBexpr\fR {{word one} < "word $a"}	\fB\(-> \fI0\fR
.CE
.SS OPERATORS
.PP
The valid operators are listed below, grouped in decreasing order
of precedence:
.TP 20
\fB\-\0\0+\0\0~\0\0!\fR
................................................................................
All of the binary operators group left-to-right within the same
precedence level.  For example, the command
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {4*2 < 7}
.CE
returns 0.
.PP
The \fB&&\fR, \fB||\fR, and \fB?:\fR operators have
.QW "lazy evaluation" ,
just as in C, which means that operands are not evaluated if they are
not needed to determine the outcome.  For example, in the command
.CS
\fBexpr {$v ? [a] : [b]}\fR
.CE
only one of \fB[a]\fR or \fB[b]\fR will actually be evaluated,
depending on the value of \fB$v\fR.  Note, however, that this is
only true if the entire expression is enclosed in braces;  otherwise
................................................................................
\fBexpr\fR {5 / 4}
.CE
returns 1, while
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {5 / 4.0}
\fBexpr\fR {5 / ( [string length "abcd"] + 0.0 )}
.CE
both return 1.25. Floating-point values are always returned with a
.QW \fB.\fR
or an \fBe\fR so that they will not look like integer values.  For
example,
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {20.0/5.0}
.CE
returns \fB4.0\fR, not \fB4\fR.
.SS "STRING OPERATIONS"
................................................................................
the bytecode compiler must emit
additional instructions to handle this situation.
The most expensive code is required for
unbraced expressions that contain command substitutions.
These expressions must be implemented by generating new code
each time the expression is executed.
.SH EXAMPLES
Define a procedure that computes an
.QW "interesting"
mathematical function:
.CS
proc tcl::mathfunc::calc {x y} {
    \fBexpr\fR { ($x**2 - $y**2) / exp($x**2 + $y**2) }
}
.CE
.PP
Convert polar coordinates into cartesian coordinates:
................................................................................
}]
.CE
.PP
Generate a random integer in the range 0..99 inclusive:
.CS
set randNum [\fBexpr\fR { int(100 * rand()) }]
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
array(n), for(n), if(n), mathfunc(n), namespace(n), proc(n), string(n),
Tcl(n), while(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
arithmetic, boolean, compare, expression, fuzzy comparison

.SH COPYRIGHT
.nf
Copyright \(co 1993 The Regents of the University of California.

Copyright \(co 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated.
Copyright \(co 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny. All rights reserved.
.fi








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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: expr.n,v 1.27 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH expr n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
expr \- Evaluate an expression
................................................................................
.PP
For some examples of simple expressions, suppose the variable
\fBa\fR has the value 3 and
the variable \fBb\fR has the value 6.
Then the command on the left side of each of the lines below
will produce the value on the right side of the line:
.CS
.ta 6c
\fBexpr\fR 3.1 + $a	\fI6.1\fR
\fBexpr\fR 2 + "$a.$b"	\fI5.6\fR
\fBexpr\fR 4*[llength "6 2"]	\fI8\fR
\fBexpr\fR {{word one} < "word $a"}	\fI0\fR
.CE
.SS OPERATORS
.PP
The valid operators are listed below, grouped in decreasing order
of precedence:
.TP 20
\fB\-\0\0+\0\0~\0\0!\fR
................................................................................
All of the binary operators group left-to-right within the same
precedence level.  For example, the command
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {4*2 < 7}
.CE
returns 0.
.PP
The \fB&&\fR, \fB||\fR, and \fB?:\fR operators have ``lazy
evaluation'', just as in C, 
which means that operands are not evaluated if they are
not needed to determine the outcome.  For example, in the command
.CS
\fBexpr {$v ? [a] : [b]}\fR
.CE
only one of \fB[a]\fR or \fB[b]\fR will actually be evaluated,
depending on the value of \fB$v\fR.  Note, however, that this is
only true if the entire expression is enclosed in braces;  otherwise
................................................................................
\fBexpr\fR {5 / 4}
.CE
returns 1, while
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {5 / 4.0}
\fBexpr\fR {5 / ( [string length "abcd"] + 0.0 )}
.CE
both return 1.25.
Floating-point values are always returned with a ``\fB.\fR''
or an \fBe\fR so that they will not look like integer values.  For
example,
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {20.0/5.0}
.CE
returns \fB4.0\fR, not \fB4\fR.
.SS "STRING OPERATIONS"
................................................................................
the bytecode compiler must emit
additional instructions to handle this situation.
The most expensive code is required for
unbraced expressions that contain command substitutions.
These expressions must be implemented by generating new code
each time the expression is executed.
.SH EXAMPLES
Define a procedure that computes an "interesting" mathematical

function:
.CS
proc tcl::mathfunc::calc {x y} {
    \fBexpr\fR { ($x**2 - $y**2) / exp($x**2 + $y**2) }
}
.CE
.PP
Convert polar coordinates into cartesian coordinates:
................................................................................
}]
.CE
.PP
Generate a random integer in the range 0..99 inclusive:
.CS
set randNum [\fBexpr\fR { int(100 * rand()) }]
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
array(n), for(n), if(n), mathfunc(n), namespace(n), proc(n), string(n), Tcl(n), while(n)


.SH KEYWORDS
arithmetic, boolean, compare, expression, fuzzy comparison

.SH COPYRIGHT

Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
.br
Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated.


.br
Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved.

Changes to doc/fcopy.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: fcopy.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH fcopy n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
fcopy \- Copy data from one channel to another
................................................................................
and the command callback is \fInot\fR made.
If \fIinchan\fR is closed,
then all data already queued for \fIoutchan\fR is written out.
.PP
Note that \fIinchan\fR can become readable during a background copy.
You should turn off any \fBfileevent\fR handlers during a background
copy so those handlers do not interfere with the copy.
Any I/O attempted by a \fBfileevent\fR handler will get a
.QW "channel busy"
error.
.PP
\fBFcopy\fR translates end-of-line sequences in \fIinchan\fR and \fIoutchan\fR
according to the \fB\-translation\fR option
for these channels.
See the manual entry for \fBfconfigure\fR for details on the
\fB\-translation\fR option.
The translations mean that the number of bytes read from \fIinchan\fR
................................................................................
.PP
\fBFcopy\fR obeys the encodings and character translations configured
for the channels. This
means that the incoming characters are converted internally first
UTF-8 and then into the encoding of the channel \fBfcopy\fR writes
to. See the manual entry for \fBfconfigure\fR for details on the
\fB\-encoding\fR and \fB\-translation\fR options. No conversion is
done if both channels are set to encoding
.QW "binary"
and have matching translations. If only the output channel is set to encoding
.QW "binary"
the system will write the internal UTF-8 representation of the incoming
characters. If only the input channel is set to encoding
.QW "binary"
the system will assume that the incoming bytes are valid UTF-8 characters and

convert them according to the output encoding. The behaviour of the system for
bytes which are not valid UTF-8 characters is undefined in this case.

.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
The first example transfers the contents of one channel exactly to
another. Note that when copying one file to another, it is better to
use \fBfile copy\fR which also copies file metadata (e.g. the file
access permissions) where possible.
.CS
................................................................................
set out [socket $server $port]
set chunk 1024
set total 0
\fBfcopy\fR $in $out -size $chunk \\
        -command [list CopyMore $in $out $chunk]
vwait done
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
eof(n), fblocked(n), fconfigure(n), file(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, channel, end of line, end of file, nonblocking, read, translation






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: fcopy.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH fcopy n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
fcopy \- Copy data from one channel to another
................................................................................
and the command callback is \fInot\fR made.
If \fIinchan\fR is closed,
then all data already queued for \fIoutchan\fR is written out.
.PP
Note that \fIinchan\fR can become readable during a background copy.
You should turn off any \fBfileevent\fR handlers during a background
copy so those handlers do not interfere with the copy.
Any I/O attempted by a \fBfileevent\fR handler will get a "channel busy" error.


.PP
\fBFcopy\fR translates end-of-line sequences in \fIinchan\fR and \fIoutchan\fR
according to the \fB\-translation\fR option
for these channels.
See the manual entry for \fBfconfigure\fR for details on the
\fB\-translation\fR option.
The translations mean that the number of bytes read from \fIinchan\fR
................................................................................
.PP
\fBFcopy\fR obeys the encodings and character translations configured
for the channels. This
means that the incoming characters are converted internally first
UTF-8 and then into the encoding of the channel \fBfcopy\fR writes
to. See the manual entry for \fBfconfigure\fR for details on the
\fB\-encoding\fR and \fB\-translation\fR options. No conversion is
done if both channels are
set to encoding "binary" and have matching translations. If only the
output channel is set to

encoding "binary" the system will write the internal UTF-8
representation of the incoming characters. If only the input channel

is set to encoding "binary" the system will assume that the incoming
bytes are valid UTF-8 characters and convert them according to the
output encoding. The behaviour of the system for bytes which are not
valid UTF-8 characters is undefined in this case.

.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
The first example transfers the contents of one channel exactly to
another. Note that when copying one file to another, it is better to
use \fBfile copy\fR which also copies file metadata (e.g. the file
access permissions) where possible.
.CS
................................................................................
set out [socket $server $port]
set chunk 1024
set total 0
\fBfcopy\fR $in $out -size $chunk \\
        -command [list CopyMore $in $out $chunk]
vwait done
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
eof(n), fblocked(n), fconfigure(n), file(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, channel, end of line, end of file, nonblocking, read, translation

Changes to doc/file.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: file.n,v 1.46 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH file n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
file \- Manipulate file names and attributes
................................................................................
.RS
This subcommand returns or sets platform specific values associated
with a file. The first form returns a list of the platform specific
flags and their values. The second form returns the value for the
specific option. The third form sets one or more of the values. The
values are as follows:
.PP
On Unix, \fB\-group\fR gets or sets the group name for the file. A group id
can be given to the command, but it returns a group name. \fB\-owner\fR gets
or sets the user name of the owner of the file. The command returns the
owner name, but the numerical id can be passed when setting the
owner. \fB\-permissions\fR sets or retrieves the octal code that chmod(1)
uses.  This command does also has limited support for setting using the
symbolic attributes for chmod(1), of the form [ugo]?[[+\-=][rwxst],[...]],
where multiple symbolic attributes can be separated by commas (example:
\fBu+s,go\-rw\fR add sticky bit for user, remove read and write
permissions for group and other).  A simplified \fBls\fR style string,
of the form rwxrwxrwx (must be 9 characters), is also supported
(example: \fBrwxr\-xr\-t\fR is equivalent to 01755).
On versions of Unix supporting file flags, \fB\-readonly\fR gives the
value or sets or clears the readonly attribute of the file,
i.e. the user immutable flag \fBuchg\fR to chflags(1).
.PP
On Windows, \fB\-archive\fR gives the value or sets or clears the
archive attribute of the file. \fB\-hidden\fR gives the value or sets
or clears the hidden attribute of the file. \fB\-longname\fR will
expand each path element to its long version. This attribute cannot be
set. \fB\-readonly\fR gives the value or sets or clears the readonly
attribute of the file. \fB\-shortname\fR gives a string where every
path element is replaced with its short (8.3) version of the
name. This attribute cannot be set. \fB\-system\fR gives or sets or
clears the value of the system attribute of the file.
.PP
On Mac OS X and Darwin, \fB\-creator\fR gives or sets the
Finder creator type of the file. \fB\-hidden\fR gives or sets or clears
the hidden attribute of the file. \fB\-readonly\fR gives or sets or
clears the readonly attribute of the file. \fB\-rsrclength\fR gives
the length of the resource fork of the file, this attribute can only be
set to the value 0, which results in the resource fork being stripped
off the file.
.RE
.TP
\fBfile channels ?\fIpattern\fR?
.
................................................................................
argument.  Non-empty directories will be removed only if the
\fB\-force\fR option is specified.  When operating on symbolic links,
the links themselves will be deleted, not the objects they point to.
Trying to delete a non-existent file is not considered an error.
Trying to delete a read-only file will cause the file to be deleted,
even if the \fB\-force\fR flags is not specified.  If the \fB\-force\fR
option is specified on a directory, Tcl will attempt both to change
permissions and move the current directory
.QW pwd
out of the given path
if that is necessary to allow the deletion to proceed.  Arguments are
processed in the order specified, halting at the first error, if any.
A \fB\-\|\-\fR marks the end of switches; the argument following the
\fB\-\|\-\fR will be treated as a \fIpathname\fR even if it starts with
a \fB\-\fR.
.TP
\fBfile dirname \fIname\fR
Returns a name comprised of all of the path components in \fIname\fR
excluding the last element.  If \fIname\fR is a relative file name and
only contains one path element, then returns
.QW \fB.\fR .
If \fIname\fR refers to a root directory, then the root directory is
returned.  For example,
.RS
.CS
\fBfile dirname c:/\fR
.CE
returns \fBc:/\fR. 
.PP
Note that tilde substitution will only be
................................................................................
returns \fB/foo/bar\fR.
.PP
Note that any of the names can contain separators, and that the result
is always canonical for the current platform: \fB/\fR for Unix and
Windows.
.RE
.TP
\fBfile link ?\fI\-linktype\fR? \fIlinkName\fR ?\fItarget\fR?
.
If only one argument is given, that argument is assumed to be
\fIlinkName\fR, and this command returns the value of the link given by
\fIlinkName\fR (i.e. the name of the file it points to).  If
\fIlinkName\fR isn't a link or its value cannot be read (as, for example,
seems to be the case with hard links, which look just like ordinary
files), then an error is returned.
................................................................................
type of the link is platform-specific (on Unix a symbolic link will be
the default).  This is useful for the case where the user wishes to
create a link in a cross-platform way, and doesn't care what type of
link is created.
.
If the user wishes to make a link of a specific type only, (and signal an
error if for some reason that is not possible), then the optional
\fI\-linktype\fR argument should be given.  Accepted values for
\fI\-linktype\fR are
.QW "\-symbolic"
and
.QW "\-hard" .
.
On Unix, symbolic links can be made to relative paths, and those paths
must be relative to the actual \fIlinkName\fR's location (not to the
cwd), but on all other platforms where relative links are not supported,
target paths will always be converted to absolute, normalized form
before the link is created (and therefore relative paths are interpreted
as relative to the cwd).  Furthermore,
.QW "~user"
paths are always expanded
to absolute form.  When creating links on filesystems that either do not
support any links, or do not support the specific type requested, an
error message will be returned.  In particular Windows 95, 98 and ME do
not support any links at present, but most Unix platforms support both
symbolic and hard links (the latter for files only) and Windows
NT/2000/XP (on NTFS drives) support symbolic
directory links and hard file links.
................................................................................
.TP
\fBfile normalize \fIname\fR
.
.RS
Returns a unique normalized path representation for the file-system
object (file, directory, link, etc), whose string value can be used as a
unique identifier for it.  A normalized path is an absolute path which has
all
.QW ../ ,
.QW ./
removed.  Also it is one which is in the
.QW standard
format for the native platform.  On Unix, this means the segments
leading up to the path must be free of symbolic links/aliases (but the
very last path component may be a symbolic link), and on Windows it also
means we want the long form with that form's case-dependence (which
gives us a unique, case-dependent path).  The one exception concerning the
last link in the path is necessary, because Tcl or the user may wish to
operate on the actual symbolic link itself (for example \fBfile
delete\fR, \fBfile rename\fR, \fBfile copy\fR are defined to operate
on symbolic links, not on the things that they point to).
.RE
.TP
\fBfile owned \fIname\fR 
.
Returns \fB1\fR if file \fIname\fR is owned by the current user, \fB0\fR
otherwise.
.TP
................................................................................
switches; the argument following the \fB\-\|\-\fR will be treated as a
\fIsource\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBfile rootname \fIname\fR
.
Returns all of the characters in \fIname\fR up to but not including the
last
.QW .
character in the last component of name.  If the last
component of \fIname\fR doesn't contain a dot, then returns \fIname\fR.
.TP
\fBfile separator\fR ?\fIname\fR?
.
If no argument is given, returns the character which is used to separate 
path segments for native files on this platform.  If a path is given,
the filesystem responsible for that path is asked to return its
................................................................................
\fBfile system \fIname\fR
.
Returns a list of one or two elements, the first of which is the name of
the filesystem to use for the file, and the second, if given, an
arbitrary string representing the filesystem-specific nature or type of
the location within that filesystem.  If a filesystem only supports one
type of file, the second element may not be supplied.  For example the
native files have a first element
.QW native ,
and a second element which
when given is a platform-specific type name for the file's system
(e.g.
.QW NTFS ,
.QW FAT ,
on Windows).  A generic virtual file system might return the list
.QW "vfs ftp"
to represent a file on a remote ftp site mounted as a virtual
filesystem through an extension called
.QW vfs .
If the file does not belong to any filesystem, an error is generated.
.TP
\fBfile tail \fIname\fR
.
Returns all of the characters in the last filesystem component of
\fIname\fR.  Any trailing directory separator in \fIname\fR is ignored.
If \fIname\fR contains no separators then returns \fIname\fR.  So, 
\fBfile tail a/b\fR, \fBfile tail a/b/\fR and \fBfile tail b\fR all
................................................................................
.
Returns a string giving the type of file \fIname\fR, which will be one of
\fBfile\fR, \fBdirectory\fR, \fBcharacterSpecial\fR, \fBblockSpecial\fR,
\fBfifo\fR, \fBlink\fR, or \fBsocket\fR.
.TP
\fBfile volumes\fR
. 
Returns the absolute paths to the volumes mounted on the system, as a proper
Tcl list. Without any virtual filesystems mounted as root volumes, on UNIX,
the command will always return
.QW "/" ,
since all filesystems are locally mounted. On Windows, it will return a list
of the available local drives (e.g.
.QW "a:/ c:/" ).
If any virtual filesystem has mounted additional volumes, they will be in the
returned list.
.TP
\fBfile writable \fIname\fR
.
Returns \fB1\fR if file \fIname\fR is writable by the current user,
\fB0\fR otherwise.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
................................................................................
Rename a file and leave a symbolic link pointing from the old location
to the new place:
.CS
set oldName foobar.txt
set newName foo/bar.txt
# Make sure that where we're going to move to exists...
if {![\fBfile isdirectory\fR [\fBfile dirname\fR $newName]]} {
    \fBfile mkdir\fR [\fBfile dirname\fR $newName]
}
\fBfile rename\fR $oldName $newName
\fBfile link\fR -symbolic $oldName $newName
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
chan(n), close(n), eof(n), fblocked(n), filename(n), flush(n), gets(n),
open(n), seek(n), tell(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
attributes, copy files, delete files, directory, file, move files, name, rename files, stat






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: file.n,v 1.47 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH file n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
file \- Manipulate file names and attributes
................................................................................
.RS
This subcommand returns or sets platform specific values associated
with a file. The first form returns a list of the platform specific
flags and their values. The second form returns the value for the
specific option. The third form sets one or more of the values. The
values are as follows:
.PP
On Unix, \fB-group\fR gets or sets the group name for the file. A group id
can be given to the command, but it returns a group name. \fB-owner\fR gets
or sets the user name of the owner of the file. The command returns the
owner name, but the numerical id can be passed when setting the
owner. \fB-permissions\fR sets or retrieves the octal code that chmod(1)
uses.  This command does also has limited support for setting using the
symbolic attributes for chmod(1), of the form [ugo]?[[+\-=][rwxst],[...]],
where multiple symbolic attributes can be separated by commas (example:
\fBu+s,go\-rw\fR add sticky bit for user, remove read and write
permissions for group and other).  A simplified \fBls\fR style string,
of the form rwxrwxrwx (must be 9 characters), is also supported
(example: \fBrwxr\-xr\-t\fR is equivalent to 01755).
On versions of Unix supporting file flags, \fB-readonly\fR gives the
value or sets or clears the readonly attribute of the file,
i.e. the user immutable flag \fBuchg\fR to chflags(1).
.PP
On Windows, \fB-archive\fR gives the value or sets or clears the
archive attribute of the file. \fB-hidden\fR gives the value or sets
or clears the hidden attribute of the file. \fB-longname\fR will
expand each path element to its long version. This attribute cannot be
set. \fB-readonly\fR gives the value or sets or clears the readonly
attribute of the file. \fB-shortname\fR gives a string where every
path element is replaced with its short (8.3) version of the
name. This attribute cannot be set. \fB-system\fR gives or sets or
clears the value of the system attribute of the file.
.PP
On Mac OS X and Darwin, \fB-creator\fR gives or sets the
Finder creator type of the file. \fB-hidden\fR gives or sets or clears
the hidden attribute of the file. \fB-readonly\fR gives or sets or
clears the readonly attribute of the file. \fB-rsrclength\fR gives
the length of the resource fork of the file, this attribute can only be
set to the value 0, which results in the resource fork being stripped
off the file.
.RE
.TP
\fBfile channels ?\fIpattern\fR?
.
................................................................................
argument.  Non-empty directories will be removed only if the
\fB\-force\fR option is specified.  When operating on symbolic links,
the links themselves will be deleted, not the objects they point to.
Trying to delete a non-existent file is not considered an error.
Trying to delete a read-only file will cause the file to be deleted,
even if the \fB\-force\fR flags is not specified.  If the \fB\-force\fR
option is specified on a directory, Tcl will attempt both to change
permissions and move the current directory 'pwd' out of the given path


if that is necessary to allow the deletion to proceed.  Arguments are
processed in the order specified, halting at the first error, if any.
A \fB\-\|\-\fR marks the end of switches; the argument following the
\fB\-\|\-\fR will be treated as a \fIpathname\fR even if it starts with
a \fB\-\fR.
.TP
\fBfile dirname \fIname\fR
Returns a name comprised of all of the path components in \fIname\fR
excluding the last element.  If \fIname\fR is a relative file name and
only contains one path element, then returns ``\fB.\fR''.  If \fIname\fR

refers to a root directory, then the root directory is returned.  For
example,
.RS
.CS
\fBfile dirname c:/\fR
.CE
returns \fBc:/\fR. 
.PP
Note that tilde substitution will only be
................................................................................
returns \fB/foo/bar\fR.
.PP
Note that any of the names can contain separators, and that the result
is always canonical for the current platform: \fB/\fR for Unix and
Windows.
.RE
.TP
\fBfile link ?\fI-linktype\fR? \fIlinkName\fR ?\fItarget\fR?
.
If only one argument is given, that argument is assumed to be
\fIlinkName\fR, and this command returns the value of the link given by
\fIlinkName\fR (i.e. the name of the file it points to).  If
\fIlinkName\fR isn't a link or its value cannot be read (as, for example,
seems to be the case with hard links, which look just like ordinary
files), then an error is returned.
................................................................................
type of the link is platform-specific (on Unix a symbolic link will be
the default).  This is useful for the case where the user wishes to
create a link in a cross-platform way, and doesn't care what type of
link is created.
.
If the user wishes to make a link of a specific type only, (and signal an
error if for some reason that is not possible), then the optional
\fI-linktype\fR argument should be given.  Accepted values for
\fI-linktype\fR are "-symbolic" and "-hard".



.
On Unix, symbolic links can be made to relative paths, and those paths
must be relative to the actual \fIlinkName\fR's location (not to the
cwd), but on all other platforms where relative links are not supported,
target paths will always be converted to absolute, normalized form
before the link is created (and therefore relative paths are interpreted
as relative to the cwd).  Furthermore, "~user" paths are always expanded


to absolute form.  When creating links on filesystems that either do not
support any links, or do not support the specific type requested, an
error message will be returned.  In particular Windows 95, 98 and ME do
not support any links at present, but most Unix platforms support both
symbolic and hard links (the latter for files only) and Windows
NT/2000/XP (on NTFS drives) support symbolic
directory links and hard file links.
................................................................................
.TP
\fBfile normalize \fIname\fR
.
.RS
Returns a unique normalized path representation for the file-system
object (file, directory, link, etc), whose string value can be used as a
unique identifier for it.  A normalized path is an absolute path which has



all '../', './' removed.  Also it is one which is in the ``standard''

format for the native platform.  On Unix, this means the segments
leading up to the path must be free of symbolic links/aliases (but the
very last path component may be a symbolic link), and on Windows it also
means we want the long form with that form's case-dependence (which
gives us a unique, case-dependent path).  The one exception concerning the
last link in the path is necessary, because Tcl or the user may wish to
operate on the actual symbolic link itself (for example 'file delete', 'file
rename', 'file copy' are defined to operate on symbolic links, not on the
things that they point to).
.RE
.TP
\fBfile owned \fIname\fR 
.
Returns \fB1\fR if file \fIname\fR is owned by the current user, \fB0\fR
otherwise.
.TP
................................................................................
switches; the argument following the \fB\-\|\-\fR will be treated as a
\fIsource\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBfile rootname \fIname\fR
.
Returns all of the characters in \fIname\fR up to but not including the


last ``.'' character in the last component of name.  If the last
component of \fIname\fR doesn't contain a dot, then returns \fIname\fR.
.TP
\fBfile separator\fR ?\fIname\fR?
.
If no argument is given, returns the character which is used to separate 
path segments for native files on this platform.  If a path is given,
the filesystem responsible for that path is asked to return its
................................................................................
\fBfile system \fIname\fR
.
Returns a list of one or two elements, the first of which is the name of
the filesystem to use for the file, and the second, if given, an
arbitrary string representing the filesystem-specific nature or type of
the location within that filesystem.  If a filesystem only supports one
type of file, the second element may not be supplied.  For example the
native files have a first element 'native', and a second element which


when given is a platform-specific type name for the file's system



(e.g. 'NTFS', 'FAT', on Windows).  A generic virtual file system might return

the list 'vfs ftp' to represent a file on a remote ftp site mounted as a
virtual filesystem through an extension called 'vfs'.  If the file does

not belong to any filesystem, an error is generated.
.TP
\fBfile tail \fIname\fR
.
Returns all of the characters in the last filesystem component of
\fIname\fR.  Any trailing directory separator in \fIname\fR is ignored.
If \fIname\fR contains no separators then returns \fIname\fR.  So, 
\fBfile tail a/b\fR, \fBfile tail a/b/\fR and \fBfile tail b\fR all
................................................................................
.
Returns a string giving the type of file \fIname\fR, which will be one of
\fBfile\fR, \fBdirectory\fR, \fBcharacterSpecial\fR, \fBblockSpecial\fR,
\fBfifo\fR, \fBlink\fR, or \fBsocket\fR.
.TP
\fBfile volumes\fR
. 
Returns the absolute paths to the volumes mounted on the system, as a
proper Tcl list.  Without any virtual filesystems mounted as root
volumes, on UNIX, the command will always return "/", since all

filesystems are locally mounted.
On Windows, it will return a list of the available local drives

(e.g. {a:/ c:/}).  If any virtual filesystem has mounted additional
volumes, they will be in the returned list.
.TP
\fBfile writable \fIname\fR
.
Returns \fB1\fR if file \fIname\fR is writable by the current user,
\fB0\fR otherwise.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
................................................................................
Rename a file and leave a symbolic link pointing from the old location
to the new place:
.CS
set oldName foobar.txt
set newName foo/bar.txt
# Make sure that where we're going to move to exists...
if {![\fBfile isdirectory\fR [\fBfile dirname\fR $newName]]} {
   \fBfile mkdir\fR [\fBfile dirname\fR $newName]
}
\fBfile rename\fR $oldName $newName
\fBfile link\fR -symbolic $oldName $newName
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
chan(n), close(n), eof(n), fblocked(n), filename(n), flush(n), gets(n),
open(n), seek(n), tell(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
attributes, copy files, delete files, directory, file, move files, name, rename files, stat

Changes to doc/fileevent.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: fileevent.n,v 1.10 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH fileevent n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
fileevent \- Execute a script when a channel becomes readable or writable
................................................................................
is evaluated whenever the channel becomes readable or writable.  File event
handlers are most commonly used to allow data to be received from another
process on an event-driven basis, so that the receiver can continue to
interact with the user while waiting for the data to arrive.  If an
application invokes \fBgets\fR or \fBread\fR on a blocking channel when
there is no input data available, the process will block; until the input
data arrives, it will not be able to service other events, so it will
appear to the user to
.QW "freeze up" .
With \fBfileevent\fR, the process can
tell when data is present and only invoke \fBgets\fR or \fBread\fR when
they won't block.
.PP
The \fIchannelId\fR argument to \fBfileevent\fR refers to an open
channel such as a Tcl standard channel (\fBstdin\fR, \fBstdout\fR,
or \fBstderr\fR), the return value from an invocation of \fBopen\fR
or \fBsocket\fR, or the result of a channel creation command provided
................................................................................
    if {![eof $chan]} {
        puts [gets $chan]
    }
}

\fBfileevent\fR $chan readable [list GetData $chan]
.CE

.SH CREDITS
.PP
\fBfileevent\fR is based on the \fBaddinput\fR command created
by Mark Diekhans.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
fconfigure(n), gets(n), interp(n), puts(n), read(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
asynchronous I/O, blocking, channel, event handler, nonblocking, readable,
script, writable.






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: fileevent.n,v 1.11 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH fileevent n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
fileevent \- Execute a script when a channel becomes readable or writable
................................................................................
is evaluated whenever the channel becomes readable or writable.  File event
handlers are most commonly used to allow data to be received from another
process on an event-driven basis, so that the receiver can continue to
interact with the user while waiting for the data to arrive.  If an
application invokes \fBgets\fR or \fBread\fR on a blocking channel when
there is no input data available, the process will block; until the input
data arrives, it will not be able to service other events, so it will


appear to the user to ``freeze up''.  With \fBfileevent\fR, the process can
tell when data is present and only invoke \fBgets\fR or \fBread\fR when
they won't block.
.PP
The \fIchannelId\fR argument to \fBfileevent\fR refers to an open
channel such as a Tcl standard channel (\fBstdin\fR, \fBstdout\fR,
or \fBstderr\fR), the return value from an invocation of \fBopen\fR
or \fBsocket\fR, or the result of a channel creation command provided
................................................................................
    if {![eof $chan]} {
        puts [gets $chan]
    }
}

\fBfileevent\fR $chan readable [list GetData $chan]
.CE

.SH CREDITS
.PP
\fBfileevent\fR is based on the \fBaddinput\fR command created
by Mark Diekhans.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
fconfigure(n), gets(n), interp(n), puts(n), read(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
asynchronous I/O, blocking, channel, event handler, nonblocking, readable,
script, writable.

Changes to doc/filename.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: filename.n,v 1.16 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH filename n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
filename \- File name conventions supported by Tcl commands
................................................................................
Tcl attempts to interpret that part of the path or otherwise access the
file.  The behaviour of these paths when not trying to interpret them is
the same as on Unix.  File names that have a tilde without a user name
will be correctly substituted using the \fB$HOME\fR environment
variable, just like for Unix.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.PP
Not all file systems are case sensitive, so scripts should avoid code that
depends on the case of characters in a file name. In addition, the character
sets allowed on different devices may differ, so scripts should choose file
names that do not contain special characters like: \fB<>:?"/\e|\fR.
.\"" Reset emacs highlighting
The safest approach is to use names consisting of alphanumeric characters
only. Care should be taken with filenames which contain spaces (common on

Windows systems) and filenames where the backslash is the directory separator
(Windows native path names). Also Windows 3.1 only supports file names with a
root of no more than 8 characters and an extension of no more than 3
characters.
.PP
On Windows platforms there are file and path length restrictions. Complete
paths or filenames longer than about 260 characters will lead to errors in
most file operations.
.PP
Another Windows peculiarity is that any number of trailing dots
.QW "."
in filenames are totally ignored, so, for example, attempts to create a file
or directory with a name
.QW "foo."
will result in the creation of a file or directory with name
.QW "foo" .
This fact is reflected in the results of
.QW \fBfile normalize\fR .
Furthermore, a file name consisting only of dots
.QW "........."
or dots with trailing characters
.QW ".....abc"
is illegal.
.SH KEYWORDS
current directory, absolute file name, relative file name,
volume-relative file name, portability
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), glob(n)





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: filename.n,v 1.17 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH filename n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
filename \- File name conventions supported by Tcl commands
................................................................................
Tcl attempts to interpret that part of the path or otherwise access the
file.  The behaviour of these paths when not trying to interpret them is
the same as on Unix.  File names that have a tilde without a user name
will be correctly substituted using the \fB$HOME\fR environment
variable, just like for Unix.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.PP
Not all file systems are case sensitive, so scripts should avoid code
that depends on the case of characters in a file name.  In addition,
the character sets allowed on different devices may differ, so scripts
should choose file names that do not contain special characters like:

\fB<>:?"/\e|\fR.  The safest approach is to use names consisting of
alphanumeric characters only.  Care should be taken with filenames
which contain spaces (common on Windows systems) and
filenames where the backslash is the directory separator (Windows
native path names).  Also Windows 3.1 only supports file
names with a root of no more than 8 characters and an extension of no
more than 3 characters.
.PP
On Windows platforms there are file and path length restrictions. 
Complete paths or filenames longer than about 260 characters will lead
to errors in most file operations.
.PP
Another Windows peculiarity is that any number of trailing dots '.'  in

filenames are totally ignored, so, for example, attempts to create a
file or directory with a name "foo." will result in the creation of a



file/directory with name "foo".  This fact is reflected in the

results of 'file normalize'.  Furthermore, a file name consisting only

of dots '.........' or dots with trailing characters '.....abc' is

illegal.
.SH KEYWORDS
current directory, absolute file name, relative file name,
volume-relative file name, portability
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), glob(n)

Changes to doc/for.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: for.n,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH for n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
for \- `For' loop
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBfor \fIstart test next body\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBFor\fR is a looping command, similar in structure to the C






|






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: for.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH for n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
for \- ``For'' loop
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBfor \fIstart test next body\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBFor\fR is a looping command, similar in structure to the C

Changes to doc/format.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: format.n,v 1.16 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH format n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
format \- Format a string in the style of sprintf
................................................................................
a set of flags, a minimum field width, a precision, a size modifier,
and a conversion character.
Any of these fields may be omitted except for the conversion character.
The fields that are present must appear in the order given above.
The paragraphs below discuss each of these fields in turn.
.PP
If the \fB%\fR is followed by a decimal number and a \fB$\fR, as in
.QW \fB%2$d\fR ,
then the value to convert is not taken from the next sequential argument.
Instead, it is taken from the argument indicated by the number,
where 1 corresponds to the first \fIarg\fR.
If the conversion specifier requires multiple arguments because
of \fB*\fR characters in the specifier then
successive arguments are used, starting with the argument
given by the number.
This follows the XPG3 conventions for positional specifiers.
................................................................................
Convert integer to signed decimal string (equivalent to \fBd\fR).
.TP 10
\fBo\fR
Convert integer to unsigned octal string.
.TP 10
\fBx\fR or \fBX\fR
Convert integer to unsigned hexadecimal string, using digits
.QW 0123456789abcdef
for \fBx\fR and
.QW 0123456789ABCDEF
for \fBX\fR).
.TP 10
\fBc\fR
Convert integer to the Unicode character it represents.
.TP 10
\fBs\fR
No conversion; just insert string.
.TP 10
................................................................................
Convert number to signed decimal string of 
the form \fIxx.yyy\fR, where the number of \fIy\fR's is determined by 
the precision (default: 6).
If the precision is 0 then no decimal point is output.
.TP 10
\fBe\fR or \fBE\fR
Convert number to scientific notation in the 
form
.QW "\fIx.yyy\fBe\(+-\fIzz\fR" ,
where the number of \fIy\fR's is determined by the precision (default: 6).
If the precision is 0 then no decimal point is output.
If the \fBE\fR form is used then \fBE\fR is 
printed instead of \fBe\fR.
.TP 10
\fBg\fR or \fBG\fR
If the exponent is less than \-4 or greater than or equal to the 
precision, then convert number as for \fB%e\fR or 






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: format.n,v 1.17 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH format n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
format \- Format a string in the style of sprintf
................................................................................
a set of flags, a minimum field width, a precision, a size modifier,
and a conversion character.
Any of these fields may be omitted except for the conversion character.
The fields that are present must appear in the order given above.
The paragraphs below discuss each of these fields in turn.
.PP
If the \fB%\fR is followed by a decimal number and a \fB$\fR, as in
``\fB%2$d\fR'', then the value to convert is not taken from the
next sequential argument.
Instead, it is taken from the argument indicated by the number,
where 1 corresponds to the first \fIarg\fR.
If the conversion specifier requires multiple arguments because
of \fB*\fR characters in the specifier then
successive arguments are used, starting with the argument
given by the number.
This follows the XPG3 conventions for positional specifiers.
................................................................................
Convert integer to signed decimal string (equivalent to \fBd\fR).
.TP 10
\fBo\fR
Convert integer to unsigned octal string.
.TP 10
\fBx\fR or \fBX\fR
Convert integer to unsigned hexadecimal string, using digits
``0123456789abcdef'' for \fBx\fR and ``0123456789ABCDEF'' for \fBX\fR).



.TP 10
\fBc\fR
Convert integer to the Unicode character it represents.
.TP 10
\fBs\fR
No conversion; just insert string.
.TP 10
................................................................................
Convert number to signed decimal string of 
the form \fIxx.yyy\fR, where the number of \fIy\fR's is determined by 
the precision (default: 6).
If the precision is 0 then no decimal point is output.
.TP 10
\fBe\fR or \fBE\fR
Convert number to scientific notation in the 

form \fIx.yyy\fBe\(+-\fIzz\fR, where the number of \fIy\fR's is determined 
by the precision (default: 6).
If the precision is 0 then no decimal point is output.
If the \fBE\fR form is used then \fBE\fR is 
printed instead of \fBe\fR.
.TP 10
\fBg\fR or \fBG\fR
If the exponent is less than \-4 or greater than or equal to the 
precision, then convert number as for \fB%e\fR or 

Changes to doc/glob.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: glob.n,v 1.19 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH glob n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
glob \- Return names of files that match patterns
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBglob \fR?\fIswitches\fR? \fIpattern \fR?\fIpattern ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command performs file name
.QW globbing
in a fashion similar to
the csh shell.  It returns a list of the files whose names match any
of the \fIpattern\fR arguments.  No particular order is guaranteed
in the list, so if a sorted list is required the caller should use 
\fBlsort\fR.
.LP
If the initial arguments to \fBglob\fR start with \fB\-\fR then
they are treated as switches.  The following switches are
................................................................................
The following are equivalent:
.RS
.CS
\fBglob \-type d *\fR
\fBglob */\fR
.CE
.RE
except that the first case doesn't return the trailing
.QW /
and is more platform independent.
.RE
.TP
\fB\-\|\-\fR
Marks the end of switches.  The argument following this one will
be treated as a \fIpattern\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.
.PP
The \fIpattern\fR arguments may contain any of the following
................................................................................
.TP 10
\fB\e\fIx\fR
Matches the character \fIx\fR.
.TP 10
\fB{\fIa\fB,\fIb\fB,\fI...\fR}
Matches any of the strings \fIa\fR, \fIb\fR, etc.
.LP
On Unix, as with csh, a
.QW .
at the beginning of a file's name or just after a
.QW /
must be matched explicitly or with a {} construct, unless the
.QW "-types hidden"
flag is given (since
.QW .
at the beginning 
of a file's name indicates that it is hidden).  On other platforms,
files beginning with a
.QW .
are handled no differently to any others,
except the special directories
.QW .
and
.QW ..
which must be matched explicitly (this is to avoid a recursive pattern like
.QW "glob -join * * * *"
from recursing up the directory hierarchy as well as down). In addition, all
.QW /
characters must be matched explicitly.
.LP
If the first character in a \fIpattern\fR is
.QW ~
then it refers to the home directory for the user whose name follows the
.QW ~ .
If the
.QW ~
is followed immediately by
.QW /
then the value of the HOME environment variable is used.
.LP
The \fBglob\fR command differs from csh globbing in two ways.
First, it does not sort its result list (use the \fBlsort\fR
command if you want the list sorted).
Second, \fBglob\fR only returns the names of files that actually
exist;  in csh no check for existence is made unless a pattern
contains a ?, *, or [] construct.
.LP
When the \fBglob\fR command returns relative paths whose filenames
start with a tilde
.QW ~
(for example through \fBglob *\fR or 
\fBglob -tails\fR, the returned list will not quote the tilde with
.QW ./ .
This means care must be taken if those names are later to
be used with \fBfile join\fR, to avoid them being interpreted as
absolute paths pointing to a given user's home directory.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows\fR
.
For Windows UNC names, the servername and sharename components of the path
may not contain ?, *, or [] constructs.  On Windows NT, if \fIpattern\fR is
of the form
.QW \fB~\fIusername\[email protected]\fIdomain\fR
it refers to the home
directory of the user whose account information resides on the specified NT
domain server.  Otherwise, user account information is obtained from
the local computer.  On Windows 95 and 98, \fBglob\fR accepts patterns
like
.QW .../
and
.QW ..../
for successively higher up parent directories.
.RS
.PP
Since the backslash character has a special meaning to the glob 
command, glob patterns containing Windows style path separators need 
special care. The pattern \fIC:\e\efoo\e\e*\fR is interpreted as 
\fIC:\efoo\e*\fR where \fI\ef\fR will match the single character \fIf\fR 
and \fI\e*\fR will match the single character \fI*\fR and will not be 
interpreted as a wildcard character. One solution to this problem is 
to use the Unix style forward slash as a path separator. Windows style 
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
Find all subdirectories of the current directory:
.CS
\fBglob\fR \-type d *
.CE
.PP
Find all files whose name contains an
.QW a ,
a
.QW b
or the sequence
.QW cde :
.CS
\fBglob\fR \-type f *{a,b,cde}*
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
exist, file, glob, pattern






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: glob.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH glob n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
glob \- Return names of files that match patterns
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBglob \fR?\fIswitches\fR? \fIpattern \fR?\fIpattern ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command performs file name ``globbing'' in a fashion similar to


the csh shell.  It returns a list of the files whose names match any
of the \fIpattern\fR arguments.  No particular order is guaranteed
in the list, so if a sorted list is required the caller should use 
\fBlsort\fR.
.LP
If the initial arguments to \fBglob\fR start with \fB\-\fR then
they are treated as switches.  The following switches are
................................................................................
The following are equivalent:
.RS
.CS
\fBglob \-type d *\fR
\fBglob */\fR
.CE
.RE
except that the first case doesn't return the trailing ``/'' and

is more platform independent.
.RE
.TP
\fB\-\|\-\fR
Marks the end of switches.  The argument following this one will
be treated as a \fIpattern\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.
.PP
The \fIpattern\fR arguments may contain any of the following
................................................................................
.TP 10
\fB\e\fIx\fR
Matches the character \fIx\fR.
.TP 10
\fB{\fIa\fB,\fIb\fB,\fI...\fR}
Matches any of the strings \fIa\fR, \fIb\fR, etc.
.LP


On Unix, as with csh, a ``.'' at the beginning of a file's name or just

after a ``/'' must be matched explicitly or with a {} construct,

unless the ``-types hidden'' flag is given (since ``.'' at the beginning 


of a file's name indicates that it is hidden).  On other platforms,


files beginning with a ``.'' are handled no differently to any others,
except the special directories ``.'' and ``..'' which must be matched



explicitly (this is to avoid a recursive pattern like ``glob -join * *

* *'' from recursing up the directory hierarchy as well as down).

In addition, all ``/'' characters must be matched explicitly.
.LP
If the first character in a \fIpattern\fR is ``~'' then it refers

to the home directory for the user whose name follows the ``~''.



If the ``~'' is followed immediately by ``/'' then the value of

the HOME environment variable is used.
.LP
The \fBglob\fR command differs from csh globbing in two ways.
First, it does not sort its result list (use the \fBlsort\fR
command if you want the list sorted).
Second, \fBglob\fR only returns the names of files that actually
exist;  in csh no check for existence is made unless a pattern
contains a ?, *, or [] construct.
.LP
When the \fBglob\fR command returns relative paths whose filenames


start with a tilde ``~'' (for example through \fBglob *\fR or 
\fBglob -tails\fR, the returned list will not quote the tilde with

``./''.  This means care must be taken if those names are later to
be used with \fBfile join\fR, to avoid them being interpreted as
absolute paths pointing to a given user's home directory.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.PP
\fBWindows\fR
.
For Windows UNC names, the servername and sharename components of the path
may not contain ?, *, or [] constructs.  On Windows NT, if \fIpattern\fR is

of the form ``\fB~\fIusername\[email protected]\fIdomain\fR'' it refers to the home

directory of the user whose account information resides on the specified NT
domain server.  Otherwise, user account information is obtained from
the local computer.  On Windows 95 and 98, \fBglob\fR accepts patterns
like ``.../'' and ``..../'' for successively higher up parent directories.

.




Since the backslash character has a special meaning to the glob 
command, glob patterns containing Windows style path separators need 
special care. The pattern \fIC:\e\efoo\e\e*\fR is interpreted as 
\fIC:\efoo\e*\fR where \fI\ef\fR will match the single character \fIf\fR 
and \fI\e*\fR will match the single character \fI*\fR and will not be 
interpreted as a wildcard character. One solution to this problem is 
to use the Unix style forward slash as a path separator. Windows style 
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
Find all subdirectories of the current directory:
.CS
\fBglob\fR \-type d *
.CE
.PP
Find all files whose name contains an "a", a "b" or the sequence "cde":





.CS
\fBglob\fR \-type f *{a,b,cde}*
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
exist, file, glob, pattern

Changes to doc/history.n.

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2
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: history.n,v 1.5 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH history n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
history \- Manipulate the history list
................................................................................
\fBhistory \fR?\fIoption\fR? ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBhistory\fR command performs one of several operations related to
recently-executed commands recorded in a history list.  Each of
these recorded commands is referred to as an
.QW event .
When specifying an event to the \fBhistory\fR command, the following
forms may be used:
.IP [1]
A number:  if positive, it refers to the event with
that number (all events are numbered starting at 1).  If the number
is negative, it selects an event relative to the current event
(\fB\-1\fR refers to the previous event, \fB\-2\fR to the one before that, and
so on).  Event \fB0\fR refers to the current event.
................................................................................
.SH "HISTORY REVISION"
.PP
Pre-8.0 Tcl had a complex history revision mechanism.
The current mechanism is more limited, and the old
history operations \fBsubstitute\fR and \fBwords\fR have been removed.
(As a consolation, the \fBclear\fR operation was added.)
.PP
The history option \fBredo\fR results in much simpler
.QW "history revision" .
When this option is invoked then the most recent event
is modified to eliminate the history command and replace it with
the result of the history command.
If you want to redo an event without modifying history, then use
the \fBevent\fR operation to retrieve some event,
and the \fBadd\fR operation to add it to history and execute it.

.SH KEYWORDS
event, history, record






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26
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: history.n,v 1.6 2007/10/26 20:11:52 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH history n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
history \- Manipulate the history list
................................................................................
\fBhistory \fR?\fIoption\fR? ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBhistory\fR command performs one of several operations related to
recently-executed commands recorded in a history list.  Each of
these recorded commands is referred to as an ``event''.  When

specifying an event to the \fBhistory\fR command, the following
forms may be used:
.IP [1]
A number:  if positive, it refers to the event with
that number (all events are numbered starting at 1).  If the number
is negative, it selects an event relative to the current event
(\fB\-1\fR refers to the previous event, \fB\-2\fR to the one before that, and
so on).  Event \fB0\fR refers to the current event.
................................................................................
.SH "HISTORY REVISION"
.PP
Pre-8.0 Tcl had a complex history revision mechanism.
The current mechanism is more limited, and the old
history operations \fBsubstitute\fR and \fBwords\fR have been removed.
(As a consolation, the \fBclear\fR operation was added.)
.PP
The history option \fBredo\fR results in much simpler ``history revision''.

When this option is invoked then the most recent event
is modified to eliminate the history command and replace it with
the result of the history command.
If you want to redo an event without modifying history, then use
the \fBevent\fR operation to retrieve some event,
and the \fBadd\fR operation to add it to history and execute it.

.SH KEYWORDS
event, history, record

Changes to doc/http.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Ajuba Solutions.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: http.n,v 1.26 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH "http" n 2.5 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
http \- Client-side implementation of the HTTP/1.0 protocol
................................................................................
flags and values that define the configuration:
.RS
.TP
\fB\-accept\fR \fImimetypes\fR
The Accept header of the request.  The default is */*, which means that
all types of documents are accepted.  Otherwise you can supply a 
comma-separated list of mime type patterns that you are
willing to receive.  For example,
.QW "image/gif, image/jpeg, text/*" .
.TP
\fB\-proxyhost\fR \fIhostname\fR
The name of the proxy host, if any.  If this value is the
empty string, the URL host is contacted directly.
.TP
\fB\-proxyport\fR \fInumber\fR
The proxy port number.
................................................................................
returned by specifying the empty string (\fB{}\fR), although
\fIiso8859-1\fR is recommended to restore similar behavior but without the
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR throwing an error processing non-latin-1
characters.
.TP
\fB\-useragent\fR \fIstring\fR
The value of the User-Agent header in the HTTP request.  The default
is
.QW "\fBTcl http client package 2.5\fR" .
.RE
.TP
\fB::http::geturl\fR \fIurl\fR ?\fIoptions\fR? 
The \fB::http::geturl\fR command is the main procedure in the package.
The \fB\-query\fR option causes a POST operation and
the \fB\-validate\fR option causes a HEAD operation;
otherwise, a GET operation is performed.  The \fB::http::geturl\fR command
................................................................................
set token [::http::geturl https://my.secure.site/]
.CE
.RE
.TP
\fB::http::unregister\fR \fIproto\fR
This procedure unregisters a protocol handler that was previously
registered via \fB::http::register\fR.

.SH "ERRORS"
The \fB::http::geturl\fR procedure will raise errors in the following cases:
invalid command line options,
an invalid URL,
a URL on a non-existent host,
or a URL at a bad port on an existing host.
These errors mean that it
................................................................................
These are described below.
.TP
ok
If the HTTP transaction completes entirely, then status will be \fBok\fR.
However, you should still check the \fB::http::code\fR value to get
the HTTP status.  The \fB::http::ncode\fR procedure provides just
the numeric error (e.g., 200, 404 or 500) while the \fB::http::code\fR
procedure returns a value like
.QW "HTTP 404 File not found" .
.TP
eof
If the server closes the socket without replying, then no error
is raised, but the status of the transaction will be \fBeof\fR.
.TP
error
The error message will also be stored in the \fBerror\fR status
................................................................................
responds and closes the socket.
The error message is saved in the \fBposterror\fR status array
element and then  \fB::http::geturl\fR attempts to complete the
transaction.
If it can read the server's response
it will end up with an \fBok\fR status, otherwise it will have
an \fBeof\fR status.

.SH "STATE ARRAY"
The \fB::http::geturl\fR procedure returns a \fItoken\fR that can be used to
get to the state of the HTTP transaction in the form of a Tcl array.
Use this construct to create an easy-to-use array variable:
.CS
upvar #0 $token state
.CE
................................................................................
   return $token
}
proc httpCopyProgress {args} {
   puts -nonewline stderr .
   flush stderr
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
safe(n), socket(n), safesock(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
security policy, socket






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'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Ajuba Solutions.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: http.n,v 1.27 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH "http" n 2.5 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
http \- Client-side implementation of the HTTP/1.0 protocol
................................................................................
flags and values that define the configuration:
.RS
.TP
\fB\-accept\fR \fImimetypes\fR
The Accept header of the request.  The default is */*, which means that
all types of documents are accepted.  Otherwise you can supply a 
comma-separated list of mime type patterns that you are
willing to receive.  For example, "image/gif, image/jpeg, text/*".

.TP
\fB\-proxyhost\fR \fIhostname\fR
The name of the proxy host, if any.  If this value is the
empty string, the URL host is contacted directly.
.TP
\fB\-proxyport\fR \fInumber\fR
The proxy port number.
................................................................................
returned by specifying the empty string (\fB{}\fR), although
\fIiso8859-1\fR is recommended to restore similar behavior but without the
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR throwing an error processing non-latin-1
characters.
.TP
\fB\-useragent\fR \fIstring\fR
The value of the User-Agent header in the HTTP request.  The default

is \fB"Tcl http client package 2.4."\fR
.RE
.TP
\fB::http::geturl\fR \fIurl\fR ?\fIoptions\fR? 
The \fB::http::geturl\fR command is the main procedure in the package.
The \fB\-query\fR option causes a POST operation and
the \fB\-validate\fR option causes a HEAD operation;
otherwise, a GET operation is performed.  The \fB::http::geturl\fR command
................................................................................
set token [::http::geturl https://my.secure.site/]
.CE
.RE
.TP
\fB::http::unregister\fR \fIproto\fR
This procedure unregisters a protocol handler that was previously
registered via \fB::http::register\fR.

.SH "ERRORS"
The \fB::http::geturl\fR procedure will raise errors in the following cases:
invalid command line options,
an invalid URL,
a URL on a non-existent host,
or a URL at a bad port on an existing host.
These errors mean that it
................................................................................
These are described below.
.TP
ok
If the HTTP transaction completes entirely, then status will be \fBok\fR.
However, you should still check the \fB::http::code\fR value to get
the HTTP status.  The \fB::http::ncode\fR procedure provides just
the numeric error (e.g., 200, 404 or 500) while the \fB::http::code\fR
procedure returns a value like "HTTP 404 File not found".

