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Overview
Comment:merge novem
Downloads: Tarball | ZIP archive | SQL archive
Timelines: family | ancestors | descendants | both | novem-purge-literals
Files: files | file ages | folders
SHA3-256: a72a317ba0c2cc89e32117dda75541fc1ac7ba133da140b17dcbf49720b69e56
User & Date: dgp 2019-06-12 19:34:43
Context
2019-06-17
18:38
merge novem Leaf check-in: 5f6508a146 user: dgp tags: novem-purge-literals
2019-06-12
19:34
merge novem check-in: a72a317ba0 user: dgp tags: novem-purge-literals
18:41
merge trunk check-in: 9b0d0c83a1 user: dgp tags: novem
2018-03-15
15:43
merge novem check-in: 700b9a198f user: dgp tags: novem-purge-literals
Changes
Hide Diffs Unified Diffs Ignore Whitespace Patch

Deleted .fossil-settings/crnl-glob.

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compat/zlib/contrib/dotzlib/DotZLib/UnitTests.cs
compat/zlib/contrib/vstudio/readme.txt
compat/zlib/contrib/vstudio/*/zlib.rc
compat/zlib/win32/*.txt
compat/zlib/win64/*.txt
libtommath/*.dsp
libtommath/*.sln
libtommath/*.vcproj
tools/tcl.hpj.in
tools/tcl.wse.in
win/buildall.vc.bat
win/coffbase.txt
win/makefile.vc
win/rules.vc
win/rules-ext.vc
win/targets.vc
win/tcl.dsp
win/tcl.dsw
win/tcl.hpj.in
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Changes to .fossil-settings/ignore-glob.

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*/config.log
*/config.status
*/tclConfig.sh
*/tclsh*
*/tcltest*
*/versions.vc
*/version.vc


html
libtommath/bn.ilg
libtommath/bn.ind
libtommath/pretty.build
libtommath/tommath.src

libtommath/*.pdf
libtommath/*.pl
libtommath/*.sh

libtommath/tombc/*
libtommath/pre_gen/*
libtommath/pics/*
libtommath/mtest/*
libtommath/logs/*
libtommath/etc/*
libtommath/demo/*






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*/config.log
*/config.status
*/tclConfig.sh
*/tclsh*
*/tcltest*
*/versions.vc
*/version.vc
*/libtcl.vfs
*/libtcl_*.zip
html
libtommath/bn.ilg
libtommath/bn.ind
libtommath/pretty.build
libtommath/tommath.src
libtommath/*.log
libtommath/*.pdf
libtommath/*.pl
libtommath/*.sh
libtommath/doc/*
libtommath/tombc/*
libtommath/pre_gen/*
libtommath/pics/*
libtommath/mtest/*
libtommath/logs/*
libtommath/etc/*
libtommath/demo/*

Added .github/ISSUE_TEMPLATE.md.






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Important Note
==========
Please do not file issues with Tcl on Github. They are unlikely to be noticed in a timely fashion. Tcl issues are hosted in the [tcl fossil repository on core.tcl.tk](https://core.tcl.tk/tcl/tktnew); please post them there.

Added .github/PULL_REQUEST_TEMPLATE.md.






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Important Note
==========
Please do not file pull requests with Tcl on Github. They are unlikely to be noticed in a timely fashion. Tcl issues (including patches) are hosted in the [tcl fossil repository on core.tcl.tk](https://core.tcl.tk/tcl/tktnew); please post them there.

Added .travis.yml.


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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sudo: false
language: c

matrix:
  include:
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: clang
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: clang
      env:
        - CFGOPT=--disable-shared
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc
      env:
        - CFGOPT=--disable-shared
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-4.9
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-4.9
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-5
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-5
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-6
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-6
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-7
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-7
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-7
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-7
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT=CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=6
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-7
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-7
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT=CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=3
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: gcc-7
      addons:
        apt:
          sources:
            - ubuntu-toolchain-r-test
          packages:
            - g++-7
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
        - CFGOPT=CFLAGS=-DTCL_NO_DEPRECATED=1
    - os: osx
      osx_image: xcode8
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=unix
    - os: osx
      osx_image: xcode8
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=macosx
        - NO_DIRECT_CONFIGURE=1
    - os: osx
      osx_image: xcode9
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=macosx
        - NO_DIRECT_CONFIGURE=1
    - os: osx
      osx_image: xcode10.2
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=macosx
        - NO_DIRECT_CONFIGURE=1
### C builds not currently supported on Windows instances
#    - os: windows
#      env:
#        - BUILD_DIR=win
### ... so proxy with a Mingw cross-compile
# Test with mingw-w64 (32 bit)
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: i686-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - gcc-multilib
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT=--host=i686-w64-mingw32
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: i686-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - gcc-multilib
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=i686-w64-mingw32 --disable-shared"
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: i686-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - gcc-multilib
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=i686-w64-mingw32 CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=6"
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: i686-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - gcc-multilib
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=i686-w64-mingw32 CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=3"
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: i686-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64-i686
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - gcc-multilib
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=i686-w64-mingw32 CFLAGS=-DTCL_NO_DEPRECATED=1"
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
# Test with mingw-w64 (64 bit)
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=x86_64-w64-mingw32 --enable-64bit"
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=x86_64-w64-mingw32 --enable-64bit --disable-shared"
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=x86_64-w64-mingw32 --enable-64bit CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=6"
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=x86_64-w64-mingw32 --enable-64bit CFLAGS=-DTCL_UTF_MAX=3"
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
    - os: linux
      dist: xenial
      compiler: x86_64-w64-mingw32-gcc
      addons:
        apt:
          packages:
            - gcc-mingw-w64-base
            - binutils-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64-x86-64
            - gcc-mingw-w64
            - wine
      env:
        - BUILD_DIR=win
        - CFGOPT="--host=x86_64-w64-mingw32 --enable-64bit CFLAGS=-DTCL_NO_DEPRECATED=1"
        - NO_DIRECT_TEST=1
before_install:
  - export ERROR_ON_FAILURES=1
  - cd ${BUILD_DIR}
install:
  - test -n "$NO_DIRECT_CONFIGURE" || ./configure ${CFGOPT}
script:
  - make
  # The styles=develop avoids some weird problems on OSX
  - test -n "$NO_DIRECT_TEST" || make test styles=develop

Changes to ChangeLog.

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A NOTE ON THE CHANGELOG:
Starting in early 2011, Tcl source code has been under the management of
fossil, hosted at http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ .  Fossil presents a "Timeline"
view of changes made that is superior in every way to a hand edited log file.
Because of this, many Tcl developers are now out of the habit of maintaining
this log file.  You may still find useful things in it, but the Timeline is
a better first place to look now.
============================================================================

2013-09-19  Don Porter  <[email protected]>

|







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A NOTE ON THE CHANGELOG:
Starting in early 2011, Tcl source code has been under the management of
fossil, hosted at https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ .  Fossil presents a "Timeline"
view of changes made that is superior in every way to a hand edited log file.
Because of this, many Tcl developers are now out of the habit of maintaining
this log file.  You may still find useful things in it, but the Timeline is
a better first place to look now.
============================================================================

2013-09-19  Don Porter  <[email protected]>

Changes to ChangeLog.2007.

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	an expr syntax error (masked by a [catch]).

	* generic/tclCompCmds.c (TclCompileReturnCmd):	Added crash protection
	to handle callers other than TclCompileScript() failing to meet the
	initialization assumptions of the TIP 280 code in CompileWord().

	* generic/tclCompExpr.c:	Suppress the attempt to convert to
	numeric when pre-compiling a constant expresion indicates an error.

2007-08-22  Miguel Sofer  <[email protected]>

	* generic/tclExecute.c (TEBC): disable the new shortcut to frequent
	INSTs for debug builds. REVERTED (collision with alternative fix)

2007-08-21  Don Porter	<[email protected]>






|







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	an expr syntax error (masked by a [catch]).

	* generic/tclCompCmds.c (TclCompileReturnCmd):	Added crash protection
	to handle callers other than TclCompileScript() failing to meet the
	initialization assumptions of the TIP 280 code in CompileWord().

	* generic/tclCompExpr.c:	Suppress the attempt to convert to
	numeric when pre-compiling a constant expression indicates an error.

2007-08-22  Miguel Sofer  <[email protected]>

	* generic/tclExecute.c (TEBC): disable the new shortcut to frequent
	INSTs for debug builds. REVERTED (collision with alternative fix)

2007-08-21  Don Porter	<[email protected]>

Name change from README to README.md.

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README:  Tcl

    This is the Tcl 9.0a0 source distribution.


	http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/
    You can get any source release of Tcl from the URL above.



Contents
--------
    1. Introduction
    2. Documentation
    3. Compiling and installing Tcl
    4. Development tools
    5. Tcl newsgroup
    6. The Tcler's Wiki
    7. Mailing lists
    8. Support and Training
    9. Tracking Development
    10. Thank You

1. Introduction
---------------
Tcl provides a powerful platform for creating integration applications that
tie together diverse applications, protocols, devices, and frameworks.
When paired with the Tk toolkit, Tcl provides the fastest and most powerful
way to create GUI applications that run on PCs, Unix, and Mac OS X.
Tcl can also be used for a variety of web-related tasks and for creating
powerful command languages for applications.

Tcl is maintained, enhanced, and distributed freely by the Tcl community.
Source code development and tracking of bug reports and feature requests
takes place at:

	http://core.tcl.tk/

Tcl/Tk release and mailing list services are hosted by SourceForge:

	http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/

with the Tcl Developer Xchange hosted at:

	http://www.tcl.tk/


Tcl is a freely available open source package.  You can do virtually
anything you like with it, such as modifying it, redistributing it,
and selling it either in whole or in part.  See the file
"license.terms" for complete information.

2. Documentation
----------------

Extensive documentation is available at our website.
The home page for this release, including new features, is
	http://www.tcl.tk/software/tcltk/9.0.html

Detailed release notes can be found at the file distributions page

by clicking on the relevant version.
	http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/

Information about Tcl itself can be found at
	http://www.tcl.tk/about/


There have been many Tcl books on the market.  Many are mentioned in the Wiki:
	http://wiki.tcl.tk/_/ref?N=25206


To view the complete set of reference manual entries for Tcl 9.0 online,
visit the URL:
	http://www.tcl.tk/man/tcl9.0/


2a. Unix Documentation
----------------------

The "doc" subdirectory in this release contains a complete set of
reference manual entries for Tcl.  Files with extension ".1" are for
programs (for example, tclsh.1); files with extension ".3" are for C

library procedures; and files with extension ".n" describe Tcl
commands.  The file "doc/Tcl.n" gives a quick summary of the Tcl
language syntax.  To print any of the man pages on Unix, cd to the
"doc" directory and invoke your favorite variant of troff using the
normal -man macros, for example

		ditroff -man Tcl.n

to print Tcl.n.  If Tcl has been installed correctly and your "man" program
supports it, you should be able to access the Tcl manual entries using the
normal "man" mechanisms, such as

		man Tcl

2b. Windows Documentation
-------------------------

The "doc" subdirectory in this release contains a complete set of Windows
help files for Tcl.  Once you install this Tcl release, a shortcut to the
Windows help Tcl documentation will appear in the "Start" menu:

	Start | Programs | Tcl | Tcl Help

3. Compiling and installing Tcl
-------------------------------

There are brief notes in the unix/README, win/README, and macosx/README about
compiling on these different platforms.  There is additional information
about building Tcl from sources at

	http://www.tcl.tk/doc/howto/compile.html

4. Development tools
---------------------------

ActiveState produces a high quality set of commercial quality development
tools that is available to accelerate your Tcl application development.
Tcl Dev Kit builds on the earlier TclPro toolset and provides a debugger,
static code checker, single-file wrapping utility, bytecode compiler and
more.  More information can be found at

	http://www.ActiveState.com/Tcl

5. Tcl newsgroup
----------------

There is a USENET news group, "comp.lang.tcl", intended for the exchange of
information about Tcl, Tk, and related applications.  The newsgroup is a
great place to ask general information questions.  For bug reports, please
see the "Support and bug fixes" section below.

6. Tcl'ers Wiki
---------------

A Wiki-based open community site covering all aspects of Tcl/Tk is at:

	http://wiki.tcl.tk/

It is dedicated to the Tcl programming language and its extensions.  A
wealth of useful information can be found there.  It contains code
snippets, references to papers, books, and FAQs, as well as pointers to
development tools, extensions, and applications.  You can also recommend
additional URLs by editing the wiki yourself.

7. Mailing lists
----------------

Several mailing lists are hosted at SourceForge to discuss development or
use issues (like Macintosh and Windows topics).  For more information and
to subscribe, visit:

	http://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/

and go to the Mailing Lists page.