.TP
eof
If the server closes the socket without replying, then no error
is raised, but the status of the transaction will be \fBeof\fR.
.TP
error
The error message will also be stored in the \fBerror\fR status
................................................................................
responds and closes the socket.
The error message is saved in the \fBposterror\fR status array
element and then  \fB::http::geturl\fR attempts to complete the
transaction.
If it can read the server's response
it will end up with an \fBok\fR status, otherwise it will have
an \fBeof\fR status.

.SH "STATE ARRAY"
The \fB::http::geturl\fR procedure returns a \fItoken\fR that can be used to
get to the state of the HTTP transaction in the form of a Tcl array.
Use this construct to create an easy-to-use array variable:
.CS
upvar #0 $token state
.CE
................................................................................
   return $token
}
proc httpCopyProgress {args} {
   puts -nonewline stderr .
   flush stderr
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
safe(n), socket(n), safesock(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
security policy, socket

Changes to doc/if.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: if.n,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH if n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
if \- Execute scripts conditionally
................................................................................
if it is true then \fIbody1\fR is executed by passing it to the
Tcl interpreter.
Otherwise \fIexpr2\fR is evaluated as an expression and if it is true
then \fBbody2\fR is executed, and so on.
If none of the expressions evaluates to true then \fIbodyN\fR is
executed.
The \fBthen\fR and \fBelse\fR arguments are optional
.QW noise words
to make the command easier to read.
There may be any number of \fBelseif\fR clauses, including zero.
\fIBodyN\fR may also be omitted as long as \fBelse\fR is omitted too.
The return value from the command is the result of the body script
that was executed, or an empty string
if none of the expressions was non-zero and there was no \fIbodyN\fR.
.SH EXAMPLES
A simple conditional:






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: if.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH if n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
if \- Execute scripts conditionally
................................................................................
if it is true then \fIbody1\fR is executed by passing it to the
Tcl interpreter.
Otherwise \fIexpr2\fR is evaluated as an expression and if it is true
then \fBbody2\fR is executed, and so on.
If none of the expressions evaluates to true then \fIbodyN\fR is
executed.
The \fBthen\fR and \fBelse\fR arguments are optional

``noise words'' to make the command easier to read.
There may be any number of \fBelseif\fR clauses, including zero.
\fIBodyN\fR may also be omitted as long as \fBelse\fR is omitted too.
The return value from the command is the result of the body script
that was executed, or an empty string
if none of the expressions was non-zero and there was no \fIbodyN\fR.
.SH EXAMPLES
A simple conditional:

Changes to doc/info.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1997 Bell Labs Innovations for Lucent Technologies
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 Ajuba Solutions
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: info.n,v 1.20 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH info n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
info \- Return information about the state of the Tcl interpreter
................................................................................
\fBinfo \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command provides information about various internals of the Tcl
interpreter.
The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBinfo args \fIprocname\fR
Returns a list containing the names of the arguments to procedure
\fIprocname\fR, in order.  \fIProcname\fR must be the name of a
Tcl command procedure.
.TP
\fBinfo body \fIprocname\fR
................................................................................
If \fInumber\fR is positive (> 0) then it selects a particular stack
level (1 refers to the top-most active command, i.e., \fBinfo frame\fR
itself, 2 to the command it was called from, and so on); otherwise it
gives a level relative to the current command (0 refers to the current
command, i.e., \fBinfo frame\fR itself, -1 to its caller, and so on).
.sp
This is similar to how \fBinfo level\fR works, except that this
subcommand reports all frames, like \fBsource\fRd scripts,
\fBeval\fRs, \fBuplevel\fRs, etc.
.sp
Note that for nested commands, like
.QW "foo [[bar [[x]]]]"
only
.QW "x"
will be seen by an \fBinfo frame\fR invoked within
.QW "x" .
This is the same as for \fBinfo level\fR and error stack traces.
.sp
The result dictionary may contain the keys listed below, with the
specified meanings for their values:
.RS
.TP
\fItype\fR
This entry is always present and describes the nature of the location
................................................................................
using a sequence of namespace names separated by double colons (\fB::\fR),
and may have pattern matching special characters
at the end to specify a set of variables in that namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name,
the resulting list of variable names
has each matching namespace variable qualified with the name
of its namespace.
Note that a currently-visible variable may not yet
.QW "exist"
if it has not
been set (e.g. a variable declared but not set by \fBvariable\fR).
.SH EXAMPLE
This command prints out a procedure suitable for saving in a Tcl
script:
.PP
.CS
proc printProc {procName} {






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'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1997 Bell Labs Innovations for Lucent Technologies
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 Ajuba Solutions
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: info.n,v 1.21 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH info n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
info \- Return information about the state of the Tcl interpreter
................................................................................
\fBinfo \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command provides information about various internals of the Tcl
interpreter.
The legal \fIoption\fR's (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBinfo args \fIprocname\fR
Returns a list containing the names of the arguments to procedure
\fIprocname\fR, in order.  \fIProcname\fR must be the name of a
Tcl command procedure.
.TP
\fBinfo body \fIprocname\fR
................................................................................
If \fInumber\fR is positive (> 0) then it selects a particular stack
level (1 refers to the top-most active command, i.e., \fBinfo frame\fR
itself, 2 to the command it was called from, and so on); otherwise it
gives a level relative to the current command (0 refers to the current
command, i.e., \fBinfo frame\fR itself, -1 to its caller, and so on).
.sp
This is similar to how \fBinfo level\fR works, except that this
subcommand reports all frames, like \fBsource\fR'd scripts,
\fBeval\fR's, \fBuplevel\fR's, etc.
.sp
Note that for nested commands, like "foo [[bar [[x]]]]" only "x" will



be seen by an \fBinfo frame\fR invoked within "x". This is the same as

for \fBinfo level\fR and error stack traces.
.sp
The result dictionary may contain the keys listed below, with the
specified meanings for their values:
.RS
.TP
\fItype\fR
This entry is always present and describes the nature of the location
................................................................................
using a sequence of namespace names separated by double colons (\fB::\fR),
and may have pattern matching special characters
at the end to specify a set of variables in that namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name,
the resulting list of variable names
has each matching namespace variable qualified with the name
of its namespace.
Note that a currently-visible variable may not yet "exist" if it has not


been set (e.g. a variable declared but not set by \fBvariable\fR).
.SH EXAMPLE
This command prints out a procedure suitable for saving in a Tcl
script:
.PP
.CS
proc printProc {procName} {

Changes to doc/interp.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: interp.n,v 1.30 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH interp n 7.6 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
interp \- Create and manipulate Tcl interpreters
................................................................................
This command creates an alias between one slave and another (see the
\fBalias\fR slave command below for creating aliases between a slave
and its master).  In this command, either of the slave interpreters
may be anywhere in the hierarchy of interpreters under the interpreter
invoking the command.
\fISrcPath\fR and \fIsrcCmd\fR identify the source of the alias.
\fISrcPath\fR is a Tcl list whose elements select a particular
interpreter.  For example,
.QW "\fBa b\fR"
identifies an interpreter
\fBb\fR, which is a slave of interpreter \fBa\fR, which is a slave
of the invoking interpreter.  An empty list specifies the interpreter
invoking the command.  \fIsrcCmd\fR gives the name of a new
command, which will be created in the source interpreter.
\fITargetPath\fR and \fItargetCmd\fR specify a target interpreter
and command, and the \fIarg\fR arguments, if any, specify additional
arguments to \fItargetCmd\fR which are prepended to any arguments specified
................................................................................
When the source for an alias is invoked in the slave interpreter, the
usual Tcl substitutions are performed when parsing that command.
These substitutions are carried out in the source interpreter just
as they would be for any other command invoked in that interpreter.
The command procedure for the source command takes its arguments
and merges them with the \fItargetCmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs for the
alias to create a new array of arguments.  If the words
of \fIsrcCmd\fR were
.QW "\fIsrcCmd arg1 arg2 ... argN\fR" ,
the new set of words will be
.QW "\fItargetCmd arg arg ... arg arg1 arg2 ... argN\fR" ,
where \fItargetCmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs are the values supplied when the
alias was created.  \fITargetCmd\fR is then used to locate a command
procedure in the target interpreter, and that command procedure
is invoked with the new set of arguments.  An error occurs if
there is no command named \fItargetCmd\fR in the target interpreter.
No additional substitutions are performed on the words:  the
target command procedure is invoked directly, without






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: interp.n,v 1.31 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH interp n 7.6 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
interp \- Create and manipulate Tcl interpreters
................................................................................
This command creates an alias between one slave and another (see the
\fBalias\fR slave command below for creating aliases between a slave
and its master).  In this command, either of the slave interpreters
may be anywhere in the hierarchy of interpreters under the interpreter
invoking the command.
\fISrcPath\fR and \fIsrcCmd\fR identify the source of the alias.
\fISrcPath\fR is a Tcl list whose elements select a particular
interpreter.  For example, ``\fBa b\fR'' identifies an interpreter


\fBb\fR, which is a slave of interpreter \fBa\fR, which is a slave
of the invoking interpreter.  An empty list specifies the interpreter
invoking the command.  \fIsrcCmd\fR gives the name of a new
command, which will be created in the source interpreter.
\fITargetPath\fR and \fItargetCmd\fR specify a target interpreter
and command, and the \fIarg\fR arguments, if any, specify additional
arguments to \fItargetCmd\fR which are prepended to any arguments specified
................................................................................
When the source for an alias is invoked in the slave interpreter, the
usual Tcl substitutions are performed when parsing that command.
These substitutions are carried out in the source interpreter just
as they would be for any other command invoked in that interpreter.
The command procedure for the source command takes its arguments
and merges them with the \fItargetCmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs for the
alias to create a new array of arguments.  If the words
of \fIsrcCmd\fR were ``\fIsrcCmd arg1 arg2 ... argN\fR'',

the new set of words will be
``\fItargetCmd arg arg ... arg arg1 arg2 ... argN\fR'',
where \fItargetCmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs are the values supplied when the
alias was created.  \fITargetCmd\fR is then used to locate a command
procedure in the target interpreter, and that command procedure
is invoked with the new set of arguments.  An error occurs if
there is no command named \fItargetCmd\fR in the target interpreter.
No additional substitutions are performed on the words:  the
target command procedure is invoked directly, without

Changes to doc/join.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: join.n,v 1.6 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH join n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
join \- Create a string by joining together list elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBjoin \fIlist \fR?\fIjoinString\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fIlist\fR argument must be a valid Tcl list.
This command returns the string
formed by joining all of the elements of \fIlist\fR together with
\fIjoinString\fR separating each adjacent pair of elements.
The \fIjoinString\fR argument defaults to a space character.
.SH EXAMPLES
Making a comma-separated list:
.CS
.ta 2i
set data {1 2 3 4 5}
\fBjoin\fR $data ", "
	 \fB\(->\fI 1, 2, 3, 4, 5\fR
.CE
.PP
Using \fBjoin\fR to flatten a list by a single level:
.CS
.ta 2i
set data {1 {2 3} 4 {5 {6 7} 8}}
\fBjoin\fR $data
	 \fB\(->\fI 1 2 3 4 5 {6 7} 8\fR
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), split(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, join, list, separator






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: join.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH join n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
join \- Create a string by joining together list elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBjoin \fIlist \fR?\fIjoinString\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fIlist\fR argument must be a valid Tcl list.
This command returns the string
formed by joining all of the elements of \fIlist\fR together with
\fIjoinString\fR separating each adjacent pair of elements.
The \fIjoinString\fR argument defaults to a space character.
.SH EXAMPLES
Making a comma-separated list:
.CS

set data {1 2 3 4 5}
\fBjoin\fR $data ", "
     \fB=> 1, 2, 3, 4, 5\fR
.CE
.PP
Using \fBjoin\fR to flatten a list by a single level:
.CS

set data {1 {2 3} 4 {5 {6 7} 8}}
\fBjoin\fR $data
     \fB=> 1 2 3 4 5 {6 7} 8\fR
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), split(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, join, list, separator

Changes to doc/lappend.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lappend.n,v 1.12 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lappend n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lappend \- Append list elements onto a variable
................................................................................
and appends each of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to that list as a separate
element, with spaces between elements.
If \fIvarName\fR doesn't exist, it is created as a list with elements
given by the \fIvalue\fR arguments.
\fBLappend\fR is similar to \fBappend\fR except that the \fIvalue\fRs
are appended as list elements rather than raw text.
This command provides a relatively efficient way to build up
large lists.  For example,
.QW "\fBlappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
.QW "\fBset a [concat $a [list $b]]\fR" ,
especially when \fB$a\fR is long.
.SH EXAMPLE
Using \fBlappend\fR to build up a list of numbers.
.CS
% set var 1
1
% \fBlappend\fR var 2
1 2






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lappend.n,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lappend n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lappend \- Append list elements onto a variable
................................................................................
and appends each of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to that list as a separate
element, with spaces between elements.
If \fIvarName\fR doesn't exist, it is created as a list with elements
given by the \fIvalue\fR arguments.
\fBLappend\fR is similar to \fBappend\fR except that the \fIvalue\fRs
are appended as list elements rather than raw text.
This command provides a relatively efficient way to build up
large lists.  For example, ``\fBlappend a $b\fR'' is much


more efficient than ``\fBset a [concat $a [list $b]]\fR'' when
\fB$a\fR is long.
.SH EXAMPLE
Using \fBlappend\fR to build up a list of numbers.
.CS
% set var 1
1
% \fBlappend\fR var 2
1 2

Changes to doc/lassign.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 Karl Lehenbauer & Mark Diekhans
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lassign.n,v 1.2 2007/10/25 09:31:52 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lassign n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lassign \- Assign list elements to variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlassign \fIlist varName \fR?\fIvarName ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command treats the value \fIlist\fR as a list and assigns
successive elements from that list to the variables given by the
\fIvarName\fR arguments in order.  If there are more variable names
than list elements, the remaining variables are set to the empty
string.  If there are more list elements than variables, a list of
unassigned elements is returned.
.SH EXAMPLES
An illustration of how multiple assignment works, and what happens
when there are either too few or too many elements.
.CS
.ta 2.5i
lassign {a b c} x y z	\fB\(->\fI Empty return\fR

puts $x	\fB\(->\fI Prints "a"\fR
puts $y	\fB\(->\fI Prints "b"\fR
puts $z	\fB\(->\fI Prints "c"\fR

lassign {d e} x y z	\fB\(->\fI Empty return\fR

puts $x	\fB\(->\fI Prints "d"\fR
puts $y	\fB\(->\fI Prints "e"\fR
puts $z	\fB\(->\fI Prints ""\fR

lassign {f g h i} x y	\fB\(->\fI Returns "h i"\fR

puts $x	\fB\(->\fI Prints "f"\fR
puts $y	\fB\(->\fI Prints "g"\fR
.CE
.PP
The \fBlassign\fR command has other uses.  It can be used to create
the analogue of the
.QW shift
command in many shell languages like this:
.CS
set ::argv [lassign $::argv argumentToReadOff]
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
lindex(n), list(n), lset(n), set(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
assign, element, list, multiple, set, variable






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 Karl Lehenbauer & Mark Diekhans
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lassign.n,v 1.3 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lassign n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lassign \- Assign list elements to variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlassign \fIlist varName \fR?\fIvarName ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command treats the value \fIlist\fR as a list and assigns
successive elements from that list to the variables given by the
\fIvarName\fR arguments in order.  If there are more variable names
than list elements, the remaining variables are set to the empty
string.  If there are more list elements than variables, a list of
unassigned elements is returned.
.SH EXAMPLES
An illustration of how multiple assignment works, and what happens
when there are either too few or too many elements.
.CS

lassign {a b c} x y z       ;# Empty return
puts $x                     ;# Prints "a"
puts $y                     ;# Prints "b"
puts $z                     ;# Prints "c"


lassign {d e} x y z         ;# Empty return
puts $x                     ;# Prints "d"
puts $y                     ;# Prints "e"
puts $z                     ;# Prints ""


lassign {f g h i} x y       ;# Returns "h i"
puts $x                     ;# Prints "f"
puts $y                     ;# Prints "g"

.CE

The \fBlassign\fR command has other uses.  It can be used to create


the analogue of the "shift" command in many shell languages like this:
.CS
set ::argv [lassign $::argv argumentToReadOff]
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
lindex(n), list(n), lset(n), set(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
assign, element, list, multiple, set, variable

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1991-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: library.n,v 1.19 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
.so man.macros
.TH library n "8.0" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
auto_execok, auto_import, auto_load, auto_mkindex, auto_mkindex_old, auto_qualify, auto_reset, tcl_findLibrary, parray, tcl_endOfWord, tcl_startOfNextWord, tcl_startOfPreviousWord, tcl_wordBreakAfter, tcl_wordBreakBefore \- standard library of Tcl procedures
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
................................................................................
\fBsource [file join [info library] init.tcl]\fR
.CE
If the library procedure \fBTcl_Init\fR is invoked from an application's
\fBTcl_AppInit\fR procedure, this happens automatically.
The code in \fBinit.tcl\fR will define the \fBunknown\fR procedure
and arrange for the other procedures to be loaded on-demand using
the auto-load mechanism defined below.

.SH "COMMAND PROCEDURES"
.PP
The following procedures are provided in the Tcl library:
.TP
\fBauto_execok \fIcmd\fR
Determines whether there is an executable file or shell builtin
by the name \fIcmd\fR.  If so, it returns a list of arguments to be
................................................................................
\fBAuto_mkindex_old\fR parses the Tcl scripts in a relatively
unsophisticated way:  if any line contains the word \fBproc\fR
as its first characters then it is assumed to be a procedure
definition and the next word of the line is taken as the
procedure's name.
Procedure definitions that don't appear in this way (e.g. they
have spaces before the \fBproc\fR) will not be indexed.  If your 
script contains
.QW dangerous
code, such as global initialization
code or procedure names with special characters like \fB$\fR,
\fB*\fR, \fB[\fR or \fB]\fR, you are safer using auto_mkindex_old.
.RE
.TP
\fBauto_reset\fR
Destroys all the information cached by \fBauto_execok\fR and
\fBauto_load\fR.  This information will be re-read from disk the next
................................................................................
.TP
\fBtcl_findLibrary \fIbasename version patch initScript enVarName varName\fR
This is a standard search procedure for use by extensions during
their initialization.  They call this procedure to look for their
script library in several standard directories.
The last component of the name of the library directory is 
normally \fIbasenameversion\fR
(e.g., tk8.0), but it might be
.QW library
when in the build hierarchies.
The \fIinitScript\fR file will be sourced into the interpreter
once it is found.  The directory in which this file is found is
stored into the global variable \fIvarName\fR.
If this variable is already defined (e.g., by C code during
application initialization) then no searching is done.
Otherwise the search looks in these directories:
the directory named by the environment variable \fIenVarName\fR;
................................................................................
.TP
\fBtcl_wordBreakBefore \fIstr start\fR
Returns the index of the first word boundary before the starting index
\fIstart\fR in the string \fIstr\fR.  Returns \-1 if there are no more
boundaries before the starting point in the given string.  The index
returned refers to the second character of the pair that comprises a
boundary.

.SH "VARIABLES"
.PP
The following global variables are defined or used by the procedures in
the Tcl library:
.TP
\fBauto_execs\fR
Used by \fBauto_execok\fR to record information about whether
................................................................................
assigned to the \fBtcl_library\fR variable and therefore returned by
the command \fBinfo library\fR).  If this variable isn't set then
a default value is used.
.TP
\fBenv(TCLLIBPATH)\fR
If set, then it must contain a valid Tcl list giving directories to
search during auto-load operations.  Directories must be specified in 
Tcl format, using
.QW /
as the path separator, regardless of platform.
This variable is only used when initializing the \fBauto_path\fR variable.
.TP
\fBtcl_nonwordchars\fR
This variable contains a regular expression that is used by routines
like \fBtcl_endOfWord\fR to identify whether a character is part of a
word or not.  If the pattern matches a character, the character is
considered to be a non-word character.  On Windows platforms, spaces,
................................................................................
\fBtcl_wordchars\fR
This variable contains a regular expression that is used by routines
like \fBtcl_endOfWord\fR to identify whether a character is part of a
word or not.  If the pattern matches a character, the character is
considered to be a word character.  On Windows platforms, words are
comprised of any character that is not a space, tab, or newline.  Under
Unix, words are comprised of numbers, letters or underscores.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
info(n), re_syntax(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
auto-exec, auto-load, library, unknown, word, whitespace 






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1991-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: library.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
.so man.macros
.TH library n "8.0" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
auto_execok, auto_import, auto_load, auto_mkindex, auto_mkindex_old, auto_qualify, auto_reset, tcl_findLibrary, parray, tcl_endOfWord, tcl_startOfNextWord, tcl_startOfPreviousWord, tcl_wordBreakAfter, tcl_wordBreakBefore \- standard library of Tcl procedures
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
................................................................................
\fBsource [file join [info library] init.tcl]\fR
.CE
If the library procedure \fBTcl_Init\fR is invoked from an application's
\fBTcl_AppInit\fR procedure, this happens automatically.
The code in \fBinit.tcl\fR will define the \fBunknown\fR procedure
and arrange for the other procedures to be loaded on-demand using
the auto-load mechanism defined below.

.SH "COMMAND PROCEDURES"
.PP
The following procedures are provided in the Tcl library:
.TP
\fBauto_execok \fIcmd\fR
Determines whether there is an executable file or shell builtin
by the name \fIcmd\fR.  If so, it returns a list of arguments to be
................................................................................
\fBAuto_mkindex_old\fR parses the Tcl scripts in a relatively
unsophisticated way:  if any line contains the word \fBproc\fR
as its first characters then it is assumed to be a procedure
definition and the next word of the line is taken as the
procedure's name.
Procedure definitions that don't appear in this way (e.g. they
have spaces before the \fBproc\fR) will not be indexed.  If your 


script contains "dangerous" code, such as global initialization
code or procedure names with special characters like \fB$\fR,
\fB*\fR, \fB[\fR or \fB]\fR, you are safer using auto_mkindex_old.
.RE
.TP
\fBauto_reset\fR
Destroys all the information cached by \fBauto_execok\fR and
\fBauto_load\fR.  This information will be re-read from disk the next
................................................................................
.TP
\fBtcl_findLibrary \fIbasename version patch initScript enVarName varName\fR
This is a standard search procedure for use by extensions during
their initialization.  They call this procedure to look for their
script library in several standard directories.
The last component of the name of the library directory is 
normally \fIbasenameversion\fR
(e.g., tk8.0), but it might be "library" when in the build hierarchies.


The \fIinitScript\fR file will be sourced into the interpreter
once it is found.  The directory in which this file is found is
stored into the global variable \fIvarName\fR.
If this variable is already defined (e.g., by C code during
application initialization) then no searching is done.
Otherwise the search looks in these directories:
the directory named by the environment variable \fIenVarName\fR;
................................................................................
.TP
\fBtcl_wordBreakBefore \fIstr start\fR
Returns the index of the first word boundary before the starting index
\fIstart\fR in the string \fIstr\fR.  Returns \-1 if there are no more
boundaries before the starting point in the given string.  The index
returned refers to the second character of the pair that comprises a
boundary.

.SH "VARIABLES"
.PP
The following global variables are defined or used by the procedures in
the Tcl library:
.TP
\fBauto_execs\fR
Used by \fBauto_execok\fR to record information about whether
................................................................................
assigned to the \fBtcl_library\fR variable and therefore returned by
the command \fBinfo library\fR).  If this variable isn't set then
a default value is used.
.TP
\fBenv(TCLLIBPATH)\fR
If set, then it must contain a valid Tcl list giving directories to
search during auto-load operations.  Directories must be specified in 


Tcl format, using "/" as the path separator, regardless of platform.
This variable is only used when initializing the \fBauto_path\fR variable.
.TP
\fBtcl_nonwordchars\fR
This variable contains a regular expression that is used by routines
like \fBtcl_endOfWord\fR to identify whether a character is part of a
word or not.  If the pattern matches a character, the character is
considered to be a non-word character.  On Windows platforms, spaces,
................................................................................
\fBtcl_wordchars\fR
This variable contains a regular expression that is used by routines
like \fBtcl_endOfWord\fR to identify whether a character is part of a
word or not.  If the pattern matches a character, the character is
considered to be a word character.  On Windows platforms, words are
comprised of any character that is not a space, tab, or newline.  Under
Unix, words are comprised of numbers, letters or underscores.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
info(n), re_syntax(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
auto-exec, auto-load, library, unknown, word, whitespace 

Changes to doc/lindex.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 by Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lindex.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lindex n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lindex \- Retrieve an element from a list
................................................................................
lindex $a {1 2 3}
.CE
is synonymous with
.CS
lindex [lindex [lindex $a 1] 2] 3
.CE
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Demonstrating how the index list system works.
.CS
.ta 5i
\fBlindex\fR {a b c}	 \fB\(->\fI a b c\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} {}	 \fB\(->\fI a b c\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} 0	 \fB\(->\fI a\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} 2	 \fB\(->\fI c\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} end	 \fB\(->\fI c\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} end-1	 \fB\(->\fI b\fR
\fBlindex\fR {{a b c} {d e f} {g h i}} 2 1	 \fB\(->\fI h\fR
\fBlindex\fR {{a b c} {d e f} {g h i}} {2 1}	 \fB\(->\fI h\fR
\fBlindex\fR {{{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}} 1 1 0	 \fB\(->\fI g\fR
\fBlindex\fR {{{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}} {1 1 0}	 \fB\(->\fI g\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), 
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE

.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 by Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lindex.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lindex n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lindex \- Retrieve an element from a list
................................................................................
lindex $a {1 2 3}
.CE
is synonymous with
.CS
lindex [lindex [lindex $a 1] 2] 3
.CE
.SH EXAMPLES


.CS

\fBlindex\fR {a b c}  \fI=> a b c\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} {} \fI=> a b c\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} 0 \fI=> a\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} 2 \fI=> c\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} end \fI=> c\fR
\fBlindex\fR {a b c} end-1 \fI=> b\fR
\fBlindex\fR {{a b c} {d e f} {g h i}} 2 1 \fI=> h\fR
\fBlindex\fR {{a b c} {d e f} {g h i}} {2 1} \fI=> h\fR
\fBlindex\fR {{{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}} 1 1 0 \fI=> g\fR
\fBlindex\fR {{{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}} {1 1 0} \fI=> g\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), 
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE

.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list

Changes to doc/llength.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: llength.n,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH llength n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
llength \- Count the number of elements in a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBllength \fIlist\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Treats \fIlist\fR as a list and returns a decimal string giving
the number of elements in it.

.SH EXAMPLES
The result is the number of elements:
.CS
% \fBllength\fR {a b c d e}
5
% \fBllength\fR {a b c}
3
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
An empty list is not necessarily an empty string:
.CS
% set var { }; puts "[string length $var],[\fBllength\fR $var]"
1,0
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), lsearch(n), 
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, length






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: llength.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH llength n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
llength \- Count the number of elements in a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBllength \fIlist\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Treats \fIlist\fR as a list and returns a decimal string giving
the number of elements in it.

.SH EXAMPLES
The result is the number of elements:
.CS
% \fBllength\fR {a b c d e}
5
% \fBllength\fR {a b c}
3
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
An empty list is not necessarily an empty string:
.CS
% set var { }; puts "[string length $var],[\fBllength\fR $var]"
1,0
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), lsearch(n), 
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, length

Changes to doc/load.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: load.n,v 1.18 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH load n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
load \- Load machine code and initialize new commands
................................................................................
package by that name, and uses it if it is found.  If several
different files have been \fBload\fRed with different versions of
the package, Tcl picks the file that was loaded first.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows\fR\0\0\0\0\0
.
When a load fails with a
.QW "library not found"
error, it is also possible that a dependent library was not found.  To
see the dependent libraries, type
.QW "dumpbin -imports <dllname>"
in a DOS console to see what the library must import.
When loading a DLL in the current directory, Windows will ignore
.QW ./
as a path specifier and use a search heuristic to find the DLL instead.
To avoid this, load the DLL with:
.CS
\fBload\fR [file join [pwd] mylib.DLL]
.CE
.SH BUGS
.PP
If the same file is \fBload\fRed by different \fIfileName\fRs, it will





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: load.n,v 1.19 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH load n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
load \- Load machine code and initialize new commands
................................................................................
package by that name, and uses it if it is found.  If several
different files have been \fBload\fRed with different versions of
the package, Tcl picks the file that was loaded first.
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows\fR\0\0\0\0\0
.
When a load fails with "library not found" error, it is also possible

that a dependent library was not found.  To see the dependent libraries,

type ``dumpbin -imports <dllname>'' in a DOS console to see what the
library must import.
When loading a DLL in the current directory, Windows will ignore ``./'' as

a path specifier and use a search heuristic to find the DLL instead.
To avoid this, load the DLL with:
.CS
\fBload\fR [file join [pwd] mylib.DLL]
.CE
.SH BUGS
.PP
If the same file is \fBload\fRed by different \fIfileName\fRs, it will

Changes to doc/lrange.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lrange.n,v 1.13 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lrange n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lrange \- Return one or more adjacent elements from a list
................................................................................
end of the list.
.VE
If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is treated as if it were zero.
If \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the number of elements
in the list, then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR.
If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty string
is returned.
Note:
.QW "\fBlrange \fIlist first first\fR"
does not always produce the same result as
.QW "\fBlindex \fIlist first\fR"
(although it often does
for simple fields that aren't enclosed in braces); it does, however,
produce exactly the same results as
.QW "\fBlist [lindex \fIlist first\fB]\fR" .
.SH EXAMPLES
Selecting the first two elements:
.CS
% \fBlrange\fR {a b c d e} 0 1
a b
.CE
.PP






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lrange.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lrange n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lrange \- Return one or more adjacent elements from a list
................................................................................
end of the list.
.VE
If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is treated as if it were zero.
If \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the number of elements
in the list, then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR.
If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty string
is returned.

Note: ``\fBlrange \fIlist first first\fR'' does not always produce the

same result as ``\fBlindex \fIlist first\fR'' (although it often does

for simple fields that aren't enclosed in braces); it does, however,
produce exactly the same results as ``\fBlist [lindex \fIlist first\fB]\fR''

.SH EXAMPLES
Selecting the first two elements:
.CS
% \fBlrange\fR {a b c d e} 0 1
a b
.CE
.PP

Changes to doc/lrepeat.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2003 by Simon Geard.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lrepeat.n,v 1.3 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lrepeat n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lrepeat \- Build a list by repeating elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlrepeat \fInumber element1 \fR?\fIelement2 element3 ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlrepeat\fR command creates a list of size \fInumber\fR \(mu \fInumber
of elements\fR by repeating \fInumber\fR times the sequence of elements
\fIelement1 element2 ...\fR. The \fInumber\fR must be a positive integer, and
each \fIelementN\fR can be any Tcl value.
.PP
Note that
.QW "\fBlrepeat 1 arg ...\fR"
is identical to
.QW "\fBlist arg ...\fR" ,
though the \fIarg\fR is required with \fBlrepeat\fR.
.SH EXAMPLES
.CS
.ta 3i
lrepeat 3 a	\fB\(->\fI a a a\fR
lrepeat 3 [lrepeat 3 0]	\fB\(->\fI {0 0 0} {0 0 0} {0 0 0}\fR
lrepeat 3 a b c	\fB\(->\fI a b c a b c a b c\fR
lrepeat 3 [lrepeat 2 a] b c	\fB\(->\fI {a a} b c {a a} b c {a a} b c\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2003 by Simon Geard.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lrepeat.n,v 1.4 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lrepeat n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lrepeat \- Build a list by repeating elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlrepeat \fInumber element1 \fR?\fIelement2 element3 ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlrepeat\fR command creates a list of size \fInumber * number of
elements\fR by repeating \fInumber\fR times the sequence of elements
\fIelement1 element2 ...\fR.  \fInumber\fR must be a positive integer,



\fIelementn\fR can be any Tcl value.  Note that \fBlrepeat 1 arg ...\fR

is identical to \fBlist arg ...\fR, though the \fIarg\fR is required
with \fBlrepeat\fR.
.SH EXAMPLES
.CS

lrepeat 3 a  => a a a
lrepeat 3 [lrepeat 3 0] => {0 0 0} {0 0 0} {0 0 0}
lrepeat 3 a b c => a b c a b c a b c
lrepeat 3 [lrepeat 2 a] b c => {a a} b c {a a} b c {a a} b c
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list

Changes to doc/lreplace.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lreplace.n,v 1.14 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lreplace n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lreplace \- Replace elements in a list with new elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlreplace \fIlist first last \fR?\fIelement element ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBlreplace\fR returns a new list formed by replacing one or more elements of
\fIlist\fR with the \fIelement\fR arguments.
.VS 8.5
\fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are index values specifying the first and
last elements of the range to replace.  
................................................................................
the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR,
supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the
end of the list.
0 refers to the first element of the
list, and \fBend\fR refers to the last element of the list.
If \fIlist\fR is empty, then \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are ignored.
.VE
.PP
If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is considered to refer to the
first element of the list.  For non-empty lists, the element indicated
by \fIfirst\fR must exist.
.PP
If \fIlast\fR is less than zero but greater than \fIfirst\fR, then any
specified elements will be prepended to the list.  If \fIlast\fR is
less than \fIfirst\fR then no elements are deleted; the new elements
are simply inserted before \fIfirst\fR.
.PP
The \fIelement\fR arguments specify zero or more new arguments to
be added to the list in place of those that were deleted.
Each \fIelement\fR argument will become a separate element of
the list.  If no \fIelement\fR arguments are specified, then the elements
between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are simply deleted.  If \fIlist\fR
is empty, any \fIelement\fR arguments are added to the end of the list.
.SH EXAMPLES
................................................................................
Deleting the last element from a list in a variable:
.CS
% set var {a b c d e}
a b c d e
% set var [\fBlreplace\fR $var end end]
a b c d
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), 
lset(n), lrange(n), lsort(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE


.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, replace






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lreplace.n,v 1.15 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lreplace n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lreplace \- Replace elements in a list with new elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlreplace \fIlist first last \fR?\fIelement element ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBlreplace\fR returns a new list formed by replacing one or more elements of
\fIlist\fR with the \fIelement\fR arguments.
.VS 8.5
\fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are index values specifying the first and
last elements of the range to replace.  
................................................................................
the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR,
supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the
end of the list.
0 refers to the first element of the
list, and \fBend\fR refers to the last element of the list.
If \fIlist\fR is empty, then \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are ignored.
.VE

If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is considered to refer to the
first element of the list.  For non-empty lists, the element indicated
by \fIfirst\fR must exist.

If \fIlast\fR is less than zero but greater than \fIfirst\fR, then any
specified elements will be prepended to the list.  If \fIlast\fR is
less than \fIfirst\fR then no elements are deleted; the new elements
are simply inserted before \fIfirst\fR.

The \fIelement\fR arguments specify zero or more new arguments to
be added to the list in place of those that were deleted.
Each \fIelement\fR argument will become a separate element of
the list.  If no \fIelement\fR arguments are specified, then the elements
between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are simply deleted.  If \fIlist\fR
is empty, any \fIelement\fR arguments are added to the end of the list.
.SH EXAMPLES
................................................................................
Deleting the last element from a list in a variable:
.CS
% set var {a b c d e}
a b c d e
% set var [\fBlreplace\fR $var end end]
a b c d
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), 
lset(n), lrange(n), lsort(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE


.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, replace

Changes to doc/lreverse.n.

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.\" -*- nroff -*-
.\" Copyright (c) 2006 by Donal K. Fellows.  All rights reserved.
.\"
.\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
.\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
.\" 
.\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lreverse.n,v 1.3 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp $
.\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lreverse n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lreverse \- Reverse the order of a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlreverse \fIlist\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlreverse\fR command returns a list that has the same elements as its
input list, \fIlist\fR, except with the elements in the reverse order.
.SH EXAMPLES
.CS
.ta 3i
\fBlreverse\fR {a a b c}	\fB\(->\fI c b a a\fR
\fBlreverse\fR {a b {c d} e f}	\fB\(->\fI f e {c d} b a\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lsearch(n), lsort(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, reverse
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'\" -*- nroff -*-
'\" Copyright (c) 2006 by Donal K. Fellows.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lreverse.n,v 1.4 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lreverse n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lreverse \- Reverse the order of a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlreverse \fIlist\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlreverse\fR command returns a list that has the same elements as its
input list, \fIlist\fR, except with the elements in the reverse order.
.SH EXAMPLES
.CS

\fBlreverse\fR {a a b c}        => c b a a
\fBlreverse\fR {a b {c d} e f}  => f e {c d} b a
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lsearch(n), lsort(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, reverse

Changes to doc/lsearch.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\" Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lsearch.n,v 1.28 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lsearch n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lsearch \- See if a list contains a particular element
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlsearch \fR?\fIoptions\fR? \fIlist pattern\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command searches the elements of \fIlist\fR to see if one
of them matches \fIpattern\fR.  If so, the command returns the index
of the first matching element
(unless the options \fB\-all\fR or \fB\-inline\fR are specified.)
If not, the command returns \fB\-1\fR.  The \fIoption\fR arguments
................................................................................
\fIpattern\fR and must have one of the values below:
.SS "MATCHING STYLE OPTIONS"
If all matching style options are omitted, the default matching style
is \fB\-glob\fR.  If more than one matching style is specified, the
last matching style given takes precedence.
.TP
\fB\-exact\fR
.
\fIPattern\fR is a literal string that is compared for exact equality
against each list element.
.TP
\fB\-glob\fR
.
\fIPattern\fR is a glob-style pattern which is matched against each list
element using the same rules as the \fBstring match\fR command.
.TP
\fB\-regexp\fR
.
\fIPattern\fR is treated as a regular expression and matched against
each list element using the rules described in the \fBre_syntax\fR
reference page.
.TP
\fB\-sorted\fR
.
The list elements are in sorted order.  If this option is specified,
\fBlsearch\fR will use a more efficient searching algorithm to search
\fIlist\fR.  If no other options are specified, \fIlist\fR is assumed
to be sorted in increasing order, and to contain ASCII strings.  This
option is mutually exclusive with \fB\-glob\fR and \fB\-regexp\fR, and
is treated exactly like \fB-exact\fR when either \fB\-all\fR or
\fB\-not\fR are specified.
................................................................................
.
Changes the result to be the list of all matching indices (or all matching
values if \fB\-inline\fR is specified as well.) If indices are returned, the
indices will be in numeric order. If values are returned, the order of the
values will be the order of those values within the input \fIlist\fR.
.TP
\fB\-inline\fR
.
The matching value is returned instead of its index (or an empty
string if no value matches.)  If \fB\-all\fR is also specified, then
the result of the command is the list of all values that matched.
.TP
\fB\-not\fR
.
This negates the sense of the match, returning the index of the first
non-matching value in the list.
.TP
\fB\-start\fR\0\fIindex\fR
.
The list is searched starting at position \fIindex\fR.
.VS 8.5
The interpretation of the \fIindex\fR value is the same as
for the command \fBstring index\fR, supporting simple index
arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the list.
.VE 8.5
.SS "CONTENTS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS"
These options describe how to interpret the items in the list being
searched.  They are only meaningful when used with the \fB\-exact\fR
and \fB\-sorted\fR options.  If more than one is specified, the last
one takes precedence.  The default is \fB\-ascii\fR.
.TP
\fB\-ascii\fR
.
The list elements are to be examined as Unicode strings (the name is
for backward-compatibility reasons.)
.TP
\fB\-dictionary\fR
.
The list elements are to be compared using dictionary-style
comparisons (see \fBlsort\fR for a fuller description). Note that this
only makes a meaningful difference from the \fB\-ascii\fR option when
the \fB\-sorted\fR option is given, because values are only
dictionary-equal when exactly equal.
.TP
\fB\-integer\fR
.
The list elements are to be compared as integers.
.VS 8.5
.TP
\fB\-nocase\fR
.
Causes comparisons to be handled in a case-insensitive manner.  Has no
effect if combined with the \fB\-dictionary\fR, \fB\-integer\fR, or 
\fB\-real\fR options.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fB\-real\fR
.
The list elements are to be compared as floating-point values.
.SS "SORTED LIST OPTIONS"
These options (only meaningful with the \fB\-sorted\fR option) specify
how the list is sorted.  If more than one is given, the last one takes
precedence.  The default option is \fB\-increasing\fR.
.TP
\fB\-decreasing\fR
.
The list elements are sorted in decreasing order.  This option is only
meaningful when used with \fB\-sorted\fR.
.TP
\fB\-increasing\fR
.
The list elements are sorted in increasing order.  This option is only
meaningful when used with \fB\-sorted\fR.
.SS "NESTED LIST OPTIONS"
.VS 8.5
These options are used to search lists of lists.  They may be used
with any other options.
.TP
\fB\-index\fR\0\fIindexList\fR
.
This option is designed for use when searching within nested lists.
The \fIindexList\fR argument gives a path of indices (much as might be
used with the \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR commands) within each element
to allow the location of the term being matched against.
.TP
\fB\-subindices\fR
.
If this option is given, the index result from this command (or every
index result when \fB\-all\fR is also specified) will be a complete
path (suitable for use with \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR) within the
overall list to the term found.  This option has no effect unless the
\fI\-index\fR is also specified, and is just a convenience short-cut.
.VE 8.5
.SH EXAMPLES
Basic searching:
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBlsearch\fR {a b c d e} c
	\fB\(->\fI 2\fR

\fBlsearch\fR -all {a b c a b c} c
	\fB\(->\fI 2 5\fR
.CE
.PP

Using \fBlsearch\fR to filter lists:
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBlsearch\fR -inline {a20 b35 c47} b*
	\fB\(->\fI b35\fR
\fBlsearch\fR -inline -not {a20 b35 c47} b*
	\fB\(->\fI a20\fR
\fBlsearch\fR -all -inline -not {a20 b35 c47} b*
	\fB\(->\fI a20 c47\fR
\fBlsearch\fR -all -not {a20 b35 c47} b*
	\fB\(->\fI 0 2\fR
.CE
This can even do a
.QW set-like
removal operation:
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBlsearch\fR -all -inline -not -exact {a b c a d e a f g a} a
	\fB\(->\fI b c d e f g\fR
.CE
.PP

Searching may start part-way through the list:
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBlsearch\fR -start 3 {a b c a b c} c
	\fB\(->\fI 5\fR

.CE
.PP

It is also possible to search inside elements:
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBlsearch\fR -index 1 -all -inline {{a abc} {b bcd} {c cde}} *bc*
	\fB\(->\fI {a abc} {b bcd}\fR
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
foreach(n), list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), 
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE


.SH KEYWORDS
list, match, pattern, regular expression, search, string

.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" End:






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'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\" Copyright (c) 2003-2004 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lsearch.n,v 1.29 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lsearch n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lsearch \- See if a list contains a particular element
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlsearch \fR?\fIoptions\fR? \fIlist pattern\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command searches the elements of \fIlist\fR to see if one
of them matches \fIpattern\fR.  If so, the command returns the index
of the first matching element
(unless the options \fB\-all\fR or \fB\-inline\fR are specified.)
If not, the command returns \fB\-1\fR.  The \fIoption\fR arguments
................................................................................
\fIpattern\fR and must have one of the values below:
.SS "MATCHING STYLE OPTIONS"
If all matching style options are omitted, the default matching style
is \fB\-glob\fR.  If more than one matching style is specified, the
last matching style given takes precedence.
.TP
\fB\-exact\fR

\fIPattern\fR is a literal string that is compared for exact equality
against each list element.
.TP
\fB\-glob\fR

\fIPattern\fR is a glob-style pattern which is matched against each list
element using the same rules as the \fBstring match\fR command.
.TP
\fB\-regexp\fR

\fIPattern\fR is treated as a regular expression and matched against
each list element using the rules described in the \fBre_syntax\fR
reference page.
.TP
\fB\-sorted\fR

The list elements are in sorted order.  If this option is specified,
\fBlsearch\fR will use a more efficient searching algorithm to search
\fIlist\fR.  If no other options are specified, \fIlist\fR is assumed
to be sorted in increasing order, and to contain ASCII strings.  This
option is mutually exclusive with \fB\-glob\fR and \fB\-regexp\fR, and
is treated exactly like \fB-exact\fR when either \fB\-all\fR or
\fB\-not\fR are specified.
................................................................................
.
Changes the result to be the list of all matching indices (or all matching
values if \fB\-inline\fR is specified as well.) If indices are returned, the
indices will be in numeric order. If values are returned, the order of the
values will be the order of those values within the input \fIlist\fR.
.TP
\fB\-inline\fR

The matching value is returned instead of its index (or an empty
string if no value matches.)  If \fB\-all\fR is also specified, then
the result of the command is the list of all values that matched.
.TP
\fB\-not\fR

This negates the sense of the match, returning the index of the first
non-matching value in the list.
.TP
\fB\-start\fR\0\fIindex\fR

The list is searched starting at position \fIindex\fR.
.VS 8.5
The interpretation of the \fIindex\fR value is the same as
for the command \fBstring index\fR, supporting simple index
arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the list.
.VE 8.5
.SS "CONTENTS DESCRIPTION OPTIONS"
These options describe how to interpret the items in the list being
searched.  They are only meaningful when used with the \fB\-exact\fR
and \fB\-sorted\fR options.  If more than one is specified, the last
one takes precedence.  The default is \fB\-ascii\fR.
.TP
\fB\-ascii\fR

The list elements are to be examined as Unicode strings (the name is
for backward-compatibility reasons.)
.TP
\fB\-dictionary\fR

The list elements are to be compared using dictionary-style
comparisons (see \fBlsort\fR for a fuller description). Note that this
only makes a meaningful difference from the \fB\-ascii\fR option when
the \fB\-sorted\fR option is given, because values are only
dictionary-equal when exactly equal.
.TP
\fB\-integer\fR

The list elements are to be compared as integers.
.VS 8.5
.TP
\fB\-nocase\fR

Causes comparisons to be handled in a case-insensitive manner.  Has no
effect if combined with the \fB\-dictionary\fR, \fB\-integer\fR, or 
\fB\-real\fR options.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fB\-real\fR

The list elements are to be compared as floating-point values.
.SS "SORTED LIST OPTIONS"
These options (only meaningful with the \fB\-sorted\fR option) specify
how the list is sorted.  If more than one is given, the last one takes
precedence.  The default option is \fB\-increasing\fR.
.TP
\fB\-decreasing\fR

The list elements are sorted in decreasing order.  This option is only
meaningful when used with \fB\-sorted\fR.
.TP
\fB\-increasing\fR

The list elements are sorted in increasing order.  This option is only
meaningful when used with \fB\-sorted\fR.
.SS "NESTED LIST OPTIONS"
.VS 8.5
These options are used to search lists of lists.  They may be used
with any other options.
.TP
\fB\-index\fR\0\fIindexList\fR

This option is designed for use when searching within nested lists.
The \fIindexList\fR argument gives a path of indices (much as might be
used with the \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR commands) within each element
to allow the location of the term being matched against.
.TP
\fB\-subindices\fR

If this option is given, the index result from this command (or every
index result when \fB\-all\fR is also specified) will be a complete
path (suitable for use with \fBlindex\fR or \fBlset\fR) within the
overall list to the term found.  This option has no effect unless the
\fI\-index\fR is also specified, and is just a convenience short-cut.
.VE 8.5
.SH EXAMPLES
Basic searching:
.CS

\fBlsearch\fR {a b c d e} c

      => 2
\fBlsearch\fR -all {a b c a b c} c
      => 2 5
.CE


Using \fBlsearch\fR to filter lists:
.CS

\fBlsearch\fR -inline {a20 b35 c47} b*
      => b35
\fBlsearch\fR -inline -not {a20 b35 c47} b*
      => a20
\fBlsearch\fR -all -inline -not {a20 b35 c47} b*
      => a20 c47
\fBlsearch\fR -all -not {a20 b35 c47} b*
      => 0 2
.CE
This can even do a "set-like" removal operation:


.CS

\fBlsearch\fR -all -inline -not -exact {a b c a d e a f g a} a
      => b c d e f g
.CE


Searching may start part-way through the list:
.CS

\fBlsearch\fR -start 3 {a b c a b c} c

      => 5
.CE


It is also possible to search inside elements:
.CS

\fBlsearch\fR -index 1 -all -inline {{a abc} {b bcd} {c cde}} *bc*
      => {a abc} {b bcd}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
foreach(n), list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), 
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE


.SH KEYWORDS
list, match, pattern, regular expression, search, string

'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:

Changes to doc/lset.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 by Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lset.n,v 1.11 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lset n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lset \- Change an element in a list
................................................................................
than or equal to zero.  The integer appearing in each \fIindex\fR
argument must be strictly less than the length of the corresponding
list.  In other words, the \fBlset\fR command cannot change the size
of a list.  If an index is outside the permitted range, an error is reported.
.SH EXAMPLES
In each of these examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is:
.CS
.ta 2i
set x [list [list a b c] [list d e f] [list g h i]]
	 \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} {g h i}
.CE
The indicated return value also becomes the new value of \fIx\fR
(except in the last case, which is an error which leaves the value of
\fIx\fR unchanged.)
.CS
.ta 2i
lset x {j k l}	 \fB\(->\fR j k l
lset x {} {j k l}	 \fB\(->\fR j k l
lset x 0 j	 \fB\(->\fR j {d e f} {g h i}
lset x 2 j	 \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} j
lset x end j	 \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} j
lset x end-1 j	 \fB\(->\fR {a b c} j {g h i}
lset x 2 1 j	 \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} {g j i}
lset x {2 1} j	 \fB\(->\fR {a b c} {d e f} {g j i}
lset x {2 3} j	 \fB\(->\fR \fIlist index out of range\fR
.CE
In the following examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is:
.CS
.ta 2i
set x [list [list [list a b] [list c d]] \e
            [list [list e f] [list g h]]]
	 \fB\(->\fR {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}
.CE
The indicated return value also becomes the new value of \fIx\fR.
.CS
.ta 2i
lset x 1 1 0 j	 \fB\(->\fR {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {j h}}
lset x {1 1 0} j	 \fB\(->\fR {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {j h}}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), 
lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE


.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list, replace, set





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 by Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lset.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lset n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lset \- Change an element in a list
................................................................................
than or equal to zero.  The integer appearing in each \fIindex\fR
argument must be strictly less than the length of the corresponding
list.  In other words, the \fBlset\fR command cannot change the size
of a list.  If an index is outside the permitted range, an error is reported.
.SH EXAMPLES
In each of these examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is:
.CS

set x [list [list a b c] [list d e f] [list g h i]]
  => {a b c} {d e f} {g h i}
.CE
The indicated return value also becomes the new value of \fIx\fR
(except in the last case, which is an error which leaves the value of
\fIx\fR unchanged.)
.CS

lset x {j k l} => j k l
lset x {} {j k l} => j k l
lset x 0 j => j {d e f} {g h i}
lset x 2 j => {a b c} {d e f} j
lset x end j => {a b c} {d e f} j
lset x end-1 j => {a b c} j {g h i}
lset x 2 1 j => {a b c} {d e f} {g j i}
lset x {2 1} j => {a b c} {d e f} {g j i}
lset x {2 3} j => \fIlist index out of range\fR
.CE
In the following examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is:
.CS

set x [list [list [list a b] [list c d]] \e
            [list [list e f] [list g h]]]
 => {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}
.CE
The indicated return value also becomes the new value of \fIx\fR.
.CS

lset x 1 1 0 j => {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {j h}}
lset x {1 1 0} j => {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {j h}}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n), 
lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE


.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list, replace, set

Changes to doc/lsort.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lsort.n,v 1.23 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lsort n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lsort \- Sort the elements of a list
................................................................................
\fIcommand\fR with the two elements appended as additional
arguments.  The script should return an integer less than,
equal to, or greater than zero if the first element is to
be considered less than, equal to, or greater than the second,
respectively.
.TP 20
\fB\-increasing\fR
Sort the list in increasing order (i.e.
.QW smallest
items first). This is the default.
.TP 20
\fB\-decreasing\fR
Sort the list in decreasing order (i.e.
.QW largest
items first).
.TP 20
\fB\-indices\fR
.VS "8.5 (TIP#217)"
Return a list of indices into \fIlist\fR in sorted order instead of
the values themselves.
.VE "8.5 (TIP#217)"
.TP 20






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'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Kevin B. Kenny.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: lsort.n,v 1.24 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH lsort n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lsort \- Sort the elements of a list
................................................................................
\fIcommand\fR with the two elements appended as additional
arguments.  The script should return an integer less than,
equal to, or greater than zero if the first element is to
be considered less than, equal to, or greater than the second,
respectively.
.TP 20
\fB\-increasing\fR
Sort the list in increasing order (``smallest'' items first).

This is the default.
.TP 20
\fB\-decreasing\fR
Sort the list in decreasing order (``largest'' items first).