8. Support and Training
------------------------

We are very interested in receiving bug reports, patches, and suggestions
for improvements.  We prefer that you send this information to us as
tickets entered into our tracker at:

	http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/reportlist


We will log and follow-up on each bug, although we cannot promise a
specific turn-around time.  Enhancements may take longer and may not happen
at all unless there is widespread support for them (we're trying to
slow the rate at which Tcl/Tk turns into a kitchen sink).  It's very
difficult to make incompatible changes to Tcl/Tk at this point, due to
the size of the installed base.

The Tcl community is too large for us to provide much individual support
for users.  If you need help we suggest that you post questions to


comp.lang.tcl.  We read the newsgroup and will attempt to answer esoteric
questions for which no one else is likely to know the answer.  In addition,
see the following Web site for links to other organizations that offer
Tcl/Tk training:


	http://wiki.tcl.tk/training

9. Tracking Development
-----------------------

Tcl is developed in public.  To keep an eye on how Tcl is changing, see
	http://core.tcl.tk/


10. Thank You
-------------

We'd like to express our thanks to the Tcl community for all the
helpful suggestions, bug reports, and patches we have received.
Tcl/Tk has improved vastly and will continue to do so with your help.
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# README:  Tcl

This is the **Tcl 9.0a0** source distribution.

You can get any source release of Tcl from [our distribution
site](https://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/).


[![Build Status](https://travis-ci.org/tcltk/tcl.svg?branch=master)](https://travis-ci.org/tcltk/tcl)

## Contents

 1. [Introduction](#intro)
 2. [Documentation](#doc)
 3. [Compiling and installing Tcl](#build)
 4. [Development tools](#devtools)
 5. [Tcl newsgroup](#complangtcl)
 6. [The Tcler's Wiki](#wiki)
 7. [Mailing lists](#email)
 8. [Support and Training](#support)
 9. [Tracking Development](#watch)
 10. [Thank You](#thanks)

## <a id="intro">1.</a> Introduction

Tcl provides a powerful platform for creating integration applications that
tie together diverse applications, protocols, devices, and frameworks.
When paired with the Tk toolkit, Tcl provides the fastest and most powerful
way to create GUI applications that run on PCs, Unix, and Mac OS X.
Tcl can also be used for a variety of web-related tasks and for creating
powerful command languages for applications.

Tcl is maintained, enhanced, and distributed freely by the Tcl community.
Source code development and tracking of bug reports and feature requests
takes place at [core.tcl-lang.org](https://core.tcl-lang.org/).



Tcl/Tk release and mailing list services are [hosted by

SourceForge](https://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/)

with the Tcl Developer Xchange hosted at


[www.tcl-lang.org](https://www.tcl-lang.org).

Tcl is a freely available open source package.  You can do virtually
anything you like with it, such as modifying it, redistributing it,
and selling it either in whole or in part.  See the file
`license.terms` for complete information.

## <a id="doc">2.</a> Documentation


Extensive documentation is available at our website.
The home page for this release, including new features, is
[here](https://www.tcl.tk/software/tcltk/9.0.html).

Detailed release notes can be found at the
[file distributions page](https://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/files/Tcl/)
by clicking on the relevant version.


Information about Tcl itself can be found at the [Developer


Xchange](https://www.tcl-lang.org/about/).
There have been many Tcl books on the market.  Many are mentioned in

[the Wiki](https://wiki.tcl-lang.org/_/ref?N=25206).

The complete set of reference manual entries for Tcl 9.0 is [online,


here](https://www.tcl-lang.org/man/tcl9.0/).

### <a id="doc.unix">2a.</a> Unix Documentation


The `doc` subdirectory in this release contains a complete set of
reference manual entries for Tcl.  Files with extension "`.1`" are for

programs (for example, `tclsh.1`); files with extension "`.3`" are for C
library procedures; and files with extension "`.n`" describe Tcl
commands.  The file "`doc/Tcl.n`" gives a quick summary of the Tcl
language syntax.  To print any of the man pages on Unix, cd to the
"doc" directory and invoke your favorite variant of troff using the
normal -man macros, for example

		groff -man -Tpdf Tcl.n >output.pdf

to print Tcl.n to PDF.  If Tcl has been installed correctly and your "man" program
supports it, you should be able to access the Tcl manual entries using the
normal "man" mechanisms, such as

		man Tcl

### <a id="doc.win">2b.</a> Windows Documentation


The "doc" subdirectory in this release contains a complete set of Windows
help files for Tcl.  Once you install this Tcl release, a shortcut to the
Windows help Tcl documentation will appear in the "Start" menu:

		Start | Programs | Tcl | Tcl Help

## <a id="build">3.</a> Compiling and installing Tcl


There are brief notes in the `unix/README`, `win/README`, and `macosx/README`
about compiling on these different platforms.  There is additional information
about building Tcl from sources

[online](https://www.tcl-lang.org/doc/howto/compile.html).

## <a id="devtools">4.</a> Development tools


ActiveState produces a high quality set of commercial quality development
tools that is available to accelerate your Tcl application development.
Tcl Dev Kit builds on the earlier TclPro toolset and provides a debugger,
static code checker, single-file wrapping utility, bytecode compiler and
more.  More information can be found at

	http://www.ActiveState.com/Tcl

## <a id="complangtcl">5.</a> Tcl newsgroup


There is a USENET news group, "`comp.lang.tcl`", intended for the exchange of
information about Tcl, Tk, and related applications.  The newsgroup is a
great place to ask general information questions.  For bug reports, please
see the "Support and bug fixes" section below.

## <a id="wiki">6.</a> Tcl'ers Wiki
There is a [wiki-based open community site](https://wiki.tcl-lang.org/)

covering all aspects of Tcl/Tk.



It is dedicated to the Tcl programming language and its extensions.  A
wealth of useful information can be found there.  It contains code
snippets, references to papers, books, and FAQs, as well as pointers to
development tools, extensions, and applications.  You can also recommend
additional URLs by editing the wiki yourself.

## <a id="email">7.</a> Mailing lists


Several mailing lists are hosted at SourceForge to discuss development or use
issues (like Macintosh and Windows topics).  For more information and to


subscribe, visit [here](https://sourceforge.net/projects/tcl/) and go to the

Mailing Lists page.

## <a id="support">8.</a> Support and Training


We are very interested in receiving bug reports, patches, and suggestions for
improvements.  We prefer that you send this information to us as tickets



entered into [our issue tracker](https://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/reportlist).

We will log and follow-up on each bug, although we cannot promise a
specific turn-around time.  Enhancements may take longer and may not happen
at all unless there is widespread support for them (we're trying to
slow the rate at which Tcl/Tk turns into a kitchen sink).  It's very
difficult to make incompatible changes to Tcl/Tk at this point, due to
the size of the installed base.