.TP 20
\fB\-indices\fR
.VS "8.5 (TIP#217)"
Return a list of indices into \fIlist\fR in sorted order instead of
the values themselves.
.VE "8.5 (TIP#217)"
.TP 20

Changes to doc/mathfunc.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: mathfunc.n,v 1.14 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH mathfunc n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Mathematical Functions"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
mathfunc \- Mathematical functions for Tcl expressions
................................................................................
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::wide\fR \fIarg\fR
.sp
.BE
.SH "DESCRIPTION"
.PP
The \fBexpr\fR command handles mathematical functions of the form
.QW \fBsin($x)\fR
or
.QW \fBatan2($y,$x)\fR
by converting them to calls of the form
.QW "\fB[tcl::mathfunc::sin [expr {$x}]]\fR"
or
.QW "\fB[tcl::mathfunc::atan2 [expr {$y}] [expr {$x}]]\fR" .
A number of math functions are available by default within the
namespace \fB::tcl::mathfunc\fR; these functions are also available
for code apart from \fBexpr\fR, by invoking the given commands
directly.
.PP
Tcl supports the following mathematical functions in expressions, all
of which work solely with floating-point numbers unless otherwise noted:
................................................................................
\fBmin\fR	\fBpow\fR	\fBrand\fR	\fBround\fR
\fBsin\fR	\fBsinh\fR	\fBsqrt\fR	\fBsrand\fR
\fBtan\fR	\fBtanh\fR	\fBwide\fR
.DE
.PP
.TP
\fBabs(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the absolute value of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR may be either
integer or floating-point, and the result is returned in the same form.
.TP
\fBacos(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the arc cosine of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI0\fR,\fIpi\fR]
radians. \fIArg\fR should be in the range [\fI-1\fR,\fI1\fR].
.TP
\fBasin(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the arc sine of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI-pi/2\fR,\fIpi/2\fR]
radians.  \fIArg\fR should be in the range [\fI-1\fR,\fI1\fR].
.TP
\fBatan(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the arc tangent of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI-pi/2\fR,\fIpi/2\fR]
radians.
.TP
\fBatan2(\fIy, x\fB)\fR
.
Returns the arc tangent of \fIy\fR/\fIx\fR, in the range [\fI-pi\fR,\fIpi\fR]
radians.  \fIx\fR and \fIy\fR cannot both be 0.  If \fIx\fR is greater
than \fI0\fR, this is equivalent to \fBatan(\fIy/x\fB)\fR.
.TP
\fBbool(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Accepts any numeric value, or any string acceptable to
\fBstring is boolean\fR, and returns the corresponding 
boolean value \fB0\fR or \fB1\fR.  Non-zero numbers are true.
Other numbers are false.  Non-numeric strings produce boolean value in
agreement with
.QW "\fBstring is true\fR"
and
.QW "\fBstring is false\fR" .
.TP
\fBceil(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the smallest integral floating-point value (i.e. with a zero
fractional part) not less than \fIarg\fR.  The argument may be any
numeric value.
.TP
\fBcos(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the cosine of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians.
.TP
\fBcosh(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the hyperbolic cosine of \fIarg\fR.  If the result would cause
an overflow, an error is returned.
.TP
\fBdouble(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
The argument may be any numeric value,
If \fIarg\fR is a floating-point value, returns \fIarg\fR, otherwise converts
\fIarg\fR to floating-point and returns the converted value.  May return
\fBInf\fR or \fB-Inf\fR when the argument is a numeric value that exceeds
the floating-point range.
.TP
\fBentier(\fIarg\fB)\fR
................................................................................
The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined and returned.  The integer range returned by this function
is unlimited, unlike functions \fBint()\fR and \fBwide()\fR which
truncate their range to fit in particular storage widths.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fBexp(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the exponential of \fIarg\fR, defined as \fIe\fR**\fIarg\fR.
If the result would cause an overflow, an error is returned.
.TP
\fBfloor(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the largest integral floating-point value (i.e. with a zero
fractional part) not greater than \fIarg\fR.  The argument may be
any numeric value.
.TP
\fBfmod(\fIx, y\fB)\fR
.
Returns the floating-point remainder of the division of \fIx\fR by
\fIy\fR.  If \fIy\fR is 0, an error is returned.
.TP
\fBhypot(\fIx, y\fB)\fR
.
Computes the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle
.QW "\fBsqrt(\fIx\fR*\fIx\fR+\fIy\fR*\fIy\fB)\fR" .
.TP
\fBint(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined, and then the low order bits of that integer value up
to the machine word size are returned as an integer value.  For reference,
the number of bytes in the machine word are stored in
\fBtcl_platform(wordSize)\fR.
.TP
\fBisqrt(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Computes the integer part of the square root of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be
a positive value, either an integer or a floating point number.
Unlike \fBsqrt\fR, which is limited to the precision of a floating point
number, \fIisqrt\fR will return a result of arbitrary precision.
.TP
\fBlog(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the natural logarithm of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be a
positive value.
.TP
\fBlog10(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the base 10 logarithm of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be a
positive value.
.TP
\fBmax(\fIarg\fB, \fI...\fB)\fR
.
Accepts one or more numeric arguments.  Returns the one argument
with the greatest value.
.TP
\fBmin(\fIarg\fB, \fI...\fB)\fR
.
Accepts one or more numeric arguments.  Returns the one argument
with the least value.
.TP
\fBpow(\fIx, y\fB)\fR
.
Computes the value of \fIx\fR raised to the power \fIy\fR.  If \fIx\fR
is negative, \fIy\fR must be an integer value.
.TP
\fBrand()\fR
.
Returns a pseudo-random floating-point value in the range (\fI0\fR,\fI1\fR).  
The generator algorithm is a simple linear congruential generator that
is not cryptographically secure.  Each result from \fBrand\fR completely
determines all future results from subsequent calls to \fBrand\fR, so
\fBrand\fR should not be used to generate a sequence of secrets, such as
one-time passwords.  The seed of the generator is initialized from the
internal clock of the machine or may be set with the \fBsrand\fR function.
.TP
\fBround(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
If \fIarg\fR is an integer value, returns \fIarg\fR, otherwise converts
\fIarg\fR to integer by rounding and returns the converted value.
.TP
\fBsin(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the sine of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians.
.TP
\fBsinh(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the hyperbolic sine of \fIarg\fR.  If the result would cause
an overflow, an error is returned.
.TP
\fBsqrt(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
The argument may be any non-negative numeric value.  Returns a floating-point
value that is the square root of \fIarg\fR.  May return \fBInf\fR when the
argument is a numeric value that exceeds the square of the maximum value of
the floating-point range.
.TP
\fBsrand(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
The \fIarg\fR, which must be an integer, is used to reset the seed for
the random number generator of \fBrand\fR.  Returns the first random
number (see \fBrand()\fR) from that seed.  Each interpreter has its own seed.
.TP
\fBtan(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the tangent of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians.
.TP
\fBtanh(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of \fIarg\fR.
.TP
\fBwide(\fIarg\fB)\fR
.
The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined, and then the low order 64 bits of that integer value
are returned as an integer value.  
.PP
In addition to these predefined functions, applications may
define additional functions by using \fBproc\fR (or any other method,
such as \fBinterp alias\fR or \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR) to define
................................................................................
new commands in the \fBtcl::mathfunc\fR namespace.  In addition, an
obsolete interface named \fBTcl_CreateMathFunc\fR() is available to
extensions that are written in C. The latter interface is not recommended
for new implementations.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), namespace(n)
.SH "COPYRIGHT"
.nf
Copyright \(co 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
Copyright \(co 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated.
Copyright \(co 2005, 2006 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>.
.fi






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2005 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>. All rights reserved
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: mathfunc.n,v 1.15 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH mathfunc n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Mathematical Functions"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
mathfunc \- Mathematical functions for Tcl expressions
................................................................................
.br
\fB::tcl::mathfunc::wide\fR \fIarg\fR
.sp
.BE
.SH "DESCRIPTION"
.PP
The \fBexpr\fR command handles mathematical functions of the form



\fBsin($x)\fR or \fBatan2($y,$x)\fR by converting them to calls of the
form \fB[tcl::mathfunc::sin [expr {$x}]]\fR or

\fB[tcl::mathfunc::atan2 [expr {$y}] [expr {$x}]]\fR.
A number of math functions are available by default within the
namespace \fB::tcl::mathfunc\fR; these functions are also available
for code apart from \fBexpr\fR, by invoking the given commands
directly.
.PP
Tcl supports the following mathematical functions in expressions, all
of which work solely with floating-point numbers unless otherwise noted:
................................................................................
\fBmin\fR	\fBpow\fR	\fBrand\fR	\fBround\fR
\fBsin\fR	\fBsinh\fR	\fBsqrt\fR	\fBsrand\fR
\fBtan\fR	\fBtanh\fR	\fBwide\fR
.DE
.PP
.TP
\fBabs(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the absolute value of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR may be either
integer or floating-point, and the result is returned in the same form.
.TP
\fBacos(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the arc cosine of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI0\fR,\fIpi\fR]
radians. \fIArg\fR should be in the range [\fI-1\fR,\fI1\fR].
.TP
\fBasin(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the arc sine of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI-pi/2\fR,\fIpi/2\fR]
radians.  \fIArg\fR should be in the range [\fI-1\fR,\fI1\fR].
.TP
\fBatan(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the arc tangent of \fIarg\fR, in the range [\fI-pi/2\fR,\fIpi/2\fR]
radians.
.TP
\fBatan2(\fIy, x\fB)\fR

Returns the arc tangent of \fIy\fR/\fIx\fR, in the range [\fI-pi\fR,\fIpi\fR]
radians.  \fIx\fR and \fIy\fR cannot both be 0.  If \fIx\fR is greater
than \fI0\fR, this is equivalent to \fBatan(\fIy/x\fB)\fR.
.TP
\fBbool(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Accepts any numeric value, or any string acceptable to
\fBstring is boolean\fR, and returns the corresponding 
boolean value \fB0\fR or \fB1\fR.  Non-zero numbers are true.
Other numbers are false.  Non-numeric strings produce boolean value in

agreement with \fBstring is true\fR and \fBstring is false\fR.


.TP
\fBceil(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the smallest integral floating-point value (i.e. with a zero
fractional part) not less than \fIarg\fR.  The argument may be any
numeric value.
.TP
\fBcos(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the cosine of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians.
.TP
\fBcosh(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the hyperbolic cosine of \fIarg\fR.  If the result would cause
an overflow, an error is returned.
.TP
\fBdouble(\fIarg\fB)\fR

The argument may be any numeric value,
If \fIarg\fR is a floating-point value, returns \fIarg\fR, otherwise converts
\fIarg\fR to floating-point and returns the converted value.  May return
\fBInf\fR or \fB-Inf\fR when the argument is a numeric value that exceeds
the floating-point range.
.TP
\fBentier(\fIarg\fB)\fR
................................................................................
The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined and returned.  The integer range returned by this function
is unlimited, unlike functions \fBint()\fR and \fBwide()\fR which
truncate their range to fit in particular storage widths.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fBexp(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the exponential of \fIarg\fR, defined as \fIe\fR**\fIarg\fR.
If the result would cause an overflow, an error is returned.
.TP
\fBfloor(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the largest integral floating-point value (i.e. with a zero
fractional part) not greater than \fIarg\fR.  The argument may be
any numeric value.
.TP
\fBfmod(\fIx, y\fB)\fR

Returns the floating-point remainder of the division of \fIx\fR by
\fIy\fR.  If \fIy\fR is 0, an error is returned.
.TP
\fBhypot(\fIx, y\fB)\fR

Computes the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle
\fBsqrt(\fIx\fR*\fIx\fR+\fIy\fR*\fIy\fB)\fR.
.TP
\fBint(\fIarg\fB)\fR

The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined, and then the low order bits of that integer value up
to the machine word size are returned as an integer value.  For reference,
the number of bytes in the machine word are stored in
\fBtcl_platform(wordSize)\fR.
.TP
\fBisqrt(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Computes the integer part of the square root of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be
a positive value, either an integer or a floating point number.
Unlike \fBsqrt\fR, which is limited to the precision of a floating point
number, \fIisqrt\fR will return a result of arbitrary precision.
.TP
\fBlog(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the natural logarithm of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be a
positive value.
.TP
\fBlog10(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the base 10 logarithm of \fIarg\fR.  \fIArg\fR must be a
positive value.
.TP
\fBmax(\fIarg\fB, \fI...\fB)\fR

Accepts one or more numeric arguments.  Returns the one argument
with the greatest value.
.TP
\fBmin(\fIarg\fB, \fI...\fB)\fR

Accepts one or more numeric arguments.  Returns the one argument
with the least value.
.TP
\fBpow(\fIx, y\fB)\fR

Computes the value of \fIx\fR raised to the power \fIy\fR.  If \fIx\fR
is negative, \fIy\fR must be an integer value.
.TP
\fBrand()\fR

Returns a pseudo-random floating-point value in the range (\fI0\fR,\fI1\fR).  
The generator algorithm is a simple linear congruential generator that
is not cryptographically secure.  Each result from \fBrand\fR completely
determines all future results from subsequent calls to \fBrand\fR, so
\fBrand\fR should not be used to generate a sequence of secrets, such as
one-time passwords.  The seed of the generator is initialized from the
internal clock of the machine or may be set with the \fBsrand\fR function.
.TP
\fBround(\fIarg\fB)\fR

If \fIarg\fR is an integer value, returns \fIarg\fR, otherwise converts
\fIarg\fR to integer by rounding and returns the converted value.
.TP
\fBsin(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the sine of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians.
.TP
\fBsinh(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the hyperbolic sine of \fIarg\fR.  If the result would cause
an overflow, an error is returned.
.TP
\fBsqrt(\fIarg\fB)\fR

The argument may be any non-negative numeric value.  Returns a floating-point
value that is the square root of \fIarg\fR.  May return \fBInf\fR when the
argument is a numeric value that exceeds the square of the maximum value of
the floating-point range.
.TP
\fBsrand(\fIarg\fB)\fR

The \fIarg\fR, which must be an integer, is used to reset the seed for
the random number generator of \fBrand\fR.  Returns the first random
number (see \fBrand()\fR) from that seed.  Each interpreter has its own seed.
.TP
\fBtan(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the tangent of \fIarg\fR, measured in radians.
.TP
\fBtanh(\fIarg\fB)\fR

Returns the hyperbolic tangent of \fIarg\fR.
.TP
\fBwide(\fIarg\fB)\fR

The argument may be any numeric value.  The integer part of \fIarg\fR
is determined, and then the low order 64 bits of that integer value
are returned as an integer value.  
.PP
In addition to these predefined functions, applications may
define additional functions by using \fBproc\fR (or any other method,
such as \fBinterp alias\fR or \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR) to define
................................................................................
new commands in the \fBtcl::mathfunc\fR namespace.  In addition, an
obsolete interface named \fBTcl_CreateMathFunc\fR() is available to
extensions that are written in C. The latter interface is not recommended
for new implementations.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), namespace(n)
.SH "COPYRIGHT"
Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
.br
Copyright (c) 1994-2000 Sun Microsystems Incorporated.
.br
Copyright (c) 2005, 2006 by Kevin B. Kenny <[email protected]>.

Changes to doc/mathop.n.

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.\" -*- nroff -*-
.\" Copyright (c) 2006 Donal K. Fellows.
.\"
.\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
.\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
.\"
.\" RCS: @(#) $Id: mathop.n,v 1.5 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
.\"
.so man.macros
.TH mathop n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Mathematical Operator Commands"
.BS
.\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
mathop \- Mathematical operators as Tcl commands
................................................................................
Returns the integral modulus of the first argument with respect to the second.
Each \fInumber\fR must have an integral value.
.TP
\fB**\fR ?\fInumber\fR ...?
.
Returns the result of raising each value to the power of the result of
recursively operating on the result of processing the following arguments, so
.QW "\fB** 2 3 4\fR"
is the same as
.QW "\fB** 2 [** 3 4]\fR" .
Each \fInumber\fR may be
any numeric value, though the second number must not be fractional if the
first is negative. If no arguments are given, the result will be one, and if
only one argument is given, the result will be that argument.
.TP
\fB&\fR ?\fInumber\fR ...?
.
Returns the bit-wise AND of each of the arbitrarily many arguments. Each





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.\" -*- nroff -*-
.\" Copyright (c) 2006 Donal K. Fellows.
.\"
.\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
.\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
.\"
.\" RCS: @(#) $Id: mathop.n,v 1.6 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
.\"
.so man.macros
.TH mathop n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Mathematical Operator Commands"
.BS
.\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
mathop \- Mathematical operators as Tcl commands
................................................................................
Returns the integral modulus of the first argument with respect to the second.
Each \fInumber\fR must have an integral value.
.TP
\fB**\fR ?\fInumber\fR ...?
.
Returns the result of raising each value to the power of the result of
recursively operating on the result of processing the following arguments, so



\fB** 2 3 4\fR is the same as \fB** 2 [** 3 4]\fR. Each \fInumber\fR may be
any numeric value, though the second number must not be fractional if the
first is negative. If no arguments are given, the result will be one, and if
only one argument is given, the result will be that argument.
.TP
\fB&\fR ?\fInumber\fR ...?
.
Returns the bit-wise AND of each of the arbitrarily many arguments. Each

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 by Karl Lehenbauer and Mark Diekhans
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 by Scriptics Corporation.
'\" All rights reserved.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: memory.n,v 1.7 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH memory n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
memory \- Control Tcl memory debugging capabilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBmemory \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmemory\fR command gives the Tcl developer control of Tcl's memory
debugging capabilities.  The memory command has several suboptions, which are
described below.  It is only available when Tcl has been compiled with
memory debugging enabled (when \fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR is defined at
compile time), and after \fBTcl_InitMemory\fR has been called.
.TP
\fBmemory active\fR \fIfile\fR
.
Write a list of all currently allocated memory to the specified \fIfile\fR.
.TP
\fBmemory break_on_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR
.
After the \fIcount\fR allocations have been performed, \fBckalloc\fR
outputs a message to this effect and that it is now attempting to enter
the C debugger.  Tcl will then issue a \fISIGINT\fR signal against itself.
If you are running Tcl under a C debugger, it should then enter the debugger
command mode.
.TP
\fBmemory info\fR
.
Returns a report containing the total allocations and frees since 
Tcl began, the current packets allocated (the current
number of calls to \fBckalloc\fR not met by a corresponding call 
to \fBckfree\fR), the current bytes allocated, and the maximum number
of packets and bytes allocated.
.TP
\fBmemory init \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR]
.
Turn on or off the pre-initialization of all allocated memory
with bogus bytes.  Useful for detecting the use of uninitialized values.
.TP
\fBmemory onexit\fR \fIfile\fR
.
Causes a list of all allocated memory to be written to the specified \fIfile\fR
during the finalization of Tcl's memory subsystem.  Useful for checking
that memory is properly cleaned up during process exit.
.TP
\fBmemory tag\fR \fIstring\fR
.
Each packet of memory allocated by \fBckalloc\fR can have associated
with it a string-valued tag.  In the lists of allocated memory generated
by \fBmemory active\fR and \fBmemory onexit\fR, the tag for each packet
is printed along with other information about the packet.  The
\fBmemory tag\fR command sets the tag value for subsequent calls
to \fBckalloc\fR to be \fIstring\fR.  
.TP
\fBmemory trace \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR]
.
Turns memory tracing on or off.  When memory tracing is on, every call
to \fBckalloc\fR causes a line of trace information to be written to
\fIstderr\fR, consisting of the word \fIckalloc\fR, followed by the
address returned, the amount of memory allocated, and the C filename
and line number of the code performing the allocation.  For example:
.RS
.CS
ckalloc 40e478 98 tclProc.c 1406
.CE
Calls to \fBckfree\fR are traced in the same manner.
.RE
.TP
\fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR
.
Enable memory tracing after \fIcount\fR \fBckalloc\fRs have been performed.
For example, if you enter
.QW "\fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc 100\fR" ,
.
after the 100th call to \fBckalloc\fR, memory trace information will begin
being displayed for all allocations and frees.  Since there can be a lot
of memory activity before a problem occurs, judicious use of this option
can reduce the slowdown caused by tracing (and the amount of trace information
produced), if you can identify a number of allocations that occur before
the problem sets in.  The current number of memory allocations that have 
occurred since Tcl started is printed on a guard zone failure.
.TP
\fBmemory validate \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR]
.
Turns memory validation on or off. When memory validation is enabled,
on every call to \fBckalloc\fR or \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones are
checked for every piece of memory currently in existence that was
allocated by \fBckalloc\fR.  This has a large performance impact and
should only be used when overwrite problems are strongly suspected.
The advantage of enabling memory validation is that a guard zone
overwrite can be detected on the first call to \fBckalloc\fR or
\fBckfree\fR after the overwrite occurred, rather than when the
specific memory with the overwritten guard zone(s) is freed, which may
occur long after the overwrite occurred.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
ckalloc(3), ckfree(3), Tcl_ValidateAllMemory(3), Tcl_DumpActiveMemory(3),
TCL_MEM_DEBUG

.SH KEYWORDS
memory, debug




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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1992-1999 by Karl Lehenbauer and Mark Diekhans
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 by Scriptics Corporation.
'\" All rights reserved.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: memory.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH memory n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
memory \- Control Tcl memory debugging capabilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBmemory \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmemory\fR command gives the Tcl developer control of Tcl's memory
debugging capabilities.  The memory command has several suboptions, which are
described below.  It is only available when Tcl has been compiled with
memory debugging enabled (when \fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR is defined at
compile time), and after \fBTcl_InitMemory\fR has been called.
.TP
\fBmemory active\fR \fIfile\fR

Write a list of all currently allocated memory to the specified \fIfile\fR.
.TP
\fBmemory break_on_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR

After the \fIcount\fR allocations have been performed, \fBckalloc\fR
outputs a message to this effect and that it is now attempting to enter
the C debugger.  Tcl will then issue a \fISIGINT\fR signal against itself.
If you are running Tcl under a C debugger, it should then enter the debugger
command mode.
.TP
\fBmemory info\fR

Returns a report containing the total allocations and frees since 
Tcl began, the current packets allocated (the current
number of calls to \fBckalloc\fR not met by a corresponding call 
to \fBckfree\fR), the current bytes allocated, and the maximum number
of packets and bytes allocated.
.TP
\fB memory init [on|off]\fR

Turn on or off the pre-initialization of all allocated memory
with bogus bytes.  Useful for detecting the use of uninitialized values.
.TP
\fBmemory onexit\fR \fIfile\fR

Causes a list of all allocated memory to be written to the specified \fIfile\fR
during the finalization of Tcl's memory subsystem.  Useful for checking
that memory is properly cleaned up during process exit.
.TP
\fBmemory tag\fR \fIstring\fR

Each packet of memory allocated by \fBckalloc\fR can have associated
with it a string-valued tag.  In the lists of allocated memory generated
by \fBmemory active\fR and \fBmemory onexit\fR, the tag for each packet
is printed along with other information about the packet.  The
\fBmemory tag\fR command sets the tag value for subsequent calls
to \fBckalloc\fR to be \fIstring\fR.  
.TP
\fBmemory trace [on|off]\fR
.br
Turns memory tracing on or off.  When memory tracing is on, every call
to \fBckalloc\fR causes a line of trace information to be written to
\fIstderr\fR, consisting of the word \fIckalloc\fR, followed by the
address returned, the amount of memory allocated, and the C filename
and line number of the code performing the allocation.  For example:
.RS
.CS
ckalloc 40e478 98 tclProc.c 1406
.CE
Calls to \fBckfree\fR are traced in the same manner.
.RE
.TP
\fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR

Enable memory tracing after \fIcount\fR \fBckalloc\fR's have been performed.

For example, if you enter \fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc 100\fR,

after the 100th call to \fBckalloc\fR, memory trace information will begin
being displayed for all allocations and frees.  Since there can be a lot
of memory activity before a problem occurs, judicious use of this option
can reduce the slowdown caused by tracing (and the amount of trace information
produced), if you can identify a number of allocations that occur before
the problem sets in.  The current number of memory allocations that have 
occurred since Tcl started is printed on a guard zone failure.
.TP
\fBmemory validate [on|off]\fR

Turns memory validation on or off. When memory validation is enabled,
on every call to \fBckalloc\fR or \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones are
checked for every piece of memory currently in existence that was
allocated by \fBckalloc\fR.  This has a large performance impact and
should only be used when overwrite problems are strongly suspected.
The advantage of enabling memory validation is that a guard zone
overwrite can be detected on the first call to \fBckalloc\fR or
\fBckfree\fR after the overwrite occurred, rather than when the
specific memory with the overwritten guard zone(s) is freed, which may
occur long after the overwrite occurred.

.SH "SEE ALSO"

ckalloc, ckfree, Tcl_ValidateAllMemory, Tcl_DumpActiveMemory, TCL_MEM_DEBUG

.SH KEYWORDS
memory, debug

Changes to doc/msgcat.n.

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.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcset \fIlocale src-string \fR?\fItranslate-string\fR?
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcmset \fIlocale src-trans-list\fR
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcunknown \fIlocale src-string\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmsgcat\fR package provides a set of functions
that can be used to manage multi-lingual user interfaces.
Text strings are defined in a
.QW "message catalog"
which is independent from the application, and
which can be edited or localized without modifying
the application source code.  New languages
or locales are provided by adding a new file to
the message catalog.
.PP
Use of the message catalog is optional by any application
or package, but is encouraged if the application or package
................................................................................
the user, based on the user's language specification.
The list is ordered from most specific to least
preference.  The list is derived from the current
locale set in msgcat by \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR, and
cannot be set independently.  For example, if the
current locale is en_US_funky, then \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR
.VS 1.4
returns
.QW "\fBen_US_funky en_US en {}\fR" .
.VE 1.4
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcload \fIdirname\fR
Searches the specified directory for files that match
the language specifications returned by \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR
(note that these are all lowercase), extended by the file extension
.QW .msg .
Each matching file is 
read in order, assuming a UTF-8 encoding.  The file contents are
then evaluated as a Tcl script.  This means that Unicode characters
may be present in the message file either directly in their UTF-8
encoded form, or by use of the backslash-u quoting recognized by Tcl
evaluation.  The number of message files which matched the specification
and were loaded is returned.
.TP
................................................................................
for both.  The function returns \fItranslate-string\fR.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcmset \fIlocale src-trans-list\fR
Sets the translation for multiple source strings in
\fIsrc-trans-list\fR in the specified \fIlocale\fR and the current
namespace.
\fIsrc-trans-list\fR must have an even number of elements and is in
the form
.QW "\fIsrc-string translate-string\fR ?\fIsrc-string translate-string ...\fR?}" .
The \fB::msgcat::mcmset\fR command can be significantly
faster than multiple invocations of \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR. The function
returns the number of translations set.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcunknown \fIlocale src-string\fR
This routine is called by \fB::msgcat::mc\fR in the case when
a translation for \fIsrc-string\fR is not defined in the
current locale.  The default action is to return
................................................................................
to \fB::msgcat::mc\fR.  
.SH "LOCALE SPECIFICATION"
.PP
The locale is specified to \fBmsgcat\fR by a locale string
passed to \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR.
The locale string consists of
a language code, an optional country code, and an optional
system-specific code, each separated by
.QW _ .
The country and language
codes are specified in standards ISO-639 and ISO-3166.
For example, the locale
.QW en
specifies English and
.QW en_US
specifies U.S. English.
.PP
When the msgcat package is first loaded, the locale is initialized
according to the user's environment.  The variables \fBenv(LC_ALL)\fR,
\fBenv(LC_MESSAGES)\fR, and \fBenv(LANG)\fR are examined in order.
The first of them to have a non-empty value is used to determine the
initial locale.  The value is parsed according to the XPG4 pattern
.CS
................................................................................
.CS
language[_country][_modifier]
.CE
On Windows, if none of those environment variables is set, msgcat will
attempt to extract locale information from the
registry.  If all these attempts to discover an initial locale
from the user's environment fail, msgcat defaults to an initial
locale of
.QW C .
.PP
When a locale is specified by the user, a
.QW "best match"
search is
performed during string translation.  For example, if a user specifies
.VS 1.4
en_GB_Funky, the locales
.QW en_GB_Funky ,
.QW en_GB ,
.QW en
and
.MT
(the empty string)
.VE 1.4
are searched in order until a matching translation
string is found.  If no translation string is available, then
\fB::msgcat::mcunknown\fR is called.
.SH "NAMESPACES AND MESSAGE CATALOGS"
.PP
................................................................................
hello from ::
hello from ::foo
.CE
.PP
When searching for a translation of a message, the
message catalog will search first the current namespace,
then the parent of the current namespace, and so on until
the global namespace is reached.  This allows child namespaces to
.QW inherit
messages from their parent namespace.
.PP
For example, executing (in the
.QW en
locale) the code 
.CS
\fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m1 ":: message1"
\fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m2 ":: message2"
\fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m3 ":: message3"
namespace eval ::foo {
   \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m2 "::foo message2"
   \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m3 "::foo message3"
................................................................................
.PP
Message files can be located in any directory, subject
to the following conditions:
.IP [1]
All message files for a package are in the same directory.
.IP [2]
The message file name is a msgcat locale specifier (all lowercase)
followed by
.QW .msg .
For example:
.RS
.CS
es.msg    -- spanish
en_gb.msg -- United Kingdom English
.CE
.VS 1.4
\fIException:\fR The message file for the root locale
.MT
is called \fBROOT.msg\fR.  This exception is made so as not to
cause peculiar behavior, such as marking the message file as
.QW hidden
on Unix file systems.
.VE 1.4
.RE
.IP [3]
The file contains a series of calls to \fBmcset\fR and
\fBmcmset\fR, setting the necessary translation strings
for the language, likely enclosed in a \fBnamespace eval\fR
so that all source strings are tied to the namespace of
the package. For example, a short \fBes.msg\fR might contain:
.RS
.CS
namespace eval ::mypackage {
   \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR es "Free Beer!" "Cerveza Gracias!"
}
.CE
.RE
.SH "RECOMMENDED MESSAGE SETUP FOR PACKAGES"
.PP
If a package is installed into a subdirectory of the
\fBtcl_pkgPath\fR and loaded via \fBpackage require\fR, the
following procedure is recommended.
.IP [1]
During package installation, create a subdirectory
\fBmsgs\fR under your package directory.
.IP [2]
Copy your *.msg files into that directory.
.IP [3]
Add the following command to your package initialization script:
.RS
.CS
# load language files, stored in msgs subdirectory
\fB::msgcat::mcload\fR [file join [file dirname [info script]] msgs]
.CE
.RE
.SH "POSITIONAL CODES FOR FORMAT AND SCAN COMMANDS"
.PP
It is possible that a message string used as an argument
to \fBformat\fR might have positionally dependent parameters that
might need to be repositioned.  For example, it might be
syntactically desirable to rearrange the sentence structure
while translating.
.CS
format "We produced %d units in location %s" $num $city
format "In location %s we produced %d units" $city $num
.CE
.PP
This can be handled by using the positional parameters:

.CS
format "We produced %1\\$d units in location %2\\$s" $num $city
format "In location %2\\$s we produced %1\\$d units" $num $city
.CE
.PP
Similarly, positional parameters can be used with \fBscan\fR to
extract values from internationalized strings.
.PP
\fINote:\fR for the specific case of formatting a string, you should
take advantage of the fact that the \fB::msgcat::mc\fR command already
passes its string through \fBformat\fR internally.
.SH CREDITS
.PP
The message catalog code was developed by Mark Harrison.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
format(n), scan(n), namespace(n), package(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
internationalization, i18n, localization, l10n, message, text, translation






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.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcset \fIlocale src-string \fR?\fItranslate-string\fR?
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcmset \fIlocale src-trans-list\fR
.sp
\fB::msgcat::mcunknown \fIlocale src-string\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmsgcat\fR package provides a set of functions
that can be used to manage multi-lingual user interfaces.
Text strings are defined in a ``message catalog'' which

is independent from the application, and
which can be edited or localized without modifying
the application source code.  New languages
or locales are provided by adding a new file to
the message catalog.
.PP
Use of the message catalog is optional by any application
or package, but is encouraged if the application or package
................................................................................
the user, based on the user's language specification.
The list is ordered from most specific to least
preference.  The list is derived from the current
locale set in msgcat by \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR, and
cannot be set independently.  For example, if the
current locale is en_US_funky, then \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR
.VS 1.4

returns \fB{en_US_funky en_US en {}}\fR.
.VE 1.4
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcload \fIdirname\fR
Searches the specified directory for files that match
the language specifications returned by \fB::msgcat::mcpreferences\fR
(note that these are all lowercase), extended by the file

extension ``.msg''.  Each matching file is 
read in order, assuming a UTF-8 encoding.  The file contents are
then evaluated as a Tcl script.  This means that Unicode characters
may be present in the message file either directly in their UTF-8
encoded form, or by use of the backslash-u quoting recognized by Tcl
evaluation.  The number of message files which matched the specification
and were loaded is returned.
.TP
................................................................................
for both.  The function returns \fItranslate-string\fR.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcmset \fIlocale src-trans-list\fR
Sets the translation for multiple source strings in
\fIsrc-trans-list\fR in the specified \fIlocale\fR and the current
namespace.
\fIsrc-trans-list\fR must have an even number of elements and is in

the form {\fIsrc-string translate-string\fR ?\fIsrc-string
translate-string ...\fR?} \fB::msgcat::mcmset\fR can be significantly
faster than multiple invocations of \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR. The function
returns the number of translations set.
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcunknown \fIlocale src-string\fR
This routine is called by \fB::msgcat::mc\fR in the case when
a translation for \fIsrc-string\fR is not defined in the
current locale.  The default action is to return
................................................................................
to \fB::msgcat::mc\fR.  
.SH "LOCALE SPECIFICATION"
.PP
The locale is specified to \fBmsgcat\fR by a locale string
passed to \fB::msgcat::mclocale\fR.
The locale string consists of
a language code, an optional country code, and an optional
system-specific code, each separated by ``_''.  The country and language


codes are specified in standards ISO-639 and ISO-3166.
For example, the locale ``en'' specifies English and ``en_US'' specifies



U.S. English.
.PP
When the msgcat package is first loaded, the locale is initialized
according to the user's environment.  The variables \fBenv(LC_ALL)\fR,
\fBenv(LC_MESSAGES)\fR, and \fBenv(LANG)\fR are examined in order.
The first of them to have a non-empty value is used to determine the
initial locale.  The value is parsed according to the XPG4 pattern
.CS
................................................................................
.CS
language[_country][_modifier]
.CE
On Windows, if none of those environment variables is set, msgcat will
attempt to extract locale information from the
registry.  If all these attempts to discover an initial locale
from the user's environment fail, msgcat defaults to an initial
locale of ``C''.

.PP
When a locale is specified by the user, a ``best match'' search is


performed during string translation.  For example, if a user specifies
.VS 1.4
en_GB_Funky, the locales ``en_GB_Funky'', ``en_GB'', ``en'' and ``''





(the empty string)
.VE 1.4
are searched in order until a matching translation
string is found.  If no translation string is available, then
\fB::msgcat::mcunknown\fR is called.
.SH "NAMESPACES AND MESSAGE CATALOGS"
.PP
................................................................................
hello from ::
hello from ::foo
.CE
.PP
When searching for a translation of a message, the
message catalog will search first the current namespace,
then the parent of the current namespace, and so on until
the global namespace is reached.  This allows child namespaces

to "inherit" messages from their parent namespace.
.PP
For example, executing (in the ``en'' locale) the code 


.CS
\fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m1 ":: message1"
\fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m2 ":: message2"
\fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m3 ":: message3"
namespace eval ::foo {
   \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m2 "::foo message2"
   \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR en m3 "::foo message3"
................................................................................
.PP
Message files can be located in any directory, subject
to the following conditions:
.IP [1]
All message files for a package are in the same directory.
.IP [2]
The message file name is a msgcat locale specifier (all lowercase)


followed by ``.msg''.  For example:

.CS
es.msg    -- spanish
en_gb.msg -- United Kingdom English
.CE
.VS 1.4
\fIException:\fR The message file for the root locale ``'' is

called \fBROOT.msg\fR.  This exception is made so as not to
cause peculiar behavior, such as marking the message file as

``hidden'' on Unix file systems.
.VE 1.4

.IP [3]
The file contains a series of calls to \fBmcset\fR and
\fBmcmset\fR, setting the necessary translation strings
for the language, likely enclosed in a \fBnamespace eval\fR
so that all source strings are tied to the namespace of
the package. For example, a short \fBes.msg\fR might contain:

.CS
namespace eval ::mypackage {
   \fB::msgcat::mcset\fR es "Free Beer!" "Cerveza Gracias!"
}
.CE

.SH "RECOMMENDED MESSAGE SETUP FOR PACKAGES"
.PP
If a package is installed into a subdirectory of the
\fBtcl_pkgPath\fR and loaded via \fBpackage require\fR, the
following procedure is recommended.
.IP [1]
During package installation, create a subdirectory
\fBmsgs\fR under your package directory.
.IP [2]
Copy your *.msg files into that directory.
.IP [3]
 Add the following command to your package
initialization script:
.CS
# load language files, stored in msgs subdirectory
\fB::msgcat::mcload\fR [file join [file dirname [info script]] msgs]
.CE

.SH "POSITIONAL CODES FOR FORMAT AND SCAN COMMANDS"
.PP
It is possible that a message string used as an argument
to \fBformat\fR might have positionally dependent parameters that
might need to be repositioned.  For example, it might be
syntactically desirable to rearrange the sentence structure
while translating.
.CS
format "We produced %d units in location %s" $num $city
format "In location %s we produced %d units" $city $num
.CE
.PP
This can be handled by using the positional
parameters:
.CS
format "We produced %1\\$d units in location %2\\$s" $num $city
format "In location %2\\$s we produced %1\\$d units" $num $city
.CE
.PP
Similarly, positional parameters can be used with \fBscan\fR to
extract values from internationalized strings.




.SH CREDITS
.PP
The message catalog code was developed by Mark Harrison.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
format(n), scan(n), namespace(n), package(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
internationalization, i18n, localization, l10n, message, text, translation

Changes to doc/namespace.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004-2005 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: namespace.n,v 1.22 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH namespace n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
namespace \- create and manipulate contexts for commands and variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBnamespace \fR?\fIoption\fR? ?\fIarg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
The new script has two important properties.
First, it can be evaluated in any namespace and will cause
\fIscript\fR to be evaluated in the current namespace
(the one where the \fBnamespace code\fR command was invoked).
Second, additional arguments can be appended to the resulting script
and they will be passed to \fIscript\fR as additional arguments.
For example, suppose the command
.QW "\fBset script [namespace code {foo bar}]\fR"
is invoked in namespace \fB::a::b\fR.
Then
.QW \fBeval\0"$script\0x\0y"\fR
can be executed in any namespace (assuming the value of
\fBscript\fR has been passed in properly)
and will have the same effect as the command
\fB::namespace eval ::a::b {foo bar x y}\fR.
This command is needed because
extensions like Tk normally execute callback scripts
in the global namespace.
................................................................................
A scoped command captures a command together with its namespace context
in a way that allows it to be executed properly later.
See the section \fBSCOPED SCRIPTS\fR for some examples
of how this is used to create callback scripts.
.TP
\fBnamespace current\fR
Returns the fully-qualified name for the current namespace.
The actual name of the global namespace is
.MT
(i.e., an empty string),
but this command returns \fB::\fR for the global namespace
as a convenience to programmers.
.TP
\fBnamespace delete \fR?\fInamespace namespace ...\fR?
Each namespace \fInamespace\fR is deleted
and all variables, procedures, and child namespaces
................................................................................
\fBnamespace parent\fR ?\fInamespace\fR?
Returns the fully-qualified name of the parent namespace
for namespace \fInamespace\fR.
If \fInamespace\fR is not specified,
the fully-qualified name of the current namespace's parent is returned.
.TP
\fBnamespace path\fR ?\fInamespaceList\fR?
.\" Should really have the .TP inside the .VS, but that triggers a groff bug
.VS 8.5
Returns the command resolution path of the current namespace. If
\fInamespaceList\fR is specified as a list of named namespaces, the
current namespace's command resolution path is set to those namespaces
and returns the empty list. The default command resolution path is
always empty. See the section \fBNAME RESOLUTION\fR below for an
explanation of the rules regarding name resolution.
................................................................................
Since namespaces may nest,
qualified names are used to refer to
commands, variables, and child namespaces contained inside namespaces.
Qualified names are similar to the hierarchical path names for
Unix files or Tk widgets,
except that \fB::\fR is used as the separator
instead of \fB/\fR or \fB.\fR.
The topmost or global namespace has the name
.MT
(i.e., an empty string), although \fB::\fR is a synonym.
As an example, the name \fB::safe::interp::create\fR
refers to the command \fBcreate\fR in the namespace \fBinterp\fR
that is a child of namespace \fB::safe\fR,
which in turn is a child of the global namespace, \fB::\fR.
.PP
If you want to access commands and variables from another namespace,
you must use some extra syntax.
................................................................................
foobar grill
.CE
.PP
Look up where the command imported in the previous example came from:
.CS
puts "grill came from [\fBnamespace origin\fR grill]"
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
interp(n), upvar(n), variable(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
command, ensemble, exported, internal, variable






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'\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004-2005 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: namespace.n,v 1.23 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH namespace n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
namespace \- create and manipulate contexts for commands and variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBnamespace \fR?\fIoption\fR? ?\fIarg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
The new script has two important properties.
First, it can be evaluated in any namespace and will cause
\fIscript\fR to be evaluated in the current namespace
(the one where the \fBnamespace code\fR command was invoked).
Second, additional arguments can be appended to the resulting script
and they will be passed to \fIscript\fR as additional arguments.
For example, suppose the command
\fBset script [namespace code {foo bar}]\fR
is invoked in namespace \fB::a::b\fR.
Then \fBeval "$script x y"\fR

can be executed in any namespace (assuming the value of
\fBscript\fR has been passed in properly)
and will have the same effect as the command
\fB::namespace eval ::a::b {foo bar x y}\fR.
This command is needed because
extensions like Tk normally execute callback scripts
in the global namespace.
................................................................................
A scoped command captures a command together with its namespace context
in a way that allows it to be executed properly later.
See the section \fBSCOPED SCRIPTS\fR for some examples
of how this is used to create callback scripts.
.TP
\fBnamespace current\fR
Returns the fully-qualified name for the current namespace.
The actual name of the global namespace is ``''

(i.e., an empty string),
but this command returns \fB::\fR for the global namespace
as a convenience to programmers.
.TP
\fBnamespace delete \fR?\fInamespace namespace ...\fR?
Each namespace \fInamespace\fR is deleted
and all variables, procedures, and child namespaces
................................................................................
\fBnamespace parent\fR ?\fInamespace\fR?
Returns the fully-qualified name of the parent namespace
for namespace \fInamespace\fR.
If \fInamespace\fR is not specified,
the fully-qualified name of the current namespace's parent is returned.
.TP
\fBnamespace path\fR ?\fInamespaceList\fR?
'\" Should really have the .TP inside the .VS, but that triggers a groff bug
.VS 8.5
Returns the command resolution path of the current namespace. If
\fInamespaceList\fR is specified as a list of named namespaces, the
current namespace's command resolution path is set to those namespaces
and returns the empty list. The default command resolution path is
always empty. See the section \fBNAME RESOLUTION\fR below for an
explanation of the rules regarding name resolution.
................................................................................
Since namespaces may nest,
qualified names are used to refer to
commands, variables, and child namespaces contained inside namespaces.
Qualified names are similar to the hierarchical path names for
Unix files or Tk widgets,
except that \fB::\fR is used as the separator
instead of \fB/\fR or \fB.\fR.
The topmost or global namespace has the name ``'' (i.e., an empty string),

although \fB::\fR is a synonym.
As an example, the name \fB::safe::interp::create\fR
refers to the command \fBcreate\fR in the namespace \fBinterp\fR
that is a child of namespace \fB::safe\fR,
which in turn is a child of the global namespace, \fB::\fR.
.PP
If you want to access commands and variables from another namespace,
you must use some extra syntax.
................................................................................
foobar grill
.CE
.PP
Look up where the command imported in the previous example came from:
.CS
puts "grill came from [\fBnamespace origin\fR grill]"
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
interp(n), upvar(n), variable(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
command, ensemble, exported, internal, variable

Changes to doc/open.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: open.n,v 1.29 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH open n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
open \- Open a file-based or command pipeline channel
.SH SYNOPSIS
.sp
\fBopen \fIfileName\fR
.br
\fBopen \fIfileName access\fR
................................................................................
create a new empty file.
Set the initial access position  to the end of the file.
.VS 8.5
.PP
All of the legal \fIaccess\fR values above may have the character
\fBb\fR added as the second or third character in the value to
indicate that the opened channel should be configured with the
\fB\-translation binary\fR option, making the channel suitable for 
reading or writing of binary data.
.VE 8.5
.PP
In the second form, \fIaccess\fR consists of a list of any of the
following flags, all of which have the standard POSIX meanings.
One of the flags must be either \fBRDONLY\fR, \fBWRONLY\fR or \fBRDWR\fR.
.TP 15
................................................................................
Open the file for both reading and writing.
.TP 15
\fBAPPEND\fR
Set the file pointer to the end of the file prior to each write.
.VS 8.5
.TP 15
\fBBINARY\fR
Configure the opened channel with the \fB\-translation binary\fR option.
.VE 8.5
.TP 15
\fBCREAT\fR
Create the file if it doesn't already exist (without this flag it
is an error for the file not to exist).
.TP 15
\fBEXCL\fR
................................................................................
\fBTRUNC\fR
If the file exists it is truncated to zero length.
.PP
If a new file is created as part of opening it, \fIpermissions\fR
(an integer) is used to set the permissions for the new file in
conjunction with the process's file mode creation mask.
\fIPermissions\fR defaults to 0666.

.SH "COMMAND PIPELINES"
.PP
If the first character of \fIfileName\fR is
.QW |
then the remaining characters of \fIfileName\fR are treated as a list of
arguments that describe a command pipeline to invoke, in the same style as the
arguments for \fBexec\fR.
In this case, the channel identifier returned by \fBopen\fR may be used
to write to the command's input pipe or read from its output pipe,
depending on the value of \fIaccess\fR.
If write-only access is used (e.g. \fIaccess\fR is \fBw\fR), then
standard output for the pipeline is directed to the current standard
output unless overridden by the command.
................................................................................
configuration options specific to serial ports (where supported):
.TP
\fB\-mode\fR \fIbaud\fB,\fIparity\fB,\fIdata\fB,\fIstop\fR
This option is a set of 4 comma-separated values: the baud rate, parity,
number of data bits, and number of stop bits for this serial port.  The
\fIbaud\fR rate is a simple integer that specifies the connection speed.
\fIParity\fR is one of the following letters: \fBn\fR, \fBo\fR, \fBe\fR,
\fBm\fR, \fBs\fR; respectively signifying the parity options of
.QW none ,
.QW odd ,
.QW even ,
.QW mark ,
or
.QW space .
\fIData\fR is the number of data bits and should be an integer from 5 to 8,
while \fIstop\fR is the number of stop bits and should be the integer 1 or 2.
.TP
\fB\-handshake\fR \fItype\fR
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to setup automatic handshake
control. Note that not all handshake types maybe supported by your operating
system. The \fItype\fR parameter is case-independent.
.sp
If \fItype\fR is \fBnone\fR then any handshake is switched off.
\fBrtscts\fR activates hardware handshake. Hardware handshake signals
are described below.
For software handshake \fBxonxoff\fR the handshake characters can be redefined
with \fB\-xchar\fR.
An additional hardware handshake \fBdtrdsr\fR is available only under Windows.
There is no default handshake configuration, the initial value depends
on your operating system settings.
The \fB\-handshake\fR option cannot be queried.
.TP
\fB\-queue\fR
(Windows and Unix). The \fB\-queue\fR option can only be queried.
It returns a list of two integers representing the current number
of bytes in the input and output queue respectively.
.TP
\fB\-timeout\fR \fImsec\fR
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to set the timeout for blocking
read operations. It specifies the maximum interval between the
reception of two bytes in milliseconds.
For Unix systems the granularity is 100 milliseconds.
The \fB\-timeout\fR option does not affect write operations or
nonblocking reads.
This option cannot be queried.
.TP
\fB\-ttycontrol\fR \fI{signal boolean signal boolean ...}\fR
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to setup the handshake
output lines (see below) permanently or to send a BREAK over the serial line.
The \fIsignal\fR names are case-independent.
\fB{RTS 1 DTR 0}\fR sets the RTS output to high and the DTR output to low.
The BREAK condition (see below) is enabled and disabled with \fB{BREAK 1}\fR and
\fB{BREAK 0}\fR respectively.
It's not a good idea to change the \fBRTS\fR (or \fBDTR\fR) signal
with active hardware handshake \fBrtscts\fR (or \fBdtrdsr\fR).
The result is unpredictable.
The \fB\-ttycontrol\fR option cannot be queried.
.TP
\fB\-ttystatus\fR
(Windows and Unix). The \fB\-ttystatus\fR option can only be
queried.  It returns the current modem status and handshake input signals
(see below).
The result is a list of signal,value pairs with a fixed order,
e.g. \fB{CTS 1 DSR 0 RING 1 DCD 0}\fR.
The \fIsignal\fR names are returned upper case.
.TP
\fB\-xchar\fR \fI{xonChar xoffChar}\fR
................................................................................
.TP
\fB\-lasterror\fR
(Windows only). This option is query only.
In case of a serial communication error, \fBread\fR or \fBputs\fR
returns a general Tcl file I/O error.
\fBfconfigure -lasterror\fR can be called to get a list of error details.
See below for an explanation of the various error codes.

.SH "SERIAL PORT SIGNALS"
.PP
RS-232 is the most commonly used standard electrical interface for serial
communications. A negative voltage (-3V..-12V) define a mark (on=1) bit and
a positive voltage (+3..+12V) define a space (off=0) bit (RS-232C).  The
following signals are specified for incoming and outgoing data, status
lines and handshaking. Here we are using the terms \fIworkstation\fR for
................................................................................
\fBData Terminal Ready:\fR This signal tells the modem that the workstation
is ready to establish a link. DTR is often enabled automatically whenever a
serial port is opened.
.IP \fBDSR(input)\fR
\fBData Set Ready:\fR The complement to DTR. Tells the workstation that the
modem is ready to establish a link.
.IP \fBDCD(input)\fR
\fBData Carrier Detect:\fR This line becomes active when a modem detects a
.QW Carrier
signal.
.IP \fBRI(input)\fR
\fBRing Indicator:\fR Goes active when the modem detects an incoming call.
.IP \fBBREAK\fR
A BREAK condition is not a hardware signal line, but a logical zero on the
TXD or RXD lines for a long period of time, usually 250 to 500
milliseconds.  Normally a receive or transmit data signal stays at the mark
(on=1) voltage until the next character is transferred. A BREAK is sometimes
used to reset the communications line or change the operating mode of
communications hardware.

.SH "ERROR CODES (Windows only)"
.PP
A lot of different errors may occur during serial read operations or during
event polling in background. The external device may have been switched
off, the data lines may be noisy, system buffers may overrun or your mode
settings may be wrong.  That's why a reliable software should always
\fBcatch\fR serial read operations.  In cases of an error Tcl returns a
................................................................................
\fBFRAME\fR
A stop-bit error has been detected by your UART.
Wrong mode settings with \fBfconfigure -mode\fR or a noisy data line (RXD)
may cause this error.
.TP 10
\fBBREAK\fR
A BREAK condition has been detected by your UART (see above).

.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows \fR(all versions)
.
Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are of the form
\fBcom\fIX\fB:\fR, where \fIX\fR is a number, generally from 1 to 4.
This notation only works for serial ports from 1 to 9, if the system
happens to have more than four.  An attempt to open a serial port that
does not exist or has a number greater than 9 will fail.  An alternate
form of opening serial ports is to use the filename \fB\e\e.\ecomX\fR,
where X is any number that corresponds to a serial port; please note
that this method is considerably slower on Windows 95 and Windows 98.
.TP
\fBWindows NT\fR
.
When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions
between the real console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses
standard input or output.  If a command pipeline is opened for reading, some
of the lines entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and
some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator.  If a command pipeline is opened for
writing, keystrokes entered into the console are not visible until the
pipe is closed.  This behavior occurs whether the command pipeline is
................................................................................
executing 16-bit or 32-bit applications.  These problems only occur because
both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at
the same time.  If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl
is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use
standard input or output, but is redirected from or to a file, then the
above problems do not occur.  
.TP
\fBWindows 95\fR
.
A command pipeline that executes a 16-bit DOS application cannot be opened
for both reading and writing, since 16-bit DOS applications that receive
standard input from a pipe and send standard output to a pipe run
synchronously.  Command pipelines that do not execute 16-bit DOS
applications run asynchronously and can be opened for both reading and
writing.  
.RS
.PP
When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions
between the real console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses
standard input or output.  If a command pipeline is opened for reading from
a 32-bit application, some of the keystrokes entered at the console will be
sent to the command pipeline and some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator.  If
a command pipeline is opened for writing to a 32-bit application, no output
is visible on the console until the pipe is closed.  These problems only
occur because both Tcl and the child application are competing for the
console at the same time.  If the command pipeline is started from a script,
so that Tcl is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does
not use standard input or output, but is redirected from or to a file, then
the above problems do not occur.  
.PP
Whether or not Tcl is running interactively, if a command pipeline is opened
for reading from a 16-bit DOS application, the call to \fBopen\fR will not
return until end-of-file has been received from the command pipeline's
standard output.  If a command pipeline is opened for writing to a 16-bit DOS
application, no data will be sent to the command pipeline's standard output
until the pipe is actually closed.  This problem occurs because 16-bit DOS
applications are run synchronously, as described above.  
.RE
.TP
\fBUnix\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are generally of the
form \fB/dev/tty\fIX\fR, where \fIX\fR is \fBa\fR or \fBb\fR, but the name
of any pseudo-file that maps to a serial port may be used.
Advanced configuration options are only supported for serial ports
when Tcl is built to use the POSIX serial interface.
.RS
.PP
When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions
between the console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses
standard input.  If a command pipeline is opened for reading, some
of the lines entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and
some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator.  This problem only occurs because
both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at the
same time.  If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl is
not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard
input, but is redirected from a file, then the above problem does not occur.  
.RE
.LP
See the PORTABILITY ISSUES section of the \fBexec\fR command for additional
information not specific to command pipelines about executing
applications on the various platforms
.SH "EXAMPLE"
Open a command pipeline and catch any errors:
.CS
set fl [\fBopen\fR "| ls this_file_does_not_exist"]
set data [read $fl]
if {[catch {close $fl} err]} {
    puts "ls command failed: $err"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
chan(n), close(n), exec(n), fconfigure(n), file(n), filename(n), gets(n),

pid(n), puts(n), read(n), fopen(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
access mode, append, create, file, non-blocking, open, permissions,
pipeline, process, serial






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: open.n,v 1.30 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH open n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
open \- Open a file-based or command pipeline channel
.SH SYNOPSIS
.sp
\fBopen \fIfileName\fR
.br
\fBopen \fIfileName access\fR
................................................................................
create a new empty file.
Set the initial access position  to the end of the file.
.VS 8.5
.PP
All of the legal \fIaccess\fR values above may have the character
\fBb\fR added as the second or third character in the value to
indicate that the opened channel should be configured with the
\fB-translation binary\fR option, making the channel suitable for 
reading or writing of binary data.
.VE 8.5
.PP
In the second form, \fIaccess\fR consists of a list of any of the
following flags, all of which have the standard POSIX meanings.
One of the flags must be either \fBRDONLY\fR, \fBWRONLY\fR or \fBRDWR\fR.
.TP 15
................................................................................
Open the file for both reading and writing.
.TP 15
\fBAPPEND\fR
Set the file pointer to the end of the file prior to each write.
.VS 8.5
.TP 15
\fBBINARY\fR
Configure the opened channel with the \fB-translation binary\fR option.
.VE 8.5
.TP 15
\fBCREAT\fR
Create the file if it doesn't already exist (without this flag it
is an error for the file not to exist).
.TP 15
\fBEXCL\fR
................................................................................
\fBTRUNC\fR
If the file exists it is truncated to zero length.
.PP
If a new file is created as part of opening it, \fIpermissions\fR
(an integer) is used to set the permissions for the new file in
conjunction with the process's file mode creation mask.
\fIPermissions\fR defaults to 0666.

.SH "COMMAND PIPELINES"
.PP
If the first character of \fIfileName\fR is ``|'' then the

remaining characters of \fIfileName\fR are treated as a list of arguments
that describe a command pipeline to invoke, in the same style as the
arguments for \fBexec\fR.
In this case, the channel identifier returned by \fBopen\fR may be used
to write to the command's input pipe or read from its output pipe,
depending on the value of \fIaccess\fR.
If write-only access is used (e.g. \fIaccess\fR is \fBw\fR), then
standard output for the pipeline is directed to the current standard
output unless overridden by the command.
................................................................................
configuration options specific to serial ports (where supported):
.TP
\fB\-mode\fR \fIbaud\fB,\fIparity\fB,\fIdata\fB,\fIstop\fR
This option is a set of 4 comma-separated values: the baud rate, parity,
number of data bits, and number of stop bits for this serial port.  The
\fIbaud\fR rate is a simple integer that specifies the connection speed.
\fIParity\fR is one of the following letters: \fBn\fR, \fBo\fR, \fBe\fR,
\fBm\fR, \fBs\fR; respectively signifying the parity options of ``none'',
``odd'', ``even'', ``mark'', or ``space''.  \fIData\fR is the number of





data bits and should be an integer from 5 to 8, while \fIstop\fR is the
number of stop bits and should be the integer 1 or 2.
.TP
\fB\-handshake\fR \fItype\fR
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to setup automatic handshake
control. Note that not all handshake types maybe supported by your operating
system. The \fItype\fR parameter is case-independent.
.sp
If \fItype\fR is \fBnone\fR then any handshake is switched off.
\fBrtscts\fR activates hardware handshake. Hardware handshake signals
are described below.
For software handshake \fBxonxoff\fR the handshake characters can be redefined
with \fB-xchar\fR.
An additional hardware handshake \fBdtrdsr\fR is available only under Windows.
There is no default handshake configuration, the initial value depends
on your operating system settings.
The \fB-handshake\fR option cannot be queried.
.TP
\fB\-queue\fR
(Windows and Unix). The \fB-queue\fR option can only be queried.
It returns a list of two integers representing the current number
of bytes in the input and output queue respectively.
.TP
\fB\-timeout\fR \fImsec\fR
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to set the timeout for blocking
read operations. It specifies the maximum interval between the
reception of two bytes in milliseconds.
For Unix systems the granularity is 100 milliseconds.
The \fB-timeout\fR option does not affect write operations or
nonblocking reads.
This option cannot be queried.
.TP
\fB\-ttycontrol\fR \fI{signal boolean signal boolean ...}\fR
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to setup the handshake
output lines (see below) permanently or to send a BREAK over the serial line.
The \fIsignal\fR names are case-independent.
\fB{RTS 1 DTR 0}\fR sets the RTS output to high and the DTR output to low.
The BREAK condition (see below) is enabled and disabled with \fB{BREAK 1}\fR and
\fB{BREAK 0}\fR respectively.
It's not a good idea to change the \fBRTS\fR (or \fBDTR\fR) signal
with active hardware handshake \fBrtscts\fR (or \fBdtrdsr\fR).
The result is unpredictable.
The \fB-ttycontrol\fR option cannot be queried.
.TP
\fB\-ttystatus\fR
(Windows and Unix). The \fB-ttystatus\fR option can only be
queried.  It returns the current modem status and handshake input signals
(see below).
The result is a list of signal,value pairs with a fixed order,
e.g. \fB{CTS 1 DSR 0 RING 1 DCD 0}\fR.
The \fIsignal\fR names are returned upper case.
.TP
\fB\-xchar\fR \fI{xonChar xoffChar}\fR
................................................................................
.TP
\fB\-lasterror\fR
(Windows only). This option is query only.
In case of a serial communication error, \fBread\fR or \fBputs\fR
returns a general Tcl file I/O error.
\fBfconfigure -lasterror\fR can be called to get a list of error details.
See below for an explanation of the various error codes.

.SH "SERIAL PORT SIGNALS"
.PP
RS-232 is the most commonly used standard electrical interface for serial
communications. A negative voltage (-3V..-12V) define a mark (on=1) bit and
a positive voltage (+3..+12V) define a space (off=0) bit (RS-232C).  The
following signals are specified for incoming and outgoing data, status
lines and handshaking. Here we are using the terms \fIworkstation\fR for
................................................................................
\fBData Terminal Ready:\fR This signal tells the modem that the workstation
is ready to establish a link. DTR is often enabled automatically whenever a
serial port is opened.
.IP \fBDSR(input)\fR
\fBData Set Ready:\fR The complement to DTR. Tells the workstation that the
modem is ready to establish a link.
.IP \fBDCD(input)\fR
\fBData Carrier Detect:\fR This line becomes active when a modem detects

a "Carrier" signal.
.IP \fBRI(input)\fR
\fBRing Indicator:\fR Goes active when the modem detects an incoming call.
.IP \fBBREAK\fR
A BREAK condition is not a hardware signal line, but a logical zero on the
TXD or RXD lines for a long period of time, usually 250 to 500
milliseconds.  Normally a receive or transmit data signal stays at the mark
(on=1) voltage until the next character is transferred. A BREAK is sometimes
used to reset the communications line or change the operating mode of
communications hardware.

.SH "ERROR CODES (Windows only)"
.PP
A lot of different errors may occur during serial read operations or during
event polling in background. The external device may have been switched
off, the data lines may be noisy, system buffers may overrun or your mode
settings may be wrong.  That's why a reliable software should always
\fBcatch\fR serial read operations.  In cases of an error Tcl returns a
................................................................................
\fBFRAME\fR
A stop-bit error has been detected by your UART.
Wrong mode settings with \fBfconfigure -mode\fR or a noisy data line (RXD)
may cause this error.
.TP 10
\fBBREAK\fR
A BREAK condition has been detected by your UART (see above).

.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows \fR(all versions)

Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are of the form
\fBcom\fIX\fB:\fR, where \fIX\fR is a number, generally from 1 to 4.
This notation only works for serial ports from 1 to 9, if the system
happens to have more than four.  An attempt to open a serial port that
does not exist or has a number greater than 9 will fail.  An alternate
form of opening serial ports is to use the filename \fB\e\e.\ecomX\fR,
where X is any number that corresponds to a serial port; please note
that this method is considerably slower on Windows 95 and Windows 98.
.TP
\fBWindows NT\fR

When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions
between the real console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses
standard input or output.  If a command pipeline is opened for reading, some
of the lines entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and
some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator.  If a command pipeline is opened for
writing, keystrokes entered into the console are not visible until the
pipe is closed.  This behavior occurs whether the command pipeline is
................................................................................
executing 16-bit or 32-bit applications.  These problems only occur because
both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at
the same time.  If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl
is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use
standard input or output, but is redirected from or to a file, then the
above problems do not occur.  
.TP
\fBWindows 95\fR 

A command pipeline that executes a 16-bit DOS application cannot be opened
for both reading and writing, since 16-bit DOS applications that receive
standard input from a pipe and send standard output to a pipe run
synchronously.  Command pipelines that do not execute 16-bit DOS
applications run asynchronously and can be opened for both reading and
writing.  
.sp

When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions
between the real console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses
standard input or output.  If a command pipeline is opened for reading from
a 32-bit application, some of the keystrokes entered at the console will be
sent to the command pipeline and some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator.  If
a command pipeline is opened for writing to a 32-bit application, no output
is visible on the console until the pipe is closed.  These problems only
occur because both Tcl and the child application are competing for the
console at the same time.  If the command pipeline is started from a script,
so that Tcl is not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does
not use standard input or output, but is redirected from or to a file, then
the above problems do not occur.  
.sp
Whether or not Tcl is running interactively, if a command pipeline is opened
for reading from a 16-bit DOS application, the call to \fBopen\fR will not
return until end-of-file has been received from the command pipeline's
standard output.  If a command pipeline is opened for writing to a 16-bit DOS
application, no data will be sent to the command pipeline's standard output
until the pipe is actually closed.  This problem occurs because 16-bit DOS
applications are run synchronously, as described above.  

.TP
\fBUnix\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0

Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are generally of the
form \fB/dev/tty\fIX\fR, where \fIX\fR is \fBa\fR or \fBb\fR, but the name
of any pseudo-file that maps to a serial port may be used.
Advanced configuration options are only supported for serial ports
when Tcl is built to use the POSIX serial interface.
.sp

When running Tcl interactively, there may be some strange interactions
between the console, if one is present, and a command pipeline that uses
standard input.  If a command pipeline is opened for reading, some
of the lines entered at the console will be sent to the command pipeline and
some will be sent to the Tcl evaluator.  This problem only occurs because
both Tcl and the child application are competing for the console at the
same time.  If the command pipeline is started from a script, so that Tcl is
not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard
input, but is redirected from a file, then the above problem does not occur.  

.LP
See the PORTABILITY ISSUES section of the \fBexec\fR command for additional
information not specific to command pipelines about executing
applications on the various platforms
.SH "EXAMPLE"
Open a command pipeline and catch any errors:
.CS
set fl [\fBopen\fR "| ls this_file_does_not_exist"]
set data [read $fl]
if {[catch {close $fl} err]} {
    puts "ls command failed: $err"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"

file(n), close(n), filename(n), fconfigure(n), gets(n), read(n),
puts(n), exec(n), pid(n), fopen(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
access mode, append, create, file, non-blocking, open, permissions,
pipeline, process, serial

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: package.n,v 1.19 2007/10/25 10:13:35 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH package n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
package \- Facilities for package loading and version control
................................................................................
\fBpackage unknown \fR?\fIcommand\fR?
\fBpackage vcompare \fIversion1 version2\fR
\fBpackage versions \fIpackage\fR
\fBpackage vsatisfies \fIversion requirement...\fR
\fBpackage prefer \fR?\fBlatest\fR|\fBstable\fR?
.fi
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command keeps a simple database of the packages available for
use by the current interpreter and how to load them into the
interpreter.
It supports multiple versions of each package and arranges
for the correct version of a package to be loaded based on what
................................................................................
.PP
A suitable version of the package is any version which satisfies at
least one of the requirements, per the rules of \fBpackage
vsatisfies\fR. If multiple versions are suitable the implementation
with the highest version is chosen. This last part is additionally
influenced by the selection mode set with \fBpackage prefer\fR.
.PP
In the
.QW "stable"
selection mode the command will select the highest
stable version satisfying the requirements, if any. If no stable
version satisfies the requirements, the highest unstable version
satisfying the requirements will be selected.  In the
.QW "latest"
selection mode the command will accept the highest version satisfying
all the requirements, regardless of its stableness.
.PP
If a version of \fIpackage\fR has already been provided (by invoking
the \fBpackage provide\fR command), then its version number must
satisfy the \fIrequirement\fRs and the command returns immediately.
Otherwise, the command searches the database of information provided by
................................................................................
.TP
\fBpackage require \-exact \fIpackage version\fR
This form of the command is used when only the given \fIversion\fR
of \fIpackage\fR is acceptable to the caller.  This command is
equivalent to \fBpackage require \fIpackage version\fR-\fIversion\fR.
.TP
\fBpackage unknown \fR?\fIcommand\fR?
.
This command supplies a
.QW "last resort"
command to invoke during
\fBpackage require\fR if no suitable version of a package can be found
in the \fBpackage ifneeded\fR database.
If the \fIcommand\fR argument is supplied, it contains the first part
of a command;  when the command is invoked during a \fBpackage require\fR
command, Tcl appends one or more additional arguments giving the desired
package name and requirements.
For example, if \fIcommand\fR is \fBfoo bar\fR and later the command
................................................................................
\fBpackage vsatisfies \fIversion requirement...\fR
Returns 1 if the \fIversion\fR satisfies at least one of the given
requirements, and 0 otherwise. Each \fIrequirement\fR is allowed to
have any of the forms:
.RS
.TP
min
This form is called
.QW "min-bounded" .
.TP
min-
This form is called
.QW "min-unbound" .
.TP
min-max
This form is called
.QW "bounded" .
.RE
.RS
.PP
where
.QW "min"
and
.QW "max"
are valid version numbers. The legacy syntax is
a special case of the extended syntax, keeping backward
compatibility. Regarding satisfaction the rules are:
.RE
.RS
.IP [1]
The \fIversion\fR has to pass at least one of the listed
\fIrequirement\fRs to be satisfactory.
.IP [2]
A version satisfies a
.QW "bounded"
requirement when
.RS
.IP [a]
For \fImin\fR equal to the \fImax\fR if, and only if the \fIversion\fR
is equal to the \fImin\fR.
.IP [b]
Otherwise if, and only if the \fIversion\fR is greater than or equal
to the \fImin\fR, and less than the \fImax\fR, where both \fImin\fR
and \fImax\fR have been padded internally with
.QW a0 .
Note that while the comparison to \fImin\fR is inclusive, the comparison to
\fImax\fR is exclusive.
.RE
.IP [3]
A
.QW "min-bounded"
requirement is a
.QW "bounded"
requirement in disguise,
with the \fImax\fR part implicitly specified as the next higher major
version number of the \fImin\fR part. A version satisfies it per the
rules above.
.IP [4]
A \fIversion\fR satisfies a
.QW "min-unbound"
requirement if, and only if
it is greater than or equal to the \fImin\fR, where the \fImin\fR has
been padded internally with
.QW a0 .
There is no constraint to a maximum.
.RE
.TP
\fBpackage prefer \fR?\fBlatest\fR|\fBstable\fR?
With no arguments, the commands returns either
.QW "latest"
or
.QW "stable" ,
whichever describes the current mode of selection logic used by
\fBpackage require\fR.
.RS
.PP
When passed the argument
.QW "latest" ,
it sets the selection logic mode to
.QW "latest" .
.PP
When passed the argument
.QW "stable" ,
if the mode is already
.QW "stable" ,
that value is kept.  If the mode is already
.QW "latest" , then the attempt to set it back to
.QW "stable"
is ineffective and the mode value remains
.QW "latest" .
.PP
When passed any other value as an argument, raise an invalid argument
error.
.PP
When an interpreter is created, its initial selection mode value is set to
.QW "stable"
unless the environment variable \fBTCL_PKG_PREFER_LATEST\fR
is set.  If that environment variable is defined (with any value) then
the initial (and permanent) selection mode value is set to
.QW "latest" .
.RE
.SH "VERSION NUMBERS"
.PP
Version numbers consist of one or more decimal numbers separated
by dots, such as 2 or 1.162 or 3.1.13.1.
The first number is called the major version number.
Larger numbers correspond to later versions of a package, with
leftmost numbers having greater significance.
For example, version 2.1 is later than 1.3 and version
3.4.6 is later than 3.3.5.
Missing fields are equivalent to zeroes:  version 1.3 is the
same as version 1.3.0 and 1.3.0.0, so it is earlier than 1.3.1 or 1.3.0.2.
In addition, the letters
.QW a
(alpha) and/or
.QW b
(beta) may appear
exactly once to replace a dot for separation. These letters
semantically add a negative specifier into the version, where
.QW a
is -2, and
.QW b
is -1. Each may be specified only once, and
.QW a
and
.QW b
are mutually exclusive in a specifier. Thus 1.3a1 becomes (semantically)
1.3.-2.1, 1.3b1 is 1.3.-1.1. Negative numbers are not directly allowed
in version specifiers.
A version number not containing the letters
.QW a
or
.QW b
as specified above is called a \fBstable\fR version, whereas presence
of the letters causes the version to be called is \fBunstable\fR.
A later version number is assumed to be upwards compatible with
an earlier version number as long as both versions have the same
major version number.
For example, Tcl scripts written for version 2.3 of a package should
work unchanged under versions 2.3.2, 2.4, and 2.5.1.
Changes in the major version number signify incompatible changes:
if code is written to use version 2.1 of a package, it is not guaranteed
to work unmodified with either version 1.7.3 or version 3.1.
.SH "PACKAGE INDICES"
.PP
The recommended way to use packages in Tcl is to invoke \fBpackage require\fR
and \fBpackage provide\fR commands in scripts, and use the procedure
\fBpkg_mkIndex\fR to create package index files.
Once you have done this, packages will be loaded automatically
in response to \fBpackage require\fR commands.
See the documentation for \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR for details.
.SH EXAMPLES
To state that a Tcl script requires the Tk and http packages, put this
at the top of the script:
.CS
\fBpackage require\fR Tk
................................................................................
if {[catch {\fBpackage require\fR Snack}]} {
   # Error thrown - package not found.
   # Set up a dummy interface to work around the absence
} else {
   # We have the package, configure the app to use it
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
msgcat(n), packagens(n), pkgMkIndex(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
package, version





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: package.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH package n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
package \- Facilities for package loading and version control
................................................................................
\fBpackage unknown \fR?\fIcommand\fR?
\fBpackage vcompare \fIversion1 version2\fR
\fBpackage versions \fIpackage\fR
\fBpackage vsatisfies \fIversion requirement...\fR
\fBpackage prefer \fR?\fBlatest\fR|\fBstable\fR?
.fi
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command keeps a simple database of the packages available for
use by the current interpreter and how to load them into the
interpreter.
It supports multiple versions of each package and arranges
for the correct version of a package to be loaded based on what
................................................................................
.PP
A suitable version of the package is any version which satisfies at
least one of the requirements, per the rules of \fBpackage
vsatisfies\fR. If multiple versions are suitable the implementation
with the highest version is chosen. This last part is additionally
influenced by the selection mode set with \fBpackage prefer\fR.
.PP


In the "stable" selection mode the command will select the highest
stable version satisfying the requirements, if any. If no stable
version satisfies the requirements, the highest unstable version
satisfying the requirements will be selected.  In the "latest"

selection mode the command will accept the highest version satisfying
all the requirements, regardless of its stableness.
.PP
If a version of \fIpackage\fR has already been provided (by invoking
the \fBpackage provide\fR command), then its version number must
satisfy the \fIrequirement\fRs and the command returns immediately.
Otherwise, the command searches the database of information provided by
................................................................................
.TP
\fBpackage require \-exact \fIpackage version\fR
This form of the command is used when only the given \fIversion\fR
of \fIpackage\fR is acceptable to the caller.  This command is
equivalent to \fBpackage require \fIpackage version\fR-\fIversion\fR.
.TP
\fBpackage unknown \fR?\fIcommand\fR?



This command supplies a ``last resort'' command to invoke during
\fBpackage require\fR if no suitable version of a package can be found
in the \fBpackage ifneeded\fR database.
If the \fIcommand\fR argument is supplied, it contains the first part
of a command;  when the command is invoked during a \fBpackage require\fR
command, Tcl appends one or more additional arguments giving the desired
package name and requirements.
For example, if \fIcommand\fR is \fBfoo bar\fR and later the command
................................................................................
\fBpackage vsatisfies \fIversion requirement...\fR
Returns 1 if the \fIversion\fR satisfies at least one of the given
requirements, and 0 otherwise. Each \fIrequirement\fR is allowed to
have any of the forms:
.RS
.TP
min
This form is called "min-bounded".

.TP
min-
This form is called "min-unbound".

.TP
min-max
This form is called "bounded".

.RE
.RS
.PP




where "min" and "max" are valid version numbers. The legacy syntax is
a special case of the extended syntax, keeping backward
compatibility. Regarding satisfaction the rules are:
.RE
.RS
.IP [1]
The \fIversion\fR has to pass at least one of the listed
\fIrequirement\fRs to be satisfactory.
.IP [2]
A version satisfies a "bounded" requirement when


.RS
.IP [a]
For \fImin\fR equal to the \fImax\fR if, and only if the \fIversion\fR
is equal to the \fImin\fR.
.IP [b]
Otherwise if, and only if the \fIversion\fR is greater than or equal
to the \fImin\fR, and less than the \fImax\fR, where both \fImin\fR
and \fImax\fR have been padded internally with 'a0'. Note that while

the comparison to \fImin\fR is inclusive, the comparison to
\fImax\fR is exclusive.
.RE
.IP [3]


A "min-bounded" requirement is a "bounded" requirement in disguise,


with the \fImax\fR part implicitly specified as the next higher major
version number of the \fImin\fR part. A version satisfies it per the
rules above.
.IP [4]
A \fIversion\fR satisfies a "min-unbound" requirement if, and only if


it is greater than or equal to the \fImin\fR, where the \fImin\fR has


been padded internally with 'a0'. There is no constraint to a maximum.
.RE
.TP
\fBpackage prefer \fR?\fBlatest\fR|\fBstable\fR?
With no arguments, the commands returns either "latest" or "stable",



whichever describes the current mode of selection logic used by
\fBpackage require\fR.
.RS
.PP


When passed the argument "latest", it sets the selection logic mode to
"latest".
.PP
When passed the argument "stable", if the mode is already "stable",



that value is kept.  If the mode is already "latest", then the attempt


to set it back to "stable" is ineffective and the mode value remains
"latest".
.PP
When passed any other value as an argument, raise an invalid argument
error.
.PP
When an interpreter is created, its initial selection mode value is set to

"stable" unless the environment variable \fBTCL_PKG_PREFER_LATEST\fR
is set.  If that environment variable is defined (with any value) then
the initial (and permanent) selection mode value is set to "latest".

.RE
.SH "VERSION NUMBERS"
.PP
Version numbers consist of one or more decimal numbers separated
by dots, such as 2 or 1.162 or 3.1.13.1.
The first number is called the major version number.
Larger numbers correspond to later versions of a package, with
leftmost numbers having greater significance.
For example, version 2.1 is later than 1.3 and version
3.4.6 is later than 3.3.5.
Missing fields are equivalent to zeroes:  version 1.3 is the
same as version 1.3.0 and 1.3.0.0, so it is earlier than 1.3.1 or 1.3.0.2.
In addition, the letters 'a' (alpha) and/or 'b' (beta) may appear




exactly once to replace a dot for separation. These letters
semantically add a negative specifier into the version, where 'a' is



-2, and 'b' is -1. Each may be specified only once, and 'a' or 'b' are



mutually exclusive in a specifier. Thus 1.3a1 becomes (semantically)
1.3.-2.1, 1.3b1 is 1.3.-1.1. Negative numbers are not directly allowed
in version specifiers.
A version number not containing the letters 'a' or 'b' as specified



above is called a \fBstable\fR version, whereas presence of the letters
causes the version to be called is \fBunstable\fR.
A later version number is assumed to be upwards compatible with
an earlier version number as long as both versions have the same
major version number.
For example, Tcl scripts written for version 2.3 of a package should
work unchanged under versions 2.3.2, 2.4, and 2.5.1.
Changes in the major version number signify incompatible changes:
if code is written to use version 2.1 of a package, it is not guaranteed
to work unmodified with either version 1.7.3 or version 3.1.
.SH "PACKAGE INDICES"
.PP
The recommended way to use packages in Tcl is to invoke \fBpackage require\fR
and \fBpackage provide\fR commands in scripts, and use the procedure
\fBpkg_mkIndex\fR to create package index files.
Once you've done this, packages will be loaded automatically
in response to \fBpackage require\fR commands.
See the documentation for \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR for details.
.SH EXAMPLES
To state that a Tcl script requires the Tk and http packages, put this
at the top of the script:
.CS
\fBpackage require\fR Tk
................................................................................
if {[catch {\fBpackage require\fR Snack}]} {
   # Error thrown - package not found.
   # Set up a dummy interface to work around the absence
} else {
   # We have the package, configure the app to use it
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
msgcat(n), packagens(n), pkgMkIndex(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
package, version

Changes to doc/packagens.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Scriptics Corporation.
'\" All rights reserved.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: packagens.n,v 1.6 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH pkg::create n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
pkg::create \- Construct an appropriate `package ifneeded' command for a given package specification
................................................................................

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fB::pkg::create\fR is a utility procedure that is part of the standard Tcl
library.  It is used to create an appropriate \fBpackage ifneeded\fR
command for a given package specification.  It can be used to construct a
\fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR file for use with the \fBpackage\fR mechanism.

.SH OPTIONS
The parameters supported are:
.TP
\fB\-name\fR\0\fIpackageName\fR
This parameter specifies the name of the package.  It is required.
.TP
\fB\-version\fR\0\fIpackageVersion\fR
................................................................................
\fB\-source\fR\0\fIfilespec\fR
This parameter is similar to the \fB\-load\fR parameter, except that it
specifies a Tcl library that must be loaded with the
\fBsource\fR command.  Any number of \fB\-source\fR parameters may be
specified.
.PP
At least one \fB\-load\fR or \fB\-source\fR parameter must be given.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
auto-load, index, package, version



|







 







>







 







>


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4
5
6
7
8
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Scriptics Corporation.
'\" All rights reserved.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: packagens.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH pkg::create n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
pkg::create \- Construct an appropriate `package ifneeded' command for a given package specification
................................................................................

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fB::pkg::create\fR is a utility procedure that is part of the standard Tcl
library.  It is used to create an appropriate \fBpackage ifneeded\fR
command for a given package specification.  It can be used to construct a
\fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR file for use with the \fBpackage\fR mechanism.

.SH OPTIONS
The parameters supported are:
.TP
\fB\-name\fR\0\fIpackageName\fR
This parameter specifies the name of the package.  It is required.
.TP
\fB\-version\fR\0\fIpackageVersion\fR
................................................................................
\fB\-source\fR\0\fIfilespec\fR
This parameter is similar to the \fB\-load\fR parameter, except that it
specifies a Tcl library that must be loaded with the
\fBsource\fR command.  Any number of \fB\-source\fR parameters may be
specified.
.PP
At least one \fB\-load\fR or \fB\-source\fR parameter must be given.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
auto-load, index, package, version

Changes to doc/pkgMkIndex.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: pkgMkIndex.n,v 1.19 2007/10/24 14:29:38 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH pkg_mkIndex n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
pkg_mkIndex \- Build an index for automatic loading of packages
................................................................................
a call to \fBTcl_PkgProvide\fR.
.IP [2]
Create the index by invoking \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR.
The \fIdir\fR argument gives the name of a directory and each
\fIpattern\fR argument is a \fBglob\fR-style pattern that selects
script or binary files in \fIdir\fR.
The default pattern is \fB*.tcl\fR and \fB*.[info sharedlibextension]\fR.
.RS
.PP
\fBPkg_mkIndex\fR will create a file \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR in \fIdir\fR
with package information about all the files given by the \fIpattern\fR
arguments.
It does this by loading each file into a slave
interpreter and seeing what packages
and new commands appear (this is why it is essential to have
\fBpackage provide\fR commands or \fBTcl_PkgProvide\fR calls
in the files, as described above).
If you have a package split among scripts and binary files, 
or if you have dependencies among files,
you may have to use the \fB\-load\fR option
or adjust the order in which \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR processes
the files.  See COMPLEX CASES below.
.RE
.IP [3]
Install the package as a subdirectory of one of the directories given by
the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR variable.  If \fB$tcl_pkgPath\fR contains more
than one directory, machine-dependent packages (e.g., those that
contain binary shared libraries) should normally be installed
under the first directory and machine-independent packages (e.g.,
those that contain only Tcl scripts) should be installed under the
second directory.
The subdirectory should include
the package's script and/or binary files as well as the \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR
file.  As long as the package is installed as a subdirectory of a
directory in \fB$tcl_pkgPath\fR it will automatically be found during
\fBpackage require\fR commands.
.RS
.PP
If you install the package anywhere else, then you must ensure that
the directory containing the package is in the \fBauto_path\fR global variable
or an immediate subdirectory of one of the directories in \fBauto_path\fR.
\fBAuto_path\fR contains a list of directories that are searched
by both the auto-loader and the package loader; by default it
includes \fB$tcl_pkgPath\fR.
The package loader also checks all of the subdirectories of the
directories in \fBauto_path\fR.
You can add a directory to \fBauto_path\fR explicitly in your
application, or you can add the directory to your \fBTCLLIBPATH\fR
environment variable:  if this environment variable is present,
Tcl initializes \fBauto_path\fR from it during application startup.
.RE
.IP [4]
Once the above steps have been taken, all you need to do to use a
package is to invoke \fBpackage require\fR.
For example, if versions 2.1, 2.3, and 3.1 of package \fBTest\fR
have been indexed by \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR, the command
\fBpackage require Test\fR will make version 3.1 available
and the command \fBpackage require \-exact Test 2.1\fR will
make version 2.1 available.
There may be many versions of a package in the various index files
in \fBauto_path\fR, but only one will actually be loaded in a given
interpreter, based on the first call to \fBpackage require\fR.
Different versions of a package may be loaded in different
interpreters.

.SH OPTIONS
The optional switches are:
.TP 15
\fB\-direct\fR
The generated index will implement direct loading of the package
upon \fBpackage require\fR.  This is the default.
.TP 15
................................................................................
.TP 15
\fB\-verbose\fR
Generate output during the indexing process.  Output is via
the \fBtclLog\fR procedure, which by default prints to stderr.
.TP 15
\fB\-\-\fR
End of the flags, in case \fIdir\fR begins with a dash.

.SH "PACKAGES AND THE AUTO-LOADER"
.PP
The package management facilities overlap somewhat with the auto-loader,
in that both arrange for files to be loaded on-demand.
However, package management is a higher-level mechanism that uses
the auto-loader for the last step in the loading process.
It is generally better to index a package with \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR
................................................................................
it can only handle a single version of each package. 
It is probably not a good idea to index a given package with both
\fBpkg_mkIndex\fR and \fBauto_mkindex\fR.
If you use \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR to index a package, its commands cannot
be invoked until \fBpackage require\fR has been used to select a
version;  in contrast, packages indexed with \fBauto_mkindex\fR
can be used immediately since there is no version control.

.SH "HOW IT WORKS"
.PP
\fBPkg_mkIndex\fR depends on the \fBpackage unknown\fR command,
the \fBpackage ifneeded\fR command, and the auto-loader.
The first time a \fBpackage require\fR command is invoked,
the \fBpackage unknown\fR script is invoked.
This is set by Tcl initialization to a script that
................................................................................
was generated,
a given file of a given version of a given package isn't
actually loaded until the first time one of its commands
is invoked.
Thus, after invoking \fBpackage require\fR you may
not see the package's commands in the interpreter, but you will be able
to invoke the commands and they will be auto-loaded.

.SH "DIRECT LOADING"
.PP
Some packages, for instance packages which use namespaces and export
commands or those which require special initialization, might select
that their package files be loaded immediately upon \fBpackage require\fR
instead of delaying the actual loading to the first use of one of the
package's command. This is the default mode when generating the package
index.  It can be overridden by specifying the \fI\-lazy\fR argument.

.SH "COMPLEX CASES"
Most complex cases of dependencies among scripts
and binary files, and packages being split among scripts and
binary files are handled OK.  However, you may have to adjust
the order in which files are processed by \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR.
These issues are described in detail below.
.PP
................................................................................
If you have a package that is split across scripts and a binary file,
then you should avoid the \fB\-load\fR flag. The problem is that
if you load a package before computing the index it masks any
other files that provide part of the same package.
If you must use \fB\-load\fR,
then you must specify the scripts first; otherwise the package loaded from
the binary file may mask the package defined by the scripts.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
auto-load, index, package, version





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: pkgMkIndex.n,v 1.20 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH pkg_mkIndex n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
pkg_mkIndex \- Build an index for automatic loading of packages
................................................................................
a call to \fBTcl_PkgProvide\fR.
.IP [2]
Create the index by invoking \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR.
The \fIdir\fR argument gives the name of a directory and each
\fIpattern\fR argument is a \fBglob\fR-style pattern that selects
script or binary files in \fIdir\fR.
The default pattern is \fB*.tcl\fR and \fB*.[info sharedlibextension]\fR.
.br

\fBPkg_mkIndex\fR will create a file \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR in \fIdir\fR
with package information about all the files given by the \fIpattern\fR
arguments.
It does this by loading each file into a slave
interpreter and seeing what packages
and new commands appear (this is why it is essential to have
\fBpackage provide\fR commands or \fBTcl_PkgProvide\fR calls
in the files, as described above).
If you have a package split among scripts and binary files, 
or if you have dependencies among files,
you may have to use the \fB\-load\fR option
or adjust the order in which \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR processes
the files.  See COMPLEX CASES below.

.IP [3]
Install the package as a subdirectory of one of the directories given by
the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR variable.  If \fB$tcl_pkgPath\fR contains more
than one directory, machine-dependent packages (e.g., those that
contain binary shared libraries) should normally be installed
under the first directory and machine-independent packages (e.g.,
those that contain only Tcl scripts) should be installed under the
second directory.
The subdirectory should include
the package's script and/or binary files as well as the \fBpkgIndex.tcl\fR
file.  As long as the package is installed as a subdirectory of a
directory in \fB$tcl_pkgPath\fR it will automatically be found during
\fBpackage require\fR commands.
.br

If you install the package anywhere else, then you must ensure that
the directory containing the package is in the \fBauto_path\fR global variable
or an immediate subdirectory of one of the directories in \fBauto_path\fR.
\fBAuto_path\fR contains a list of directories that are searched
by both the auto-loader and the package loader; by default it
includes \fB$tcl_pkgPath\fR.
The package loader also checks all of the subdirectories of the
directories in \fBauto_path\fR.
You can add a directory to \fBauto_path\fR explicitly in your
application, or you can add the directory to your \fBTCLLIBPATH\fR
environment variable:  if this environment variable is present,
Tcl initializes \fBauto_path\fR from it during application startup.

.IP [4]
Once the above steps have been taken, all you need to do to use a
package is to invoke \fBpackage require\fR.
For example, if versions 2.1, 2.3, and 3.1 of package \fBTest\fR
have been indexed by \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR, the command
\fBpackage require Test\fR will make version 3.1 available
and the command \fBpackage require \-exact Test 2.1\fR will
make version 2.1 available.
There may be many versions of a package in the various index files
in \fBauto_path\fR, but only one will actually be loaded in a given
interpreter, based on the first call to \fBpackage require\fR.
Different versions of a package may be loaded in different
interpreters.

.SH OPTIONS
The optional switches are:
.TP 15
\fB\-direct\fR
The generated index will implement direct loading of the package
upon \fBpackage require\fR.  This is the default.
.TP 15
................................................................................
.TP 15
\fB\-verbose\fR
Generate output during the indexing process.  Output is via
the \fBtclLog\fR procedure, which by default prints to stderr.
.TP 15
\fB\-\-\fR
End of the flags, in case \fIdir\fR begins with a dash.

.SH "PACKAGES AND THE AUTO-LOADER"
.PP
The package management facilities overlap somewhat with the auto-loader,
in that both arrange for files to be loaded on-demand.
However, package management is a higher-level mechanism that uses
the auto-loader for the last step in the loading process.
It is generally better to index a package with \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR
................................................................................
it can only handle a single version of each package. 
It is probably not a good idea to index a given package with both
\fBpkg_mkIndex\fR and \fBauto_mkindex\fR.
If you use \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR to index a package, its commands cannot
be invoked until \fBpackage require\fR has been used to select a
version;  in contrast, packages indexed with \fBauto_mkindex\fR
can be used immediately since there is no version control.

.SH "HOW IT WORKS"
.PP
\fBPkg_mkIndex\fR depends on the \fBpackage unknown\fR command,
the \fBpackage ifneeded\fR command, and the auto-loader.
The first time a \fBpackage require\fR command is invoked,
the \fBpackage unknown\fR script is invoked.
This is set by Tcl initialization to a script that
................................................................................
was generated,
a given file of a given version of a given package isn't
actually loaded until the first time one of its commands
is invoked.
Thus, after invoking \fBpackage require\fR you may
not see the package's commands in the interpreter, but you will be able
to invoke the commands and they will be auto-loaded.

.SH "DIRECT LOADING"
.PP
Some packages, for instance packages which use namespaces and export
commands or those which require special initialization, might select
that their package files be loaded immediately upon \fBpackage require\fR
instead of delaying the actual loading to the first use of one of the
package's command. This is the default mode when generating the package
index.  It can be overridden by specifying the \fI\-lazy\fR argument.

.SH "COMPLEX CASES"
Most complex cases of dependencies among scripts
and binary files, and packages being split among scripts and
binary files are handled OK.  However, you may have to adjust
the order in which files are processed by \fBpkg_mkIndex\fR.
These issues are described in detail below.
.PP
................................................................................
If you have a package that is split across scripts and a binary file,
then you should avoid the \fB\-load\fR flag. The problem is that
if you load a package before computing the index it masks any
other files that provide part of the same package.
If you must use \fB\-load\fR,
then you must specify the scripts first; otherwise the package loaded from
the binary file may mask the package defined by the scripts.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
auto-load, index, package, version

Changes to doc/re_syntax.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: re_syntax.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 12:25:06 dkf Exp $
'\"
.so man.macros
.TH re_syntax n "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
re_syntax \- Syntax of Tcl regular expressions
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
A \fIregular expression\fR describes strings of characters.
It's a pattern that matches certain strings and doesn't match others.
.SH "DIFFERENT FLAVORS OF REs"
Regular expressions
.PQ RE s ,
as defined by POSIX, come in two flavors: \fIextended\fR REs
.PQ ERE s
and \fIbasic\fR REs
.PQ BRE s .
EREs are roughly those of the traditional \fIegrep\fR, while BREs are
roughly those of the traditional \fIed\fR.  This implementation adds
a third flavor, \fIadvanced\fR REs
.PQ ARE s ,
basically EREs with some significant extensions.
.PP
This manual page primarily describes AREs.  BREs mostly exist for
backward compatibility in some old programs; they will be discussed at
the end.  POSIX EREs are almost an exact subset of AREs.  Features of
AREs that are not present in EREs will be indicated.
.SH "REGULAR EXPRESSION SYNTAX"
.PP
Tcl regular expressions are implemented using the package written by
Henry Spencer, based on the 1003.2 spec and some (not quite all) of
the Perl5 extensions (thanks, Henry!).  Much of the description of
regular expressions below is copied verbatim from his manual entry.
.PP
An ARE is one or more \fIbranches\fR,
separated by
.QW \fB|\fR ,
matching anything that matches any of the branches.
.PP
A branch is zero or more \fIconstraints\fR or \fIquantified atoms\fR,
concatenated.
It matches a match for the first, followed by a match for the second, etc;
an empty branch matches the empty string.
.PP
................................................................................
.PP
An atom is one of:
.RS 2
.IP \fB(\fIre\fB)\fR 6
matches a match for \fIre\fR (\fIre\fR is any regular expression) with
the match noted for possible reporting
.IP \fB(?:\fIre\fB)\fR
as previous, but does no reporting (a
.QW non-capturing
set of parentheses)
.IP \fB()\fR
matches an empty string, noted for possible reporting
.IP \fB(?:)\fR
matches an empty string, without reporting
.IP \fB[\fIchars\fB]\fR
a \fIbracket expression\fR, matching any one of the \fIchars\fR (see
\fBBRACKET EXPRESSIONS\fR for more detail)
.IP \fB.\fR
matches any single character
.IP \fB\e\fIk\fR
matches the non-alphanumeric character \fIk\fR
taken as an ordinary character, e.g.
.QW \fB\e\e\fR
matches a backslash character
.IP \fB\e\fIc\fR
where \fIc\fR is alphanumeric (possibly followed by other characters),
an \fIescape\fR (AREs only), see \fBESCAPES\fR below
.IP \fB{\fR
when followed by a character other than a digit, matches the
left-brace character
.QW \fB{\fR ;
when followed by a digit, it is the beginning of a \fIbound\fR (see above)
.IP \fIx\fR
where \fIx\fR is a single character with no other significance,
matches that character.
.RE
.PP
A \fIconstraint\fR matches an empty string when specific conditions
are met.  A constraint may not be followed by a quantifier.  The
................................................................................
\fInegative lookahead\fR (AREs only), matches at any point where no
substring matching \fIre\fR begins
.RE
.PP
The lookahead constraints may not contain back references (see later),
and all parentheses within them are considered non-capturing.
.PP
An RE may not end with
.QW \fB\e\fR .
.SH "BRACKET EXPRESSIONS"
A \fIbracket expression\fR is a list of characters enclosed in
.QW \fB[\|]\fR .
It normally matches any single character from the list (but see
below).  If the list begins with
.QW \fB^\fR ,
it matches any single character (but see below) \fInot\fR from the
rest of the list.
.PP
If two characters in the list are separated by
.QW \fB\-\fR ,
this is shorthand for the full \fIrange\fR of characters between those two
(inclusive) in the collating sequence, e.g.
.QW \fB[0\-9]\fR
in Unicode matches any conventional decimal digit. Two ranges may not share an
endpoint, so e.g.
.QW \fBa\-c\-e\fR
is illegal. Ranges are very collating-sequence-dependent, and portable
programs should avoid relying on them. 
.PP
To include a literal
.QW \fB]\fR
or
.QW \fB\-\fR
in the list, the simplest method is to enclose it in
.QW \fB[.\fR
and
.QW \fB.]\fR
to make it a collating element (see below). Alternatively, make it the first
character (following a possible
.QW \fB^\fR ),
or (AREs only) precede it with
.QW \fB\e\fR .
Alternatively, for
.QW \fB\-\fR ,
make it the last character, or the second endpoint of a range. To use a
literal
.QW \fB\-\fR
as the first endpoint of a range, make it a collating element
or (AREs only) precede it with
.QW \fB\e\fR .
With the exception of these, some combinations using
.QW \fB[\fR
(see next paragraphs), and escapes, all other special characters lose their
special significance within a bracket expression.
.PP
Within a bracket expression, a collating element (a character, a
multi-character sequence that collates as if it were a single
character, or a collating-sequence name for either) enclosed in
.QW \fB[.\fR
and
.QW \fB.]\fR
stands for the sequence of characters of that collating element.
The sequence is a single element of the bracket
expression's list.  A bracket expression in a locale that has
multi-character collating elements can thus match more than one
character.  So (insidiously), a bracket expression that starts with
.QW \fB^\fR
can match multi-character collating elements even if none of
them appear in the bracket expression!  (\fINote:\fR Tcl currently has
no multi-character collating elements.  This information is only for
illustration.)
.PP
For example, assume the collating sequence includes a
.QW \fBch\fR
multi-character collating element.  Then the RE
.QW \fB[[.ch.]]*c\fR
(zero or more
.QW \fBch\fR 's
followed by
.QW \fBc\fR )
matches the first five characters of
.QW \fBchchcc\fR .
Also, the RE
.QW \fB[^c]b\fR
matches all of
.QW \fBchb\fR
(because
.QW \fB[^c]\fR

matches the multi-character
.QW \fBch\fR ).
.PP
Within a bracket expression, a collating element enclosed in
.QW \fB[=\fR
and
.QW \fB=]\fR
is an equivalence class, standing for the sequences of
characters of all collating elements equivalent to that one, including
itself.  (If there are no other equivalent collating elements, the
treatment is as if the enclosing delimiters were
.QW \fB[.\fR \&
and
.QW \fB.]\fR .)
For example, if
.QW \fBo\fR
and
.QW \fB\N'244'\fR

are the members of an equivalence class, then
.QW \fB[[=o=]]\fR ,
.QW \fB[[=\N'244'=]]\fR ,
and
.QW \fB[o\N'244']\fR \&
are all synonymous.  An equivalence class may
not be an endpoint of a range.  (\fINote:\fR Tcl currently implements
only the Unicode locale.  It doesn't define any equivalence classes.
The examples above are just illustrations.)
.PP
Within a bracket expression, the name of a \fIcharacter class\fR
enclosed in
.QW \fB[:\fR
and
.QW \fB:]\fR
stands for the list of all
characters (not all collating elements!) belonging to that class.
Standard character classes are:
.IP \fBalpha\fR 8
A letter.
.IP \fBupper\fR 8
An upper-case letter.
.IP \fBlower\fR 8
A lower-case letter.
................................................................................
.IP \fBdigit\fR 8
A decimal digit.
.IP \fBxdigit\fR 8
A hexadecimal digit.
.IP \fBalnum\fR 8
An alphanumeric (letter or digit).
.IP \fBprint\fR 8
A
.QW "printable"
(same as graph, except also including space).
.IP \fBblank\fR 8
A space or tab character.
.IP \fBspace\fR 8
A character producing white space in displayed text.
.IP \fBpunct\fR 8
A punctuation character.
.IP \fBgraph\fR 8
................................................................................
A control character.
.PP
A locale may provide others.  (Note that the current Tcl
implementation has only one locale: the Unicode locale.)  A character
class may not be used as an endpoint of a range.
.PP
There are two special cases of bracket expressions: the bracket
expressions
.QW \fB[[:<:]]\fR
and
.QW \fB[[:>:]]\fR
are constraints, matching
empty strings at the beginning and end of a word respectively.
.\" note, discussion of escapes below references this definition of word
A word is defined as a sequence of word characters that is neither
preceded nor followed by word characters.  A word character is an
\fIalnum\fR character or an underscore
.PQ \fB_\fR "" .
These special bracket expressions are deprecated; users of AREs should use
constraint escapes instead (see below).
.SH ESCAPES
Escapes (AREs only), which begin with a
.QW \fB\e\fR
followed by an
alphanumeric character, come in several varieties: character entry,
class shorthands, constraint escapes, and back references.  A
.QW \fB\e\fR
followed by an alphanumeric character but not constituting a valid
escape is illegal in AREs.  In EREs, there are no escapes: outside a
bracket expression, a
.QW \fB\e\fR
followed by an alphanumeric character
merely stands for that character as an ordinary character, and inside
a bracket expression,
.QW \fB\e\fR
is an ordinary character.  (The latter
is the one actual incompatibility between EREs and AREs.)
.PP
Character-entry escapes (AREs only) exist to make it easier to specify
non-printing and otherwise inconvenient characters in REs:
.RS 2
.TP 5
\fB\ea\fR
................................................................................
applications where there are multiple levels of backslash processing
.TP
\fB\ec\fIX\fR
(where \fIX\fR is any character) the character whose low-order 5 bits
are the same as those of \fIX\fR, and whose other bits are all zero
.TP
\fB\ee\fR
the character whose collating-sequence name is
.QW \fBESC\fR ,
or failing that, the character with octal value 033
.TP
\fB\ef\fR
formfeed, as in C
.TP
\fB\en\fR
newline, as in C
.TP
................................................................................
.TP
\fB\e\fIxyz\fR
(where \fIxyz\fR is exactly three octal digits, and is not a back
reference (see below)) the character whose octal value is
\fB0\fIxyz\fR
.RE
.PP
Hexadecimal digits are
.QR 0 9 ,
.QR a f ,
and
.QR A F .
Octal digits are
.QR 0 7 .
.PP
The character-entry escapes are always taken as ordinary characters.
For example,
.QW \fB\e135\fR
is
.QW \fB]\fR
in Unicode, but
.QW \fB\e135\fR
does not terminate a bracket expression.  Beware, however, that some
applications (e.g., C compilers and the Tcl interpreter if the regular
expression is not quoted with braces) interpret such sequences
themselves before the regular-expression package gets to see them,
which may require doubling (quadrupling, etc.) the
.QW \fB\e\fR .
.PP
Class-shorthand escapes (AREs only) provide shorthands for certain
commonly-used character classes:
.RS 2
.TP 10
\fB\ed\fR
\fB[[:digit:]]\fR
................................................................................
\fB\eS\fR
\fB[^[:space:]]\fR
.TP
\fB\eW\fR
\fB[^[:alnum:]_]\fR (note underscore)
.RE
.PP
Within bracket expressions,
.QW \fB\ed\fR ,
.QW \fB\es\fR ,
and
.QW \fB\ew\fR \&
lose their outer brackets, and
.QW \fB\eD\fR ,
.QW \fB\eS\fR ,
and
.QW \fB\eW\fR \&
are illegal.  (So, for example,
.QW \fB[a-c\ed]\fR
is equivalent to
.QW \fB[a-c[:digit:]]\fR .
Also,
.QW \fB[a-c\eD]\fR ,
which is equivalent to
.QW \fB[a-c^[:digit:]]\fR ,
is illegal.)
.PP
A constraint escape (AREs only) is a constraint, matching the empty
string if specific conditions are met, written as an escape:
.RS 2
.TP 6
\fB\eA\fR
matches only at the beginning of the string (see \fBMATCHING\fR,
below, for how this differs from
.QW \fB^\fR )
.TP
\fB\em\fR
matches only at the beginning of a word
.TP
\fB\eM\fR
matches only at the end of a word
.TP
................................................................................
matches only at the beginning or end of a word
.TP
\fB\eY\fR
matches only at a point that is not the beginning or end of a word
.TP
\fB\eZ\fR
matches only at the end of the string (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below, for
how this differs from
.QW \fB$\fR )
.TP
\fB\e\fIm\fR
(where \fIm\fR is a nonzero digit) a \fIback reference\fR, see below
.TP
\fB\e\fImnn\fR
(where \fIm\fR is a nonzero digit, and \fInn\fR is some more digits,
and the decimal value \fImnn\fR is not greater than the number of
closing capturing parentheses seen so far) a \fIback reference\fR, see
below
.RE
.PP
A word is defined as in the specification of
.QW \fB[[:<:]]\fR
and
.QW \fB[[:>:]]\fR
above.  Constraint escapes are illegal within bracket expressions.