The Tcl community is too large for us to provide much individual support for
users.  If you need help we suggest that you post questions to `comp.lang.tcl`
or ask a question on [Stack
Overflow](https://stackoverflow.com/questions/tagged/tcl).  We read the
newsgroup and will attempt to answer esoteric questions for which no one else
is likely to know the answer.  In addition, see the wiki for [links to other


organizations](https://wiki.tcl-lang.org/training) that offer Tcl/Tk training.



## <a id="watch">9.</a> Tracking Development


Tcl is developed in public.  You can keep an eye on how Tcl is changing at

[core.tcl-lang.org](https://core.tcl-lang.org/).

## <a id="thanks">10.</a> Thank You


We'd like to express our thanks to the Tcl community for all the
helpful suggestions, bug reports, and patches we have received.
Tcl/Tk has improved vastly and will continue to do so with your help.

Changes to changes.

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2017-12-08 (new)[TIP 477] nmake build system reform (nadkarni)

2017-12-19 (bug)[586e71] EvalObjv exception handling at level #0 (sebres,porter)

--- Released 8.6.8, December 22, 2017 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details

































































Changes to 8.7a1 include all changes to the 8.6 line through 8.6.7,
plus the following, which focuses on the high-level feature changes
in this changeset (new minor version) rather than bug fixes:

2016-03-17 (bug)[0b8c38] socket accept callbacks always in global ns (porter)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

................................................................................
2016-07-19 (bug)[0363f0] Partial array search ID reform (porter)

2016-07-19 (feature removed) Tcl_ObjType "array search" unregistered (porter)
	*** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY for Tcl_GetObjType("array search") ***

2016-10-04 Server socket on port 0 chooses port supporting IPv4 * IPv6 (max)

2016-11-25 [array named -regexp] supports backrefs (goth)

2017-01-04 (TIP 456) New routine Tcl_OpenTcpServerEx() (limeboy)

2017-01-04 (TIP 459) New subcommand [package files] (nijtmans)

2017-01-16 threaded allocator initialization repair (vasiljevic,nijtmans)

................................................................................

--- Released 8.7a1, September 8, 2017 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details

2018-03-12 (TIP 490) add oo support for msgcat => msgcat 1.7.0 (oehlmann)

2018-03-12 (TIP 499) custom locale preference list (oehlmann)
=> msgcat 1.7.0








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2017-12-08 (new)[TIP 477] nmake build system reform (nadkarni)

2017-12-19 (bug)[586e71] EvalObjv exception handling at level #0 (sebres,porter)

--- Released 8.6.8, December 22, 2017 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details

2018-02-11 (enhance) stop blocking conversion of object to/from class (coulter)

2018-02-12 (enhance) NR-enable [package require] (coulter)

2018-02-14 (bug)[9fd5c6] crash in object deletion, test oo-11.5 (coulter)

2018-02-14 (bug)[3c32a3] crash deleting object with class mixed in (coulter)

2018-02-15 (platform) stop using -lieee, removed from glibc-2.27 (porter)
***POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY for math programs that embed Tcl***

2018-02-23 (bug)[8e6a9a] bad binary [string match], test string-11.55 (porter)

2018-03-05 (bug)[1873ea] repair multi-thread std channel init (sebres)

2018-03-09 (bug)[db36fa] broken bytecode for index values (porter)

2018-03-13 (bug) broken compiled [string replace], test string-14.19 (porter)

2018-03-14 (bug) [string trim*] engine crashed on invalid UTF (sebres)

2018-04-17 (bug) missing trace in compiled [array set], test var-20.11 (porter)

2018-04-22 (bug)[46a241] crash in unset array with search, var-13.[23] (goth)

2018-04-30 (bug)[27b682] race made [file delete] raise "no such file" (sebres)

2018-06-04 (bug)[925643] 32/64 cleanup of filesystem DIR operations (sebres)

2018-06-18 (bug) leaks in TclSetEnv and env cache (coulter)

2018-06-24 (bug)[3592747] [yieldto] dying namespace, tailcall-14.1 (coulter)

2018-07-09 (bug)[270f78] race in [file mkdir] (sebres)

2018-07-12 (bug)[3f7af0] [file delete] raised "permission denied" (sebres)

2018-07-26 (bug)[d051b7] overflow crash in [format] (sebres)

2018-08-29 revised quoting of [exec] args in generated command line (sebres)
***POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY***

2018-09-20 HTTP Keep-Alive with pipelined requests (nash)
=> http 2.9.0

2018-09-27 (new)[TIP 505] [lreplace] accepts all out of range indices (porter)

2018-10-04 (bug) Prevent crash from NULL keyName (nijtmans)
=> registry 1.3.3

2018-10-26 (enhance) advance dde version (nijtmans)
=> dde 1.4.1

2018-10-27 tzdata updated to Olson's tzdata2018g (jima)

2018-10-29 Update tcltest package for Travis support (fellows)
=> tcltest 2.5.0

2018-11-09 (bug)[35a8f1] overlong string length of some lists (owens)

2018-11-16 (bug)[00d04c] Repair [binary encode base64] (sebres)

- Released 8.6.9, November 16, 2018 - details at http://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ -

Changes to 8.7a1 include all changes to the 8.6 line through 8.6.7,
plus the following, which focuses on the high-level feature changes
in this changeset (new minor version) rather than bug fixes:

2016-03-17 (bug)[0b8c38] socket accept callbacks always in global ns (porter)
        *** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY ***

................................................................................
2016-07-19 (bug)[0363f0] Partial array search ID reform (porter)

2016-07-19 (feature removed) Tcl_ObjType "array search" unregistered (porter)
	*** POTENTIAL INCOMPATIBILITY for Tcl_GetObjType("array search") ***

2016-10-04 Server socket on port 0 chooses port supporting IPv4 * IPv6 (max)

2016-11-25 [array names -regexp] supports backrefs (goth)

2017-01-04 (TIP 456) New routine Tcl_OpenTcpServerEx() (limeboy)

2017-01-04 (TIP 459) New subcommand [package files] (nijtmans)

2017-01-16 threaded allocator initialization repair (vasiljevic,nijtmans)

................................................................................

--- Released 8.7a1, September 8, 2017 --- http://core.tcl.tk/tcl/ for details

2018-03-12 (TIP 490) add oo support for msgcat => msgcat 1.7.0 (oehlmann)

2018-03-12 (TIP 499) custom locale preference list (oehlmann)
=> msgcat 1.7.0

- Released 8.7a3, Nov 30, 2018 --- http://core.tcl-lang.org/tcl/ for details -

Deleted compat/fixstrtod.c.