.PP
A back reference (AREs only) matches the same string matched by the
parenthesized subexpression specified by the number, so that (e.g.)
.QW \fB([bc])\e1\fR
matches
.QW \fBbb\fR
or
.QW \fBcc\fR
but not
.QW \fBbc\fR .
The subexpression must entirely precede the back reference in the RE.
Subexpressions are numbered in the order of their leading parentheses.
Non-capturing parentheses do not define subexpressions.
.PP
There is an inherent historical ambiguity between octal
character-entry escapes and back references, which is resolved by
heuristics, as hinted at above.  A leading zero always indicates an
octal escape.  A single non-zero digit, not followed by another digit,
................................................................................
back reference), and otherwise is taken as octal.
.SH "METASYNTAX"
In addition to the main syntax described above, there are some special
forms and miscellaneous syntactic facilities available.
.PP
Normally the flavor of RE being used is specified by
application-dependent means.  However, this can be overridden by a
\fIdirector\fR.  If an RE of any flavor begins with
.QW \fB***:\fR ,
the rest of the RE is an ARE.  If an RE of any flavor begins with
.QW \fB***=\fR ,
the rest of the RE is taken to be a literal string, with
all characters considered ordinary characters.
.PP
An ARE may begin with \fIembedded options\fR: a sequence
.QW \fB(?\fIxyz\fB)\fR
where
.QW \fIxyz\fR
is one or more alphabetic characters) specifies options affecting the rest of
the RE.  These supplement, and can override, any options specified by the
application.  The available option letters are:
.RS 2
.TP 3
\fBb\fR
rest of RE is a BRE
.TP 3
\fBc\fR
................................................................................
\fBn\fR
newline-sensitive matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below)
.TP 3
\fBp\fR
partial newline-sensitive matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below)
.TP 3
\fBq\fR
rest of RE is a literal
.PQ quoted
string, all ordinary characters
.TP 3
\fBs\fR
non-newline-sensitive matching (usual default)
.TP 3
\fBt\fR
tight syntax (usual default; see below)
.TP 3
\fBw\fR
inverse partial newline-sensitive
.PQ weird
matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below)
.TP 3
\fBx\fR
expanded syntax (see below)
.RE
.PP
Embedded options take effect at the
.QW \fB)\fR
terminating the sequence. They are available only at the start of an ARE, and
may not be used later within it.
.PP
In addition to the usual (\fItight\fR) RE syntax, in which all
characters are significant, there is an \fIexpanded\fR syntax,
available in all flavors of RE with the \fB-expanded\fR switch, or in
AREs with the embedded x option.  In the expanded syntax, white-space
characters are ignored and all characters between a \fB#\fR and the
following newline (or the end of the RE) are ignored, permitting
paragraphing and commenting a complex RE.  There are three exceptions
to that basic rule:
.IP \(bu 3
a white-space character or
.QW \fB#\fR
preceded by
.QW \fB\e\fR
is retained
.IP \(bu 3
white space or
.QW \fB#\fR
within a bracket expression is retained
.IP \(bu 3
white space and comments are illegal within multi-character symbols
like the ARE
.QW \fB(?:\fR
or the BRE
.QW \fB\e(\fR
.PP
Expanded-syntax white-space characters are blank, tab, newline, and
any character that belongs to the \fIspace\fR character class.
.PP
Finally, in an ARE, outside bracket expressions, the sequence
.QW \fB(?#\fIttt\fB)\fR
(where \fIttt\fR is any text not containing a
.QW \fB)\fR )
is a comment, completely ignored.  Again, this is not allowed between the
characters of multi-character symbols like
.QW \fB(?:\fR .
Such comments are more a historical artifact than a
useful facility, and their use is deprecated; use the expanded syntax
instead.
.PP
\fINone\fR of these metasyntax extensions is available if the
application (or an initial
.QW \fB***=\fR
director) has specified that the
user's input be treated as a literal string rather than as an RE.
.SH MATCHING
In the event that an RE could match more than one substring of a given
string, the RE matches the one starting earliest in the string.  If
the RE could match more than one substring starting at that point, its
choice is determined by its \fIpreference\fR: either the longest
substring, or the shortest.
.PP
Most atoms, and all constraints, have no preference.  A parenthesized
RE has the same preference (possibly none) as the RE.  A quantified
atom with quantifier
.QW \fB{\fIm\fB}\fR
or
.QW \fB{\fIm\fB}?\fR
has the same
preference (possibly none) as the atom itself.  A quantified atom with
other normal quantifiers (including
.QW \fB{\fIm\fB,\fIn\fB}\fR
with \fIm\fR equal to \fIn\fR) prefers longest match.  A quantified atom
with other non-greedy quantifiers (including
.QW \fB{\fIm\fB,\fIn\fB}?\fR
with \fIm\fR equal to \fIn\fR) prefers shortest match.  A branch has
the same preference as the first quantified atom in it which has a
preference.  An RE consisting of two or more branches connected by the
.QW \fB|\fR
operator prefers longest match.
.PP
Subject to the constraints imposed by the rules for matching the whole
RE, subexpressions also match the longest or shortest possible
substrings, based on their preferences, with subexpressions starting
earlier in the RE taking priority over ones starting later.  Note that
outer subexpressions thus take priority over their component
subexpressions.
.PP
Note that the quantifiers
.QW \fB{1,1}\fR
and
.QW \fB{1,1}?\fR
can be used to force longest and shortest preference, respectively, on a
subexpression or a whole RE.
.PP
Match lengths are measured in characters, not collating elements.  An
empty string is considered longer than no match at all.  For example,
.QW \fBbb*\fR
matches the three middle characters of
.QW \fBabbbc\fR ,
.QW \fB(week|wee)(night|knights)\fR
matches all ten characters of
.QW \fBweeknights\fR ,
when
.QW \fB(.*).*\fR
is matched against
.QW \fBabc\fR
the
parenthesized subexpression matches all three characters, and when
.QW \fB(a*)*\fR
is matched against
.QW \fBbc\fR
both the whole RE and the
parenthesized subexpression match an empty string.
.PP
If case-independent matching is specified, the effect is much as if
all case distinctions had vanished from the alphabet.  When an
alphabetic that exists in multiple cases appears as an ordinary
character outside a bracket expression, it is effectively transformed
into a bracket expression containing both cases, so that
.QW \fBx\fR
becomes
.QW \fB[xX]\fR .
When it appears inside a bracket expression,
all case counterparts of it are added to the bracket expression, so
that
.QW \fB[x]\fR
becomes
.QW \fB[xX]\fR
and
.QW \fB[^x]\fR
becomes

.QW \fB[^xX]\fR.
.PP
If newline-sensitive matching is specified,
.QW \fB.\fR
and bracket expressions using
.QW \fB^\fR
will never match the newline character (so
that matches will never cross newlines unless the RE explicitly
arranges it) and
.QW \fB^\fR
and
.QW \fB$\fR
will match the empty string after
and before a newline respectively, in addition to matching at
beginning and end of string respectively.  ARE
.QW \fB\eA\fR
and
.QW \fB\eZ\fR
continue to match beginning or end of string \fIonly\fR.
.PP
If partial newline-sensitive matching is specified, this affects
.QW \fB.\fR
and bracket expressions as with newline-sensitive matching, but not
.QW \fB^\fR
and
.QW \fB$\fR.
.PP
If inverse partial newline-sensitive matching is specified, this
affects
.QW \fB^\fR
and
.QW \fB$\fR
as with newline-sensitive matching, but not
.QW \fB.\fR
and bracket expressions.  This isn't very useful but is
provided for symmetry.
.SH "LIMITS AND COMPATIBILITY"
No particular limit is imposed on the length of REs.  Programs
intended to be highly portable should not employ REs longer than 256
bytes, as a POSIX-compliant implementation can refuse to accept such
REs.
.PP
The only feature of AREs that is actually incompatible with POSIX EREs
is that
.QW \fB\e\fR
does not lose its special significance inside bracket
expressions.  All other ARE features use syntax which is illegal or
has undefined or unspecified effects in POSIX EREs; the
.QW \fB***\fR
syntax of directors likewise is outside the POSIX syntax for both BREs
and EREs.
.PP
Many of the ARE extensions are borrowed from Perl, but some have been
changed to clean them up, and a few Perl extensions are not present.
Incompatibilities of note include
.QW \fB\eb\fR ,
.QW \fB\eB\fR ,
the lack of special treatment for a trailing newline, the addition of
complemented bracket expressions to the things affected by
newline-sensitive matching, the restrictions on parentheses and back
references in lookahead constraints, and the longest/shortest-match
(rather than first-match) matching semantics.
.PP
The matching rules for REs containing both normal and non-greedy
quantifiers have changed since early beta-test versions of this
package.  (The new rules are much simpler and cleaner, but don't work
as hard at guessing the user's real intentions.)
.PP
Henry Spencer's original 1986 \fIregexp\fR package, still in
widespread use (e.g., in pre-8.1 releases of Tcl), implemented an
early version of today's EREs.  There are four incompatibilities
between \fIregexp\fR's near-EREs
.PQ RRE "s for short"
and AREs.  In roughly increasing order of significance:
.IP \(bu 3
In AREs,
.QW \fB\e\fR
followed by an alphanumeric character is either an
escape or an error, while in RREs, it was just another way of writing
the alphanumeric.  This should not be a problem because there was no
reason to write such a sequence in RREs.
.IP \(bu 3
.QW \fB{\fR
followed by a digit in an ARE is the beginning of a bound,
while in RREs,
.QW \fB{\fR
was always an ordinary character.  Such
sequences should be rare, and will often result in an error because
following characters will not look like a valid bound.
.IP \(bu 3
In AREs,
.QW \fB\e\fR
remains a special character within
.QW \fB[\|]\fR ,
so a literal
.QW \fB\e\fR
within
.QW \fB[\|]\fR
must be written
.QW \fB\e\e\fR .
.QW \fB\e\e\fR
also gives a literal
.QW \fB\e\fR
within
.QW \fB[\|]\fR
in RREs, but only truly paranoid programmers routinely doubled the backslash.
.IP \(bu 3
AREs report the longest/shortest match for the RE, rather than the
first found in a specified search order.  This may affect some RREs
which were written in the expectation that the first match would be
reported.  (The careful crafting of RREs to optimize the search order
for fast matching is obsolete (AREs examine all possible matches in
parallel, and their performance is largely insensitive to their
complexity) but cases where the search order was exploited to
deliberately find a match which was \fInot\fR the longest/shortest
will need rewriting.)
.SH "BASIC REGULAR EXPRESSIONS"
BREs differ from EREs in several respects.
.QW \fB|\fR ,
.QW \fB+\fR ,
and
.QW \fB?\fR
are ordinary characters and there is no equivalent for their
functionality.  The delimiters for bounds are
.QW \fB\e{\fR
and
.QW \fB\e}\fR ,
with
.QW \fB{\fR
and
.QW \fB}\fR

by themselves ordinary characters.  The parentheses for nested subexpressions
are
.QW \fB\e(\fR
and
.QW \fB\e)\fR ,
with
.QW \fB(\fR
and
.QW \fB)\fR
by themselves ordinary characters.
.QW \fB^\fR
is an ordinary character except at the beginning
of the RE or the beginning of a parenthesized subexpression,
.QW \fB$\fR
is an ordinary character except at the end of the RE or the end of a
parenthesized subexpression, and
.QW \fB*\fR
is an ordinary character if
it appears at the beginning of the RE or the beginning of a
parenthesized subexpression (after a possible leading
.QW \fB^\fR ).
Finally, single-digit back references are available, and
.QW \fB\e<\fR
and
.QW \fB\e>\fR
are synonyms for
.QW \fB[[:<:]]\fR
and
.QW \fB[[:>:]]\fR
respectively; no other escapes are available.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
RegExp(3), regexp(n), regsub(n), lsearch(n), switch(n), text(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
match, regular expression, string

.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: re_syntax.n,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\"
.so man.macros
.TH re_syntax n "8.1" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.SH NAME
re_syntax \- Syntax of Tcl regular expressions
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
A \fIregular expression\fR describes strings of characters.
It's a pattern that matches certain strings and doesn't match others.
.SH "DIFFERENT FLAVORS OF REs"


Regular expressions (``RE''s), as defined by POSIX, come in two

flavors: \fIextended\fR REs (``EREs'') and \fIbasic\fR REs (``BREs'').

EREs are roughly those of the traditional \fIegrep\fR, while BREs are
roughly those of the traditional \fIed\fR.  This implementation adds
a third flavor, \fIadvanced\fR REs (``AREs''), basically EREs with

some significant extensions.
.PP
This manual page primarily describes AREs.  BREs mostly exist for
backward compatibility in some old programs; they will be discussed at
the end.  POSIX EREs are almost an exact subset of AREs.  Features of
AREs that are not present in EREs will be indicated.
.SH "REGULAR EXPRESSION SYNTAX"
.PP
Tcl regular expressions are implemented using the package written by
Henry Spencer, based on the 1003.2 spec and some (not quite all) of
the Perl5 extensions (thanks, Henry!).  Much of the description of
regular expressions below is copied verbatim from his manual entry.
.PP
An ARE is one or more \fIbranches\fR,
separated by `\fB|\fR',

matching anything that matches any of the branches.
.PP
A branch is zero or more \fIconstraints\fR or \fIquantified atoms\fR,
concatenated.
It matches a match for the first, followed by a match for the second, etc;
an empty branch matches the empty string.
.PP
................................................................................
.PP
An atom is one of:
.RS 2
.IP \fB(\fIre\fB)\fR 6
matches a match for \fIre\fR (\fIre\fR is any regular expression) with
the match noted for possible reporting
.IP \fB(?:\fIre\fB)\fR
as previous, but does no reporting (a ``non-capturing'' set of

parentheses)
.IP \fB()\fR
matches an empty string, noted for possible reporting
.IP \fB(?:)\fR
matches an empty string, without reporting
.IP \fB[\fIchars\fB]\fR
a \fIbracket expression\fR, matching any one of the \fIchars\fR (see
\fBBRACKET EXPRESSIONS\fR for more detail)
.IP \fB.\fR
matches any single character
.IP \fB\e\fIk\fR
matches the non-alphanumeric character \fIk\fR
taken as an ordinary character, e.g. \fB\e\e\fR matches a backslash

character
.IP \fB\e\fIc\fR
where \fIc\fR is alphanumeric (possibly followed by other characters),
an \fIescape\fR (AREs only), see \fBESCAPES\fR below
.IP \fB{\fR
when followed by a character other than a digit, matches the
left-brace character `\fB{\fR'; when followed by a digit, it is the

beginning of a \fIbound\fR (see above)
.IP \fIx\fR
where \fIx\fR is a single character with no other significance,
matches that character.
.RE
.PP
A \fIconstraint\fR matches an empty string when specific conditions
are met.  A constraint may not be followed by a quantifier.  The
................................................................................
\fInegative lookahead\fR (AREs only), matches at any point where no
substring matching \fIre\fR begins
.RE
.PP
The lookahead constraints may not contain back references (see later),
and all parentheses within them are considered non-capturing.
.PP
An RE may not end with `\fB\e\fR'.

.SH "BRACKET EXPRESSIONS"
A \fIbracket expression\fR is a list of characters enclosed in

`\fB[\|]\fR'.  It normally matches any single character from the list
(but see below).  If the list begins with `\fB^\fR', it matches any

single character (but see below) \fInot\fR from the rest of the list.

.PP
If two characters in the list are separated by `\fB\-\fR', this is

shorthand for the full \fIrange\fR of characters between those two
(inclusive) in the collating sequence, e.g. \fB[0\-9]\fR in Unicode

matches any conventional decimal digit.  Two ranges may not share an
endpoint, so e.g. \fBa\-c\-e\fR is illegal.  Ranges are very

collating-sequence-dependent, and portable programs should avoid
relying on them.
.PP
To include a literal \fB]\fR or \fB\-\fR in the list, the simplest



method is to enclose it in \fB[.\fR and \fB.]\fR to make it a



collating element (see below).  Alternatively, make it the first
character (following a possible `\fB^\fR'), or (AREs only) precede it



with `\fB\e\fR'.  Alternatively, for `\fB\-\fR', make it the last

character, or the second endpoint of a range.  To use a literal


\fB\-\fR as the first endpoint of a range, make it a collating element
or (AREs only) precede it with `\fB\e\fR'.  With the exception of

these, some combinations using \fB[\fR (see next paragraphs), and

escapes, all other special characters lose their special significance
within a bracket expression.
.PP
Within a bracket expression, a collating element (a character, a
multi-character sequence that collates as if it were a single
character, or a collating-sequence name for either) enclosed in



\fB[.\fR and \fB.]\fR stands for the sequence of characters of that
collating element.  The sequence is a single element of the bracket
expression's list.  A bracket expression in a locale that has
multi-character collating elements can thus match more than one
character.  So (insidiously), a bracket expression that starts with

\fB^\fR can match multi-character collating elements even if none of
them appear in the bracket expression!  (\fINote:\fR Tcl currently has
no multi-character collating elements.  This information is only for
illustration.)
.PP
For example, assume the collating sequence includes a \fBch\fR

multi-character collating element.  Then the RE \fB[[.ch.]]*c\fR (zero





or more \fBch\fR's followed by \fBc\fR) matches the first five







characters of `\fBchchcc\fR'.  Also, the RE \fB[^c]b\fR matches all of
`\fBchb\fR' (because \fB[^c]\fR matches the multi-character \fBch\fR).

.PP
Within a bracket expression, a collating element enclosed in \fB[=\fR



and \fB=]\fR is an equivalence class, standing for the sequences of
characters of all collating elements equivalent to that one, including
itself.  (If there are no other equivalent collating elements, the
treatment is as if the enclosing delimiters were `\fB[.\fR'\& and







`\fB.]\fR'.)  For example, if \fBo\fR and \fB\o'o^'\fR are the members
of an equivalence class, then `\fB[[=o=]]\fR', `\fB[[=\o'o^'=]]\fR',




and `\fB[o\o'o^']\fR'\& are all synonymous.  An equivalence class may
not be an endpoint of a range.  (\fINote:\fR Tcl currently implements
only the Unicode locale.  It doesn't define any equivalence classes.
The examples above are just illustrations.)
.PP
Within a bracket expression, the name of a \fIcharacter class\fR




enclosed in \fB[:\fR and \fB:]\fR stands for the list of all
characters (not all collating elements!)  belonging to that class.
Standard character classes are:
.IP \fBalpha\fR 8
A letter.
.IP \fBupper\fR 8
An upper-case letter.
.IP \fBlower\fR 8
A lower-case letter.
................................................................................
.IP \fBdigit\fR 8
A decimal digit.
.IP \fBxdigit\fR 8
A hexadecimal digit.
.IP \fBalnum\fR 8
An alphanumeric (letter or digit).
.IP \fBprint\fR 8


A "printable" (same as graph, except also including space).
.IP \fBblank\fR 8
A space or tab character.
.IP \fBspace\fR 8
A character producing white space in displayed text.
.IP \fBpunct\fR 8
A punctuation character.
.IP \fBgraph\fR 8
................................................................................
A control character.
.PP
A locale may provide others.  (Note that the current Tcl
implementation has only one locale: the Unicode locale.)  A character
class may not be used as an endpoint of a range.
.PP
There are two special cases of bracket expressions: the bracket




expressions \fB[[:<:]]\fR and \fB[[:>:]]\fR are constraints, matching
empty strings at the beginning and end of a word respectively.
'\" note, discussion of escapes below references this definition of word
A word is defined as a sequence of word characters that is neither
preceded nor followed by word characters.  A word character is an
\fIalnum\fR character or an underscore (\fB_\fR).  These special

bracket expressions are deprecated; users of AREs should use
constraint escapes instead (see below).
.SH ESCAPES
Escapes (AREs only), which begin with a \fB\e\fR followed by an


alphanumeric character, come in several varieties: character entry,
class shorthands, constraint escapes, and back references.  A \fB\e\fR

followed by an alphanumeric character but not constituting a valid
escape is illegal in AREs.  In EREs, there are no escapes: outside a


bracket expression, a \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character
merely stands for that character as an ordinary character, and inside


a bracket expression, \fB\e\fR is an ordinary character.  (The latter
is the one actual incompatibility between EREs and AREs.)
.PP
Character-entry escapes (AREs only) exist to make it easier to specify
non-printing and otherwise inconvenient characters in REs:
.RS 2
.TP 5
\fB\ea\fR
................................................................................
applications where there are multiple levels of backslash processing
.TP
\fB\ec\fIX\fR
(where \fIX\fR is any character) the character whose low-order 5 bits
are the same as those of \fIX\fR, and whose other bits are all zero
.TP
\fB\ee\fR
the character whose collating-sequence name is `\fBESC\fR', or failing

that, the character with octal value 033
.TP
\fB\ef\fR
formfeed, as in C
.TP
\fB\en\fR
newline, as in C
.TP
................................................................................
.TP
\fB\e\fIxyz\fR
(where \fIxyz\fR is exactly three octal digits, and is not a back
reference (see below)) the character whose octal value is
\fB0\fIxyz\fR
.RE
.PP
Hexadecimal digits are `\fB0\fR'-`\fB9\fR', `\fBa\fR'-`\fBf\fR', and




`\fBA\fR'-`\fBF\fR'.  Octal digits are `\fB0\fR'-`\fB7\fR'.

.PP
The character-entry escapes are always taken as ordinary characters.




For example, \fB\e135\fR is \fB]\fR in Unicode, but \fB\e135\fR does

not terminate a bracket expression.  Beware, however, that some
applications (e.g., C compilers and the Tcl interpreter if the regular
expression is not quoted with braces) interpret such sequences
themselves before the regular-expression package gets to see them,
which may require doubling (quadrupling, etc.) the `\fB\e\fR'.

.PP
Class-shorthand escapes (AREs only) provide shorthands for certain
commonly-used character classes:
.RS 2
.TP 10
\fB\ed\fR
\fB[[:digit:]]\fR
................................................................................
\fB\eS\fR
\fB[^[:space:]]\fR
.TP
\fB\eW\fR
\fB[^[:alnum:]_]\fR (note underscore)
.RE
.PP
Within bracket expressions, `\fB\ed\fR', `\fB\es\fR', and




`\fB\ew\fR'\& lose their outer brackets, and `\fB\eD\fR', `\fB\eS\fR',




and `\fB\eW\fR'\& are illegal.  (So, for example, \fB[a-c\ed]\fR is


equivalent to \fB[a-c[:digit:]]\fR.  Also, \fB[a-c\eD]\fR, which is



equivalent to \fB[a-c^[:digit:]]\fR, is illegal.)

.PP
A constraint escape (AREs only) is a constraint, matching the empty
string if specific conditions are met, written as an escape:
.RS 2
.TP 6
\fB\eA\fR
matches only at the beginning of the string (see \fBMATCHING\fR,
below, for how this differs from `\fB^\fR')

.TP
\fB\em\fR
matches only at the beginning of a word
.TP
\fB\eM\fR
matches only at the end of a word
.TP
................................................................................
matches only at the beginning or end of a word
.TP
\fB\eY\fR
matches only at a point that is not the beginning or end of a word
.TP
\fB\eZ\fR
matches only at the end of the string (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below, for
how this differs from `\fB$\fR')

.TP
\fB\e\fIm\fR
(where \fIm\fR is a nonzero digit) a \fIback reference\fR, see below
.TP
\fB\e\fImnn\fR
(where \fIm\fR is a nonzero digit, and \fInn\fR is some more digits,
and the decimal value \fImnn\fR is not greater than the number of
closing capturing parentheses seen so far) a \fIback reference\fR, see
below
.RE
.PP
A word is defined as in the specification of \fB[[:<:]]\fR and



\fB[[:>:]]\fR above.  Constraint escapes are illegal within bracket
expressions.
.PP
A back reference (AREs only) matches the same string matched by the
parenthesized subexpression specified by the number, so that (e.g.)
\fB([bc])\e1\fR matches \fBbb\fR or \fBcc\fR but not `\fBbc\fR'.  The






subexpression must entirely precede the back reference in the RE.
Subexpressions are numbered in the order of their leading parentheses.
Non-capturing parentheses do not define subexpressions.
.PP
There is an inherent historical ambiguity between octal
character-entry escapes and back references, which is resolved by
heuristics, as hinted at above.  A leading zero always indicates an
octal escape.  A single non-zero digit, not followed by another digit,
................................................................................
back reference), and otherwise is taken as octal.
.SH "METASYNTAX"
In addition to the main syntax described above, there are some special
forms and miscellaneous syntactic facilities available.
.PP
Normally the flavor of RE being used is specified by
application-dependent means.  However, this can be overridden by a
\fIdirector\fR.  If an RE of any flavor begins with `\fB***:\fR', the

rest of the RE is an ARE.  If an RE of any flavor begins with

`\fB***=\fR', the rest of the RE is taken to be a literal string, with
all characters considered ordinary characters.
.PP
An ARE may begin with \fIembedded options\fR: a sequence
\fB(?\fIxyz\fB)\fR (where \fIxyz\fR is one or more alphabetic


characters) specifies options affecting the rest of the RE.  These
supplement, and can override, any options specified by the
application.  The available option letters are:
.RS 2
.TP 3
\fBb\fR
rest of RE is a BRE
.TP 3
\fBc\fR
................................................................................
\fBn\fR
newline-sensitive matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below)
.TP 3
\fBp\fR
partial newline-sensitive matching (see \fBMATCHING\fR, below)
.TP 3
\fBq\fR


rest of RE is a literal (``quoted'') string, all ordinary characters
.TP 3
\fBs\fR
non-newline-sensitive matching (usual default)
.TP 3
\fBt\fR
tight syntax (usual default; see below)
.TP 3
\fBw\fR
inverse partial newline-sensitive (``weird'') matching (see

\fBMATCHING\fR, below)
.TP 3
\fBx\fR
expanded syntax (see below)
.RE
.PP
Embedded options take effect at the \fB)\fR terminating the sequence.

They are available only at the start of an ARE, and may not be used
later within it.
.PP
In addition to the usual (\fItight\fR) RE syntax, in which all
characters are significant, there is an \fIexpanded\fR syntax,
available in all flavors of RE with the \fB-expanded\fR switch, or in
AREs with the embedded x option.  In the expanded syntax, white-space
characters are ignored and all characters between a \fB#\fR and the
following newline (or the end of the RE) are ignored, permitting
paragraphing and commenting a complex RE.  There are three exceptions
to that basic rule:
.IP \(bu 3
a white-space character or `\fB#\fR' preceded by `\fB\e\fR' is



retained
.IP \(bu 3


white space or `\fB#\fR' within a bracket expression is retained
.IP \(bu 3
white space and comments are illegal within multi-character symbols
like the ARE `\fB(?:\fR' or the BRE `\fB\e(\fR'



.PP
Expanded-syntax white-space characters are blank, tab, newline, and
any character that belongs to the \fIspace\fR character class.
.PP
Finally, in an ARE, outside bracket expressions, the sequence

`\fB(?#\fIttt\fB)\fR' (where \fIttt\fR is any text not containing a

`\fB)\fR') is a comment, completely ignored.  Again, this is not
allowed between the characters of multi-character symbols like

`\fB(?:\fR'.  Such comments are more a historical artifact than a
useful facility, and their use is deprecated; use the expanded syntax
instead.
.PP
\fINone\fR of these metasyntax extensions is available if the


application (or an initial \fB***=\fR director) has specified that the
user's input be treated as a literal string rather than as an RE.
.SH MATCHING
In the event that an RE could match more than one substring of a given
string, the RE matches the one starting earliest in the string.  If
the RE could match more than one substring starting at that point, its
choice is determined by its \fIpreference\fR: either the longest
substring, or the shortest.
.PP
Most atoms, and all constraints, have no preference.  A parenthesized
RE has the same preference (possibly none) as the RE.  A quantified
atom with quantifier \fB{\fIm\fB}\fR or \fB{\fIm\fB}?\fR has the same




preference (possibly none) as the atom itself.  A quantified atom with
other normal quantifiers (including \fB{\fIm\fB,\fIn\fB}\fR with

\fIm\fR equal to \fIn\fR) prefers longest match.  A quantified atom
with other non-greedy quantifiers (including \fB{\fIm\fB,\fIn\fB}?\fR

with \fIm\fR equal to \fIn\fR) prefers shortest match.  A branch has
the same preference as the first quantified atom in it which has a
preference.  An RE consisting of two or more branches connected by the

\fB|\fR operator prefers longest match.
.PP
Subject to the constraints imposed by the rules for matching the whole
RE, subexpressions also match the longest or shortest possible
substrings, based on their preferences, with subexpressions starting
earlier in the RE taking priority over ones starting later.  Note that
outer subexpressions thus take priority over their component
subexpressions.
.PP
Note that the quantifiers \fB{1,1}\fR and \fB{1,1}?\fR can be used to



force longest and shortest preference, respectively, on a
subexpression or a whole RE.
.PP
Match lengths are measured in characters, not collating elements.  An
empty string is considered longer than no match at all.  For example,

\fBbb*\fR matches the three middle characters of `\fBabbbc\fR',

\fB(week|wee)(night|knights)\fR matches all ten characters of




`\fBweeknights\fR', when \fB(.*).*\fR is matched against \fBabc\fR the


parenthesized subexpression matches all three characters, and when



\fB(a*)*\fR is matched against \fBbc\fR both the whole RE and the
parenthesized subexpression match an empty string.
.PP
If case-independent matching is specified, the effect is much as if
all case distinctions had vanished from the alphabet.  When an
alphabetic that exists in multiple cases appears as an ordinary
character outside a bracket expression, it is effectively transformed
into a bracket expression containing both cases, so that \fBx\fR



becomes `\fB[xX]\fR'.  When it appears inside a bracket expression,
all case counterparts of it are added to the bracket expression, so







that \fB[x]\fR becomes \fB[xX]\fR and \fB[^x]\fR becomes
`\fB[^xX]\fR'.
.PP
If newline-sensitive matching is specified, \fB.\fR and bracket



expressions using \fB^\fR will never match the newline character (so
that matches will never cross newlines unless the RE explicitly




arranges it) and \fB^\fR and \fB$\fR will match the empty string after
and before a newline respectively, in addition to matching at
beginning and end of string respectively.  ARE \fB\eA\fR and \fB\eZ\fR



continue to match beginning or end of string \fIonly\fR.
.PP
If partial newline-sensitive matching is specified, this affects

\fB.\fR and bracket expressions as with newline-sensitive matching,
but not \fB^\fR and `\fB$\fR'.


.PP
If inverse partial newline-sensitive matching is specified, this




affects \fB^\fR and \fB$\fR as with newline-sensitive matching, but

not \fB.\fR and bracket expressions.  This isn't very useful but is
provided for symmetry.
.SH "LIMITS AND COMPATIBILITY"
No particular limit is imposed on the length of REs.  Programs
intended to be highly portable should not employ REs longer than 256
bytes, as a POSIX-compliant implementation can refuse to accept such
REs.
.PP
The only feature of AREs that is actually incompatible with POSIX EREs


is that \fB\e\fR does not lose its special significance inside bracket
expressions.  All other ARE features use syntax which is illegal or
has undefined or unspecified effects in POSIX EREs; the \fB***\fR

syntax of directors likewise is outside the POSIX syntax for both BREs
and EREs.
.PP
Many of the ARE extensions are borrowed from Perl, but some have been
changed to clean them up, and a few Perl extensions are not present.
Incompatibilities of note include `\fB\eb\fR', `\fB\eB\fR', the lack


of special treatment for a trailing newline, the addition of
complemented bracket expressions to the things affected by
newline-sensitive matching, the restrictions on parentheses and back
references in lookahead constraints, and the longest/shortest-match
(rather than first-match) matching semantics.
.PP
The matching rules for REs containing both normal and non-greedy
quantifiers have changed since early beta-test versions of this
package.  (The new rules are much simpler and cleaner, but don't work
as hard at guessing the user's real intentions.)
.PP
Henry Spencer's original 1986 \fIregexp\fR package, still in
widespread use (e.g., in pre-8.1 releases of Tcl), implemented an
early version of today's EREs.  There are four incompatibilities
between \fIregexp\fR's near-EREs (`RREs' for short) and AREs.  In

roughly increasing order of significance:
.IP \(bu 3


In AREs, \fB\e\fR followed by an alphanumeric character is either an
escape or an error, while in RREs, it was just another way of writing
the alphanumeric.  This should not be a problem because there was no
reason to write such a sequence in RREs.
.IP \(bu 3

\fB{\fR followed by a digit in an ARE is the beginning of a bound,


while in RREs, \fB{\fR was always an ordinary character.  Such
sequences should be rare, and will often result in an error because
following characters will not look like a valid bound.
.IP \(bu 3


In AREs, \fB\e\fR remains a special character within `\fB[\|]\fR', so





a literal \fB\e\fR within \fB[\|]\fR must be written `\fB\e\e\fR'.


\fB\e\e\fR also gives a literal \fB\e\fR within \fB[\|]\fR in RREs,



but only truly paranoid programmers routinely doubled the backslash.
.IP \(bu 3
AREs report the longest/shortest match for the RE, rather than the
first found in a specified search order.  This may affect some RREs
which were written in the expectation that the first match would be
reported.  (The careful crafting of RREs to optimize the search order
for fast matching is obsolete (AREs examine all possible matches in
parallel, and their performance is largely insensitive to their
complexity) but cases where the search order was exploited to
deliberately find a match which was \fInot\fR the longest/shortest
will need rewriting.)
.SH "BASIC REGULAR EXPRESSIONS"
BREs differ from EREs in several respects.  `\fB|\fR', `\fB+\fR', and




\fB?\fR are ordinary characters and there is no equivalent for their
functionality.  The delimiters for bounds are \fB\e{\fR and







`\fB\e}\fR', with \fB{\fR and \fB}\fR by themselves ordinary
characters.  The parentheses for nested subexpressions are \fB\e(\fR








and `\fB\e)\fR', with \fB(\fR and \fB)\fR by themselves ordinary

characters.  \fB^\fR is an ordinary character except at the beginning
of the RE or the beginning of a parenthesized subexpression, \fB$\fR

is an ordinary character except at the end of the RE or the end of a
parenthesized subexpression, and \fB*\fR is an ordinary character if


it appears at the beginning of the RE or the beginning of a
parenthesized subexpression (after a possible leading `\fB^\fR').

Finally, single-digit back references are available, and \fB\e<\fR and



\fB\e>\fR are synonyms for \fB[[:<:]]\fR and \fB[[:>:]]\fR



respectively; no other escapes are available.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
RegExp(3), regexp(n), regsub(n), lsearch(n), switch(n), text(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
match, regular expression, string

'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: read.n,v 1.12 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH read n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
read \- Read from a channel
................................................................................
the command returns before reaching the end of the file.
.PP
\fBRead\fR translates end-of-line sequences in the input into
newline characters according to the \fB\-translation\fR option
for the channel.
See the \fBfconfigure\fR manual entry for a discussion on ways in
which \fBfconfigure\fR will alter input.

.SH "USE WITH SERIAL PORTS"
.\" Note:  this advice actually applies to many versions of Tcl

For most applications a channel connected to a serial port should be
configured to be nonblocking: \fBfconfigure \fIchannelId \fB\-blocking
\fI0\fR.  Then \fBread\fR behaves much like described above.  Care
must be taken when using \fBread\fR on blocking serial ports:
.TP
\fBread \fIchannelId numChars\fR 
In this form \fBread\fR blocks until \fInumChars\fR have been received
................................................................................
with each line in the file corresponding to an element in the list:
.CS
set fl [open /proc/meminfo]
set data [\fBread\fR $fl]
close $fl
set lines [split $data \\n]
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), eof(n), fblocked(n), fconfigure(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, channel, end of line, end of file, nonblocking, read, translation, encoding






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: read.n,v 1.13 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH read n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
read \- Read from a channel
................................................................................
the command returns before reaching the end of the file.
.PP
\fBRead\fR translates end-of-line sequences in the input into
newline characters according to the \fB\-translation\fR option
for the channel.
See the \fBfconfigure\fR manual entry for a discussion on ways in
which \fBfconfigure\fR will alter input.

.SH "USE WITH SERIAL PORTS"
'\" Note:  this advice actually applies to many versions of Tcl

For most applications a channel connected to a serial port should be
configured to be nonblocking: \fBfconfigure \fIchannelId \fB\-blocking
\fI0\fR.  Then \fBread\fR behaves much like described above.  Care
must be taken when using \fBread\fR on blocking serial ports:
.TP
\fBread \fIchannelId numChars\fR 
In this form \fBread\fR blocks until \fInumChars\fR have been received
................................................................................
with each line in the file corresponding to an element in the list:
.CS
set fl [open /proc/meminfo]
set data [\fBread\fR $fl]
close $fl
set lines [split $data \\n]
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), eof(n), fblocked(n), fconfigure(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)

.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, channel, end of line, end of file, nonblocking, read, translation, encoding

Changes to doc/refchan.n.

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'\" 
'\" Copyright (c) 2006 Andreas Kupries
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: refchan.n,v 1.6 2007/10/25 09:44:22 dkf Exp $
.so man.macros
.TH reflectedchan n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
reflectedchan \- Command handler API of reflected channels, version 1
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
(e.g. \fBbreak\fR, etc.) is treated as (and converted to) an error.
.PP
\fBNote:\fR If the creation of the channel was aborted due to failures
here, then the \fBfinalize\fR subcommand will not be called.
.PP
The \fImode\fR argument tells the handler whether the channel was
opened for reading, writing, or both. It is a list containing any of
the strings
.QW "\fBread\fR"
or
.QW "\fBwrite\fR" .
The list will always contain at least one element.
.PP
The subcommand must throw an error if the chosen mode is not
supported by the \fIcmdPrefix\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fIcmdPrefix \fBfinalize \fIchannelId\fR
.
................................................................................
aborted during \fBinitialize\fR (See above).
.RE
.TP
\fIcmdPrefix \fBwatch \fIchannelId eventspec\fR
.
This subcommand notifies the \fIcmdPrefix\fR that the specified
\fIchannelId\fR is interested in the events listed in the
\fIeventspec\fR. This argument is a list containing any of
.QW "\fBread\fR"
and
.QW "\fBwrite\fR" .
The list may be empty, which signals that the
channel does not wish to be notified of any events. In that situation,
the handler should disable event generation completely.
.RS
.PP
\fBWarning:\fR Any return value of the subcommand is ignored. This
includes all errors thrown by the subcommand, break, continue, and
custom return codes.
................................................................................
greater than or equal to zero.
.PP
If the subcommand throws an error the command which caused its
invocation (usually \fBseek\fR, or \fBtell\fR) will appear to have
thrown this error. Any exception beyond \fIerror\fR (e.g. \fIbreak\fR,
etc.) is treated as and converted to an error.
.PP
The offset/base combination of 0/\fBcurrent\fR signals a \fBtell\fR
request, i.e. seek nothing relative to the current location, making
the new location identical to the current one, which is then returned.
.RE
.TP
\fIcmdPrefix \fBconfigure \fIchannelId option value\fR
.
This \fIoptional\fR subcommand is for setting the type-specific options of





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'\" 
'\" Copyright (c) 2006 Andreas Kupries
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: refchan.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
.so man.macros
.TH reflectedchan n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
reflectedchan \- Command handler API of reflected channels, version 1
.SH SYNOPSIS
................................................................................
(e.g. \fBbreak\fR, etc.) is treated as (and converted to) an error.
.PP
\fBNote:\fR If the creation of the channel was aborted due to failures
here, then the \fBfinalize\fR subcommand will not be called.
.PP
The \fImode\fR argument tells the handler whether the channel was
opened for reading, writing, or both. It is a list containing any of
the strings "\fBread\fR" or "\fBwrite\fR". The list will always



contain at least one element.
.PP
The subcommand must throw an error if the chosen mode is not
supported by the \fIcmdPrefix\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fIcmdPrefix \fBfinalize \fIchannelId\fR
.
................................................................................
aborted during \fBinitialize\fR (See above).
.RE
.TP
\fIcmdPrefix \fBwatch \fIchannelId eventspec\fR
.
This subcommand notifies the \fIcmdPrefix\fR that the specified
\fIchannelId\fR is interested in the events listed in the
\fIeventspec\fR. This argument is a list containing any of "\fBread\fR"



and "\fBwrite\fR". The list may be empty, which signals that the
channel does not wish to be notified of any events. In that situation,
the handler should disable event generation completely.
.RS
.PP
\fBWarning:\fR Any return value of the subcommand is ignored. This
includes all errors thrown by the subcommand, break, continue, and
custom return codes.
................................................................................
greater than or equal to zero.
.PP
If the subcommand throws an error the command which caused its
invocation (usually \fBseek\fR, or \fBtell\fR) will appear to have
thrown this error. Any exception beyond \fIerror\fR (e.g. \fIbreak\fR,
etc.) is treated as and converted to an error.
.PP
The offset/base combination of 0/"\fBcurrent\fR" signals a \fBtell\fR
request, i.e. seek nothing relative to the current location, making
the new location identical to the current one, which is then returned.
.RE
.TP
\fIcmdPrefix \fBconfigure \fIchannelId option value\fR
.
This \fIoptional\fR subcommand is for setting the type-specific options of

Changes to doc/regexp.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: regexp.n,v 1.22 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH regexp n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
regexp \- Match a regular expression against a string

.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBregexp \fR?\fIswitches\fR? \fIexp string \fR?\fImatchVar\fR? ?\fIsubMatchVar subMatchVar ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Determines whether the regular expression \fIexp\fR matches part or
................................................................................
will contain a list of two decimal strings giving the indices
in \fIstring\fR of the first and last characters in the matching
range of characters.
.TP 15
\fB\-line\fR
Enables newline-sensitive matching.  By default, newline is a
completely ordinary character with no special meaning.  With this
flag,
.QW [^
bracket expressions and
.QW .
never match newline,
.QW ^
matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal
function, and
.QW $
matches an empty string before any newline in
addition to its normal function.  This flag is equivalent to
specifying both \fB\-linestop\fR and \fB\-lineanchor\fR, or the
\fB(?n)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-linestop\fR
Changes the behavior of
.QW [^
bracket expressions and
.QW .
so that they
stop at newlines.  This is the same as specifying the \fB(?p)\fR
embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-lineanchor\fR
Changes the behavior of
.QW ^
and
.QW $
(the
.QW anchors )
so they match the
beginning and end of a line respectively.  This is the same as
specifying the \fB(?w)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR
manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-nocase\fR
Causes upper-case characters in \fIstring\fR to be treated as
lower case during the matching process.
................................................................................
Causes the command to return, as a list, the data that would otherwise
be placed in match variables.  When using \fB-inline\fR,
match variables may not be specified.  If used with \fB-all\fR, the
list will be concatenated at each iteration, such that a flat list is
always returned.  For each match iteration, the command will append the
overall match data, plus one element for each subexpression in the
regular expression.  Examples are:
.RS
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBregexp\fR -inline -- {\\w(\\w)} " inlined "
	 \fB\(->\fI in n\fR

\fBregexp\fR -all -inline -- {\\w(\\w)} " inlined "
	 \fB\(->\fI in n li i ne e\fR
.CE
.RE
.TP 15
\fB\-start\fR \fIindex\fR
Specifies a character index offset into the string to start
matching the regular expression at.  
.VS 8.5
The \fIindex\fR value is interpreted in the same manner
as the \fIindex\fR argument to \fBstring index\fR.
.VE 8.5
When using this switch,
.QW ^
will not match the beginning of the line, and \\A will still
match the start of the string at \fIindex\fR.  If \fB\-indices\fR
is specified, the indices will be indexed starting from the
absolute beginning of the input string.
\fIindex\fR will be constrained to the bounds of the input string.
.TP 15
\fB\-\|\-\fR
Marks the end of switches.  The argument following this one will
be treated as \fIexp\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.
.PP
If there are more \fIsubMatchVar\fRs than parenthesized
subexpressions within \fIexp\fR, or if a particular subexpression
in \fIexp\fR doesn't match the string (e.g. because it was in a
portion of the expression that wasn't matched), then the corresponding
\fIsubMatchVar\fR will be set to
.QW "\fB\-1 \-1\fR"
if \fB\-indices\fR has been specified or to an empty string otherwise.
.SH EXAMPLES
Find the first occurrence of a word starting with \fBfoo\fR in a
string that is not actually an instance of \fBfoobar\fR, and get the
letters following it up to the end of the word into a variable:
.CS
\fBregexp\fR {\\<foo(?!bar\\>)(\\w*)} $string \-> restOfWord
.CE
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
List all words (consisting of all sequences of non-whitespace
characters) in a string:
.CS
\fBregexp\fR \-all \-inline {\\S+} $string
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
re_syntax(n), regsub(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE


.SH KEYWORDS
match, regular expression, string





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1998 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: regexp.n,v 1.23 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH regexp n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
regexp \- Match a regular expression against a string

.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBregexp \fR?\fIswitches\fR? \fIexp string \fR?\fImatchVar\fR? ?\fIsubMatchVar subMatchVar ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Determines whether the regular expression \fIexp\fR matches part or
................................................................................
will contain a list of two decimal strings giving the indices
in \fIstring\fR of the first and last characters in the matching
range of characters.
.TP 15
\fB\-line\fR
Enables newline-sensitive matching.  By default, newline is a
completely ordinary character with no special meaning.  With this


flag, `[^' bracket expressions and `.' never match newline, `^'



matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal


function, and `$' matches an empty string before any newline in
addition to its normal function.  This flag is equivalent to
specifying both \fB\-linestop\fR and \fB\-lineanchor\fR, or the
\fB(?n)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-linestop\fR
Changes the behavior of `[^' bracket expressions and `.' so that they




stop at newlines.  This is the same as specifying the \fB(?p)\fR
embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-lineanchor\fR
Changes the behavior of `^' and `$' (the ``anchors'') so they match the






beginning and end of a line respectively.  This is the same as
specifying the \fB(?w)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR
manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-nocase\fR
Causes upper-case characters in \fIstring\fR to be treated as
lower case during the matching process.
................................................................................
Causes the command to return, as a list, the data that would otherwise
be placed in match variables.  When using \fB-inline\fR,
match variables may not be specified.  If used with \fB-all\fR, the
list will be concatenated at each iteration, such that a flat list is
always returned.  For each match iteration, the command will append the
overall match data, plus one element for each subexpression in the
regular expression.  Examples are:

.CS

    regexp -inline -- {\\w(\\w)} " inlined "

 => {in n}
    regexp -all -inline -- {\\w(\\w)} " inlined "
 => {in n li i ne e}
.CE

.TP 15
\fB\-start\fR \fIindex\fR
Specifies a character index offset into the string to start
matching the regular expression at.  
.VS 8.5
The \fIindex\fR value is interpreted in the same manner
as the \fIindex\fR argument to \fBstring index\fR.
.VE 8.5
When using this switch, `^'

will not match the beginning of the line, and \\A will still
match the start of the string at \fIindex\fR.  If \fB\-indices\fR
is specified, the indices will be indexed starting from the
absolute beginning of the input string.
\fIindex\fR will be constrained to the bounds of the input string.
.TP 15
\fB\-\|\-\fR
Marks the end of switches.  The argument following this one will
be treated as \fIexp\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.
.PP
If there are more \fIsubMatchVar\fR's than parenthesized
subexpressions within \fIexp\fR, or if a particular subexpression
in \fIexp\fR doesn't match the string (e.g. because it was in a
portion of the expression that wasn't matched), then the corresponding
\fIsubMatchVar\fR will be set to ``\fB\-1 \-1\fR'' if \fB\-indices\fR

has been specified or to an empty string otherwise.
.SH EXAMPLES
Find the first occurrence of a word starting with \fBfoo\fR in a
string that is not actually an instance of \fBfoobar\fR, and get the
letters following it up to the end of the word into a variable:
.CS
\fBregexp\fR {\\<foo(?!bar\\>)(\\w*)} $string \-> restOfWord
.CE
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
List all words (consisting of all sequences of non-whitespace
characters) in a string:
.CS
\fBregexp\fR \-all \-inline {\\S+} $string
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
re_syntax(n), regsub(n),
.VS 8.5
string(n)
.VE


.SH KEYWORDS
match, regular expression, string

Changes to doc/registry.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2002 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: registry.n,v 1.16 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH registry n 1.1 registry "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
registry \- Manipulate the Windows registry
................................................................................
The registry value contains a null-terminated string.  The data is 
represented in Tcl as a string.
.TP
\fBexpand_sz\fR
.
The registry value contains a null-terminated string that contains
unexpanded references to environment variables in the normal Windows
style (for example,
.QW "%PATH%" ).
The data is represented in Tcl as a string.
.TP
\fBdword\fR
.
The registry value contains a little-endian 32-bit number.  The data is
represented in Tcl as a decimal string.
.TP
\fBdword_big_endian\fR






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2002 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: registry.n,v 1.17 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH registry n 1.1 registry "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
registry \- Manipulate the Windows registry
................................................................................
The registry value contains a null-terminated string.  The data is 
represented in Tcl as a string.
.TP
\fBexpand_sz\fR
.
The registry value contains a null-terminated string that contains
unexpanded references to environment variables in the normal Windows
style (for example, "%PATH%").  The data is represented in Tcl as a
string.

.TP
\fBdword\fR
.
The registry value contains a little-endian 32-bit number.  The data is
represented in Tcl as a decimal string.
.TP
\fBdword_big_endian\fR

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: regsub.n,v 1.18 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH regsub n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
regsub \- Perform substitutions based on regular expression pattern matching
................................................................................
present.
(Regular expression matching is described in the \fBre_syntax\fR
reference page.)
If there is a match, then while copying \fIstring\fR to \fIvarName\fR
(or to the result of this command if \fIvarName\fR is not present)
the portion of \fIstring\fR that
matched \fIexp\fR is replaced with \fIsubSpec\fR.
If \fIsubSpec\fR contains a
.QW &
or
.QW \e0 ,
then it is replaced in the substitution with the portion of \fIstring\fR that 
matched \fIexp\fR.
If \fIsubSpec\fR contains a
.QW \e\fIn\fR ,
where \fIn\fR is a digit
between 1 and 9, then it is replaced in the substitution with
the portion of \fIstring\fR that matched the \fIn\fR-th
parenthesized subexpression of \fIexp\fR.
Additional backslashes may be used in \fIsubSpec\fR to prevent special
interpretation of
.QW &
or
.QW \e0
or
.QW \e\fIn\fR
or backslash.
The use of backslashes in \fIsubSpec\fR tends to interact badly
with the Tcl parser's use of backslashes, so it's generally
safest to enclose \fIsubSpec\fR in braces if it includes
backslashes.
.LP
If the initial arguments to \fBregsub\fR start with \fB\-\fR then
they are treated as switches.  The following switches are
................................................................................
currently supported:
.TP 10
\fB\-all\fR
All ranges in \fIstring\fR that match \fIexp\fR are found and
substitution is performed for each of these ranges.
Without this switch only the first
matching range is found and substituted.
If \fB\-all\fR is specified, then
.QW &
and
.QW \e\fIn\fR
sequences are handled for each substitution using the information
from the corresponding match.
.TP 15
\fB\-expanded\fR
Enables use of the expanded regular expression syntax where
whitespace and comments are ignored.  This is the same as specifying
the \fB(?x)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-line\fR
Enables newline-sensitive matching.  By default, newline is a
completely ordinary character with no special meaning.  With this
flag,
.QW [^
bracket expressions and
.QW .
never match newline,
.QW ^
matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal
function, and
.QW $
matches an empty string before any newline in
addition to its normal function.  This flag is equivalent to
specifying both \fB\-linestop\fR and \fB\-lineanchor\fR, or the
\fB(?n)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-linestop\fR
Changes the behavior of
.QW [^
bracket expressions and
.QW .
so that they stop at newlines.  This is the same as specifying the \fB(?p)\fR
embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-lineanchor\fR
Changes the behavior of
.QW ^
and
.QW $
(the
.QW anchors )
so they match the
beginning and end of a line respectively.  This is the same as
specifying the \fB(?w)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR
manual page).
.TP 10
\fB\-nocase\fR
Upper-case characters in \fIstring\fR will be converted to lower-case
before matching against \fIexp\fR;  however, substitutions specified
................................................................................
\fB\-start\fR \fIindex\fR
Specifies a character index offset into the string to start
matching the regular expression at.  
.VS 8.5
The \fIindex\fR value is interpreted in the same manner
as the \fIindex\fR argument to \fBstring index\fR.
.VE 8.5
When using this switch,
.QW ^
will not match the beginning of the line, and \\A will still
match the start of the string at \fIindex\fR.
\fIindex\fR will be constrained to the bounds of the input string.
.TP 10
\fB\-\|\-\fR
Marks the end of switches.  The argument following this one will
be treated as \fIexp\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: regsub.n,v 1.19 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH regsub n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
regsub \- Perform substitutions based on regular expression pattern matching
................................................................................
present.
(Regular expression matching is described in the \fBre_syntax\fR
reference page.)
If there is a match, then while copying \fIstring\fR to \fIvarName\fR
(or to the result of this command if \fIvarName\fR is not present)
the portion of \fIstring\fR that
matched \fIexp\fR is replaced with \fIsubSpec\fR.
If \fIsubSpec\fR contains a ``&'' or ``\e0'', then it is replaced



in the substitution with the portion of \fIstring\fR that
matched \fIexp\fR.
If \fIsubSpec\fR contains a ``\e\fIn\fR'', where \fIn\fR is a digit


between 1 and 9, then it is replaced in the substitution with
the portion of \fIstring\fR that matched the \fIn\fR-th
parenthesized subexpression of \fIexp\fR.
Additional backslashes may be used in \fIsubSpec\fR to prevent special
interpretation of ``&'' or ``\e0'' or ``\e\fIn\fR'' or





backslash.
The use of backslashes in \fIsubSpec\fR tends to interact badly
with the Tcl parser's use of backslashes, so it's generally
safest to enclose \fIsubSpec\fR in braces if it includes
backslashes.
.LP
If the initial arguments to \fBregsub\fR start with \fB\-\fR then
they are treated as switches.  The following switches are
................................................................................
currently supported:
.TP 10
\fB\-all\fR
All ranges in \fIstring\fR that match \fIexp\fR are found and
substitution is performed for each of these ranges.
Without this switch only the first
matching range is found and substituted.
If \fB\-all\fR is specified, then ``&'' and ``\e\fIn\fR''



sequences are handled for each substitution using the information
from the corresponding match.
.TP 15
\fB\-expanded\fR
Enables use of the expanded regular expression syntax where
whitespace and comments are ignored.  This is the same as specifying
the \fB(?x)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-line\fR
Enables newline-sensitive matching.  By default, newline is a
completely ordinary character with no special meaning.  With this


flag, `[^' bracket expressions and `.' never match newline, `^'



matches an empty string after any newline in addition to its normal


function, and `$' matches an empty string before any newline in
addition to its normal function.  This flag is equivalent to
specifying both \fB\-linestop\fR and \fB\-lineanchor\fR, or the
\fB(?n)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-linestop\fR
Changes the behavior of `[^' bracket expressions and `.' so that they



stop at newlines.  This is the same as specifying the \fB(?p)\fR
embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR manual page).
.TP 15
\fB\-lineanchor\fR
Changes the behavior of `^' and `$' (the ``anchors'') so they match the






beginning and end of a line respectively.  This is the same as
specifying the \fB(?w)\fR embedded option (see the \fBre_syntax\fR
manual page).
.TP 10
\fB\-nocase\fR
Upper-case characters in \fIstring\fR will be converted to lower-case
before matching against \fIexp\fR;  however, substitutions specified
................................................................................
\fB\-start\fR \fIindex\fR
Specifies a character index offset into the string to start
matching the regular expression at.  
.VS 8.5
The \fIindex\fR value is interpreted in the same manner
as the \fIindex\fR argument to \fBstring index\fR.
.VE 8.5
When using this switch, `^'

will not match the beginning of the line, and \\A will still
match the start of the string at \fIindex\fR.
\fIindex\fR will be constrained to the bounds of the input string.
.TP 10
\fB\-\|\-\fR
Marks the end of switches.  The argument following this one will
be treated as \fIexp\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.

Changes to doc/return.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2003.  (not subject to US copyright)
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: return.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 09:49:18 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH return n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
return \- Return from a procedure, or set return code of a script
................................................................................
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBreturn \fR?\fIresult\fR?
.sp
\fBreturn \fR?\fB-code \fIcode\fR? ?\fIresult\fR?
.sp
\fBreturn \fR?\fIoption value \fR...? ?\fIresult\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
In its simplest usage, the \fBreturn\fR command is used without options
in the body of a procedure to immediately return control to the caller
of the procedure.  If a \fIresult\fR argument is provided, its value
becomes the result of the procedure passed back to the caller.  
If \fIresult\fR is not specified then an empty string will be returned
................................................................................
the \fBreturn\fR command will cause script evaluation
to immediately cease, and the value \fIresult\fR (or an empty string)
will be returned as the result of the \fBsource\fR command.
.SH "EXCEPTIONAL RETURN CODES"
.PP
In addition to the result of a procedure, the return
code of a procedure may also be set by \fBreturn\fR
through use of the \fB\-code\fR option.
In the usual case where the \fB\-code\fR option isn't
specified the procedure will return normally.
However, the \fB\-code\fR option may be used to generate an
exceptional return from the procedure.
\fICode\fR may have any of the following values:
.TP 13
\fBok (\fRor \fB0)\fR
Normal return:  same as if the option is omitted.  The return code
of the procedure is 0 (\fBTCL_OK\fR).
.TP 13
\fBerror (1)\fR
Error return: the return code of the procedure is 1 (\fBTCL_ERROR\fR).
The procedure command behaves in its calling context as if it
were the command \fBerror \fIresult\fR.  See below for additional
................................................................................
were the command \fBcontinue\fR.
.TP 13
\fIvalue\fR
\fIValue\fR must be an integer;  it will be returned as the
return code for the current procedure.
.LP
When a procedure wants to signal that it has received invalid
arguments from its caller, it may use
.QW "\fBreturn \-code error\fR"
with \fIresult\fR set to a suitable error message.  Otherwise
usage of the \fBreturn -code\fR option is mostly limited to
procedures that implement a new control structure.
.PP
The \fBreturn -code\fR command acts similarly within script
files that are evaluated by the \fBsource\fR command.  During the
evaluation of the contents of a file as a script by \fBsource\fR,
an invocation of the
.QW "\fBreturn -code \fIcode\fR"
command will cause the return code of \fBsource\fR to be \fIcode\fR.
.SH "RETURN OPTIONS"
.PP
.VS 8.5
In addition to a result and a return code, evaluation of a command
in Tcl also produces a dictionary of return options.  In general
usage, all \fIoption value\fR pairs given as arguments to \fBreturn\fR
become entries in the return options dictionary, and any values at all
are acceptable except as noted below.  The \fBcatch\fR command may be
used to capture all of this information \(em the return code, the result,
and the return options dictionary \(em that arise from evaluation of a script.
.VE 8.5
.PP
As documented above, the \fB\-code\fR entry in the return options dictionary
receives special treatment by Tcl.  There are other return options also
recognized and treated specially by Tcl.  They are:
.TP
\fB\-errorcode \fIlist\fR
The \fB\-errorcode\fR option receives special treatment only when the value
of the \fB\-code\fR option is \fBTCL_ERROR\fR.  Then the \fIlist\fR value
is meant to be additional information about the error,
presented as a Tcl list for further processing by programs.
If no \fB\-errorcode\fR option is provided to \fBreturn\fR when
the \fB\-code error\fR option is provided, Tcl will set the value
of the \fB\-errorcode\fR entry in the return options dictionary 
to the default value of \fBNONE\fR.  The \fB\-errorcode\fR return
option will also be stored in the global variable \fBerrorCode\fR.
.TP
\fB\-errorinfo \fIinfo\fR
The \fB\-errorinfo\fR option receives special treatment only when the value
of the \fB\-code\fR option is \fBTCL_ERROR\fR.  Then \fIinfo\fR is the initial
stack trace, meant to provide to a human reader additional information
about the context in which the error occurred.  The stack trace will
also be stored in the global variable \fBerrorInfo\fR.  
If no \fB\-errorinfo\fR option is provided to \fBreturn\fR when
the \fB\-code error\fR option is provided, Tcl will provide its own
initial stack trace value in the entry for \fB\-errorinfo\fR.  Tcl's
initial stack trace will include only the call to the procedure, and
stack unwinding will append information about higher stack levels, but
there will be no information about the context of the error within
the procedure.  Typically the \fIinfo\fR value is supplied from
the value of \fB\-errorinfo\fR in a return options dictionary captured
by the \fBcatch\fR command (or from the copy of that information
stored in the global variable \fBerrorInfo\fR).
.TP
\fB\-level \fIlevel\fR
.VS 8.5
The \fB\-level\fR and \fB\-code\fR options work together to set the return
code to be returned by one of the commands currently being evaluated.
The \fIlevel\fR value must be a non-negative integer representing a number
of levels on the call stack.  It defines the number of levels up the stack
at which the return code of a command currently being evaluated should
be \fIcode\fR.  If no \fB\-level\fR option is provided, the default value
of \fIlevel\fR is 1, so that \fBreturn\fR sets the return code that the
current procedure returns to its caller, 1 level up the call stack.  The
mechanism by which these options work is described in more detail below.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fB\-options \fIoptions\fR
.VS 8.5
The value \fIoptions\fR must be a valid dictionary.  The entries of that
dictionary are treated as additional \fIoption value\fR pairs for the
\fBreturn\fR command.
.VE 8.5
.SH "RETURN CODE HANDLING MECHANISMS"
.PP
................................................................................
of the call stack.  It is also the mechanism by which commands
like \fBbreak\fR, \fBcontinue\fR, and \fBreturn\fR cause script
evaluation to terminate without evaluating all commands in sequence.
.PP
Some of Tcl's built-in commands evaluate scripts as part of their
functioning.  These commands can make use of exceptional return
codes to enable special features.  For example, the built-in
Tcl commands that provide loops \(em such as \fBwhile\fR, \fBfor\fR,
and \fBforeach\fR \(em evaluate a script that is the body of the
loop.  If evaluation of the loop body returns the return code
of \fBTCL_BREAK\fR or \fBTCL_CONTINUE\fR, the loop command can react in such
a way as to give the \fBbreak\fR and \fBcontinue\fR commands
their documented interpretation in loops.
.PP
.VS 8.5
Procedure invocation also involves evaluation of a script, the body
of the procedure.  Procedure invocation provides special treatment
when evaluation of the procedure body returns the return code 
\fBTCL_RETURN\fR.  In that circumstance, the \fB\-level\fR entry in the
return options dictionary is decremented.  If after decrementing,
the value of the \fB\-level\fR entry is 0, then the value of
the \fB\-code\fR entry becomes the return code of the procedure.
If after decrementing, the value of the \fB\-level\fR entry is
greater than zero, then the return code of the procedure is
\fBTCL_RETURN\fR.  If the procedure invocation occurred during the
evaluation of the body of another procedure, the process will
repeat itself up the call stack, decrementing the value of the
\fB\-level\fR entry at each level, so that the \fIcode\fR will
be the return code of the current command \fIlevel\fR levels
up the call stack.  The \fBsource\fR command performs the
same handling of the \fBTCL_RETURN\fR return code, which explains
the similarity of \fBreturn\fR invocation during a \fBsource\fR
to \fBreturn\fR invocation within a procedure.
.PP
The return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself triggers this
special handling by procedure invocation.  If \fBreturn\fR
is provided the option \fB\-level 0\fR, then the return code
of the \fBreturn\fR command itself will be the value \fIcode\fR
of the \fB\-code\fR option (or \fBTCL_OK\fR by default).  Any other value
for the \fB\-level\fR option (including the default value of 1)
will cause the return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself
to be \fBTCL_RETURN\fR, triggering a return from the enclosing procedure.
.VE 8.5
.SH EXAMPLES
First, a simple example of using \fBreturn\fR to return from a
procedure, interrupting the procedure body.
.CS
................................................................................
Next, an example of using \fBreturn\fR to set the value
returned by the procedure.
.CS
proc returnX {} {\fBreturn\fR X}
puts [returnX]    ;# prints "X"
.CE
.PP
Next, a more complete example, using
.QW "\fBreturn \-code error\fR"
to report invalid arguments.
.CS
proc factorial {n} {
   if {![string is integer $n] || ($n < 0)} {
      \fBreturn\fR -code error \e
            "expected non-negative integer,\e
             but got \e"$n\e""
   }
   if {$n < 2} {
      \fBreturn\fR 1
   }
   set m [expr {$n - 1}]
   set code [catch {factorial $m} factor]
   if {$code != 0} {
      \fBreturn\fR -code $code $factor
   }
   set product [expr {$n * $factor}]
   if {$product < 0} {
      \fBreturn\fR -code error \e
            "overflow computing factorial of $n"
   }
   \fBreturn\fR $product
}
.CE
.PP
Next, a procedure replacement for \fBbreak\fR.
................................................................................
.CS
proc myBreak {} {
   \fBreturn\fR -code break
}
.CE
.PP
.VS 8.5
With the \fB\-level 0\fR option, \fBreturn\fR itself can serve
as a replacement for \fBbreak\fR.
.CS
interp alias {} Break {} \fBreturn\fR -level 0 -code break
.CE
.PP
An example of using \fBcatch\fR and \fBreturn \-options\fR to
re-raise a caught error:
.CS
proc doSomething {} {
   set resource [allocate]
   catch {
      # Long script of operations
      # that might raise an error
................................................................................
   }
   set options [dict merge {-level 1} $args]
   dict incr options -level
   \fBreturn\fR -options $options $result
}
.CE
.VE 8.5

.SH "SEE ALSO"
break(n), catch(n), continue(n), dict(n), error(n), proc(n), source(n),
tclvars(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
break, catch, continue, error, procedure, return






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2003.  (not subject to US copyright)
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: return.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH return n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
return \- Return from a procedure, or set return code of a script
................................................................................
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBreturn \fR?\fIresult\fR?
.sp
\fBreturn \fR?\fB-code \fIcode\fR? ?\fIresult\fR?
.sp
\fBreturn \fR?\fIoption value \fR...? ?\fIresult\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
In its simplest usage, the \fBreturn\fR command is used without options
in the body of a procedure to immediately return control to the caller
of the procedure.  If a \fIresult\fR argument is provided, its value
becomes the result of the procedure passed back to the caller.  
If \fIresult\fR is not specified then an empty string will be returned
................................................................................
the \fBreturn\fR command will cause script evaluation
to immediately cease, and the value \fIresult\fR (or an empty string)
will be returned as the result of the \fBsource\fR command.
.SH "EXCEPTIONAL RETURN CODES"
.PP
In addition to the result of a procedure, the return
code of a procedure may also be set by \fBreturn\fR
through use of the \fB-code\fR option.
In the usual case where the \fB\-code\fR option isn't
specified the procedure will return normally.
However, the \fB\-code\fR option may be used to generate an
exceptional return from the procedure.
\fICode\fR may have any of the following values:
.TP 13
\fBok (or 0)\fR
Normal return:  same as if the option is omitted.  The return code
of the procedure is 0 (\fBTCL_OK\fR).
.TP 13
\fBerror (1)\fR
Error return: the return code of the procedure is 1 (\fBTCL_ERROR\fR).
The procedure command behaves in its calling context as if it
were the command \fBerror \fIresult\fR.  See below for additional
................................................................................
were the command \fBcontinue\fR.
.TP 13
\fIvalue\fR
\fIValue\fR must be an integer;  it will be returned as the
return code for the current procedure.
.LP
When a procedure wants to signal that it has received invalid
arguments from its caller, it may use \fBreturn -code error\fR

with \fIresult\fR set to a suitable error message.  Otherwise
usage of the \fBreturn -code\fR option is mostly limited to
procedures that implement a new control structure.
.PP
The \fBreturn -code\fR command acts similarly within script
files that are evaluated by the \fBsource\fR command.  During the
evaluation of the contents of a file as a script by \fBsource\fR,

an invocation of the \fBreturn -code \fIcode\fR command will cause
the return code of \fBsource\fR to be \fIcode\fR.
.SH "RETURN OPTIONS"
.PP
.VS 8.5
In addition to a result and a return code, evaluation of a command
in Tcl also produces a dictionary of return options.  In general
usage, all \fIoption value\fR pairs given as arguments to \fBreturn\fR
become entries in the return options dictionary, and any values at all
are acceptable except as noted below.  The \fBcatch\fR command may be
used to capture all of this information -- the return code, the result,
and the return options dictionary -- that arise from evaluation of a script.
.VE 8.5
.PP
As documented above, the \fB-code\fR entry in the return options dictionary
receives special treatment by Tcl.  There are other return options also
recognized and treated specially by Tcl.  They are:
.TP
\fB-errorcode \fIlist\fR
The \fB-errorcode\fR option receives special treatment only when the value
of the \fB-code\fR option is \fBTCL_ERROR\fR.  Then the \fIlist\fR value
is meant to be additional information about the error,
presented as a Tcl list for further processing by programs.
If no \fB-errorcode\fR option is provided to \fBreturn\fR when
the \fB-code error\fR option is provided, Tcl will set the value
of the \fB-errorcode\fR entry in the return options dictionary 
to the default value of \fBNONE\fR.  The \fB-errorcode\fR return
option will also be stored in the global variable \fBerrorCode\fR.
.TP
\fB-errorinfo \fIinfo\fR
The \fB-errorinfo\fR option receives special treatment only when the value
of the \fB-code\fR option is \fBTCL_ERROR\fR.  Then \fIinfo\fR is the initial
stack trace, meant to provide to a human reader additional information
about the context in which the error occurred.  The stack trace will
also be stored in the global variable \fBerrorInfo\fR.  
If no \fB-errorinfo\fR option is provided to \fBreturn\fR when
the \fB-code error\fR option is provided, Tcl will provide its own
initial stack trace value in the entry for \fB-errorinfo\fR.  Tcl's
initial stack trace will include only the call to the procedure, and
stack unwinding will append information about higher stack levels, but
there will be no information about the context of the error within
the procedure.  Typically the \fIinfo\fR value is supplied from
the value of \fB-errorinfo\fR in a return options dictionary captured
by the \fBcatch\fR command (or from the copy of that information
stored in the global variable \fBerrorInfo\fR).
.TP
\fB-level \fIlevel\fR
.VS 8.5
The \fB-level\fR and \fB-code\fR options work together to set the return
code to be returned by one of the commands currently being evaluated.
The \fIlevel\fR value must be a non-negative integer representing a number
of levels on the call stack.  It defines the number of levels up the stack
at which the return code of a command currently being evaluated should
be \fIcode\fR.  If no \fB-level\fR option is provided, the default value
of \fIlevel\fR is 1, so that \fBreturn\fR sets the return code that the
current procedure returns to its caller, 1 level up the call stack.  The
mechanism by which these options work is described in more detail below.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fB-options \fIoptions\fR
.VS 8.5
The value \fIoptions\fR must be a valid dictionary.  The entries of that
dictionary are treated as additional \fIoption value\fR pairs for the
\fBreturn\fR command.
.VE 8.5
.SH "RETURN CODE HANDLING MECHANISMS"
.PP
................................................................................
of the call stack.  It is also the mechanism by which commands
like \fBbreak\fR, \fBcontinue\fR, and \fBreturn\fR cause script
evaluation to terminate without evaluating all commands in sequence.
.PP
Some of Tcl's built-in commands evaluate scripts as part of their
functioning.  These commands can make use of exceptional return
codes to enable special features.  For example, the built-in
Tcl commands that provide loops -- such as \fBwhile\fR, \fBfor\fR,
and \fBforeach\fR -- evaluate a script that is the body of the
loop.  If evaluation of the loop body returns the return code
of \fBTCL_BREAK\fR or \fBTCL_CONTINUE\fR, the loop command can react in such
a way as to give the \fBbreak\fR and \fBcontinue\fR commands
their documented interpretation in loops.
.PP
.VS 8.5
Procedure invocation also involves evaluation of a script, the body
of the procedure.  Procedure invocation provides special treatment
when evaluation of the procedure body returns the return code 
\fBTCL_RETURN\fR.  In that circumstance, the \fB-level\fR entry in the
return options dictionary is decremented.  If after decrementing,
the value of the \fB-level\fR entry is 0, then the value of
the \fB-code\fR entry becomes the return code of the procedure.
If after decrementing, the value of the \fB-level\fR entry is
greater than zero, then the return code of the procedure is
\fBTCL_RETURN\fR.  If the procedure invocation occurred during the
evaluation of the body of another procedure, the process will
repeat itself up the call stack, decrementing the value of the
\fB-level\fR entry at each level, so that the \fIcode\fR will
be the return code of the current command \fIlevel\fR levels
up the call stack.  The \fBsource\fR command performs the
same handling of the \fBTCL_RETURN\fR return code, which explains
the similarity of \fBreturn\fR invocation during a \fBsource\fR
to \fBreturn\fR invocation within a procedure.
.PP
The return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself triggers this
special handling by procedure invocation.  If \fBreturn\fR
is provided the option \fB-level 0\fR, then the return code
of the \fBreturn\fR command itself will be the value \fIcode\fR
of the \fB-code\fR option (or \fBTCL_OK\fR by default).  Any other value
for the \fB-level\fR option (including the default value of 1)
will cause the return code of the \fBreturn\fR command itself
to be \fBTCL_RETURN\fR, triggering a return from the enclosing procedure.
.VE 8.5
.SH EXAMPLES
First, a simple example of using \fBreturn\fR to return from a
procedure, interrupting the procedure body.
.CS
................................................................................
Next, an example of using \fBreturn\fR to set the value
returned by the procedure.
.CS
proc returnX {} {\fBreturn\fR X}
puts [returnX]    ;# prints "X"
.CE
.PP
Next, a more complete example, using \fBreturn -code error\fR

to report invalid arguments.
.CS
proc factorial {n} {
   if {![string is integer $n] || ($n < 0)} {
      \fBreturn\fR -code error \\
            "expected non-negative integer,\\
             but got \\"$n\\""
   }
   if {$n < 2} {
      \fBreturn\fR 1
   }
   set m [expr {$n - 1}]
   set code [catch {factorial $m} factor]
   if {$code != 0} {
      \fBreturn\fR -code $code $factor
   }
   set product [expr {$n * $factor}]
   if {$product < 0} {
      \fBreturn\fR -code error \\
            "overflow computing factorial of $n"
   }
   \fBreturn\fR $product
}
.CE
.PP
Next, a procedure replacement for \fBbreak\fR.
................................................................................
.CS
proc myBreak {} {
   \fBreturn\fR -code break
}
.CE
.PP
.VS 8.5
With the \fB-level 0\fR option, \fBreturn\fR itself can serve
as a replacement for \fBbreak\fR.
.CS
interp alias {} Break {} \fBreturn\fR -level 0 -code break
.CE
.PP
An example of using \fBcatch\fR and \fBreturn -options\fR to
re-raise a caught error:
.CS
proc doSomething {} {
   set resource [allocate]
   catch {
      # Long script of operations
      # that might raise an error
................................................................................
   }
   set options [dict merge {-level 1} $args]
   dict incr options -level
   \fBreturn\fR -options $options $result
}
.CE
.VE 8.5

.SH "SEE ALSO"
break(n), catch(n), continue(n), dict(n), error(n), proc(n), source(n), tclvars(n)


.SH KEYWORDS
break, catch, continue, error, procedure, return

Changes to doc/scan.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: scan.n,v 1.20 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH scan n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
scan \- Parse string using conversion specifiers in the style of sscanf
................................................................................
first skips any white-space characters in \fIstring\fR (unless the
conversion character is \fB[\fR or \fBc\fR).
Then it converts the next input characters according to the 
conversion specifier and stores the result in the variable given
by the next argument to \fBscan\fR.
.PP
If the \fB%\fR is followed by a decimal number and a \fB$\fR, as in
.QW \fB%2$d\fR ,
then the variable to use is not taken from the next
sequential argument.  Instead, it is taken from the argument indicated
by the number, where 1 corresponds to the first \fIvarName\fR.  If
there are any positional specifiers in \fIformat\fR then all of the
specifiers must be positional.  Every \fIvarName\fR on the argument
list must correspond to exactly one conversion specifier or an error
is generated, or in the inline case, any position can be specified
at most once and the empty positions will be filled in with empty strings.






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: scan.n,v 1.21 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH scan n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
scan \- Parse string using conversion specifiers in the style of sscanf
................................................................................
first skips any white-space characters in \fIstring\fR (unless the
conversion character is \fB[\fR or \fBc\fR).
Then it converts the next input characters according to the 
conversion specifier and stores the result in the variable given
by the next argument to \fBscan\fR.
.PP
If the \fB%\fR is followed by a decimal number and a \fB$\fR, as in

``\fB%2$d\fR'', then the variable to use is not taken from the next
sequential argument.  Instead, it is taken from the argument indicated
by the number, where 1 corresponds to the first \fIvarName\fR.  If
there are any positional specifiers in \fIformat\fR then all of the
specifiers must be positional.  Every \fIvarName\fR on the argument
list must correspond to exactly one conversion specifier or an error
is generated, or in the inline case, any position can be specified
at most once and the empty positions will be filled in with empty strings.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: source.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH source n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
source \- Evaluate a file or resource as a Tcl script
................................................................................
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBsource \fIfileName\fR
.sp
.VS 8.5
\fBsource\fR \fB\-encoding \fIencodingName fileName\fR
.VE 8.5
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command takes the contents of the specified file or resource
and passes it to the Tcl interpreter as a text script.  The return
value from \fBsource\fR is the return value of the last command
executed in the script.  If an error occurs in evaluating the contents
of the script then the \fBsource\fR command will return that error.
If a \fBreturn\fR command is invoked from within the script then the
remainder of the file will be skipped and the \fBsource\fR command
will return normally with the result from the \fBreturn\fR command.
.PP
The end-of-file character for files is
.QW \e032
(^Z) for all platforms. The source command will read files up to this
character.  This
restriction does not exist for the \fBread\fR or \fBgets\fR commands,
allowing for files containing code and data segments (scripted documents).
If you require a
.QW ^Z
in code for string comparison, you can use
.QW \e032
or
.QW \eu001a ,
which will be safely substituted by the Tcl
interpreter into
.QW ^Z .
.PP
.VS 8.5
The \fB-encoding\fR option is used to specify the encoding of
the data stored in \fIfileName\fR.  When the \fB-encoding\fR option
is omitted, the system encoding is assumed.
.VE 8.5
.SH EXAMPLE
Run the script in the file \fBfoo.tcl\fR and then the script in the
file \fBbar.tcl\fR:
.CS
\fBsource\fR foo.tcl
\fBsource\fR bar.tcl
.CE
.PP
Alternatively:
.CS
foreach scriptFile {foo.tcl bar.tcl} {
   \fBsource\fR $scriptFile
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), cd(n), encoding(n), info(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
file, script






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Scriptics Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: source.n,v 1.14 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH source n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
source \- Evaluate a file or resource as a Tcl script
................................................................................
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBsource \fIfileName\fR
.sp
.VS 8.5
\fBsource\fR \fB\-encoding \fIencodingName fileName\fR
.VE 8.5
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command takes the contents of the specified file or resource
and passes it to the Tcl interpreter as a text script.  The return
value from \fBsource\fR is the return value of the last command
executed in the script.  If an error occurs in evaluating the contents
of the script then the \fBsource\fR command will return that error.
If a \fBreturn\fR command is invoked from within the script then the
remainder of the file will be skipped and the \fBsource\fR command
will return normally with the result from the \fBreturn\fR command.
.PP
The end-of-file character for files is '\\32' (^Z) for all platforms.

The source command will read files up to this character.  This

restriction does not exist for the \fBread\fR or \fBgets\fR commands,
allowing for files containing code and data segments (scripted documents).


If you require a ``^Z'' in code for string comparison, you can use



``\\032'' or ``\\u001a'', which will be safely substituted by the Tcl
interpreter into ``^Z''.

.PP
.VS 8.5
The \fB-encoding\fR option is used to specify the encoding of
the data stored in \fIfileName\fR.  When the \fB-encoding\fR option
is omitted, the system encoding is assumed.
.VE 8.5
.SH EXAMPLE
Run the script in the file \fBfoo.tcl\fR and then the script in the
file \fBbar.tcl\fR:
.CS
\fBsource\fR foo.tcl
\fBsource\fR bar.tcl
.CE

Alternatively:
.CS
foreach scriptFile {foo.tcl bar.tcl} {
   \fBsource\fR $scriptFile
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), cd(n), encoding(n), info(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
file, script

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: split.n,v 1.6 2007/10/25 09:25:27 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH split n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
split \- Split a string into a proper Tcl list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBsplit \fIstring \fR?\fIsplitChars\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Returns a list created by splitting \fIstring\fR at each character
that is in the \fIsplitChars\fR argument.
Each element of the result list will consist of the
characters from \fIstring\fR that lie between instances of the
characters in \fIsplitChars\fR.
................................................................................
character of \fIstring\fR is in \fIsplitChars\fR.
If \fIsplitChars\fR is an empty string then each character of
\fIstring\fR becomes a separate element of the result list.
\fISplitChars\fR defaults to the standard white-space characters.
.SH EXAMPLES
Divide up a USENET group name into its hierarchical components:
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBsplit\fR "comp.lang.tcl.announce" .
	\fB\(->\fI comp lang tcl announce\fR
.CE
.PP
See how the \fBsplit\fR command splits on \fIevery\fR character in
\fIsplitChars\fR, which can result in information loss if you are not
careful:
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBsplit\fR "alpha beta gamma" "temp"
	\fB\(->\fI al {ha b} {} {a ga} {} a\fR
.CE
.PP
Extract the list words from a string that is not a well-formed list:
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBsplit\fR "Example with {unbalanced brace character"
	\fB\(->\fI Example with \\{unbalanced brace character\fR
.CE
.PP
Split a string into its constituent characters
.CS
.ta 2i
\fBsplit\fR "Hello world" {}
	\fB\(->\fI H e l l o { } w o r l d\fR
.CE
.SS "PARSING RECORD-ORIENTED FILES"
Parse a Unix /etc/passwd file, which consists of one entry per line,
with each line consisting of a colon-separated list of fields:
.CS
## Read the file
set fid [open /etc/passwd]
................................................................................

   ## Assign fields to variables and print some out...
   lassign $fields \\
         userName password uid grp longName homeDir shell
   puts "$longName uses [file tail $shell] for a login shell"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
join(n), list(n), string(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
list, split, string






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: split.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH split n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
split \- Split a string into a proper Tcl list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBsplit \fIstring \fR?\fIsplitChars\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Returns a list created by splitting \fIstring\fR at each character
that is in the \fIsplitChars\fR argument.
Each element of the result list will consist of the
characters from \fIstring\fR that lie between instances of the
characters in \fIsplitChars\fR.
................................................................................
character of \fIstring\fR is in \fIsplitChars\fR.
If \fIsplitChars\fR is an empty string then each character of
\fIstring\fR becomes a separate element of the result list.
\fISplitChars\fR defaults to the standard white-space characters.
.SH EXAMPLES
Divide up a USENET group name into its hierarchical components:
.CS

\fBsplit\fR "comp.lang.tcl.announce" .
     \fI=> comp lang tcl announce\fR
.CE
.PP
See how the \fBsplit\fR command splits on \fIevery\fR character in
\fIsplitChars\fR, which can result in information loss if you are not
careful:
.CS

\fBsplit\fR "alpha beta gamma" "temp"
     \fI=> al {ha b} {} {a ga} {} a\fR
.CE
.PP
Extract the list words from a string that is not a well-formed list:
.CS

\fBsplit\fR "Example with {unbalanced brace character"
     \fI=> Example with \\{unbalanced brace character\fR
.CE
.PP
Split a string into its constituent characters
.CS

\fBsplit\fR "Hello world" {}
     \fI=> H e l l o { } w o r l d\fR
.CE
.SS "PARSING RECORD-ORIENTED FILES"
Parse a Unix /etc/passwd file, which consists of one entry per line,
with each line consisting of a colon-separated list of fields:
.CS
## Read the file
set fid [open /etc/passwd]
................................................................................

   ## Assign fields to variables and print some out...
   lassign $fields \\
         userName password uid grp longName homeDir shell
   puts "$longName uses [file tail $shell] for a login shell"
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
join(n), list(n), string(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
list, split, string

Changes to doc/string.n.

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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
.\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
.\"
.\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
.\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
.\" 
.\" RCS: @(#) $Id: string.n,v 1.37 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
.\" 
.so man.macros
.TH string n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
string \- Manipulate strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBstring \fIoption arg \fR?\fIarg ...?\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Performs one of several string operations, depending on \fIoption\fR.
The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBstring bytelength \fIstring\fR
.
Returns a decimal string giving the number of bytes used to represent
\fIstring\fR in memory.  Because UTF\-8 uses one to three bytes to
represent Unicode characters, the byte length will not be the same as
the character length in general.  The cases where a script cares about
the byte length are rare.  In almost all cases, you should use the
\fBstring length\fR operation (including determining the length of a
Tcl ByteArray object).  Refer to the \fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR manual
entry for more details on the UTF\-8 representation.
.TP
\fBstring compare\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB\-length int\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR
.
Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR
and \fIstring2\fR.  Returns \-1, 0, or 1, depending on whether
\fIstring1\fR is lexicographically less than, equal to, or greater
than \fIstring2\fR.  If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only the
first \fIlength\fR characters are used in the comparison.  If
\fB\-length\fR is negative, it is ignored.  If \fB\-nocase\fR is
specified, then the strings are compared in a case-insensitive manner.
.TP
\fBstring equal\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB-length int\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR
.
Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR
and \fIstring2\fR.  Returns 1 if \fIstring1\fR and \fIstring2\fR are
identical, or 0 when not.  If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only
the first \fIlength\fR characters are used in the comparison.  If
\fB\-length\fR is negative, it is ignored.  If \fB\-nocase\fR is
specified, then the strings are compared in a case-insensitive manner.
.TP
\fBstring first \fIneedleString haystackString\fR ?\fIstartIndex\fR?
.
Search \fIhaystackString\fR for a sequence of characters that exactly match
the characters in \fIneedleString\fR.  If found, return the index of the
first character in the first such match within \fIhaystackString\fR.  If not
found, return \-1.  If \fIstartIndex\fR is specified (in any of the
forms accepted by the \fBindex\fR method), then the search is
constrained to start with the character in \fIhaystackString\fR specified by
the index.  For example,
................................................................................
.CS
\fBstring first a 0123456789abcdef 11\fR
.CE
will return \fB\-1\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring index \fIstring charIndex\fR
.
Returns the \fIcharIndex\fR'th character of the \fIstring\fR argument.
A \fIcharIndex\fR of 0 corresponds to the first character of the
string.  \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as follows:
.VS 8.5
.RS
.IP \fIinteger\fR 10
For any index value that passes \fBstring is integer -strict\fR,
the char specified at this integral index
(e.g. \fB2\fR would refer to the
.QW "c"
in
.QW "abcd" ).
.IP \fBend\fR 10
The last char of the string
(e.g. \fBend\fR would refer to the
.QW "d"
in
.QW "abcd" ).
.IP \fBend\fR\-\fIN\fR 10
The last char of the string minus the specified integer offset \fIN\fR
(e.g. \fBend\fR\-1 would refer to the
.QW "c"
in
.QW "abcd" ).
.IP \fBend\fR+\fIN\fR 10
The last char of the string plus the specified integer offset \fIN\fR
(e.g. \fBend\fR+\-1 would refer to the
.QW "c"
in
"abcd" ).
.IP \fIM\fR+\fIN\fR 10
The char specified at the integral index that is the sum of 
integer values \fIM\fR and \fIN\fR
(e.g. \fB1+1\fR would refer to the
.QW "c"
in
.QW "abcd" ).
.IP \fIM\fR\-\fIN\fR 10
The char specified at the integral index that is the difference of 
integer values \fIM\fR and \fIN\fR
(e.g. \fB2\-1\fR would refer to the
.QW "b"
in
.QW "abcd" ).
.PP
In the specifications above, the integer value \fIM\fR contains no
trailing whitespace and the integer value \fIN\fR contains no
leading whitespace.
.PP
If \fIcharIndex\fR is less than 0 or greater than or equal to the
length of the string then this command returns an empty string.
.RE
.VE
.TP
\fBstring is \fIclass\fR ?\fB\-strict\fR? ?\fB\-failindex \fIvarname\fR? \fIstring\fR
.
Returns 1 if \fIstring\fR is a valid member of the specified character
class, otherwise returns 0.  If \fB\-strict\fR is specified, then an
empty string returns 0, otherwise an empty string will return 1 on
any class.  If \fB\-failindex\fR is specified, then if the function
returns 0, the index in the string where the class was no longer valid
will be stored in the variable named \fIvarname\fR.  The \fIvarname\fR
will not be set if the function returns 1.  The following character
................................................................................
.IP \fBinteger\fR 12
Any of the valid string formats for a 32-bit integer value in Tcl,
with optional surrounding whitespace.  In case of under/overflow in
the value, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain \-1.
.IP \fBlist\fR 12
Any proper list structure, with optional surrounding whitespace. In
case of improper list structure, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR
will contain the index of the
.QW element
where the list parsing fails, or \-1 if this cannot be determined.
.IP \fBlower\fR 12
Any Unicode lower case alphabet character.
.IP \fBprint\fR 12
Any Unicode printing character, including space.
.IP \fBpunct\fR 12
Any Unicode punctuation character.
.IP \fBspace\fR 12
................................................................................
.PP
In the case of \fBboolean\fR, \fBtrue\fR and \fBfalse\fR, if the
function will return 0, then the \fIvarname\fR will always be set to
0, due to the varied nature of a valid boolean value.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring last \fIneedleString haystackString\fR ?\fIlastIndex\fR?
.
Search \fIhaystackString\fR for a sequence of characters that exactly match
the characters in \fIneedleString\fR.  If found, return the index of the
first character in the last such match within \fIhaystackString\fR.  If there
is no match, then return \-1.  If \fIlastIndex\fR is specified (in any
of the forms accepted by the \fBindex\fR method), then only the
characters in \fIhaystackString\fR at or before the specified \fIlastIndex\fR
will be considered by the search.  For example,
................................................................................
.CS
\fBstring last a 0a23456789abcdef 9\fR
.CE
will return \fB1\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring length \fIstring\fR
.
Returns a decimal string giving the number of characters in
\fIstring\fR.  Note that this is not necessarily the same as the
number of bytes used to store the string.  If the object is a
ByteArray object (such as those returned from reading a binary encoded
channel), then this will return the actual byte length of the object.
.TP
\fBstring map\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? \fImapping string\fR
.
Replaces substrings in \fIstring\fR based on the key-value pairs in
\fImapping\fR.  \fImapping\fR is a list of \fIkey value key value ...\fR
as in the form returned by \fBarray get\fR.  Each instance of a
key in the string will be replaced with its corresponding value.  If
\fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then matching is done without regard to
case differences. Both \fIkey\fR and \fIvalue\fR may be multiple
characters.  Replacement is done in an ordered manner, so the key
................................................................................
.CS
\fBstring map {1 0 ab 2 a 3 abc 1} 1abcaababcabababc\fR
.CE
it will return the string \fB02c322c222c\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring match\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? \fIpattern\fR \fIstring\fR
.
See if \fIpattern\fR matches \fIstring\fR; return 1 if it does, 0 if
it doesn't.  If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then the pattern attempts
to match against the string in a case insensitive manner.  For the two
strings to match, their contents must be identical except that the
following special sequences may appear in \fIpattern\fR:
.RS
.IP \fB*\fR 10
................................................................................
.IP \fB?\fR 10
Matches any single character in \fIstring\fR.
.IP \fB[\fIchars\fB]\fR 10
Matches any character in the set given by \fIchars\fR.  If a sequence
of the form \fIx\fB\-\fIy\fR appears in \fIchars\fR, then any
character between \fIx\fR and \fIy\fR, inclusive, will match.  When
used with \fB\-nocase\fR, the end points of the range are converted to
lower case first.  Whereas
.QW [A\-z]
matches
.QW _
when matching case-sensitively (since
.QW _
falls between the
.QW Z
and
.QW a ),
with \fB\-nocase\fR this is considered like
.QW [A\-Za\-z]
(and probably what was meant in the first place).
.IP \fB\e\fIx\fR 10
Matches the single character \fIx\fR. This provides a way of avoiding
the special interpretation of the characters \fB*?[]\e\fR in
\fIpattern\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring range \fIstring first last\fR
.
Returns a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting
with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the
character whose index is \fIlast\fR. An index of 0 refers to the first
character of the string.  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified
as for the \fBindex\fR method.  If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero then
it is treated as if it were zero, and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or
equal to the length of the string then it is treated as if it were
\fBend\fR.  If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty
string is returned.
.TP
\fBstring repeat \fIstring count\fR
.
Returns the concatenation of \fIstring\fR repeated \fIcount\fR number
of times.
.TP
\fBstring replace \fIstring first last\fR ?\fInewstring\fR?
.
Removes a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting
with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the
character whose index is \fIlast\fR.  An index of 0 refers to the
first character of the string.  \fIFirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.  If \fInewstring\fR is
specified, then it is placed in the removed character range.  If
\fIfirst\fR is less than zero then it is treated as if it were zero,
and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the length of the string
then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR.  If \fIfirst\fR is greater
than \fIlast\fR or the length of the initial string, or \fIlast\fR is
less than 0, then the initial string is returned untouched.

.TP
\fBstring reverse \fIstring\fR
.
.VS 8.5
Returns a string that is the same length as \fIstring\fR but with its
characters in the reverse order.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fBstring tolower \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR?
.
Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that all upper (or title)
case letters have been converted to lower case.  If \fIfirst\fR is
specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start
modifying.  If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in
the string to stop at (inclusive).  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.
.TP
\fBstring totitle \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR?
.
Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that the first character
in \fIstring\fR is converted to its Unicode title case variant (or
upper case if there is no title case variant) and the rest of the
string is converted to lower case.  If \fIfirst\fR is specified, it
refers to the first char index in the string to start modifying.  If
\fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in the string to
stop at (inclusive).  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as
for the \fBindex\fR method.
.TP
\fBstring toupper \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR?
.
Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that all lower (or title)
case letters have been converted to upper case.  If \fIfirst\fR is
specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start
modifying.  If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in
the string to stop at (inclusive).  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.
.TP
\fBstring trim \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR?
.
Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any leading or
trailing characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed.  If
\fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces,
tabs, newlines, and carriage returns).
.TP
\fBstring trimleft \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR?
.
Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any leading
characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed.  If
\fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces,
tabs, newlines, and carriage returns).
.TP
\fBstring trimright \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR?
.
Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any trailing
characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed.  If
\fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces,
tabs, newlines, and carriage returns).
.TP
\fBstring wordend \fIstring charIndex\fR
.
Returns the index of the character just after the last one in the word
containing character \fIcharIndex\fR of \fIstring\fR.  \fIcharIndex\fR
may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.  A word is
considered to be any contiguous range of alphanumeric (Unicode letters
or decimal digits) or underscore (Unicode connector punctuation)
characters, or any single character other than these.
.TP
\fBstring wordstart \fIstring charIndex\fR
.
Returns the index of the first character in the word containing
character \fIcharIndex\fR of \fIstring\fR.  \fIcharIndex\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.  A word is considered to be any
contiguous range of alphanumeric (Unicode letters or decimal digits)
or underscore (Unicode connector punctuation) characters, or any
single character other than these.
.SH EXAMPLE
................................................................................
set length [\fBstring length\fR $string]
if {$length == 0} {
   set isPrefix 0
} else {
   set isPrefix [\fBstring equal\fR -length $length $string "foobar"]
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), list(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
case conversion, compare, index, match, pattern, string, word, equal,
ctype, character, reverse

.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" End:






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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
.\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
.\"
.\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
.\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
.\" 
.\" RCS: @(#) $Id: string.n,v 1.38 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
.\" 
.so man.macros
.TH string n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
.\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
string \- Manipulate strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBstring \fIoption arg \fR?\fIarg ...?\fR
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Performs one of several string operations, depending on \fIoption\fR.
The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBstring bytelength \fIstring\fR

Returns a decimal string giving the number of bytes used to represent
\fIstring\fR in memory.  Because UTF\-8 uses one to three bytes to
represent Unicode characters, the byte length will not be the same as
the character length in general.  The cases where a script cares about
the byte length are rare.  In almost all cases, you should use the
\fBstring length\fR operation (including determining the length of a
Tcl ByteArray object).  Refer to the \fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR manual
entry for more details on the UTF\-8 representation.
.TP
\fBstring compare\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB\-length int\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR

Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR
and \fIstring2\fR.  Returns \-1, 0, or 1, depending on whether
\fIstring1\fR is lexicographically less than, equal to, or greater
than \fIstring2\fR.  If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only the
first \fIlength\fR characters are used in the comparison.  If
\fB\-length\fR is negative, it is ignored.  If \fB\-nocase\fR is
specified, then the strings are compared in a case-insensitive manner.
.TP
\fBstring equal\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB-length int\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR

Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR
and \fIstring2\fR.  Returns 1 if \fIstring1\fR and \fIstring2\fR are
identical, or 0 when not.  If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only
the first \fIlength\fR characters are used in the comparison.  If
\fB\-length\fR is negative, it is ignored.  If \fB\-nocase\fR is
specified, then the strings are compared in a case-insensitive manner.
.TP
\fBstring first \fIneedleString haystackString\fR ?\fIstartIndex\fR?

Search \fIhaystackString\fR for a sequence of characters that exactly match
the characters in \fIneedleString\fR.  If found, return the index of the
first character in the first such match within \fIhaystackString\fR.  If not
found, return \-1.  If \fIstartIndex\fR is specified (in any of the
forms accepted by the \fBindex\fR method), then the search is
constrained to start with the character in \fIhaystackString\fR specified by
the index.  For example,
................................................................................
.CS
\fBstring first a 0123456789abcdef 11\fR
.CE
will return \fB\-1\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring index \fIstring charIndex\fR

Returns the \fIcharIndex\fR'th character of the \fIstring\fR argument.
A \fIcharIndex\fR of 0 corresponds to the first character of the
string.  \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as follows:
.VS 8.5
.RS
.IP \fIinteger\fR 10
For any index value that passes \fBstring is integer -strict\fR,
the char specified at this integral index
(e.g. \fB2\fR would refer to the "c" in "abcd").



.IP \fBend\fR 10
The last char of the string
(e.g. \fBend\fR would refer to the "d" in "abcd").



.IP \fBend\fR\-\fIN\fR 10
The last char of the string minus the specified integer offset \fIN\fR
(e.g. \fBend\fR\-1 would refer to the "c" in "abcd").



.IP \fBend\fR+\fIN\fR 10
The last char of the string plus the specified integer offset \fIN\fR
(e.g. \fBend\fR+\-1 would refer to the "c" in "abcd").



.IP \fIM\fR+\fIN\fR 10
The char specified at the integral index that is the sum of 
integer values \fIM\fR and \fIN\fR
(e.g. \fB1+1\fR would refer to the "c" in "abcd").



.IP \fIM\fR\-\fIN\fR 10
The char specified at the integral index that is the difference of 
integer values \fIM\fR and \fIN\fR
(e.g. \fB2\-1\fR would refer to the "b" in "abcd").



.PP
In the specifications above, the integer value \fIM\fR contains no
trailing whitespace and the integer value \fIN\fR contains no
leading whitespace.
.PP
If \fIcharIndex\fR is less than 0 or greater than or equal to the
length of the string then this command returns an empty string.
.RE
.VE
.TP
\fBstring is \fIclass\fR ?\fB\-strict\fR? ?\fB\-failindex \fIvarname\fR? \fIstring\fR

Returns 1 if \fIstring\fR is a valid member of the specified character
class, otherwise returns 0.  If \fB\-strict\fR is specified, then an
empty string returns 0, otherwise an empty string will return 1 on
any class.  If \fB\-failindex\fR is specified, then if the function
returns 0, the index in the string where the class was no longer valid
will be stored in the variable named \fIvarname\fR.  The \fIvarname\fR
will not be set if the function returns 1.  The following character
................................................................................
.IP \fBinteger\fR 12
Any of the valid string formats for a 32-bit integer value in Tcl,
with optional surrounding whitespace.  In case of under/overflow in
the value, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain \-1.
.IP \fBlist\fR 12
Any proper list structure, with optional surrounding whitespace. In
case of improper list structure, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR
will contain the index of the "element" where the list parsing fails,

or \-1 if this cannot be determined.
.IP \fBlower\fR 12
Any Unicode lower case alphabet character.
.IP \fBprint\fR 12
Any Unicode printing character, including space.
.IP \fBpunct\fR 12
Any Unicode punctuation character.
.IP \fBspace\fR 12
................................................................................
.PP
In the case of \fBboolean\fR, \fBtrue\fR and \fBfalse\fR, if the
function will return 0, then the \fIvarname\fR will always be set to
0, due to the varied nature of a valid boolean value.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring last \fIneedleString haystackString\fR ?\fIlastIndex\fR?

Search \fIhaystackString\fR for a sequence of characters that exactly match
the characters in \fIneedleString\fR.  If found, return the index of the
first character in the last such match within \fIhaystackString\fR.  If there
is no match, then return \-1.  If \fIlastIndex\fR is specified (in any
of the forms accepted by the \fBindex\fR method), then only the
characters in \fIhaystackString\fR at or before the specified \fIlastIndex\fR
will be considered by the search.  For example,
................................................................................
.CS
\fBstring last a 0a23456789abcdef 9\fR
.CE
will return \fB1\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring length \fIstring\fR

Returns a decimal string giving the number of characters in
\fIstring\fR.  Note that this is not necessarily the same as the
number of bytes used to store the string.  If the object is a
ByteArray object (such as those returned from reading a binary encoded
channel), then this will return the actual byte length of the object.
.TP
\fBstring map\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? \fImapping string\fR

Replaces substrings in \fIstring\fR based on the key-value pairs in
\fImapping\fR.  \fImapping\fR is a list of \fIkey value key value ...\fR
as in the form returned by \fBarray get\fR.  Each instance of a
key in the string will be replaced with its corresponding value.  If
\fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then matching is done without regard to
case differences. Both \fIkey\fR and \fIvalue\fR may be multiple
characters.  Replacement is done in an ordered manner, so the key
................................................................................
.CS
\fBstring map {1 0 ab 2 a 3 abc 1} 1abcaababcabababc\fR
.CE
it will return the string \fB02c322c222c\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring match\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? \fIpattern\fR \fIstring\fR

See if \fIpattern\fR matches \fIstring\fR; return 1 if it does, 0 if
it doesn't.  If \fB\-nocase\fR is specified, then the pattern attempts
to match against the string in a case insensitive manner.  For the two
strings to match, their contents must be identical except that the
following special sequences may appear in \fIpattern\fR:
.RS
.IP \fB*\fR 10
................................................................................
.IP \fB?\fR 10
Matches any single character in \fIstring\fR.
.IP \fB[\fIchars\fB]\fR 10
Matches any character in the set given by \fIchars\fR.  If a sequence
of the form \fIx\fB\-\fIy\fR appears in \fIchars\fR, then any
character between \fIx\fR and \fIy\fR, inclusive, will match.  When
used with \fB\-nocase\fR, the end points of the range are converted to
lower case first.  Whereas {[A\-z]} matches '_' when matching





case-sensitively ('_' falls between the 'Z' and 'a'), with



\fB\-nocase\fR this is considered like {[A\-Za\-z]} (and probably what

was meant in the first place).
.IP \fB\e\fIx\fR 10
Matches the single character \fIx\fR.  This provides a way of avoiding
the special interpretation of the characters \fB*?[]\e\fR in
\fIpattern\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring range \fIstring first last\fR

Returns a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting
with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the
character whose index is \fIlast\fR. An index of 0 refers to the first
character of the string.  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified
as for the \fBindex\fR method.  If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero then
it is treated as if it were zero, and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or
equal to the length of the string then it is treated as if it were
\fBend\fR.  If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty
string is returned.
.TP
\fBstring repeat \fIstring count\fR

Returns \fIstring\fR repeated \fIcount\fR number of times.

.TP
\fBstring replace \fIstring first last\fR ?\fInewstring\fR?

Removes a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting
with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the
character whose index is \fIlast\fR.  An index of 0 refers to the
first character of the string.  \fIFirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.  If \fInewstring\fR is
specified, then it is placed in the removed character range.  If
\fIfirst\fR is less than zero then it is treated as if it were zero,
and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the length of the string
then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR.  If \fIfirst\fR is greater
than \fIlast\fR or the length of the initial string, or \fIlast\fR is
less than 0, then the initial string is returned untouched.
.VS 8.5
.TP
\fBstring reverse \fIstring\fR


Returns a string that is the same length as \fIstring\fR but with its
characters in the reverse order.
.VE 8.5
.TP
\fBstring tolower \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR?

Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that all upper (or title)
case letters have been converted to lower case.  If \fIfirst\fR is
specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start
modifying.  If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in
the string to stop at (inclusive).  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.
.TP
\fBstring totitle \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR?

Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that the first character
in \fIstring\fR is converted to its Unicode title case variant (or
upper case if there is no title case variant) and the rest of the
string is converted to lower case.  If \fIfirst\fR is specified, it
refers to the first char index in the string to start modifying.  If
\fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in the string to
stop at (inclusive).  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified as
for the \fBindex\fR method.
.TP
\fBstring toupper \fIstring\fR ?\fIfirst\fR? ?\fIlast\fR?

Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that all lower (or title)
case letters have been converted to upper case.  If \fIfirst\fR is
specified, it refers to the first char index in the string to start
modifying.  If \fIlast\fR is specified, it refers to the char index in
the string to stop at (inclusive).  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.
.TP
\fBstring trim \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR?

Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any leading or
trailing characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed.  If
\fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces,
tabs, newlines, and carriage returns).
.TP
\fBstring trimleft \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR?

Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any leading
characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed.  If
\fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces,
tabs, newlines, and carriage returns).
.TP
\fBstring trimright \fIstring\fR ?\fIchars\fR?

Returns a value equal to \fIstring\fR except that any trailing
characters present in the string given by \fIchars\fR are removed.  If
\fIchars\fR is not specified then white space is removed (spaces,
tabs, newlines, and carriage returns).
.TP
\fBstring wordend \fIstring charIndex\fR

Returns the index of the character just after the last one in the word
containing character \fIcharIndex\fR of \fIstring\fR.  \fIcharIndex\fR
may be specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.  A word is
considered to be any contiguous range of alphanumeric (Unicode letters
or decimal digits) or underscore (Unicode connector punctuation)
characters, or any single character other than these.
.TP
\fBstring wordstart \fIstring charIndex\fR

Returns the index of the first character in the word containing
character \fIcharIndex\fR of \fIstring\fR.  \fIcharIndex\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.  A word is considered to be any
contiguous range of alphanumeric (Unicode letters or decimal digits)
or underscore (Unicode connector punctuation) characters, or any
single character other than these.
.SH EXAMPLE
................................................................................
set length [\fBstring length\fR $string]
if {$length == 0} {
   set isPrefix 0
} else {
   set isPrefix [\fBstring equal\fR -length $length $string "foobar"]
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), list(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
case conversion, compare, index, match, pattern, string, word, equal,
ctype, character, reverse

.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" End:

Changes to doc/subst.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: subst.n,v 1.11 2007/10/26 12:25:06 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH subst n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
subst \- Perform backslash, command, and variable substitutions
................................................................................
raised the exception.  If a continue exception occurs during the
evaluation of a command or variable substitution, an empty string
will be substituted for that entire command or variable substitution
(as long as it is well-formed Tcl.)  If a return exception occurs,
or any other return code is returned during command or variable
substitution, then the returned value is substituted for that
substitution.  See the EXAMPLES below.  In this way, all exceptional
return codes are
.QW caught
by \fBsubst\fR.  The \fBsubst\fR command
itself will either return an error, or will complete successfully.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
When it performs its substitutions, \fIsubst\fR does not give any
special treatment to double quotes or curly braces (except within
command substitutions) so the script
.CS
set a 44
\fBsubst\fR {xyz {$a}}
.CE
returns
.QW "\fBxyz {44}\fR" ,
not
.QW "\fBxyz {$a}\fR"
and the script
.CS
set a "p\e} q \e{r"
\fBsubst\fR {xyz {$a}}
.CE
return
.QW "\fBxyz {p} q {r}\fR" ,
not
.QW "\fBxyz {p\e} q \e{r}\fR" .
.PP
When command substitution is performed, it includes any variable
substitution necessary to evaluate the script.  
.CS
set a 44
\fBsubst\fR -novariables {$a [format $a]}
.CE
returns
.QW "\fB$a 44\fR" ,
not
.QW "\fB$a $a\fR" .
Similarly, when
variable substitution is performed, it includes any command
substitution necessary to retrieve the value of the variable.
.CS
proc b {} {return c}
array set a {c c [b] tricky}
\fBsubst\fR -nocommands {[b] $a([b])}
.CE
returns
.QW "\fB[b] c\fR" ,
not
.QW "\fB[b] tricky\fR".
.PP
The continue and break exceptions allow command substitutions to
prevent substitution of the rest of the command substitution and the
rest of \fIstring\fR respectively, giving script authors more options
when processing text using \fIsubst\fR.  For example, the script
.CS
\fBsubst\fR {abc,[break],def}
.CE
returns
.QW \fBabc,\fR ,
not
.QW \fBabc,,def\fR
and the script
.CS
\fBsubst\fR {abc,[continue;expr {1+2}],def}
.CE
returns
.QW \fBabc,,def\fR ,
not
.QW \fBabc,3,def\fR .
.PP
Other exceptional return codes substitute the returned value
.CS
\fBsubst\fR {abc,[return foo;expr {1+2}],def}
.CE
returns
.QW \fBabc,foo,def\fR ,
not
.QW \fBabc,3,def\fR
and
.CS
\fBsubst\fR {abc,[return -code 10 foo;expr {1+2}],def}
.CE
also returns
.QW \fBabc,foo,def\fR ,
not
.QW \fBabc,3,def\fR .