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/*
 * fixstrtod.c --
 *
 *	Source code for the "fixstrtod" procedure.  This procedure is
 *	used in place of strtod under Solaris 2.4, in order to fix
 *	a bug where the "end" pointer gets set incorrectly.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1995 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
 * of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */

#include <stdio.h>

#undef strtod

/*
 * Declare strtod explicitly rather than including stdlib.h, since in
 * somes systems (e.g. SunOS 4.1.4) stdlib.h doesn't declare strtod.
 */

extern double strtod(char *, char **);

double
fixstrtod(
    char *string,
    char **endPtr)
{
    double d;
    d = strtod(string, endPtr);
    if ((endPtr != NULL) && (*endPtr != string) && ((*endPtr)[-1] == 0)) {
	*endPtr -= 1;
    }
    return d;
}
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Changes to compat/opendir.c.

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    register int fd;
    char *myname;

    myname = ((*name == '\0') ? "." : name);
    if ((fd = open(myname, 0, 0)) == -1) {
	return NULL;
    }
    dirp = (DIR *) ckalloc(sizeof(DIR));
    if (dirp == NULL) {
	/* unreachable? */
	close(fd);
	return NULL;
    }
    dirp->dd_fd = fd;
    dirp->dd_loc = 0;
................................................................................
void
closedir(
    register DIR *dirp)
{
    close(dirp->dd_fd);
    dirp->dd_fd = -1;
    dirp->dd_loc = 0;
    ckfree(dirp);
}






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    register int fd;
    char *myname;

    myname = ((*name == '\0') ? "." : name);
    if ((fd = open(myname, 0, 0)) == -1) {
	return NULL;
    }
    dirp = (DIR *) Tcl_Alloc(sizeof(DIR));
    if (dirp == NULL) {
	/* unreachable? */
	close(fd);
	return NULL;
    }
    dirp->dd_fd = fd;
    dirp->dd_loc = 0;
................................................................................
void
closedir(
    register DIR *dirp)
{
    close(dirp->dd_fd);
    dirp->dd_fd = -1;
    dirp->dd_loc = 0;
    Tcl_Free(dirp);
}

Changes to compat/stdlib.h.

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extern void		exit(int status);
extern int		free(char *blockPtr);
extern char *		getenv(const char *name);
extern char *		malloc(unsigned int numBytes);
extern void		qsort(void *base, int n, int size, int (*compar)(
			    const void *element1, const void *element2));
extern char *		realloc(char *ptr, unsigned int numBytes);
extern double		strtod(const char *string, char **endPtr);
extern long		strtol(const char *string, char **endPtr, int base);
extern unsigned long	strtoul(const char *string, char **endPtr, int base);

#endif /* _STDLIB */






<




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extern void		exit(int status);
extern int		free(char *blockPtr);
extern char *		getenv(const char *name);
extern char *		malloc(unsigned int numBytes);
extern void		qsort(void *base, int n, int size, int (*compar)(
			    const void *element1, const void *element2));
extern char *		realloc(char *ptr, unsigned int numBytes);

extern long		strtol(const char *string, char **endPtr, int base);
extern unsigned long	strtoul(const char *string, char **endPtr, int base);

#endif /* _STDLIB */

Deleted compat/strtod.c.

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/*
 * strtod.c --
 *
 *	Source code for the "strtod" library procedure.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1988-1993 The Regents of the University of California.
 * Copyright (c) 1994 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
 * of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */

#include "tclInt.h"

#ifndef TRUE
#define TRUE 1
#define FALSE 0
#endif
#ifndef NULL
#define NULL 0
#endif

static const int maxExponent = 511;	/* Largest possible base 10 exponent.  Any
				 * exponent larger than this will already
				 * produce underflow or overflow, so there's
				 * no need to worry about additional digits.
				 */
static const double powersOf10[] = {	/* Table giving binary powers of 10.  Entry */
    10.,			/* is 10^2^i.  Used to convert decimal */
    100.,			/* exponents into floating-point numbers. */
    1.0e4,
    1.0e8,
    1.0e16,
    1.0e32,
    1.0e64,
    1.0e128,
    1.0e256
};
 
/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * strtod --
 *
 *	This procedure converts a floating-point number from an ASCII
 *	decimal representation to internal double-precision format.
 *
 * Results:
 *	The return value is the double-precision floating-point
 *	representation of the characters in string.  If endPtr isn't
 *	NULL, then *endPtr is filled in with the address of the
 *	next character after the last one that was part of the
 *	floating-point number.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

double
strtod(
    const char *string,		/* A decimal ASCII floating-point number,
				 * optionally preceded by white space. Must
				 * have form "-I.FE-X", where I is the integer
				 * part of the mantissa, F is the fractional
				 * part of the mantissa, and X is the
				 * exponent. Either of the signs may be "+",
				 * "-", or omitted. Either I or F may be
				 * omitted, or both. The decimal point isn't
				 * necessary unless F is present. The "E" may
				 * actually be an "e". E and X may both be
				 * omitted (but not just one). */
    char **endPtr)		/* If non-NULL, store terminating character's
				 * address here. */
{
    int sign, expSign = FALSE;
    double fraction, dblExp;
    const double *d;
    register const char *p;
    register int c;
    int exp = 0;		/* Exponent read from "EX" field. */
    int fracExp = 0;		/* Exponent that derives from the fractional
				 * part. Under normal circumstatnces, it is
				 * the negative of the number of digits in F.
				 * However, if I is very long, the last digits
				 * of I get dropped (otherwise a long I with a
				 * large negative exponent could cause an
				 * unnecessary overflow on I alone). In this
				 * case, fracExp is incremented one for each
				 * dropped digit. */
    int mantSize;		/* Number of digits in mantissa. */
    int decPt;			/* Number of mantissa digits BEFORE decimal
				 * point. */
    const char *pExp;		/* Temporarily holds location of exponent in
				 * string. */

    /*
     * Strip off leading blanks and check for a sign.
     */

    p = string;
    while (isspace(UCHAR(*p))) {
	p += 1;
    }
    if (*p == '-') {
	sign = TRUE;
	p += 1;
    } else {
	if (*p == '+') {
	    p += 1;
	}
	sign = FALSE;
    }

    /*
     * Count the number of digits in the mantissa (including the decimal
     * point), and also locate the decimal point.
     */

    decPt = -1;
    for (mantSize = 0; ; mantSize += 1)
    {
	c = *p;
	if (!isdigit(c)) {
	    if ((c != '.') || (decPt >= 0)) {
		break;
	    }
	    decPt = mantSize;
	}
	p += 1;
    }