.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl(n), eval(n), break(n), continue(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
backslash substitution, command substitution, variable substitution






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'\" Copyright (c) 1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2001 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: subst.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH subst n 7.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
subst \- Perform backslash, command, and variable substitutions
................................................................................
raised the exception.  If a continue exception occurs during the
evaluation of a command or variable substitution, an empty string
will be substituted for that entire command or variable substitution
(as long as it is well-formed Tcl.)  If a return exception occurs,
or any other return code is returned during command or variable
substitution, then the returned value is substituted for that
substitution.  See the EXAMPLES below.  In this way, all exceptional


return codes are ``caught'' by \fBsubst\fR.  The \fBsubst\fR command
itself will either return an error, or will complete successfully.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
When it performs its substitutions, \fIsubst\fR does not give any
special treatment to double quotes or curly braces (except within
command substitutions) so the script
.CS
set a 44
\fBsubst\fR {xyz {$a}}
.CE

returns ``\fBxyz {44}\fR'', not ``\fBxyz {$a}\fR''


and the script
.CS
set a "p\\} q \\{r"
\fBsubst\fR {xyz {$a}}
.CE

return ``\fBxyz {p} q {r}\fR'', not ``\fBxyz {p\\} q \\{r}\fR''.


.PP
When command substitution is performed, it includes any variable
substitution necessary to evaluate the script.  
.CS
set a 44
\fBsubst\fR -novariables {$a [format $a]}
.CE




returns ``\fB$a 44\fR'', not ``\fB$a $a\fR''.  Similarly, when
variable substitution is performed, it includes any command
substitution necessary to retrieve the value of the variable.
.CS
proc b {} {return c}
array set a {c c [b] tricky}
\fBsubst\fR -nocommands {[b] $a([b])}
.CE
returns ``\fB[b] c\fR'', not ``\fB[b] tricky\fR''.



.PP
The continue and break exceptions allow command substitutions to
prevent substitution of the rest of the command substitution and the
rest of \fIstring\fR respectively, giving script authors more options
when processing text using \fIsubst\fR.  For example, the script
.CS
\fBsubst\fR {abc,[break],def}
.CE




returns ``\fBabc,\fR'', not ``\fBabc,,def\fR'' and the script
.CS
\fBsubst\fR {abc,[continue;expr {1+2}],def}
.CE

returns ``\fBabc,,def\fR'', not ``\fBabc,3,def\fR''.


.PP
Other exceptional return codes substitute the returned value
.CS
\fBsubst\fR {abc,[return foo;expr {1+2}],def}
.CE

returns ``\fBabc,foo,def\fR'', not ``\fBabc,3,def\fR'' and



.CS
\fBsubst\fR {abc,[return -code 10 foo;expr {1+2}],def}
.CE

also returns ``\fBabc,foo,def\fR'', not ``\fBabc,3,def\fR''.



.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl(n), eval(n), break(n), continue(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
backslash substitution, command substitution, variable substitution

Changes to doc/switch.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: switch.n,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH switch n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
switch \- Evaluate one of several scripts, depending on a given value
................................................................................
since the braces around the whole list make it unnecessary to include a
backslash at the end of each line.
Since the \fIpattern\fR arguments are in braces in the second form,
no command or variable substitutions are performed on them;  this makes
the behavior of the second form different than the first form in some
cases.
.PP
If a \fIbody\fR is specified as
.QW \fB\-\fR
it means that the \fIbody\fR
for the next pattern should also be used as the body for this
pattern (if the next pattern also has a body of
.QW \fB\-\fR
then the body after that is used, and so on).
This feature makes it possible to share a single \fIbody\fR among
several patterns.
.PP
Beware of how you place comments in \fBswitch\fR commands.  Comments
should only be placed \fBinside\fR the execution body of one of the
patterns, and not intermingled with the patterns.






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: switch.n,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH switch n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
switch \- Evaluate one of several scripts, depending on a given value
................................................................................
since the braces around the whole list make it unnecessary to include a
backslash at the end of each line.
Since the \fIpattern\fR arguments are in braces in the second form,
no command or variable substitutions are performed on them;  this makes
the behavior of the second form different than the first form in some
cases.
.PP
If a \fIbody\fR is specified as ``\fB\-\fR'' it means that the \fIbody\fR


for the next pattern should also be used as the body for this
pattern (if the next pattern also has a body of ``\fB\-\fR''

then the body after that is used, and so on).
This feature makes it possible to share a single \fIbody\fR among
several patterns.
.PP
Beware of how you place comments in \fBswitch\fR commands.  Comments
should only be placed \fBinside\fR the execution body of one of the
patterns, and not intermingled with the patterns.

Changes to doc/tclsh.1.

1
2
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tclsh.1,v 1.11 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH tclsh 1 "" Tcl "Tcl Applications"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tclsh \- Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter
................................................................................
read Tcl commands from the named file;  \fBtclsh\fR will exit
when it reaches the end of the file.
The end of the file may be marked either by the physical end of
the medium, or by the character, '\\032' ('\\u001a', control-Z).
If this character is present in the file, the \fBtclsh\fR application
will read text up to but not including the character.  An application
that requires this character in the file may safely encode it as
.QW \e032 ,
.QW \ex1a ,
or
.QW \eu001a ;
or may generate it by use of commands 
such as \fBformat\fR or \fBbinary\fR.
There is no automatic evaluation of \fB.tclshrc\fR when the name
of a script file is presented on the \fBtclsh\fR command
line, but the script file can always \fBsource\fR it if desired.
.PP
If you create a Tcl script in a file whose first line is
.CS
................................................................................
Contains 1 if \fBtclsh\fR is running interactively (no
\fIfileName\fR was specified and standard input is a terminal-like
device), 0 otherwise.

.SH PROMPTS
.PP
When \fBtclsh\fR is invoked interactively it normally prompts for each
command with
.QW "\fB% \fR" .
You can change the prompt by setting the
variables \fBtcl_prompt1\fR and \fBtcl_prompt2\fR.  If variable
\fBtcl_prompt1\fR exists then it must consist of a Tcl script
to output a prompt;  instead of outputting a prompt \fBtclsh\fR
will evaluate the script in \fBtcl_prompt1\fR.
The variable \fBtcl_prompt2\fR is used in a similar way when
a newline is typed but the current command isn't yet complete;
if \fBtcl_prompt2\fR isn't set then no prompt is output for






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44
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tclsh.1,v 1.12 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH tclsh 1 "" Tcl "Tcl Applications"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tclsh \- Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter
................................................................................
read Tcl commands from the named file;  \fBtclsh\fR will exit
when it reaches the end of the file.
The end of the file may be marked either by the physical end of
the medium, or by the character, '\\032' ('\\u001a', control-Z).
If this character is present in the file, the \fBtclsh\fR application
will read text up to but not including the character.  An application
that requires this character in the file may safely encode it as




``\\032'', ``\\x1a'', or ``\\u001a''; or may generate it by use of commands 
such as \fBformat\fR or \fBbinary\fR.
There is no automatic evaluation of \fB.tclshrc\fR when the name
of a script file is presented on the \fBtclsh\fR command
line, but the script file can always \fBsource\fR it if desired.
.PP
If you create a Tcl script in a file whose first line is
.CS
................................................................................
Contains 1 if \fBtclsh\fR is running interactively (no
\fIfileName\fR was specified and standard input is a terminal-like
device), 0 otherwise.

.SH PROMPTS
.PP
When \fBtclsh\fR is invoked interactively it normally prompts for each


command with ``\fB% \fR''.  You can change the prompt by setting the
variables \fBtcl_prompt1\fR and \fBtcl_prompt2\fR.  If variable
\fBtcl_prompt1\fR exists then it must consist of a Tcl script
to output a prompt;  instead of outputting a prompt \fBtclsh\fR
will evaluate the script in \fBtcl_prompt1\fR.
The variable \fBtcl_prompt2\fR is used in a similar way when
a newline is typed but the current command isn't yet complete;
if \fBtcl_prompt2\fR isn't set then no prompt is output for

Changes to doc/tcltest.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2002. (not subject to US copyright)
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tcltest.n,v 1.50 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH "tcltest" n 2.3 tcltest "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tcltest \- Test harness support code and utilities
................................................................................
tcltest package.
.PP
All the commands provided by the \fBtcltest\fR package are defined
in and exported from the \fB::tcltest\fR namespace, as indicated in
the \fBSYNOPSIS\fR above.  In the following sections, all commands
will be described by their simple names, in the interest of brevity.
.PP
The central command of \fBtcltest\fR is \fBtest\fR that defines
and runs a test.  Testing with \fBtest\fR involves evaluation
of a Tcl script and comparing the result to an expected result, as
configured and controlled by a number of options.  Several other
commands provided by \fBtcltest\fR govern the configuration of
\fBtest\fR and the collection of many \fBtest\fR commands into
test suites.
.PP
See \fBCREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST\fR below for an extended example
of how to use the commands of \fBtcltest\fR to produce test suites
for your Tcl-enabled code.
.SH COMMANDS
.TP
\fBtest\fR \fIname description ?option value ...?\fR
Defines and possibly runs a test with the name \fIname\fR and
description \fIdescription\fR.  The name and description of a test
are used in messages reported by \fBtest\fR during the
test, as configured by the options of \fBtcltest\fR.  The
remaining \fIoption value\fR arguments to \fBtest\fR
define the test, including the scripts to run, the conditions
under which to run them, the expected result, and the means
by which the expected and actual results should be compared.
See \fBTESTS\fR below for a complete description of the valid
options and how they define a test.  The \fBtest\fR command
returns an empty string.  
.TP
\fBtest\fR \fIname description ?constraints? body result\fR
.
This form of \fBtest\fR is provided to support test suites written
for version 1 of the \fBtcltest\fR package, and also a simpler
interface for a common usage.  It is the same as
.QW "\fBtest\fR \fIname description\fB \-constraints \fIconstraints\fB \-body \fIbody\fB \-result \fIresult\fR" .
All other options to \fBtest\fR
take their default values.  When \fIconstraints\fR is omitted, this
form of \fBtest\fR can be distinguished from the first because
all \fIoption\fRs begin with
.QW \- .
.TP
\fBloadTestedCommands\fR
Evaluates in the caller's context the script specified by 
\fBconfigure \-load\fR or \fBconfigure \-loadfile\fR.
Returns the result of that script evaluation, including any error
raised by the script.  Use this command and the related
configuration options to provide the commands to be tested to
the interpreter running the test suite.
.TP
\fBmakeFile\fR \fIcontents name ?directory?\fR
Creates a file named \fIname\fR relative to
directory \fIdirectory\fR and write \fIcontents\fR
to that file using the encoding \fBencoding system\fR.
If \fIcontents\fR does not end with a newline, a newline
will be appended so that the file named \fIname\fR
does end with a newline.  Because the system encoding is used,
this command is only suitable for making text files.
The file will be removed by the next evaluation
of \fBcleanupTests\fR, unless it is removed by
\fBremoveFile\fR first.  The default value of
\fIdirectory\fR is the directory \fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR.
Returns the full path of the file created.  Use this command
to create any text file required by a test with contents as needed.
.TP
\fBremoveFile\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR
Forces the file referenced by \fIname\fR to be removed.  This file name
should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR.   The default value of
\fIdirectory\fR is the directory \fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR.
Returns an empty string.  Use this command to delete files
created by \fBmakeFile\fR.
.TP
\fBmakeDirectory\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR
Creates a directory named \fIname\fR relative to directory \fIdirectory\fR.
The directory will be removed by the next evaluation of \fBcleanupTests\fR,
unless it is removed by \fBremoveDirectory\fR first.
The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory
\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR.
Returns the full path of the directory created.  Use this command
to create any directories that are required to exist by a test.
.TP
\fBremoveDirectory\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR
Forces the directory referenced by \fIname\fR to be removed. This
directory should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR.
The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory
\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR.
Returns an empty string.  Use this command to delete any directories
created by \fBmakeDirectory\fR.
.TP
\fBviewFile\fR \fIfile ?directory?\fR
Returns the contents of \fIfile\fR, except for any
final newline, just as \fBread -nonewline\fR would return.
This file name should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR.   
The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory
\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR.  Use this command
as a convenient way to turn the contents of a file generated
by a test into the result of that test for matching against
an expected result.  The contents of the file are read using
the system encoding, so its usefulness is limited to text
files.
.TP
\fBcleanupTests\fR
Intended to clean up and summarize after several tests have been
run.  Typically called once per test file, at the end of the file
after all tests have been completed.  For best effectiveness, be
sure that the \fBcleanupTests\fR is evaluated even if an error
occurs earlier in the test file evaluation.  
.sp
Prints statistics about the tests run and removes files that were
created by \fBmakeDirectory\fR and \fBmakeFile\fR since the
last \fBcleanupTests\fR.  Names of files and directories 
in the directory \fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR created since
the last \fBcleanupTests\fR, but not created by
\fBmakeFile\fR or \fBmakeDirectory\fR are printed
to \fBoutputChannel\fR.  This command also restores the original
shell environment, as described by the ::env
array. Returns an empty string.
.TP
\fBrunAllTests\fR
This is a master command meant to run an entire suite of tests,
spanning multiple files and/or directories, as governed by
the configurable options of \fBtcltest\fR.  See \fBRUNNING ALL TESTS\fR
below for a complete description of the many variations possible
with \fBrunAllTests\fR.
.SH "CONFIGURATION COMMANDS"
.TP
\fBconfigure\fR
Returns the list of configurable options supported by \fBtcltest\fR.
See \fBCONFIGURABLE OPTIONS\fR below for the full list of options,
their valid values, and their effect on \fBtcltest\fR operations.
.TP
................................................................................
.TP
\fBconfigure \fIoption value ?option value ...?\fR
Sets the value of each configurable option \fIoption\fR to the
corresponding value \fIvalue\fR, in order.  Raises an error if
an \fIoption\fR is not a supported configurable option, or if
\fIvalue\fR is not a valid value for the corresponding \fIoption\fR,
or if a \fIvalue\fR is not provided.  When an error is raised, the
operation of \fBconfigure\fR is halted, and subsequent \fIoption value\fR
arguments are not processed.
.sp
If the environment variable \fB::env(TCLTEST_OPTIONS)\fR exists when
the \fBtcltest\fR package is loaded (by
.QW "\fBpackage require tcltest\fR" )
then its value is taken as a list of arguments to pass to \fBconfigure\fR.
This allows the default values of the configuration options to be
set by the environment.
.TP
\fBcustomMatch \fImode script\fR
Registers \fImode\fR as a new legal value of the \fB\-match\fR option
to \fBtest\fR.  When the \fB\-match \fImode\fR option is
passed to \fBtest\fR, the script \fIscript\fR will be evaluated
to compare the actual result of evaluating the body of the test
to the expected result.
To perform the match, the \fIscript\fR is completed with two additional
words, the expected result, and the actual result, and the completed script
is evaluated in the global namespace.
The completed script is expected to return a boolean value indicating
whether or not the results match.  The built-in matching modes of
\fBtest\fR are \fBexact\fR, \fBglob\fR, and \fBregexp\fR.
.TP
\fBtestConstraint \fIconstraint ?boolean?\fR
Sets or returns the boolean value associated with the named \fIconstraint\fR.
See \fBTEST CONSTRAINTS\fR below for more information.
.TP
\fBinterpreter\fR \fI?executableName?\fR
Sets or returns the name of the executable to be \fBexec\fRed by
\fBrunAllTests\fR to run each test file when
\fBconfigure -singleproc\fR is false.
The default value for \fBinterpreter\fR is the name of the
currently running program as returned by \fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR.
.TP
\fBoutputChannel\fR \fI?channelID?\fR
Sets or returns the output channel ID.  This defaults to stdout.
Any test that prints test related output should send
that output to \fBoutputChannel\fR rather than letting
that output default to stdout.
.TP
\fBerrorChannel\fR \fI?channelID?\fR
Sets or returns the error channel ID.  This defaults to stderr.
Any test that prints error messages should send
that output to \fBerrorChannel\fR rather than printing
directly to stderr.
.SH "SHORTCUT COMMANDS"
.TP
\fBdebug \fI?level?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -debug \fI?level?\fR.
.TP
\fBerrorFile \fI?filename?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -errfile \fI?filename?\fR.
.TP
\fBlimitConstraints \fI?boolean?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -limitconstraints \fI?boolean?\fR.
.TP
\fBloadFile \fI?filename?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -loadfile \fI?filename?\fR.
.TP
\fBloadScript \fI?script?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -load \fI?script?\fR.
.TP
\fBmatch \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -match \fI?patternList?\fR.
.TP
\fBmatchDirectories \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -relateddir \fI?patternList?\fR.
.TP
\fBmatchFiles \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -file \fI?patternList?\fR.
.TP
\fBoutputFile \fI?filename?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -outfile \fI?filename?\fR.
.TP
\fBpreserveCore \fI?level?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -preservecore \fI?level?\fR.
.TP
\fBsingleProcess \fI?boolean?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -singleproc \fI?boolean?\fR.
.TP
\fBskip \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -skip \fI?patternList?\fR.
.TP
\fBskipDirectories \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -asidefromdir \fI?patternList?\fR.
.TP
\fBskipFiles \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -notfile \fI?patternList?\fR.
.TP
\fBtemporaryDirectory \fI?directory?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -tmpdir \fI?directory?\fR.
.TP
\fBtestsDirectory \fI?directory?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -testdir \fI?directory?\fR.
.TP
\fBverbose \fI?level?\fR
Same as \fBconfigure -verbose \fI?level?\fR.
.SH "OTHER COMMANDS"
.PP
The remaining commands provided by \fBtcltest\fR have better
alternatives provided by \fBtcltest\fR or \fBTcl\fR itself.  They
are retained to support existing test suites, but should be avoided
in new code.
.TP
\fBtest\fR \fIname description optionList\fR
This form of \fBtest\fR was provided to enable passing many
options spanning several lines to \fBtest\fR as a single
argument quoted by braces, rather than needing to backslash quote
the newlines between arguments to \fBtest\fR.  The \fIoptionList\fR
argument is expected to be a list with an even number of elements
representing \fIoption\fR and \fIvalue\fR arguments to pass
to \fBtest\fR.  However, these values are not passed directly, as
in the alternate forms of \fBswitch\fR.  Instead, this form makes
an unfortunate attempt to overthrow Tcl's substitution rules by
performing substitutions on some of the list elements as an attempt to
implement a
.QW "do what I mean"
interpretation of a brace-enclosed
.QW block .
The result is nearly impossible to document clearly, and
for that reason this form is not recommended.  See the examples in
\fBCREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST\fR below to see that this
form is really not necessary to avoid backslash-quoted newlines.
If you insist on using this form, examine
the source code of \fBtcltest\fR if you want to know the substitution
details, or just enclose the third through last argument
to \fBtest\fR in braces and hope for the best.
.TP
\fBworkingDirectory\fR \fI?directoryName?\fR
Sets or returns the current working directory when the test suite is
running.  The default value for workingDirectory is the directory in
which the test suite was launched.  The Tcl commands \fBcd\fR and
\fBpwd\fR are sufficient replacements.
.TP
\fBnormalizeMsg\fR \fImsg\fR
Returns the result of removing the
.QW extra
newlines from \fImsg\fR, where
.QW extra
is rather imprecise.  Tcl offers plenty of string
processing commands to modify strings as you wish, and
\fBcustomMatch\fR allows flexible matching of actual and expected
results.
.TP
\fBnormalizePath\fR \fIpathVar\fR
Resolves symlinks in a path, thus creating a path without internal
redirection.  It is assumed that \fIpathVar\fR is absolute.
\fIpathVar\fR is modified in place.  The Tcl command \fBfile normalize\fR
is a sufficient replacement.
.TP
\fBbytestring\fR \fIstring\fR
Construct a string that consists of the requested sequence of bytes,
as opposed to a string of properly formed UTF-8 characters using the
value supplied in \fIstring\fR.  This allows the tester to create
denormalized or improperly formed strings to pass to C procedures that
are supposed to accept strings with embedded NULL types and confirm
that a string result has a certain pattern of bytes.  This is
exactly equivalent to the Tcl command \fBencoding convertfrom identity\fR.
.SH TESTS
.PP
The \fBtest\fR command is the heart of the \fBtcltest\fR package.
Its essential function is to evaluate a Tcl script and compare
the result with an expected result.  The options of \fBtest\fR
define the test script, the environment in which to evaluate it,
the expected result, and how the compare the actual result to
the expected result.  Some configuration options of \fBtcltest\fR
also influence how \fBtest\fR operates.
.PP
The valid options for \fBtest\fR are summarized:
.PP
.CS
\fBtest\fR \fIname\fR \fIdescription\fR
        ?-constraints \fIkeywordList|expression\fR?
        ?-setup \fIsetupScript\fR?
        ?-body \fItestScript\fR?
        ?-cleanup \fIcleanupScript\fR?
................................................................................
        ?-match \fImode\fR?
.CE
.PP
The \fIname\fR may be any string.  It is conventional to choose
a \fIname\fR according to the pattern:
.PP
.CS
\fItarget\fR\-\fImajorNum\fR.\fIminorNum\fR
.CE
.PP
For white-box (regression) tests, the target should be the name of the
C function or Tcl procedure being tested.  For black-box tests, the
target should be the name of the feature being tested.  Some conventions
call for the names of black-box tests to have the suffix \fB_bb\fR.
Related tests should share a major number.  As a test suite evolves,
it is best to have the same test name continue to correspond to the
same test, so that it remains meaningful to say things like
.QW "Test foo-1.3 passed in all releases up to 3.4, but began failing in release 3.5."

.PP
During evaluation of \fBtest\fR, the \fIname\fR will be compared
to the lists of string matching patterns returned by
\fBconfigure -match\fR, and \fBconfigure -skip\fR.  The test

will be run only if \fIname\fR matches any of the patterns from
\fBconfigure -match\fR and matches none of the patterns
from \fBconfigure -skip\fR.
.PP
The \fIdescription\fR should be a short textual description of the
test.  The \fIdescription\fR is included in output produced by the
test, typically test failure messages.  Good \fIdescription\fR values
should briefly explain the purpose of the test to users of a test suite.
The name of a Tcl or C function being tested should be included in the
description for regression tests.  If the test case exists to reproduce
a bug, include the bug ID in the description. 
.PP
Valid attributes and associated values are:
.TP
\fB\-constraints \fIkeywordList|expression\fR
The optional \fB\-constraints\fR attribute can be list of one or more
keywords or an expression.  If the \fB\-constraints\fR value is a list of
keywords, each of these keywords should be the name of a constraint
defined by a call to \fBtestConstraint\fR.  If any of the listed
constraints is false or does not exist, the test is skipped.  If the
\fB\-constraints\fR value is an expression, that expression
is evaluated. If the expression evaluates to true, then the test is run.
Note that the expression form of \fB\-constraints\fR may interfere with the
operation of \fBconfigure -constraints\fR and
\fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR, and is not recommended.
Appropriate constraints should be added to any tests that should
not always be run.  That is, conditional evaluation of a test
should be accomplished by the \fB\-constraints\fR option, not by
conditional evaluation of \fBtest\fR.  In that way, the same
number of tests are always reported by the test suite, though
the number skipped may change based on the testing environment.
The default value is an empty list.  
See \fBTEST CONSTRAINTS\fR below for a list of built-in constraints 
and information on how to add your own constraints.
.TP
\fB\-setup \fIscript\fR
The optional \fB\-setup\fR attribute indicates a \fIscript\fR that will be run
before the script indicated by the \fB\-body\fR attribute.  If evaluation
of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail.  The default value
is an empty script.
.TP
\fB\-body \fIscript\fR
The \fB\-body\fR attribute indicates the \fIscript\fR to run to carry out the 
test.  It must return a result that can be checked for correctness.
If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail.
The default value is an empty script.
.TP
\fB\-cleanup \fIscript\fR
The optional \fB\-cleanup\fR attribute indicates a \fIscript\fR that will be
run after the script indicated by the \fB\-body\fR attribute.
If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail.
The default value is an empty script.
.TP
\fB\-match \fImode\fR
The \fB\-match\fR attribute determines how expected answers supplied by
\fB\-result\fR, \fB\-output\fR, and \fB\-errorOutput\fR are compared.  Valid
values for \fImode\fR are \fBregexp\fR, \fBglob\fR, \fBexact\fR, and
any value registered by a prior call to \fBcustomMatch\fR.  The default
value is \fBexact\fR.
.TP
\fB\-result \fIexpectedValue\fR
The \fB\-result\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which
the return value from script will be compared. The default value is
an empty string.
.TP
\fB\-output \fIexpectedValue\fR
The \fB\-output\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which
any output sent to \fBstdout\fR or \fBoutputChannel\fR during evaluation
of the script(s) will be compared.  Note that only output printed using
\fB::puts\fR is used for comparison.  If \fB\-output\fR is not specified,
output sent to \fBstdout\fR and \fBoutputChannel\fR is not processed for
comparison.
.TP
\fB\-errorOutput \fIexpectedValue\fR
The \fB\-errorOutput\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against
which any output sent to \fBstderr\fR or \fBerrorChannel\fR during 
evaluation of the script(s) will be compared. Note that only output
printed using \fB::puts\fR is used for comparison.  If \fB\-errorOutput\fR
is not specified, output sent to \fBstderr\fR and \fBerrorChannel\fR is
not processed for comparison.
.TP
\fB\-returnCodes \fIexpectedCodeList\fR
The optional \fB\-returnCodes\fR attribute supplies \fIexpectedCodeList\fR,
a list of return codes that may be accepted from evaluation of the
\fB\-body\fR script.  If evaluation of the \fB\-body\fR script returns
a code not in the \fIexpectedCodeList\fR, the test fails.  All
return codes known to \fBreturn\fR, in both numeric and symbolic
form, including extended return codes, are acceptable elements in
the \fIexpectedCodeList\fR.  Default value is \fB{ok return}\fR.
.PP
To pass, a test must successfully evaluate its \fB\-setup\fR, \fB\-body\fR,
and \fB\-cleanup\fR scripts.  The return code of the \fB\-body\fR script and
its result must match expected values, and if specified, output and error
data from the test must match expected \fB\-output\fR and \fB\-errorOutput\fR
values.  If any of these conditions are not met, then the test fails.
Note that all scripts are evaluated in the context of the caller
of \fBtest\fR.
.PP
As long as \fBtest\fR is called with valid syntax and legal
values for all attributes, it will not raise an error.  Test
failures are instead reported as output written to \fBoutputChannel\fR.
In default operation, a successful test produces no output.  The output
messages produced by \fBtest\fR are controlled by the
\fBconfigure \-verbose\fR option as described in \fBCONFIGURABLE OPTIONS\fR
below.  Any output produced by the test scripts themselves should be
produced using \fB::puts\fR to \fBoutputChannel\fR or
\fBerrorChannel\fR, so that users of the test suite may
easily capture output with the \fBconfigure \-outfile\fR and
\fBconfigure \-errfile\fR options, and so that the \fB\-output\fR
and \fB\-errorOutput\fR attributes work properly.
.SH "TEST CONSTRAINTS"
.PP
Constraints are used to determine whether or not a test should be skipped.
Each constraint has a name, which may be any string, and a boolean
value.  Each \fBtest\fR has a \fB\-constraints\fR value which is a
list of constraint names.  There are two modes of constraint control.
Most frequently, the default mode is used, indicated by a setting
of \fBconfigure \-limitconstraints\fR to false.  The test will run
only if all constraints in the list are true-valued.  Thus,
the \fB\-constraints\fR option of \fBtest\fR is a convenient, symbolic
way to define any conditions required for the test to be possible or
meaningful.  For example, a \fBtest\fR with \fB\-constraints unix\fR
will only be run if the constraint \fBunix\fR is true, which indicates
the test suite is being run on a Unix platform.
.PP
Each \fBtest\fR should include whatever \fB\-constraints\fR are
required to constrain it to run only where appropriate.  Several
constraints are pre-defined in the \fBtcltest\fR package, listed
below.  The registration of user-defined constraints is performed
by the \fBtestConstraint\fR command.  User-defined constraints
may appear within a test file, or within the script specified
by the \fBconfigure \-load\fR or \fBconfigure \-loadfile\fR
options.
.PP
The following is a list of constraints pre-defined by the
\fBtcltest\fR package itself:
.TP
\fIsingleTestInterp\fR
test can only be run if all test files are sourced into a single interpreter
................................................................................
\fIroot\fR
test can only run if Unix user is root
.TP
\fInotRoot\fR
test can only run if Unix user is not root
.TP
\fIeformat\fR
test can only run if app has a working version of sprintf with respect to the
.QW "e"
format of floating-point numbers.
.TP
\fIstdio\fR
test can only be run if \fBinterpreter\fR can be \fBopen\fRed
as a pipe.
.PP
The alternative mode of constraint control is enabled by setting
\fBconfigure \-limitconstraints\fR to true.  With that configuration
setting, all existing constraints other than those in the constraint
list returned by \fBconfigure \-constraints\fR are set to false.
When the value of \fBconfigure \-constraints\fR
is set, all those constraints are set to true.  The effect is that
when both options \fBconfigure \-constraints\fR and
\fBconfigure \-limitconstraints\fR are in use, only those tests including
only constraints from the \fBconfigure \-constraints\fR list
are run; all others are skipped.  For example, one might set
up a configuration with
.PP
.CS
\fBconfigure\fR -constraints knownBug \e
          -limitconstraints true \e
          -verbose pass
.CE
.PP
to run exactly those tests that exercise known bugs, and discover
whether any of them pass, indicating the bug had been fixed.  
.SH "RUNNING ALL TESTS"
.PP
The single command \fBrunAllTests\fR is evaluated to run an entire
test suite, spanning many files and directories.  The configuration
options of \fBtcltest\fR control the precise operations.  The
\fBrunAllTests\fR command begins by printing a summary of its
configuration to \fBoutputChannel\fR.
.PP
Test files to be evaluated are sought in the directory
\fBconfigure \-testdir\fR.  The list of files in that directory
that match any of the patterns in \fBconfigure \-file\fR and
match none of the patterns in \fBconfigure \-notfile\fR is generated
and sorted.  Then each file will be evaluated in turn.  If
\fBconfigure \-singleproc\fR is true, then each file will
be \fBsource\fRd in the caller's context.  If it is false,
then a copy of \fBinterpreter\fR will be \fBexec\fRd to
evaluate each file.  The multi-process operation is useful
when testing can cause errors so severe that a process 
terminates.  Although such an error may terminate a child
process evaluating one file, the master process can continue
with the rest of the test suite.  In multi-process operation,
the configuration of \fBtcltest\fR in the master process is
passed to the child processes as command line arguments,
with the exception of \fBconfigure \-outfile\fR.  The
\fBrunAllTests\fR command in the
master process collects all output from the child processes
and collates their results into one master report.  Any
reports of individual test failures, or messages requested
by a \fBconfigure \-verbose\fR setting are passed directly
on to \fBoutputChannel\fR by the master process.
.PP
After evaluating all selected test files, a summary of the
results is printed to \fBoutputChannel\fR.  The summary
includes the total number of \fBtest\fRs evaluated, broken
down into those skipped, those passed, and those failed.
The summary also notes the number of files evaluated, and the names
of any files with failing tests or errors.  A list of
the constraints that caused tests to be skipped, and the
number of tests skipped for each is also printed.  Also,
messages are printed if it appears that evaluation of
a test file has caused any temporary files to be left
behind in \fBconfigure \-tmpdir\fR.
.PP
Having completed and summarized all selected test files,
\fBrunAllTests\fR then recursively acts on subdirectories
of \fBconfigure \-testdir\fR.  All subdirectories that
match any of the patterns in \fBconfigure \-relateddir\fR
and do not match any of the patterns in
\fBconfigure \-asidefromdir\fR are examined.  If
a file named \fBall.tcl\fR is found in such a directory,
it will be \fBsource\fRd in the caller's context.
Whether or not an examined directory contains an
\fBall.tcl\fR file, its subdirectories are also scanned
against the \fBconfigure \-relateddir\fR and
\fBconfigure \-asidefromdir\fR patterns.  In this way,
many directories in a directory tree can have all their
test files evaluated by a single \fBrunAllTests\fR
command.
.SH "CONFIGURABLE OPTIONS"
The \fBconfigure\fR command is used to set and query the configurable
options of \fBtcltest\fR.  The valid options are:
.TP
\fB\-singleproc \fIboolean\fR
Controls whether or not \fBrunAllTests\fR spawns a child process for
each test file.  No spawning when \fIboolean\fR is true.  Default
value is false.
.TP
\fB\-debug \fIlevel\fR
Sets the debug level to \fIlevel\fR, an integer value indicating how
much debugging information should be printed to stdout.  Note that
debug messages always go to stdout, independent of the value of
\fBconfigure \-outfile\fR.  Default value is 0.  Levels are defined as:
.RS
.IP 0
Do not display any debug information.
.IP 1
Display information regarding whether a test is skipped because it
doesn't match any of the tests that were specified using by
\fBconfigure \-match\fR (userSpecifiedNonMatch) or matches any of
the tests specified by \fBconfigure \-skip\fR (userSpecifiedSkip).  Also
print warnings about possible lack of cleanup or balance in test files.
Also print warnings about any re-use of test names.
.IP 2
Display the flag array parsed by the command line processor, the
contents of the ::env array, and all user-defined variables that exist
in the current namespace as they are used.
.IP 3
Display information regarding what individual procs in the test
harness are doing.
.RE
.TP
\fB\-verbose \fIlevel\fR
Sets the type of output verbosity desired to \fIlevel\fR,
a list of zero or more of the elements \fBbody\fR, \fBpass\fR,
\fBskip\fR, \fBstart\fR, \fBerror\fR and \fBline\fR.  Default value
is \fB{body error}\fR.
Levels are defined as: 
.RS
.IP "body (b)"
................................................................................
.IP "error (e)"
Print errorInfo and errorCode, if they exist, when a test return code
does not match its expected return code
.IP "line (l)"
Print source file line information of failed tests
.RE
The single letter abbreviations noted above are also recognized
so that
.QW "\fBconfigure \-verbose pt\fR"
is the same as
.QW "\fBconfigure \-verbose {pass start}\fR" .
.TP
\fB\-preservecore \fIlevel\fR
Sets the core preservation level to \fIlevel\fR.  This level
determines how stringent checks for core files are.  Default
value is 0.  Levels are defined as:
.RS
.IP 0
No checking \(em do not check for core files at the end of each test
command, but do check for them in \fBrunAllTests\fR after all
test files have been evaluated.
.IP 1
Also check for core files at the end of each \fBtest\fR command.
.IP 2
Check for core files at all times described above, and save a 
copy of each core file produced in \fBconfigure \-tmpdir\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fB\-limitconstraints \fIboolean\fR
Sets the mode by which \fBtest\fR honors constraints as described
in \fBTESTS\fR above.  Default value is false.
.TP
\fB\-constraints \fIlist\fR
Sets all the constraints in \fIlist\fR to true.  Also used in
combination with
.QW "\fBconfigure \-limitconstraints true\fR"
to control an
alternative constraint mode as described in \fBTESTS\fR above.
Default value is an empty list.
.TP
\fB\-tmpdir \fIdirectory\fR
Sets the temporary directory to be used by \fBmakeFile\fR,
\fBmakeDirectory\fR, \fBviewFile\fR, \fBremoveFile\fR, 
and \fBremoveDirectory\fR as the default directory where
temporary files and directories created by test files should
be created.  Default value is \fBworkingDirectory\fR.
.TP
\fB\-testdir \fIdirectory\fR
Sets the directory searched by \fBrunAllTests\fR for test files
and subdirectories.  Default value is \fBworkingDirectory\fR.
.TP
\fB\-file \fIpatternList\fR
Sets the list of patterns used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to determine
what test files to evaluate.  Default value is \fB*.test\fR.
.TP
\fB\-notfile \fIpatternList\fR
Sets the list of patterns used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to determine
what test files to skip.  Default value is
.QW \fBl.*.test\fR ,
so that any SCCS lock files are skipped.
.TP
\fB\-relateddir \fIpatternList\fR
Sets the list of patterns used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to determine
what subdirectories to search for an \fBall.tcl\fR file.  Default
value is
.QW \fB*\fR .
.TP
\fB\-asidefromdir \fIpatternList\fR
Sets the list of patterns used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to determine
what subdirectories to skip when searching for an \fBall.tcl\fR file.
Default value is an empty list.
.TP
\fB\-match \fIpatternList\fR
Set the list of patterns used by \fBtest\fR to determine whether
a test should be run.  Default value is
.QW \fB*\fR .
.TP
\fB\-skip \fIpatternList\fR
Set the list of patterns used by \fBtest\fR to determine whether
a test should be skipped.  Default value is an empty list.
.TP
\fB\-load \fIscript\fR
Sets a script to be evaluated by \fBloadTestedCommands\fR.
Default value is an empty script.
.TP
\fB\-loadfile \fIfilename\fR
Sets the filename from which to read a script to be evaluated
by \fBloadTestedCommands\fR.  This is an alternative to
\fB\-load\fR.  They cannot be used together.
.TP
\fB\-outfile \fIfilename\fR 
Sets the file to which all output produced by tcltest should be
written.  A file named \fIfilename\fR will be \fBopen\fRed for writing,
and the resulting channel will be set as the value of \fBoutputChannel\fR.
.TP
\fB\-errfile \fIfilename\fR
Sets the file to which all error output produced by tcltest
should be written.  A file named \fIfilename\fR will be \fBopen\fRed
for writing, and the resulting channel will be set as the value
of \fBerrorChannel\fR.
.SH "CREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST"
.PP
The fundamental element of a test suite is the individual \fBtest\fR
command.  We begin with several examples.
.IP [1]
Test of a script that returns normally.
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBtest\fR example-1.0 {normal return} {
................................................................................
    file attributes $file -owner
} -cleanup {
    removeFile test
} -result $::tcl_platform(user)
.CE
.RE
.PP
At the next higher layer of organization, several \fBtest\fR commands
are gathered together into a single test file.  Test files should have
names with the \fB.test\fR extension, because that is the default pattern
used by \fBrunAllTests\fR to find test files.  It is a good rule of
thumb to have one test file for each source code file of your project.
It is good practice to edit the test file and the source code file
together, keeping tests synchronized with code changes.
.PP 
Most of the code in the test file should be the \fBtest\fR commands.
Use constraints to skip tests, rather than conditional evaluation
of \fBtest\fR.
.IP [5]
Recommended system for writing conditional tests, using constraints to
guard:
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBtestConstraint\fR X [expr $myRequirement]
................................................................................
    test badConditionalTest {} {
        #body
    } result
}
.CE
.RE
.PP
Use the \fB\-setup\fR and \fB\-cleanup\fR options to establish and release
all context requirements of the test body.  Do not make tests depend on
prior tests in the file.  Those prior tests might be skipped.  If several
consecutive tests require the same context, the appropriate setup
and cleanup scripts may be stored in variable for passing to each tests
\fB\-setup\fR and \fB\-cleanup\fR options.  This is a better solution than
performing setup outside of \fBtest\fR commands, because the setup will
only be done if necessary, and any errors during setup will be reported,
and not cause the test file to abort.
.PP
A test file should be able to be combined with other test files and not
interfere with them, even when
.QW "\fBconfigure -singleproc 1\fR"
causes all files to be evaluated in a common interpreter.  A simple way to
achieve this is to have your tests define all their commands and variables
in a namespace that is deleted when the test file evaluation is complete.
A good namespace to use is a child namespace \fBtest\fR of the namespace
of the module you are testing.
.PP
A test file should also be able to be evaluated directly as a script,
not depending on being called by a master \fBrunAllTests\fR.  This
means that each test file should process command line arguments to give
the tester all the configuration control that \fBtcltest\fR provides.
.PP
After all \fBtest\fRs in a test file, the command \fBcleanupTests\fR
should be called.
.IP [7]
Here is a sketch of a sample test file illustrating those points:
.RS
.PP
.CS
package require tcltest 2.2
................................................................................
}
namespace delete ::example::test
.CE
.RE
.PP
The next level of organization is a full test suite, made up of several
test files.  One script is used to control the entire suite.  The
basic function of this script is to call \fBrunAllTests\fR after
doing any necessary setup.  This script is usually named \fBall.tcl\fR
because that's the default name used by \fBrunAllTests\fR when combining
multiple test suites into one testing run.
.IP [8]
Here is a sketch of a sample test suite master script:
.RS
.PP
.CS
package require Tcl 8.4
package require tcltest 2.2
package require example
\fB::tcltest::configure\fR -testdir \e
        [file dirname [file normalize [info script]]]
eval \fB::tcltest::configure\fR $argv
\fB::tcltest::runAllTests\fR
.CE
.RE
.SH COMPATIBILITY
.PP
................................................................................
A number of commands and variables in the \fB::tcltest\fR namespace
provided by earlier releases of \fBtcltest\fR have not been documented
here.  They are no longer part of the supported public interface of
\fBtcltest\fR and should not be used in new test suites.  However,
to continue to support existing test suites written to the older
interface specifications, many of those deprecated commands and
variables still work as before.  For example, in many circumstances,
\fBconfigure\fR will be automatically called shortly after
.QW "\fBpackage require tcltest 2.1\fR"
succeeds with arguments
from the variable \fB::argv\fR.  This is to support test suites
that depend on the old behavior that \fBtcltest\fR was automatically
configured from command line arguments.  New test files should not
depend on this, but should explicitly include
.PP
.CS
eval \fB::tcltest::configure\fR $::argv
.CE
.PP
to establish a configuration from command line arguments.
.SH "KNOWN ISSUES"
There are two known issues related to nested evaluations of \fBtest\fR.
The first issue relates to the stack level in which test scripts are
executed.  Tests nested within other tests may be executed at the same
stack level as the outermost test.  For example, in the following code: 
.PP
.CS
\fBtest\fR level-1.1 {level 1} {
    -body {
................................................................................
    }
}
.CE
.PP
any script executed in level-2.1 may be executed at the same stack
level as the script defined for level-1.1.  
.PP
In addition, while two \fBtest\fRs have been run, results will only
be reported by \fBcleanupTests\fR for tests at the same level as
test level-1.1.  However, test results for all tests run prior to
level-1.1 will be available when test level-2.1 runs.  What this
means is that if you try to access the test results for test level-2.1,
it will may say that
.QW m
tests have run,
.QW n
tests have been skipped,
.QW o
tests have passed and
.QW p
tests have failed, where
.QW m ,
.QW n ,
.QW o ,
and
.QW p

refer to tests that were run at the same test level as test level-1.1.
.PP
Implementation of output and error comparison in the test command
depends on usage of ::puts in your application code.  Output is
intercepted by redefining the ::puts command while the defined test
script is being run.  Errors thrown by C procedures or printed
directly from C applications will not be caught by the test command.
Therefore, usage of the \fB\-output\fR and \fB\-errorOutput\fR
options to \fBtest\fR is useful only for pure Tcl applications
that use \fB::puts\fR to produce output. 
.SH KEYWORDS
test, test harness, test suite






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'\" Copyright (c) 1998-1999 Scriptics Corporation
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2002. (not subject to US copyright)
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tcltest.n,v 1.51 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH "tcltest" n 2.3 tcltest "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tcltest \- Test harness support code and utilities
................................................................................
tcltest package.
.PP
All the commands provided by the \fBtcltest\fR package are defined
in and exported from the \fB::tcltest\fR namespace, as indicated in
the \fBSYNOPSIS\fR above.  In the following sections, all commands
will be described by their simple names, in the interest of brevity.
.PP
The central command of \fBtcltest\fR is [\fBtest\fR] that defines
and runs a test.  Testing with [\fBtest\fR] involves evaluation
of a Tcl script and comparing the result to an expected result, as
configured and controlled by a number of options.  Several other
commands provided by \fBtcltest\fR govern the configuration of
[\fBtest\fR] and the collection of many [\fBtest\fR] commands into
test suites.
.PP
See \fBCREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST\fR below for an extended example
of how to use the commands of \fBtcltest\fR to produce test suites
for your Tcl-enabled code.
.SH COMMANDS
.TP
\fBtest\fR \fIname description ?option value ...?\fR
Defines and possibly runs a test with the name \fIname\fR and
description \fIdescription\fR.  The name and description of a test
are used in messages reported by [\fBtest\fR] during the
test, as configured by the options of \fBtcltest\fR.  The
remaining \fIoption value\fR arguments to [\fBtest\fR]
define the test, including the scripts to run, the conditions
under which to run them, the expected result, and the means
by which the expected and actual results should be compared.
See \fBTESTS\fR below for a complete description of the valid
options and how they define a test.  The [\fBtest\fR] command
returns an empty string.  
.TP
\fBtest\fR \fIname description ?constraints? body result\fR

This form of [\fBtest\fR] is provided to support test suites written
for version 1 of the \fBtcltest\fR package, and also a simpler
interface for a common usage.  It is the same as
[\fBtest\fR \fIname description\fB -constraints \fIconstraints\fB -body
\fIbody\fB -result \fIresult\fR].  All other options to [\fBtest\fR]
take their default values.  When \fIconstraints\fR is omitted, this
form of [\fBtest\fR] can be distinguished from the first because
all \fIoption\fRs begin with ``-''.

.TP
\fBloadTestedCommands\fR
Evaluates in the caller's context the script specified by 
[\fBconfigure -load\fR] or [\fBconfigure -loadfile\fR].
Returns the result of that script evaluation, including any error
raised by the script.  Use this command and the related
configuration options to provide the commands to be tested to
the interpreter running the test suite.
.TP
\fBmakeFile\fR \fIcontents name ?directory?\fR
Creates a file named \fIname\fR relative to
directory \fIdirectory\fR and write \fIcontents\fR
to that file using the encoding [\fBencoding system\fR].
If \fIcontents\fR does not end with a newline, a newline
will be appended so that the file named \fIname\fR
does end with a newline.  Because the system encoding is used,
this command is only suitable for making text files.
The file will be removed by the next evaluation
of [\fBcleanupTests\fR], unless it is removed by
[\fBremoveFile\fR] first.  The default value of
\fIdirectory\fR is the directory [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR].
Returns the full path of the file created.  Use this command
to create any text file required by a test with contents as needed.
.TP
\fBremoveFile\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR
Forces the file referenced by \fIname\fR to be removed.  This file name
should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR.   The default value of
\fIdirectory\fR is the directory [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR].
Returns an empty string.  Use this command to delete files
created by [\fBmakeFile\fR].  
.TP
\fBmakeDirectory\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR
Creates a directory named \fIname\fR relative to directory \fIdirectory\fR.
The directory will be removed by the next evaluation of [\fBcleanupTests\fR],
unless it is removed by [\fBremoveDirectory\fR] first.
The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory
[\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR].
Returns the full path of the directory created.  Use this command
to create any directories that are required to exist by a test.
.TP
\fBremoveDirectory\fR \fIname ?directory?\fR
Forces the directory referenced by \fIname\fR to be removed. This
directory should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR.
The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory
[\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR].
Returns an empty string.  Use this command to delete any directories
created by [\fBmakeDirectory\fR].  
.TP
\fBviewFile\fR \fIfile ?directory?\fR
Returns the contents of \fIfile\fR, except for any
final newline, just as [\fBread -nonewline\fR] would return.
This file name should be relative to \fIdirectory\fR.   
The default value of \fIdirectory\fR is the directory
[\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR].  Use this command
as a convenient way to turn the contents of a file generated
by a test into the result of that test for matching against
an expected result.  The contents of the file are read using
the system encoding, so its usefulness is limited to text
files.
.TP
\fBcleanupTests\fR
Intended to clean up and summarize after several tests have been
run.  Typically called once per test file, at the end of the file
after all tests have been completed.  For best effectiveness, be
sure that the [\fBcleanupTests\fR] is evaluated even if an error
occurs earlier in the test file evaluation.  
.sp
Prints statistics about the tests run and removes files that were
created by [\fBmakeDirectory\fR] and [\fBmakeFile\fR] since the
last [\fBcleanupTests\fR].  Names of files and directories 
in the directory [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR] created since
the last [\fBcleanupTests\fR], but not created by
[\fBmakeFile\fR] or [\fBmakeDirectory\fR] are printed
to [\fBoutputChannel\fR].  This command also restores the original
shell environment, as described by the ::env
array. Returns an empty string.
.TP
\fBrunAllTests\fR
This is a master command meant to run an entire suite of tests,
spanning multiple files and/or directories, as governed by
the configurable options of \fBtcltest\fR.  See \fBRUNNING ALL TESTS\fR
below for a complete description of the many variations possible
with [\fBrunAllTests\fR].
.SH "CONFIGURATION COMMANDS"
.TP
\fBconfigure\fR
Returns the list of configurable options supported by \fBtcltest\fR.
See \fBCONFIGURABLE OPTIONS\fR below for the full list of options,
their valid values, and their effect on \fBtcltest\fR operations.
.TP
................................................................................
.TP
\fBconfigure \fIoption value ?option value ...?\fR
Sets the value of each configurable option \fIoption\fR to the
corresponding value \fIvalue\fR, in order.  Raises an error if
an \fIoption\fR is not a supported configurable option, or if
\fIvalue\fR is not a valid value for the corresponding \fIoption\fR,
or if a \fIvalue\fR is not provided.  When an error is raised, the
operation of [\fBconfigure\fR] is halted, and subsequent \fIoption value\fR
arguments are not processed.
.sp
If the environment variable \fB::env(TCLTEST_OPTIONS)\fR exists when
the \fBtcltest\fR package is loaded (by [\fBpackage require tcltest\fR])

then its value is taken as a list of arguments to pass to [\fBconfigure\fR].
This allows the default values of the configuration options to be
set by the environment.
.TP
\fBcustomMatch \fImode script\fR
Registers \fImode\fR as a new legal value of the \fB-match\fR option
to [\fBtest\fR].  When the \fB-match \fImode\fR option is
passed to [\fBtest\fR], the script \fIscript\fR will be evaluated
to compare the actual result of evaluating the body of the test
to the expected result.
To perform the match, the \fIscript\fR is completed with two additional
words, the expected result, and the actual result, and the completed script
is evaluated in the global namespace.
The completed script is expected to return a boolean value indicating
whether or not the results match.  The built-in matching modes of
[\fBtest\fR] are \fBexact\fR, \fBglob\fR, and \fBregexp\fR.
.TP
\fBtestConstraint \fIconstraint ?boolean?\fR
Sets or returns the boolean value associated with the named \fIconstraint\fR.
See \fBTEST CONSTRAINTS\fR below for more information.
.TP
\fBinterpreter\fR \fI?executableName?\fR
Sets or returns the name of the executable to be [\fBexec\fR]ed by
[\fBrunAllTests\fR] to run each test file when
[\fBconfigure -singleproc\fR] is false.
The default value for [\fBinterpreter\fR] is the name of the
currently running program as returned by [\fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR].
.TP
\fBoutputChannel\fR \fI?channelID?\fR
Sets or returns the output channel ID.  This defaults to stdout.
Any test that prints test related output should send
that output to [\fBoutputChannel\fR] rather than letting
that output default to stdout.
.TP
\fBerrorChannel\fR \fI?channelID?\fR
Sets or returns the error channel ID.  This defaults to stderr.
Any test that prints error messages should send
that output to [\fBerrorChannel\fR] rather than printing
directly to stderr.
.SH "SHORTCUT COMMANDS"
.TP
\fBdebug \fI?level?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -debug \fI?level?\fR].
.TP
\fBerrorFile \fI?filename?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -errfile \fI?filename?\fR].
.TP
\fBlimitConstraints \fI?boolean?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -limitconstraints \fI?boolean?\fR].
.TP
\fBloadFile \fI?filename?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -loadfile \fI?filename?\fR].
.TP
\fBloadScript \fI?script?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -load \fI?script?\fR].
.TP
\fBmatch \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -match \fI?patternList?\fR].
.TP
\fBmatchDirectories \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -relateddir \fI?patternList?\fR].
.TP
\fBmatchFiles \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -file \fI?patternList?\fR].
.TP
\fBoutputFile \fI?filename?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -outfile \fI?filename?\fR].
.TP
\fBpreserveCore \fI?level?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -preservecore \fI?level?\fR].
.TP
\fBsingleProcess \fI?boolean?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -singleproc \fI?boolean?\fR].
.TP
\fBskip \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -skip \fI?patternList?\fR].
.TP
\fBskipDirectories \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -asidefromdir \fI?patternList?\fR].
.TP
\fBskipFiles \fI?patternList?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -notfile \fI?patternList?\fR].
.TP
\fBtemporaryDirectory \fI?directory?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -tmpdir \fI?directory?\fR].
.TP
\fBtestsDirectory \fI?directory?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -testdir \fI?directory?\fR].
.TP
\fBverbose \fI?level?\fR
Same as [\fBconfigure -verbose \fI?level?\fR].
.SH "OTHER COMMANDS"
.PP
The remaining commands provided by \fBtcltest\fR have better
alternatives provided by \fBtcltest\fR or \fBTcl\fR itself.  They
are retained to support existing test suites, but should be avoided
in new code.
.TP
\fBtest\fR \fIname description optionList\fR
This form of [\fBtest\fR] was provided to enable passing many
options spanning several lines to [\fBtest\fR] as a single
argument quoted by braces, rather than needing to backslash quote
the newlines between arguments to [\fBtest\fR].  The \fIoptionList\fR
argument is expected to be a list with an even number of elements
representing \fIoption\fR and \fIvalue\fR arguments to pass
to [\fBtest\fR].  However, these values are not passed directly, as
in the alternate forms of [\fBswitch\fR].  Instead, this form makes
an unfortunate attempt to overthrow Tcl's substitution rules by
performing substitutions on some of the list elements as an attempt to


implement a ``do what I mean'' interpretation of a brace-enclosed

``block''.  The result is nearly impossible to document clearly, and
for that reason this form is not recommended.  See the examples in
\fBCREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST\fR below to see that this
form is really not necessary to avoid backslash-quoted newlines.
If you insist on using this form, examine
the source code of \fBtcltest\fR if you want to know the substitution
details, or just enclose the third through last argument
to [\fBtest\fR] in braces and hope for the best.
.TP
\fBworkingDirectory\fR \fI?directoryName?\fR
Sets or returns the current working directory when the test suite is
running.  The default value for workingDirectory is the directory in
which the test suite was launched.  The Tcl commands [\fBcd\fR] and
[\fBpwd\fR] are sufficient replacements.
.TP
\fBnormalizeMsg\fR \fImsg\fR
Returns the result of removing the ``extra'' newlines from \fImsg\fR,



where ``extra'' is rather imprecise.  Tcl offers plenty of string
processing commands to modify strings as you wish, and
[\fBcustomMatch\fR] allows flexible matching of actual and expected
results.
.TP
\fBnormalizePath\fR \fIpathVar\fR
Resolves symlinks in a path, thus creating a path without internal
redirection.  It is assumed that \fIpathVar\fR is absolute.
\fIpathVar\fR is modified in place.  The Tcl command [\fBfile normalize\fR]
is a sufficient replacement.
.TP
\fBbytestring\fR \fIstring\fR
Construct a string that consists of the requested sequence of bytes,
as opposed to a string of properly formed UTF-8 characters using the
value supplied in \fIstring\fR.  This allows the tester to create
denormalized or improperly formed strings to pass to C procedures that
are supposed to accept strings with embedded NULL types and confirm
that a string result has a certain pattern of bytes.  This is
exactly equivalent to the Tcl command [\fBencoding convertfrom identity\fR].
.SH TESTS
.PP
The [\fBtest\fR] command is the heart of the \fBtcltest\fR package.
Its essential function is to evaluate a Tcl script and compare
the result with an expected result.  The options of [\fBtest\fR]
define the test script, the environment in which to evaluate it,
the expected result, and how the compare the actual result to
the expected result.  Some configuration options of \fBtcltest\fR
also influence how [\fBtest\fR] operates.
.PP
The valid options for [\fBtest\fR] are summarized:
.PP
.CS
\fBtest\fR \fIname\fR \fIdescription\fR
        ?-constraints \fIkeywordList|expression\fR?
        ?-setup \fIsetupScript\fR?
        ?-body \fItestScript\fR?
        ?-cleanup \fIcleanupScript\fR?
................................................................................
        ?-match \fImode\fR?
.CE
.PP
The \fIname\fR may be any string.  It is conventional to choose
a \fIname\fR according to the pattern:
.PP
.CS
\fItarget\fR-\fImajorNum\fR.\fIminorNum\fR
.CE
.PP
For white-box (regression) tests, the target should be the name of the
C function or Tcl procedure being tested.  For black-box tests, the
target should be the name of the feature being tested.  Some conventions
call for the names of black-box tests to have the suffix \fB_bb\fR.
Related tests should share a major number.  As a test suite evolves,
it is best to have the same test name continue to correspond to the
same test, so that it remains meaningful to say things like ``Test
foo-1.3 passed in all releases up to 3.4, but began failing in
release 3.5.''
.PP
During evaluation of [\fBtest\fR], the \fIname\fR will be compared
to the lists of string matching patterns returned by

[\fBconfigure -match\fR], and [\fBconfigure -skip\fR].  The test
will be run only if \fIname\fR matches any of the patterns from
[\fBconfigure -match\fR] and matches none of the patterns
from [\fBconfigure -skip\fR].
.PP
The \fIdescription\fR should be a short textual description of the
test.  The \fIdescription\fR is included in output produced by the
test, typically test failure messages.  Good \fIdescription\fR values
should briefly explain the purpose of the test to users of a test suite.
The name of a Tcl or C function being tested should be included in the
description for regression tests.  If the test case exists to reproduce
a bug, include the bug ID in the description. 
.PP
Valid attributes and associated values are:
.TP
\fB-constraints \fIkeywordList|expression\fR
The optional \fB-constraints\fR attribute can be list of one or more
keywords or an expression.  If the \fB-constraints\fR value is a list of
keywords, each of these keywords should be the name of a constraint
defined by a call to [\fBtestConstraint\fR].  If any of the listed
constraints is false or does not exist, the test is skipped.  If the
\fB-constraints\fR value is an expression, that expression
is evaluated. If the expression evaluates to true, then the test is run.
Note that the expression form of \fB-constraints\fR may interfere with the
operation of [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR] and
[\fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR], and is not recommended.
Appropriate constraints should be added to any tests that should
not always be run.  That is, conditional evaluation of a test
should be accomplished by the \fB-constraints\fR option, not by
conditional evaluation of [\fBtest\fR].  In that way, the same
number of tests are always reported by the test suite, though
the number skipped may change based on the testing environment.
The default value is an empty list.  
See \fBTEST CONSTRAINTS\fR below for a list of built-in constraints 
and information on how to add your own constraints.
.TP
\fB-setup \fIscript\fR
The optional \fB-setup\fR attribute indicates a \fIscript\fR that will be run
before the script indicated by the \fB-body\fR attribute.  If evaluation
of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail.  The default value
is an empty script.
.TP
\fB-body \fIscript\fR
The \fB-body\fR attribute indicates the \fIscript\fR to run to carry out the 
test.  It must return a result that can be checked for correctness.
If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail.
The default value is an empty script.
.TP
\fB-cleanup \fIscript\fR
The optional \fB-cleanup\fR attribute indicates a \fIscript\fR that will be
run after the script indicated by the \fB-body\fR attribute.
If evaluation of \fIscript\fR raises an error, the test will fail.
The default value is an empty script.
.TP
\fB-match \fImode\fR
The \fB-match\fR attribute determines how expected answers supplied by
\fB-result\fR, \fB-output\fR, and \fB-errorOutput\fR are compared.  Valid
values for \fImode\fR are \fBregexp\fR, \fBglob\fR, \fBexact\fR, and
any value registered by a prior call to [\fBcustomMatch\fR].  The default
value is \fBexact\fR.
.TP
\fB-result \fIexpectedValue\fR
The \fB-result\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which
the return value from script will be compared. The default value is
an empty string.
.TP
\fB-output \fIexpectedValue\fR
The \fB-output\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against which
any output sent to \fBstdout\fR or [\fBoutputChannel\fR] during evaluation
of the script(s) will be compared.  Note that only output printed using
[\fB::puts\fR] is used for comparison.  If \fB-output\fR is not specified,
output sent to \fBstdout\fR and [\fBoutputChannel\fR] is not processed for
comparison.
.TP
\fB-errorOutput \fIexpectedValue\fR
The \fB-errorOutput\fR attribute supplies the \fIexpectedValue\fR against
which any output sent to \fBstderr\fR or [\fBerrorChannel\fR] during 
evaluation of the script(s) will be compared. Note that only output
printed using [\fB::puts\fR] is used for comparison.  If \fB-errorOutput\fR
is not specified, output sent to \fBstderr\fR and [\fBerrorChannel\fR] is
not processed for comparison.
.TP
\fB-returnCodes \fIexpectedCodeList\fR
The optional \fB-returnCodes\fR attribute supplies \fIexpectedCodeList\fR,
a list of return codes that may be accepted from evaluation of the
\fB-body\fR script.  If evaluation of the \fB-body\fR script returns
a code not in the \fIexpectedCodeList\fR, the test fails.  All
return codes known to [\fBreturn\fR], in both numeric and symbolic
form, including extended return codes, are acceptable elements in
the \fIexpectedCodeList\fR.  Default value is \fB{ok return}\fR.
.PP
To pass, a test must successfully evaluate its \fB-setup\fR, \fB-body\fR,
and \fB-cleanup\fR scripts.  The return code of the \fB-body\fR script and
its result must match expected values, and if specified, output and error
data from the test must match expected \fB-output\fR and \fB-errorOutput\fR
values.  If any of these conditions are not met, then the test fails.
Note that all scripts are evaluated in the context of the caller
of [\fBtest\fR].
.PP
As long as [\fBtest\fR] is called with valid syntax and legal
values for all attributes, it will not raise an error.  Test
failures are instead reported as output written to [\fBoutputChannel\fR].
In default operation, a successful test produces no output.  The output
messages produced by [\fBtest\fR] are controlled by the
[\fBconfigure -verbose\fR] option as described in \fBCONFIGURABLE OPTIONS\fR
below.  Any output produced by the test scripts themselves should be
produced using [\fB::puts\fR] to [\fBoutputChannel\fR] or
[\fBerrorChannel\fR], so that users of the test suite may
easily capture output with the [\fBconfigure -outfile\fR] and
[\fBconfigure -errfile\fR] options, and so that the \fB-output\fR
and \fB-errorOutput\fR attributes work properly.
.SH "TEST CONSTRAINTS"
.PP
Constraints are used to determine whether or not a test should be skipped.
Each constraint has a name, which may be any string, and a boolean
value.  Each [\fBtest\fR] has a \fB-constraints\fR value which is a
list of constraint names.  There are two modes of constraint control.
Most frequently, the default mode is used, indicated by a setting
of [\fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR] to false.  The test will run
only if all constraints in the list are true-valued.  Thus,
the \fB-constraints\fR option of [\fBtest\fR] is a convenient, symbolic
way to define any conditions required for the test to be possible or
meaningful.  For example, a [\fBtest\fR] with \fB-constraints unix\fR
will only be run if the constraint \fBunix\fR is true, which indicates
the test suite is being run on a Unix platform.
.PP
Each [\fBtest\fR] should include whatever \fB-constraints\fR are
required to constrain it to run only where appropriate.  Several
constraints are pre-defined in the \fBtcltest\fR package, listed
below.  The registration of user-defined constraints is performed
by the [\fBtestConstraint\fR] command.  User-defined constraints
may appear within a test file, or within the script specified
by the [\fBconfigure -load\fR] or [\fBconfigure -loadfile\fR]
options.
.PP
The following is a list of constraints pre-defined by the
\fBtcltest\fR package itself:
.TP
\fIsingleTestInterp\fR
test can only be run if all test files are sourced into a single interpreter
................................................................................
\fIroot\fR
test can only run if Unix user is root
.TP
\fInotRoot\fR
test can only run if Unix user is not root
.TP
\fIeformat\fR
test can only run if app has a working version of sprintf with respect

to the "e" format of floating-point numbers.
.TP
\fIstdio\fR
test can only be run if [\fBinterpreter\fR] can be [\fBopen\fR]ed
as a pipe.
.PP
The alternative mode of constraint control is enabled by setting
[\fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR] to true.  With that configuration
setting, all existing constraints other than those in the constraint
list returned by [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR] are set to false.
When the value of [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR]
is set, all those constraints are set to true.  The effect is that
when both options [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR] and
[\fBconfigure -limitconstraints\fR] are in use, only those tests including
only constraints from the [\fBconfigure -constraints\fR] list
are run; all others are skipped.  For example, one might set
up a configuration with
.PP
.CS
\fBconfigure\fR -constraints knownBug \e
          -limitconstraints true \e
          -verbose pass
.CE
.PP
to run exactly those tests that exercise known bugs, and discover
whether any of them pass, indicating the bug had been fixed.  
.SH "RUNNING ALL TESTS"
.PP
The single command [\fBrunAllTests\fR] is evaluated to run an entire
test suite, spanning many files and directories.  The configuration
options of \fBtcltest\fR control the precise operations.  The
[\fBrunAllTests\fR] command begins by printing a summary of its
configuration to [\fBoutputChannel\fR].
.PP
Test files to be evaluated are sought in the directory
[\fBconfigure -testdir\fR].  The list of files in that directory
that match any of the patterns in [\fBconfigure -file\fR] and
match none of the patterns in [\fBconfigure -notfile\fR] is generated
and sorted.  Then each file will be evaluated in turn.  If
[\fBconfigure -singleproc\fR] is true, then each file will
be [\fBsource\fR]d in the caller's context.  If it is false,
then a copy of [\fBinterpreter\fR] will be [\fBexec\fR]d to
evaluate each file.  The multi-process operation is useful
when testing can cause errors so severe that a process 
terminates.  Although such an error may terminate a child
process evaluating one file, the master process can continue
with the rest of the test suite.  In multi-process operation,
the configuration of \fBtcltest\fR in the master process is
passed to the child processes as command line arguments,
with the exception of [\fBconfigure -outfile\fR].  The
[\fBrunAllTests\fR] command in the
master process collects all output from the child processes
and collates their results into one master report.  Any
reports of individual test failures, or messages requested
by a [\fBconfigure -verbose\fR] setting are passed directly
on to [\fBoutputChannel\fR] by the master process.
.PP
After evaluating all selected test files, a summary of the
results is printed to [\fBoutputChannel\fR].  The summary
includes the total number of [\fBtest\fR]s evaluated, broken
down into those skipped, those passed, and those failed.
The summary also notes the number of files evaluated, and the names
of any files with failing tests or errors.  A list of
the constraints that caused tests to be skipped, and the
number of tests skipped for each is also printed.  Also,
messages are printed if it appears that evaluation of
a test file has caused any temporary files to be left
behind in [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR].
.PP
Having completed and summarized all selected test files,
[\fBrunAllTests\fR] then recursively acts on subdirectories
of [\fBconfigure -testdir\fR].  All subdirectories that
match any of the patterns in [\fBconfigure -relateddir\fR]
and do not match any of the patterns in
[\fBconfigure -asidefromdir\fR] are examined.  If
a file named \fBall.tcl\fR is found in such a directory,
it will be [\fBsource\fR]d in the caller's context.
Whether or not an examined directory contains an
\fBall.tcl\fR file, its subdirectories are also scanned
against the [\fBconfigure -relateddir\fR] and
[\fBconfigure -asidefromdir\fR] patterns.  In this way,
many directories in a directory tree can have all their
test files evaluated by a single [\fBrunAllTests\fR]
command.
.SH "CONFIGURABLE OPTIONS"
The [\fBconfigure\fR] command is used to set and query the configurable
options of \fBtcltest\fR.  The valid options are:
.TP
\fB-singleproc \fIboolean\fR
Controls whether or not [\fBrunAllTests\fR] spawns a child process for
each test file.  No spawning when \fIboolean\fR is true.  Default
value is false.
.TP
\fB-debug \fIlevel\fR
Sets the debug level to \fIlevel\fR, an integer value indicating how
much debugging information should be printed to stdout.  Note that
debug messages always go to stdout, independent of the value of
[\fBconfigure -outfile\fR].  Default value is 0.  Levels are defined as:
.RS
.IP 0
Do not display any debug information.
.IP 1
Display information regarding whether a test is skipped because it
doesn't match any of the tests that were specified using by
[\fBconfigure -match\fR] (userSpecifiedNonMatch) or matches any of
the tests specified by [\fBconfigure -skip\fR] (userSpecifiedSkip).  Also
print warnings about possible lack of cleanup or balance in test files.
Also print warnings about any re-use of test names.
.IP 2
Display the flag array parsed by the command line processor, the
contents of the ::env array, and all user-defined variables that exist
in the current namespace as they are used.
.IP 3
Display information regarding what individual procs in the test
harness are doing.
.RE
.TP
\fB-verbose \fIlevel\fR
Sets the type of output verbosity desired to \fIlevel\fR,
a list of zero or more of the elements \fBbody\fR, \fBpass\fR,
\fBskip\fR, \fBstart\fR, \fBerror\fR and \fBline\fR.  Default value
is \fB{body error}\fR.
Levels are defined as: 
.RS
.IP "body (b)"
................................................................................
.IP "error (e)"
Print errorInfo and errorCode, if they exist, when a test return code
does not match its expected return code
.IP "line (l)"
Print source file line information of failed tests
.RE
The single letter abbreviations noted above are also recognized
so that [\fBconfigure -verbose pt\fR] is the same as
[\fBconfigure -verbose  {pass start}\fR].


.TP
\fB-preservecore \fIlevel\fR
Sets the core preservation level to \fIlevel\fR.  This level
determines how stringent checks for core files are.  Default
value is 0.  Levels are defined as:
.RS
.IP 0
No checking - do not check for core files at the end of each test
command, but do check for them in [\fBrunAllTests\fR] after all
test files have been evaluated.
.IP 1
Also check for core files at the end of each [\fBtest\fR] command.
.IP 2
Check for core files at all times described above, and save a 
copy of each core file produced in [\fBconfigure -tmpdir\fR].
.RE
.TP
\fB-limitconstraints \fIboolean\fR
Sets the mode by which [\fBtest\fR] honors constraints as described
in \fBTESTS\fR above.  Default value is false.
.TP
\fB-constraints \fIlist\fR
Sets all the constraints in \fIlist\fR to true.  Also used in

combination with [\fBconfigure -limitconstraints true\fR] to control an

alternative constraint mode as described in \fBTESTS\fR above.
Default value is an empty list.
.TP
\fB-tmpdir \fIdirectory\fR
Sets the temporary directory to be used by [\fBmakeFile\fR],
[\fBmakeDirectory\fR], [\fBviewFile\fR], [\fBremoveFile\fR], 
and [\fBremoveDirectory\fR] as the default directory where
temporary files and directories created by test files should
be created.  Default value is [\fBworkingDirectory\fR].
.TP
\fB-testdir \fIdirectory\fR
Sets the directory searched by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] for test files
and subdirectories.  Default value is [\fBworkingDirectory\fR].
.TP
\fB-file \fIpatternList\fR
Sets the list of patterns used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to determine
what test files to evaluate.  Default value is \fB*.test\fR.
.TP
\fB-notfile \fIpatternList\fR
Sets the list of patterns used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to determine
what test files to skip.  Default value is \fBl.*.test\fR, so

that any SCCS lock files are skipped.
.TP
\fB-relateddir \fIpatternList\fR
Sets the list of patterns used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to determine
what subdirectories to search for an \fBall.tcl\fR file.  Default
value is \fB*\fR.

.TP
\fB-asidefromdir \fIpatternList\fR
Sets the list of patterns used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to determine
what subdirectories to skip when searching for an \fBall.tcl\fR file.
Default value is an empty list.
.TP
\fB-match \fIpatternList\fR
Set the list of patterns used by [\fBtest\fR] to determine whether
a test should be run.  Default value is \fB*\fR.

.TP
\fB-skip \fIpatternList\fR
Set the list of patterns used by [\fBtest\fR] to determine whether
a test should be skipped.  Default value is an empty list.
.TP
\fB-load \fIscript\fR
Sets a script to be evaluated by [\fBloadTestedCommands\fR].
Default value is an empty script.
.TP
\fB-loadfile \fIfilename\fR
Sets the filename from which to read a script to be evaluated
by [\fBloadTestedCommands\fR].  This is an alternative to
\fB-load\fR.  They cannot be used together.
.TP
\fB-outfile \fIfilename\fR 
Sets the file to which all output produced by tcltest should be
written.  A file named \fIfilename\fR will be [\fBopen\fR]ed for writing,
and the resulting channel will be set as the value of [\fBoutputChannel\fR].
.TP
\fB-errfile \fIfilename\fR
Sets the file to which all error output produced by tcltest
should be written.  A file named \fIfilename\fR will be [\fBopen\fR]ed
for writing, and the resulting channel will be set as the value
of [\fBerrorChannel\fR].
.SH "CREATING TEST SUITES WITH TCLTEST"
.PP
The fundamental element of a test suite is the individual [\fBtest\fR]
command.  We begin with several examples.
.IP [1]
Test of a script that returns normally.
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBtest\fR example-1.0 {normal return} {
................................................................................
    file attributes $file -owner
} -cleanup {
    removeFile test
} -result $::tcl_platform(user)
.CE
.RE
.PP
At the next higher layer of organization, several [\fBtest\fR] commands
are gathered together into a single test file.  Test files should have
names with the \fB.test\fR extension, because that is the default pattern
used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] to find test files.  It is a good rule of
thumb to have one test file for each source code file of your project.
It is good practice to edit the test file and the source code file
together, keeping tests synchronized with code changes.
.PP 
Most of the code in the test file should be the [\fBtest\fR] commands.
Use constraints to skip tests, rather than conditional evaluation
of [\fBtest\fR].
.IP [5]
Recommended system for writing conditional tests, using constraints to
guard:
.RS
.PP
.CS
\fBtestConstraint\fR X [expr $myRequirement]
................................................................................
    test badConditionalTest {} {
        #body
    } result
}
.CE
.RE
.PP
Use the \fB-setup\fR and \fB-cleanup\fR options to establish and release
all context requirements of the test body.  Do not make tests depend on
prior tests in the file.  Those prior tests might be skipped.  If several
consecutive tests require the same context, the appropriate setup
and cleanup scripts may be stored in variable for passing to each tests
\fB-setup\fR and \fB-cleanup\fR options.  This is a better solution than
performing setup outside of [\fBtest\fR] commands, because the setup will
only be done if necessary, and any errors during setup will be reported,
and not cause the test file to abort.
.PP
A test file should be able to be combined with other test files and not
interfere with them, even when [\fBconfigure -singleproc 1\fR] causes

all files to be evaluated in a common interpreter.  A simple way to
achieve this is to have your tests define all their commands and variables
in a namespace that is deleted when the test file evaluation is complete.
A good namespace to use is a child namespace \fBtest\fR of the namespace
of the module you are testing.
.PP
A test file should also be able to be evaluated directly as a script,
not depending on being called by a master [\fBrunAllTests\fR].  This
means that each test file should process command line arguments to give
the tester all the configuration control that \fBtcltest\fR provides.
.PP
After all [\fBtest\fR]s in a test file, the command [\fBcleanupTests\fR]
should be called.
.IP [7]
Here is a sketch of a sample test file illustrating those points:
.RS
.PP
.CS
package require tcltest 2.2
................................................................................
}
namespace delete ::example::test
.CE
.RE
.PP
The next level of organization is a full test suite, made up of several
test files.  One script is used to control the entire suite.  The
basic function of this script is to call [\fBrunAllTests\fR] after
doing any necessary setup.  This script is usually named \fBall.tcl\fR
because that's the default name used by [\fBrunAllTests\fR] when combining
multiple test suites into one testing run.
.IP [8]
Here is a sketch of a sample test suite master script:
.RS
.PP
.CS
package require Tcl 8.4
package require tcltest 2.2
package require example
\fB::tcltest::configure\fR -testdir \\
        [file dirname [file normalize [info script]]]
eval \fB::tcltest::configure\fR $argv
\fB::tcltest::runAllTests\fR
.CE
.RE
.SH COMPATIBILITY
.PP
................................................................................
A number of commands and variables in the \fB::tcltest\fR namespace
provided by earlier releases of \fBtcltest\fR have not been documented
here.  They are no longer part of the supported public interface of
\fBtcltest\fR and should not be used in new test suites.  However,
to continue to support existing test suites written to the older
interface specifications, many of those deprecated commands and
variables still work as before.  For example, in many circumstances,
[\fBconfigure\fR] will be automatically called shortly after
[\fBpackage require tcltest 2.1\fR] succeeds with arguments

from the variable \fB::argv\fR.  This is to support test suites
that depend on the old behavior that \fBtcltest\fR was automatically
configured from command line arguments.  New test files should not
depend on this, but should explicitly include
.PP
.CS
eval \fB::tcltest::configure\fR $::argv
.CE
.PP
to establish a configuration from command line arguments.
.SH "KNOWN ISSUES"
There are two known issues related to nested evaluations of [\fBtest\fR].  
The first issue relates to the stack level in which test scripts are
executed.  Tests nested within other tests may be executed at the same
stack level as the outermost test.  For example, in the following code: 
.PP
.CS
\fBtest\fR level-1.1 {level 1} {
    -body {
................................................................................
    }
}
.CE
.PP
any script executed in level-2.1 may be executed at the same stack
level as the script defined for level-1.1.  
.PP
In addition, while two [\fBtest\fR]s have been run, results will only
be reported by [\fBcleanupTests\fR] for tests at the same level as
test level-1.1.  However, test results for all tests run prior to
level-1.1 will be available when test level-2.1 runs.  What this
means is that if you try to access the test results for test level-2.1,
it will may say that 'm' tests have run, 'n' tests have





been skipped, 'o' tests have passed and 'p' tests have failed,







where 'm', 'n', 'o', and 'p' refer to tests that were run at the
same test level as test level-1.1. 
.PP
Implementation of output and error comparison in the test command
depends on usage of ::puts in your application code.  Output is
intercepted by redefining the ::puts command while the defined test
script is being run.  Errors thrown by C procedures or printed
directly from C applications will not be caught by the test command.
Therefore, usage of the \fB-output\fR and \fB-errorOutput\fR
options to [\fBtest\fR] is useful only for pure Tcl applications
that use [\fB::puts\fR] to produce output. 
.SH KEYWORDS
test, test harness, test suite

Changes to doc/tclvars.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tclvars.n,v 1.28 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH tclvars n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tclvars \- Variables used by Tcl
................................................................................
passed to children by commands like \fBexec\fR.
If the entire \fBenv\fR array is unset then Tcl will stop
monitoring \fBenv\fR accesses and will not update environment
variables.
.RS
Under Windows, the environment variables PATH and COMSPEC in any
capitalization are converted automatically to upper case.  For instance, the
PATH variable could be exported by the operating system as
.QW path ,
.QW Path ,
.QW PaTh ,
etc., causing otherwise simple Tcl code to have to
support many special cases.  All other environment variables inherited by
Tcl are left unmodified.  Setting an env array variable to blank is the
same as unsetting it as this is the behavior of the underlying Windows OS.
It should be noted that relying on an existing and empty environment variable
won't work on windows and is discouraged for cross-platform usage.
.RE
.TP
................................................................................
\fBCHILDKILLED\fI pid sigName msg\fR
This format is used when a child process has been killed because of
a signal.  The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier (in decimal).
The \fIsigName\fR element will be the symbolic name of the signal that caused
the process to terminate; it will be one of the names from the
include file signal.h, such as \fBSIGPIPE\fR.
The \fImsg\fR element will be a short human-readable message
describing the signal, such as
.QW "write on pipe with no readers"
for \fBSIGPIPE\fR.
.TP
\fBCHILDSTATUS\fI pid code\fR
This format is used when a child process has exited with a non-zero
exit status.  The \fIpid\fR element will be the
process's identifier (in decimal) and the \fIcode\fR element will be the exit
code returned by the process (also in decimal).
................................................................................
This format is used when a child process has been suspended because
of a signal.
The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier, in decimal.
The \fIsigName\fR element will be the symbolic name of the signal that caused
the process to suspend; this will be one of the names from the
include file signal.h, such as \fBSIGTTIN\fR.
The \fImsg\fR element will be a short human-readable message
describing the signal, such as
.QW "background tty read"
for \fBSIGTTIN\fR.
.TP
\fBNONE\fR
This format is used for errors where no additional information is
available for an error besides the message returned with the
error.  In these cases the \fB-errorcode\fR return option
will consist of a list containing a single element whose
................................................................................
If the first element is \fBPOSIX\fR, then
the error occurred during a POSIX kernel call.
The \fIerrName\fR element will contain the symbolic name
of the error that occurred, such as \fBENOENT\fR; this will
be one of the values defined in the include file errno.h.
The \fImsg\fR element will be a human-readable
message corresponding to \fIerrName\fR, such as
.QW "no such file or directory"
for the \fBENOENT\fR case.
.PP
To set the \fB-errorcode\fR return option, applications should use library
procedures such as \fBTcl_SetObjErrorCode\fR, \fBTcl_SetReturnOptions\fR,
and \fBTcl_PosixError\fR, or they may invoke the \fB-errorcode\fR
option of the \fBreturn\fR command.
If one of these methods hasn't been used, then the Tcl
interpreter will reset the variable to \fBNONE\fR after
................................................................................
will convert as \fI1.4\fR rather than \fI1.3999999999999999\fR
even though the latter is nearer to the exact value of the
binary number.
.RE
.VE 8.5
.PP
.RS
17 digits is
.QW perfect
for IEEE floating-point in that it allows
double-precision values to be converted to strings and back to
binary with no loss of information.  However, using 17 digits prevents
any rounding, which produces longer, less intuitive results.  For example,
\fBexpr {1.4}\fR returns 1.3999999999999999 with \fBtcl_precision\fR
set to 17, vs. 1.4 if \fBtcl_precision\fR is 12.
.RE
.PP
................................................................................
.RS
This variable and functionality only exist if
\fBTCL_COMPILE_DEBUG\fR was defined during Tcl's compilation.
.RE
.TP
\fBtcl_wordchars\fR
The value of this variable is a regular expression that can be set to
control what are considered
.QW word
characters, for instances like
selecting a word by double-clicking in text in Tk.  It is platform
dependent.  On Windows, it defaults to \fB\\S\fR, meaning anything
but a Unicode space character.  Otherwise it defaults to \fB\\w\fR,
which is any Unicode word character (number, letter, or underscore).
.TP
\fBtcl_nonwordchars\fR
The value of this variable is a regular expression that can be set to
control what are considered
.QW non-word
characters, for instances like
selecting a word by double-clicking in text in Tk.  It is platform
dependent.  On Windows, it defaults to \fB\\s\fR, meaning any Unicode space
character.  Otherwise it defaults to \fB\\W\fR, which is anything but a
Unicode word character (number, letter, or underscore).
.TP
\fBtcl_version\fR
When an interpreter is created Tcl initializes this variable to






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tclvars.n,v 1.29 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH tclvars n 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tclvars \- Variables used by Tcl
................................................................................
passed to children by commands like \fBexec\fR.
If the entire \fBenv\fR array is unset then Tcl will stop
monitoring \fBenv\fR accesses and will not update environment
variables.
.RS
Under Windows, the environment variables PATH and COMSPEC in any
capitalization are converted automatically to upper case.  For instance, the
PATH variable could be exported by the operating system as ``path'',



``Path'', ``PaTh'', etc., causing otherwise simple Tcl code to have to
support many special cases.  All other environment variables inherited by
Tcl are left unmodified.  Setting an env array variable to blank is the
same as unsetting it as this is the behavior of the underlying Windows OS.
It should be noted that relying on an existing and empty environment variable
won't work on windows and is discouraged for cross-platform usage.
.RE
.TP
................................................................................
\fBCHILDKILLED\fI pid sigName msg\fR
This format is used when a child process has been killed because of
a signal.  The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier (in decimal).
The \fIsigName\fR element will be the symbolic name of the signal that caused
the process to terminate; it will be one of the names from the
include file signal.h, such as \fBSIGPIPE\fR.
The \fImsg\fR element will be a short human-readable message
describing the signal, such as ``write on pipe with no readers''

for \fBSIGPIPE\fR.
.TP
\fBCHILDSTATUS\fI pid code\fR
This format is used when a child process has exited with a non-zero
exit status.  The \fIpid\fR element will be the
process's identifier (in decimal) and the \fIcode\fR element will be the exit
code returned by the process (also in decimal).
................................................................................
This format is used when a child process has been suspended because
of a signal.
The \fIpid\fR element will be the process's identifier, in decimal.
The \fIsigName\fR element will be the symbolic name of the signal that caused
the process to suspend; this will be one of the names from the
include file signal.h, such as \fBSIGTTIN\fR.
The \fImsg\fR element will be a short human-readable message
describing the signal, such as ``background tty read''

for \fBSIGTTIN\fR.
.TP
\fBNONE\fR
This format is used for errors where no additional information is
available for an error besides the message returned with the
error.  In these cases the \fB-errorcode\fR return option
will consist of a list containing a single element whose
................................................................................
If the first element is \fBPOSIX\fR, then
the error occurred during a POSIX kernel call.
The \fIerrName\fR element will contain the symbolic name
of the error that occurred, such as \fBENOENT\fR; this will
be one of the values defined in the include file errno.h.
The \fImsg\fR element will be a human-readable
message corresponding to \fIerrName\fR, such as

``no such file or directory'' for the \fBENOENT\fR case.
.PP
To set the \fB-errorcode\fR return option, applications should use library
procedures such as \fBTcl_SetObjErrorCode\fR, \fBTcl_SetReturnOptions\fR,
and \fBTcl_PosixError\fR, or they may invoke the \fB-errorcode\fR
option of the \fBreturn\fR command.
If one of these methods hasn't been used, then the Tcl
interpreter will reset the variable to \fBNONE\fR after
................................................................................
will convert as \fI1.4\fR rather than \fI1.3999999999999999\fR
even though the latter is nearer to the exact value of the
binary number.
.RE
.VE 8.5
.PP
.RS


17 digits is ``perfect'' for IEEE floating-point in that it allows
double-precision values to be converted to strings and back to
binary with no loss of information.  However, using 17 digits prevents
any rounding, which produces longer, less intuitive results.  For example,
\fBexpr {1.4}\fR returns 1.3999999999999999 with \fBtcl_precision\fR
set to 17, vs. 1.4 if \fBtcl_precision\fR is 12.
.RE
.PP
................................................................................
.RS
This variable and functionality only exist if
\fBTCL_COMPILE_DEBUG\fR was defined during Tcl's compilation.
.RE
.TP
\fBtcl_wordchars\fR
The value of this variable is a regular expression that can be set to


control what are considered ``word'' characters, for instances like
selecting a word by double-clicking in text in Tk.  It is platform
dependent.  On Windows, it defaults to \fB\\S\fR, meaning anything
but a Unicode space character.  Otherwise it defaults to \fB\\w\fR,
which is any Unicode word character (number, letter, or underscore).
.TP
\fBtcl_nonwordchars\fR
The value of this variable is a regular expression that can be set to


control what are considered ``non-word'' characters, for instances like
selecting a word by double-clicking in text in Tk.  It is platform
dependent.  On Windows, it defaults to \fB\\s\fR, meaning any Unicode space
character.  Otherwise it defaults to \fB\\W\fR, which is anything but a
Unicode word character (number, letter, or underscore).
.TP
\fBtcl_version\fR
When an interpreter is created Tcl initializes this variable to

Changes to doc/time.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: time.n,v 1.6 2007/10/25 10:03:33 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH time n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
time \- Time the execution of a script
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBtime \fIscript\fR ?\fIcount\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command will call the Tcl interpreter \fIcount\fR
times to evaluate \fIscript\fR (or once if \fIcount\fR isn't
specified).  It will then return a string of the form
.CS
\fB503.2 microseconds per iteration\fR
.CE
which indicates the average amount of time required per iteration,
in microseconds.
Time is measured in elapsed time, not CPU time.
.SH EXAMPLE
Estimate how long it takes for a simple Tcl \fBfor\fR loop to count to
a thousand:
................................................................................
.CS
time {
    for {set i 0} {$i<1000} {incr i} {
        # empty body
    }
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
clock(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
script, time






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: time.n,v 1.7 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH time n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
time \- Time the execution of a script
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBtime \fIscript\fR ?\fIcount\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command will call the Tcl interpreter \fIcount\fR
times to evaluate \fIscript\fR (or once if \fIcount\fR isn't
specified).  It will then return a string of the form
.CS
\fB503 microseconds per iteration\fR
.CE
which indicates the average amount of time required per iteration,
in microseconds.
Time is measured in elapsed time, not CPU time.
.SH EXAMPLE
Estimate how long it takes for a simple Tcl \fBfor\fR loop to count to
a thousand:
................................................................................
.CS
time {
    for {set i 0} {$i<1000} {incr i} {
        # empty body
    }
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
clock(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
script, time

Changes to doc/tm.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 Andreas Kupries <[email protected]>
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tm.n,v 1.8 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH tm n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tm \- Facilities for locating and loading of Tcl Modules
................................................................................
.TP
\fB::tcl::tm::path\fR \fBlist\fR
Returns a list containing all registered module paths, in the order
that they are searched for modules.
.TP
\fB::tcl::tm::roots\fR \fIpath\fR...
Similar to \fBpath add\fR, and layered on top of it. This command
takes a list of paths, extends each with
.QW "\fBtcl\fIX\fB/site-tcl\fR" ,
and
.QW "\fBtcl\fIX\fB/\fIX\fB.\fIy\fR" ,
for major version \fIX\fR of the
Tcl interpreter and minor version \fIy\fR less than or equal to the
minor version of the interpreter, and adds the resulting set of paths
to the list of paths to search.
.RS
.PP
This command is used internally by the system to set up the
system-specific default paths.
................................................................................
the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR variables are used.
All directories on the module path have to obey one restriction:
.IP
For any two directories, neither is an ancestor directory of the
other.
.PP
This is required to avoid ambiguities in package naming. If for
example the two directories
.QW \fIfoo/\fR
and
.QW \fIfoo/cool\fR
were on
the path a package named
.QW \fBcool::ice\fR
could be found via the names
.QW \fBcool::ice\fR
or
.QW \fBice\fR ,
the latter potentially obscuring a package named
.QW \fBice\fR ,
unqualified.
.PP
Before the search is started, the name of the requested package is
translated into a partial path, using the following algorithm:
.IP
All occurrences of
.QW \fB::\fR
in the package name are replaced by the appropriate directory
separator character for the platform we are on. On Unix, for example,
this is
.QW \fB/\fR .
.PP
Example:
.IP
The requested package is
.QW \fBencoding::base64\fR .
The generated partial path is
.QW \fIencoding/base64\fR
.PP
After this translation the package is looked for in all module paths,
by combining them one-by-one, first to last with the partial path to
form a complete search pattern. Note that the search algorithm rejects
all files where the filename does not match the regular expression
given in the section \fBMODULE DEFINITION\fR. For the remaining
files \fIprovide scripts\fR are generated and added to the package
................................................................................
source \fBMF\fR
.CE
.PP
Both package name \fBPNAME\fR and package version \fBPVERSION\fR are
extracted from the filename \fBMF\fR according to the definition
below:
.CS
\fBMF\fR = /module_path/\fBPNAME\(fm\fR-\fBPVERSION\fR.tm
.CE
.PP
Where \fBPNAME\(fm\fR is the partial path of the module as defined in
section \fBFINDING MODULES\fR, and translated into \fBPNAME\fR by
changing all directory separators to
.QW \fB::\fR ,
and \fBmodule_path\fR is the path (from the list of paths to search)
that we found the module file under.
.PP
Note also that we are here creating a connection between package names
and paths. Tcl is case-sensitive when it comes to comparing package
names, but there are filesystems which are not, like NTFS. Luckily
these filesystems do store the case of the name, despite not using the
................................................................................
\fB$::env(TCL8.4_TM_PATH)\fR
\fB$::env(TCL8.3_TM_PATH)\fR
\fB$::env(TCL8.2_TM_PATH)\fR
\fB$::env(TCL8.1_TM_PATH)\fR
\fB$::env(TCL8.0_TM_PATH)\fR
.CE
.RE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n), Tcl Improvement Proposal #189
.QW "\fITcl Modules\fR"
(online at http://tip.tcl.tk/189.html), Tcl Improvement Proposal #190
.QW "\fIImplementation Choices for Tcl Modules\fR"
(online at http://tip.tcl.tk/190.html)


.SH "KEYWORDS"
modules, package





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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 Andreas Kupries <[email protected]>
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: tm.n,v 1.9 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH tm n 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tm \- Facilities for locating and loading of Tcl Modules
................................................................................
.TP
\fB::tcl::tm::path\fR \fBlist\fR
Returns a list containing all registered module paths, in the order
that they are searched for modules.
.TP
\fB::tcl::tm::roots\fR \fIpath\fR...
Similar to \fBpath add\fR, and layered on top of it. This command
takes a list of paths, extends each with "\fBtcl\fIX\fB/site-tcl\fR",



and "\fBtcl\fIX\fB/\fIX\fB.\fIy\fR", for major version \fIX\fR of the
Tcl interpreter and minor version \fIy\fR less than or equal to the
minor version of the interpreter, and adds the resulting set of paths
to the list of paths to search.
.RS
.PP
This command is used internally by the system to set up the
system-specific default paths.
................................................................................
the \fBtcl_pkgPath\fR variables are used.
All directories on the module path have to obey one restriction:
.IP
For any two directories, neither is an ancestor directory of the
other.
.PP
This is required to avoid ambiguities in package naming. If for
example the two directories "\fIfoo/\fR" and "\fIfoo/cool\fR" were on




the path a package named \fBcool::ice\fR could be found via the
names \fBcool::ice\fR or \fBice\fR, the latter potentially




obscuring a package named \fBice\fR, unqualified.


.PP
Before the search is started, the name of the requested package is
translated into a partial path, using the following algorithm:
.IP
All occurrences of "\fB::\fR" in the package name are replaced by

the appropriate directory separator character for the platform we are
on. On Unix, for example, this is "\fB/\fR".


.PP
Example:
.IP
The requested package is \fBencoding::base64\fR. The generated


partial path is "\fIencoding/base64\fR"
.PP
After this translation the package is looked for in all module paths,
by combining them one-by-one, first to last with the partial path to
form a complete search pattern. Note that the search algorithm rejects
all files where the filename does not match the regular expression
given in the section \fBMODULE DEFINITION\fR. For the remaining
files \fIprovide scripts\fR are generated and added to the package
................................................................................
source \fBMF\fR
.CE
.PP
Both package name \fBPNAME\fR and package version \fBPVERSION\fR are
extracted from the filename \fBMF\fR according to the definition
below:
.CS
\fBMF\fR = /module_path/\fBPNAME'\fR-\fBPVERSION\fR.tm
.CE
.PP
Where \fBPNAME'\fR is the partial path of the module as defined in
section \fBFINDING MODULES\fR, and translated into \fB\fRPNAME by
changing all directory separators to "\fB::\fR",

and \fBmodule_path\fR is the path (from the list of paths to search)
that we found the module file under.
.PP
Note also that we are here creating a connection between package names
and paths. Tcl is case-sensitive when it comes to comparing package
names, but there are filesystems which are not, like NTFS. Luckily
these filesystems do store the case of the name, despite not using the
................................................................................
\fB$::env(TCL8.4_TM_PATH)\fR
\fB$::env(TCL8.3_TM_PATH)\fR
\fB$::env(TCL8.2_TM_PATH)\fR
\fB$::env(TCL8.1_TM_PATH)\fR
\fB$::env(TCL8.0_TM_PATH)\fR
.CE
.RE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n), Tcl Improvement Proposal #189 "\fITcl Modules\fR" (online

at http://tip.tcl.tk/189.html), Tcl Improvement Proposal #190
"\fIImplementation Choices for Tcl Modules\fR" (online at
http://tip.tcl.tk/190.html)


.SH "KEYWORDS"
modules, package

Changes to doc/trace.n.

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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: trace.n,v 1.20 2007/10/25 14:07:32 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH trace n "8.4" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
trace \- Monitor variable accesses, command usages and command executions
................................................................................
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBtrace \fIoption\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command causes Tcl commands to be executed whenever certain operations are
invoked.  The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBtrace add \fItype name ops ?args?\fR
Where \fItype\fR is \fBcommand\fR, \fBexecution\fR, or \fBvariable\fR.
.RS
.TP
\fBtrace add command\fR \fIname ops command\fR
Arrange for \fIcommand\fR to be executed whenever command \fIname\fR
................................................................................
.PP
\fIOps\fR indicates which operations are of interest, and is a list of
one or more of the following items:
.TP
\fBrename\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR whenever the command is renamed.  Note that
renaming to the empty string is considered deletion, and will not
be traced with
.QW rename .
.TP
\fBdelete\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR when the command is deleted.  Commands can be
deleted explicitly by using the \fBrename\fR command to rename the
command to an empty string.  Commands are also deleted when the
interpreter is deleted, but traces will not be invoked because there is no
interpreter in which to execute them.
................................................................................
number of arguments are appended to \fIcommand\fR so that the actual 
command is as follows:
.CS
\fIcommand oldName newName op\fR
.CE
\fIOldName\fR and \fInewName\fR give the traced command's current
(old) name, and the name to which it is being renamed (the empty
string if this is a
.QW delete
operation).
\fIOp\fR indicates what operation is being performed on the
command, and is one of \fBrename\fR or \fBdelete\fR as
defined above.  The trace operation cannot be used to stop a command
from being deleted.  Tcl will always remove the command once the trace
is complete.  Recursive renaming or deleting will not cause further traces 
of the same type to be evaluated, so a delete trace which itself
deletes the command, or a rename trace which itself renames the
................................................................................
\fBleave\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR whenever the command \fIname\fR is executed,
just after the actual execution takes place.
.TP
\fBenterstep\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR for every Tcl command which is executed 
inside the procedure \fIname\fR, just before the actual execution
takes place.  For example if we have
.QW "proc foo {} { puts {hello world} }" ,
then an \fIenterstep\fR trace would be invoked just before
.QW "puts {hello world}"
is executed.
Setting an \fIenterstep\fR trace on a \fIcommand\fR
will not result in an error and is simply ignored.
.TP
\fBleavestep\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR for every Tcl command which is executed 
inside the procedure \fIname\fR, just after the actual execution
takes place.
................................................................................
executed (the traced command for a \fBenter\fR operation, an 
arbitrary command for a \fBenterstep\fR operation), including
all arguments in their fully expanded form.
\fIOp\fR indicates what operation is being performed on the
command execution, and is one of \fBenter\fR or \fBenterstep\fR as
defined above.  The trace operation can be used to stop the
command from executing, by deleting the command in question.  Of
course when the command is subsequently executed, an
.QW "invalid command"
error will occur.
.PP
For \fBleave\fR and \fBleavestep\fR operations:
.CS
\fIcommand command-string code result op\fR
.CE
\fICommand-string\fR gives the complete current command being 






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'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 2000 Ajuba Solutions.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: trace.n,v 1.21 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH trace n "8.4" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
trace \- Monitor variable accesses, command usages and command executions
................................................................................
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBtrace \fIoption\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command causes Tcl commands to be executed whenever certain operations are
invoked.  The legal \fIoption\fR's (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBtrace add \fItype name ops ?args?\fR
Where \fItype\fR is \fBcommand\fR, \fBexecution\fR, or \fBvariable\fR.
.RS
.TP
\fBtrace add command\fR \fIname ops command\fR
Arrange for \fIcommand\fR to be executed whenever command \fIname\fR
................................................................................
.PP
\fIOps\fR indicates which operations are of interest, and is a list of
one or more of the following items:
.TP
\fBrename\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR whenever the command is renamed.  Note that
renaming to the empty string is considered deletion, and will not
be traced with '\fBrename\fR'.

.TP
\fBdelete\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR when the command is deleted.  Commands can be
deleted explicitly by using the \fBrename\fR command to rename the
command to an empty string.  Commands are also deleted when the
interpreter is deleted, but traces will not be invoked because there is no
interpreter in which to execute them.
................................................................................
number of arguments are appended to \fIcommand\fR so that the actual 
command is as follows:
.CS
\fIcommand oldName newName op\fR
.CE
\fIOldName\fR and \fInewName\fR give the traced command's current
(old) name, and the name to which it is being renamed (the empty
string if this is a 'delete' operation).


\fIOp\fR indicates what operation is being performed on the
command, and is one of \fBrename\fR or \fBdelete\fR as
defined above.  The trace operation cannot be used to stop a command
from being deleted.  Tcl will always remove the command once the trace
is complete.  Recursive renaming or deleting will not cause further traces 
of the same type to be evaluated, so a delete trace which itself
deletes the command, or a rename trace which itself renames the
................................................................................
\fBleave\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR whenever the command \fIname\fR is executed,
just after the actual execution takes place.
.TP
\fBenterstep\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR for every Tcl command which is executed 
inside the procedure \fIname\fR, just before the actual execution
takes place.  For example if we have 'proc foo {} { puts "hello" }',

then an \fIenterstep\fR trace would be 

invoked just before \fIputs "hello"\fR is executed.
Setting an \fIenterstep\fR trace on a \fIcommand\fR
will not result in an error and is simply ignored.
.TP
\fBleavestep\fR
Invoke \fIcommand\fR for every Tcl command which is executed 
inside the procedure \fIname\fR, just after the actual execution
takes place.
................................................................................
executed (the traced command for a \fBenter\fR operation, an 
arbitrary command for a \fBenterstep\fR operation), including
all arguments in their fully expanded form.
\fIOp\fR indicates what operation is being performed on the
command execution, and is one of \fBenter\fR or \fBenterstep\fR as
defined above.  The trace operation can be used to stop the
command from executing, by deleting the command in question.  Of
course when the command is subsequently executed, an 'invalid command'

error will occur.
.PP
For \fBleave\fR and \fBleavestep\fR operations:
.CS
\fIcommand command-string code result op\fR
.CE
\fICommand-string\fR gives the complete current command being 

Changes to doc/update.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1990-1992 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: update.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH update n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
update \- Process pending events and idle callbacks
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBupdate\fR ?\fBidletasks\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command is used to bring the application
.QW "up to date"
by entering the event loop repeatedly until all pending events
(including idle callbacks) have been processed.
.PP
If the \fBidletasks\fR keyword is specified as an argument to the
command, then no new events or errors are processed;  only idle
callbacks are invoked.
This causes operations that are normally deferred, such as display






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1990-1992 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: update.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH update n 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
update \- Process pending events and idle callbacks
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBupdate\fR ?\fBidletasks\fR?
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command is used to bring the application ``up to date''

by entering the event loop repeatedly until all pending events
(including idle callbacks) have been processed.
.PP
If the \fBidletasks\fR keyword is specified as an argument to the
command, then no new events or errors are processed;  only idle
callbacks are invoked.
This causes operations that are normally deferred, such as display

Changes to doc/uplevel.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: uplevel.n,v 1.7 2007/10/24 14:29:39 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH uplevel n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
uplevel \- Execute a script in a different stack frame
................................................................................
at level 3, as if called from \fBb\fR.  If it in turn executes
the command
.CS
\fBuplevel\fR {set x 42}
.CE
then the \fBset\fR command will modify the same variable \fBx\fR in \fBb\fR's
context:  the procedure \fBc\fR does not appear to be on the call stack
when \fBd\fR is executing.  The command
.QW "\fBinfo level\fR"
may be used to obtain the level of the current procedure.
.PP
\fBUplevel\fR makes it possible to implement new control
constructs as Tcl procedures (for example, \fBuplevel\fR could
be used to implement the \fBwhile\fR construct as a Tcl procedure).
.PP
The \fBnamespace eval\fR and \fBapply\fR commands offer other ways
(besides procedure calls) that the Tcl naming context can change.
................................................................................
        \fBuplevel\fR 1 $body
        if {![\fBuplevel\fR 1 $conditionCmd]} {
            break
        }
    }
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
apply(n), namespace(n), upvar(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
context, level, namespace, stack frame, variables






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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: uplevel.n,v 1.8 2007/10/26 20:11:53 dgp Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH uplevel n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
uplevel \- Execute a script in a different stack frame
................................................................................
at level 3, as if called from \fBb\fR.  If it in turn executes
the command
.CS
\fBuplevel\fR {set x 42}
.CE
then the \fBset\fR command will modify the same variable \fBx\fR in \fBb\fR's
context:  the procedure \fBc\fR does not appear to be on the call stack
when \fBd\fR is executing.  The command ``\fBinfo level\fR'' may

be used to obtain the level of the current procedure.
.PP
\fBUplevel\fR makes it possible to implement new control
constructs as Tcl procedures (for example, \fBuplevel\fR could
be used to implement the \fBwhile\fR construct as a Tcl procedure).
.PP
The \fBnamespace eval\fR and \fBapply\fR commands offer other ways
(besides procedure calls) that the Tcl naming context can change.
................................................................................
        \fBuplevel\fR 1 $body
        if {![\fBuplevel\fR 1 $conditionCmd]} {
            break
        }
    }
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
apply(n), namespace(n), upvar(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
context, level, namespace, stack frame, variables

Changes to doc/upvar.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\" 
'\" RCS: @(#) $Id: upvar.n,v 1.13 2007/10/25 09:58:53 dkf Exp $
'\" 
.so man.macros
.TH upvar n "" Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.BS
'\"