    /*
     * Now suck up the digits in the mantissa. Use two integers to collect 9
     * digits each (this is faster than using floating-point). If the mantissa
     * has more than 18 digits, ignore the extras, since they can't affect the
     * value anyway.
     */

    pExp  = p;
    p -= mantSize;
    if (decPt < 0) {
	decPt = mantSize;
    } else {
	mantSize -= 1;		/* One of the digits was the point. */
    }
    if (mantSize > 18) {
	fracExp = decPt - 18;
	mantSize = 18;
    } else {
	fracExp = decPt - mantSize;
    }
    if (mantSize == 0) {
	fraction = 0.0;
	p = string;
	goto done;
    } else {
	int frac1, frac2;

	frac1 = 0;
	for ( ; mantSize > 9; mantSize -= 1) {
	    c = *p;
	    p += 1;
	    if (c == '.') {
		c = *p;
		p += 1;
	    }
	    frac1 = 10*frac1 + (c - '0');
	}
	frac2 = 0;
	for (; mantSize > 0; mantSize -= 1) {
	    c = *p;
	    p += 1;
	    if (c == '.') {
		c = *p;
		p += 1;
	    }
	    frac2 = 10*frac2 + (c - '0');
	}
	fraction = (1.0e9 * frac1) + frac2;
    }

    /*
     * Skim off the exponent.
     */

    p = pExp;
    if ((*p == 'E') || (*p == 'e')) {
	p += 1;
	if (*p == '-') {
	    expSign = TRUE;
	    p += 1;
	} else {
	    if (*p == '+') {
		p += 1;
	    }
	    expSign = FALSE;
	}
	if (!isdigit(UCHAR(*p))) {
	    p = pExp;
	    goto done;
	}
	while (isdigit(UCHAR(*p))) {
	    exp = exp * 10 + (*p - '0');
	    p += 1;
	}
    }
    if (expSign) {
	exp = fracExp - exp;
    } else {
	exp = fracExp + exp;
    }

    /*
     * Generate a floating-point number that represents the exponent. Do this
     * by processing the exponent one bit at a time to combine many powers of
     * 2 of 10. Then combine the exponent with the fraction.
     */

    if (exp < 0) {
	expSign = TRUE;
	exp = -exp;
    } else {
	expSign = FALSE;
    }
    if (exp > maxExponent) {
	exp = maxExponent;
	errno = ERANGE;
    }
    dblExp = 1.0;
    for (d = powersOf10; exp != 0; exp >>= 1, ++d) {
	if (exp & 01) {
	    dblExp *= *d;
	}
    }
    if (expSign) {
	fraction /= dblExp;
    } else {
	fraction *= dblExp;
    }

  done:
    if (endPtr != NULL) {
	*endPtr = (char *) p;
    }

    if (sign) {
	return -fraction;
    }
    return fraction;
}
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Changes to compat/strtol.c.

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    long result;

    /*
     * Skip any leading blanks.
     */

    p = string;
    while (isspace(UCHAR(*p))) {
	p += 1;
    }

    /*
     * Check for a sign.
     */







|







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    long result;

    /*
     * Skip any leading blanks.
     */

    p = string;
    while (TclIsSpaceProc(*p)) {
	p += 1;
    }

    /*
     * Check for a sign.
     */

Changes to compat/strtoul.c.

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    int overflow=0;

    /*
     * Skip any leading blanks.
     */

    p = string;
    while (isspace(UCHAR(*p))) {
	p += 1;
    }
    if (*p == '-') {
        negative = 1;
        p += 1;
    } else {
        if (*p == '+') {






|







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    int overflow=0;

    /*
     * Skip any leading blanks.
     */

    p = string;
    while (TclIsSpaceProc(*p)) {
	p += 1;
    }
    if (*p == '-') {
        negative = 1;
        p += 1;
    } else {
        if (*p == '+') {

Deleted compat/unistd.h.

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/*
 * unistd.h --
 *
 *      Macros, constants and prototypes for Posix conformance.
 *
 * Copyright 1989 Regents of the University of California Permission to use,
 * copy, modify, and distribute this software and its documentation for any
 * purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that the above
 * copyright notice appear in all copies. The University of California makes
 * no representations about the suitability of this software for any purpose.
 * It is provided "as is" without express or implied warranty.
 */

#ifndef _UNISTD
#define _UNISTD

#include <sys/types.h>

#ifndef NULL
#define NULL    0
#endif

/*
 * Strict POSIX stuff goes here. Extensions go down below, in the ifndef
 * _POSIX_SOURCE section.
 */

extern void		_exit(int status);
extern int		access(const char *path, int mode);
extern int		chdir(const char *path);
extern int		chown(const char *path, uid_t owner, gid_t group);
extern int		close(int fd);
extern int		dup(int oldfd);
extern int		dup2(int oldfd, int newfd);
extern int		execl(const char *path, ...);
extern int		execle(const char *path, ...);
extern int		execlp(const char *file, ...);
extern int		execv(const char *path, char **argv);
extern int		execve(const char *path, char **argv, char **envp);
extern int		execvpw(const char *file, char **argv);
extern pid_t		fork(void);
extern char *		getcwd(char *buf, size_t size);
extern gid_t		getegid(void);
extern uid_t		geteuid(void);
extern gid_t		getgid(void);
extern int		getgroups(int bufSize, int *buffer);
extern pid_t		getpid(void);
extern uid_t		getuid(void);
extern int		isatty(int fd);
extern long		lseek(int fd, long offset, int whence);
extern int		pipe(int *fildes);
extern int		read(int fd, char *buf, size_t size);
extern int		setgid(gid_t group);
extern int		setuid(uid_t user);
extern unsigned		sleep(unsigned seconds);
extern char *		ttyname(int fd);
extern int		unlink(const char *path);
extern int		write(int fd, const char *buf, size_t size);

#ifndef	_POSIX_SOURCE
extern char *		crypt(const char *, const char *);
extern int		fchown(int fd, uid_t owner, gid_t group);
extern int		flock(int fd, int operation);
extern int		ftruncate(int fd, unsigned long length);
extern int		ioctl(int fd, int request, ...);
extern int		readlink(const char *path, char *buf, int bufsize);
extern int		setegid(gid_t group);
extern int		seteuidw(uid_t user);
extern int		setreuid(int ruid, int euid);
extern int		symlink(const char *, const char *);
extern int		ttyslot(void);
extern int		truncate(const char *path, unsigned long length);
extern int		vfork(void);
#endif /* _POSIX_SOURCE */

#endif /* _UNISTD */
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Changes to compat/waitpid.c.

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	result = waitPtr->pid;
	*statusPtr = *((int *) &waitPtr->status);
	if (prevPtr == NULL) {
	    deadList = waitPtr->nextPtr;
	} else {
	    prevPtr->nextPtr = waitPtr->nextPtr;
	}
	ckfree(waitPtr);
	return result;
    }

    /*
     * Wait for any process to stop or exit. If it's an acceptable one then
     * return it to the caller; otherwise store information about it in the
     * list of exited processes and try again. On systems that have only wait
................................................................................
    saveInfo:
	for (waitPtr = deadList; waitPtr != NULL; waitPtr = waitPtr->nextPtr) {
	    if (waitPtr->pid == result) {
		waitPtr->status = status;
		goto waitAgain;
	    }
	}
	waitPtr = (WaitInfo *) ckalloc(sizeof(WaitInfo));
	waitPtr->pid = result;
	waitPtr->status = status;
	waitPtr->nextPtr = deadList;
	deadList = waitPtr;

    waitAgain:
	continue;
    }
}






|







 







|









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	result = waitPtr->pid;
	*statusPtr = *((int *) &waitPtr->status);
	if (prevPtr == NULL) {
	    deadList = waitPtr->nextPtr;
	} else {
	    prevPtr->nextPtr = waitPtr->nextPtr;
	}
	Tcl_Free(waitPtr);
	return result;
    }

    /*
     * Wait for any process to stop or exit. If it's an acceptable one then
     * return it to the caller; otherwise store information about it in the
     * list of exited processes and try again. On systems that have only wait
................................................................................
    saveInfo:
	for (waitPtr = deadList; waitPtr != NULL; waitPtr = waitPtr->nextPtr) {
	    if (waitPtr->pid == result) {
		waitPtr->status = status;
		goto waitAgain;
	    }
	}
	waitPtr = (WaitInfo *) Tcl_Alloc(sizeof(WaitInfo));
	waitPtr->pid = result;
	waitPtr->status = status;
	waitPtr->nextPtr = deadList;
	deadList = waitPtr;

    waitAgain:
	continue;
    }
}

Changes to compat/zlib/contrib/minizip/crypt.h.

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   The new AES encryption added on Zip format by Winzip (see the page
   http://www.winzip.com/aes_info.htm ) and PKWare PKZip 5.x Strong
   Encryption is not supported.
*/

#define CRC32(c, b) ((*(pcrc_32_tab+(((int)(c) ^ (b)) & 0xff))) ^ ((c) >> 8))







/***********************************************************************
 * Return the next byte in the pseudo-random sequence
 */
static int decrypt_byte(unsigned long* pkeys, const z_crc_t* pcrc_32_tab)
{
    unsigned temp;  /* POTENTIAL BUG:  temp*(temp^1) may overflow in an






>
>
>
>
>
>







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   The new AES encryption added on Zip format by Winzip (see the page
   http://www.winzip.com/aes_info.htm ) and PKWare PKZip 5.x Strong
   Encryption is not supported.
*/

#define CRC32(c, b) ((*(pcrc_32_tab+(((int)(c) ^ (b)) & 0xff))) ^ ((c) >> 8))

#ifdef Z_U4
   typedef Z_U4 z_crc_t;
#else
   typedef unsigned long z_crc_t;
#endif

/***********************************************************************
 * Return the next byte in the pseudo-random sequence
 */
static int decrypt_byte(unsigned long* pkeys, const z_crc_t* pcrc_32_tab)
{
    unsigned temp;  /* POTENTIAL BUG:  temp*(temp^1) may overflow in an

Changes to compat/zlib/contrib/minizip/miniunz.c.

93
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                      0,NULL,OPEN_EXISTING,0,NULL);
  GetFileTime(hFile,&ftCreate,&ftLastAcc,&ftLastWrite);
  DosDateTimeToFileTime((WORD)(dosdate>>16),(WORD)dosdate,&ftLocal);
  LocalFileTimeToFileTime(&ftLocal,&ftm);
  SetFileTime(hFile,&ftm,&ftLastAcc,&ftm);
  CloseHandle(hFile);
#else
#ifdef unix || __APPLE__
  struct utimbuf ut;
  struct tm newdate;
  newdate.tm_sec = tmu_date.tm_sec;
  newdate.tm_min=tmu_date.tm_min;
  newdate.tm_hour=tmu_date.tm_hour;
  newdate.tm_mday=tmu_date.tm_mday;
  newdate.tm_mon=tmu_date.tm_mon;






|







93
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                      0,NULL,OPEN_EXISTING,0,NULL);
  GetFileTime(hFile,&ftCreate,&ftLastAcc,&ftLastWrite);
  DosDateTimeToFileTime((WORD)(dosdate>>16),(WORD)dosdate,&ftLocal);
  LocalFileTimeToFileTime(&ftLocal,&ftm);
  SetFileTime(hFile,&ftm,&ftLastAcc,&ftm);
  CloseHandle(hFile);
#else
#if defined(unix) || defined(__APPLE__)
  struct utimbuf ut;
  struct tm newdate;
  newdate.tm_sec = tmu_date.tm_sec;
  newdate.tm_min=tmu_date.tm_min;
  newdate.tm_hour=tmu_date.tm_hour;
  newdate.tm_mday=tmu_date.tm_mday;
  newdate.tm_mon=tmu_date.tm_mon;

Changes to compat/zlib/contrib/minizip/minizip.c.

8
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         Modifications of Unzip for Zip64
         Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Even Rouault

         Modifications for Zip64 support on both zip and unzip
         Copyright (C) 2009-2010 Mathias Svensson ( http://result42.com )
*/


#if (!defined(_WIN32)) && (!defined(WIN32)) && (!defined(__APPLE__))
        #ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
                #define __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
        #endif
        #ifndef __USE_LARGEFILE64
                #define __USE_LARGEFILE64
        #endif
................................................................................
                #define _LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
        #endif
        #ifndef _FILE_OFFSET_BIT
                #define _FILE_OFFSET_BIT 64
        #endif
#endif

#ifdef __APPLE__
// In darwin and perhaps other BSD variants off_t is a 64 bit value, hence no need for specific 64 bit functions
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko(stream, offset, origin)
#else
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen64(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello64(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko64(stream, offset, origin)
#endif



#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

................................................................................
        FindClose(hFind);
        ret = 1;
      }
  }
  return ret;
}
#else
#ifdef unix || __APPLE__
uLong filetime(f, tmzip, dt)
    char *f;               /* name of file to get info on */
    tm_zip *tmzip;         /* return value: access, modific. and creation times */
    uLong *dt;             /* dostime */
{
  int ret=0;
  struct stat s;        /* results of stat() */
................................................................................
    printf("MiniZip 1.1, demo of zLib + MiniZip64 package, written by Gilles Vollant\n");
    printf("more info on MiniZip at http://www.winimage.com/zLibDll/minizip.html\n\n");
}

void do_help()
{
    printf("Usage : minizip [-o] [-a] [-0 to -9] [-p password] [-j] file.zip [files_to_add]\n\n" \

           "  -o  Overwrite existing file.zip\n" \
           "  -a  Append to existing file.zip\n" \
           "  -0  Store only\n" \
           "  -1  Compress faster\n" \
           "  -9  Compress better\n\n" \
           "  -j  exclude path. store only the file name.\n\n");
}
................................................................................
     largeFile = 1;

                fclose(pFile);
  }

 return largeFile;
}













































































































































int main(argc,argv)
    int argc;
    char *argv[];
{
    int i;

    int opt_overwrite=0;
    int opt_compress_level=Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION;
    int opt_exclude_path=0;
    int zipfilenamearg = 0;
    char filename_try[MAXFILENAME+16];
    int zipok;
    int err=0;
    int size_buf=0;
................................................................................
                        opt_overwrite = 1;
                    if ((c=='a') || (c=='A'))
                        opt_overwrite = 2;
                    if ((c>='0') && (c<='9'))
                        opt_compress_level = c-'0';
                    if ((c=='j') || (c=='J'))
                        opt_exclude_path = 1;


                    if (((c=='p') || (c=='P')) && (i+1<argc))
                    {
                        password=argv[i+1];
                        i++;
                    }
                }
            }
................................................................................

        for (i=zipfilenamearg+1;(i<argc) && (err==ZIP_OK);i++)
        {
            if (!((((*(argv[i]))=='-') || ((*(argv[i]))=='/')) &&
                  ((argv[i][1]=='o') || (argv[i][1]=='O') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='a') || (argv[i][1]=='A') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='p') || (argv[i][1]=='P') ||

                   ((argv[i][1]>='0') || (argv[i][1]<='9'))) &&
                  (strlen(argv[i]) == 2)))
            {
                FILE * fin;
                int size_read;
                const char* filenameinzip = argv[i];
                const char *savefilenameinzip;
                zip_fileinfo zi;
                unsigned long crcFile=0;
                int zip64 = 0;

                zi.tmz_date.tm_sec = zi.tmz_date.tm_min = zi.tmz_date.tm_hour =
                zi.tmz_date.tm_mday = zi.tmz_date.tm_mon = zi.tmz_date.tm_year = 0;
                zi.dosDate = 0;
                zi.internal_fa = 0;
                zi.external_fa = 0;
                filetime(filenameinzip,&zi.tmz_date,&zi.dosDate);

/*
                err = zipOpenNewFileInZip(zf,filenameinzip,&zi,
                                 NULL,0,NULL,0,NULL / * comment * /,
                                 (opt_compress_level != 0) ? Z_DEFLATED : 0,
                                 opt_compress_level);
*/
                if ((password != NULL) && (err==ZIP_OK))
                    err = getFileCrc(filenameinzip,buf,size_buf,&crcFile);

                zip64 = isLargeFile(filenameinzip);

                                                         /* The path name saved, should not include a leading slash. */
               /*if it did, windows/xp and dynazip couldn't read the zip file. */
                 savefilenameinzip = filenameinzip;
                 while( savefilenameinzip[0] == '\\' || savefilenameinzip[0] == '/' )
                 {
                     savefilenameinzip++;
                 }

                 /*should the zip file contain any path at all?*/
                 if( opt_exclude_path )
                 {
                     const char *tmpptr;
                     const char *lastslash = 0;
                     for( tmpptr = savefilenameinzip; *tmpptr; tmpptr++)
                     {
                         if( *tmpptr == '\\' || *tmpptr == '/')
                         {
                             lastslash = tmpptr;
                         }
                     }
                     if( lastslash != NULL )
                     {
                         savefilenameinzip = lastslash+1; // base filename follows last slash.
                     }
                 }

                 /**/
                err = zipOpenNewFileInZip3_64(zf,savefilenameinzip,&zi,
                                 NULL,0,NULL,0,NULL /* comment*/,
                                 (opt_compress_level != 0) ? Z_DEFLATED : 0,
                                 opt_compress_level,0,
                                 /* -MAX_WBITS, DEF_MEM_LEVEL, Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY, */
                                 -MAX_WBITS, DEF_MEM_LEVEL, Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY,
                                 password,crcFile, zip64);

                if (err != ZIP_OK)
                    printf("error in opening %s in zipfile\n",filenameinzip);
                else
                {
                    fin = FOPEN_FUNC(filenameinzip,"rb");
                    if (fin==NULL)
                    {
                        err=ZIP_ERRNO;
                        printf("error in opening %s for reading\n",filenameinzip);
                    }
                }

                if (err == ZIP_OK)
                    do
                    {
                        err = ZIP_OK;
                        size_read = (int)fread(buf,1,size_buf,fin);
                        if (size_read < size_buf)
                            if (feof(fin)==0)
                        {
                            printf("error in reading %s\n",filenameinzip);
                            err = ZIP_ERRNO;
                        }

                        if (size_read>0)
                        {
                            err = zipWriteInFileInZip (zf,buf,size_read);
                            if (err<0)
                            {
                                printf("error in writing %s in the zipfile\n",
                                                 filenameinzip);
                            }

                        }
                    } while ((err == ZIP_OK) && (size_read>0));

                if (fin)
                    fclose(fin);

                if (err<0)
                    err=ZIP_ERRNO;
                else
                {
                    err = zipCloseFileInZip(zf);
                    if (err!=ZIP_OK)
                        printf("error in closing %s in the zipfile\n",
                                    filenameinzip);

                }
            }
        }
        errclose = zipClose(zf,NULL);
        if (errclose != ZIP_OK)
            printf("error in closing %s\n",filename_try);
    }






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         Modifications of Unzip for Zip64
         Copyright (C) 2007-2008 Even Rouault

         Modifications for Zip64 support on both zip and unzip
         Copyright (C) 2009-2010 Mathias Svensson ( http://result42.com )
*/


#if (!defined(_WIN32)) && (!defined(WIN32)) && (!defined(__APPLE__))
        #ifndef __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
                #define __USE_FILE_OFFSET64
        #endif
        #ifndef __USE_LARGEFILE64
                #define __USE_LARGEFILE64
        #endif
................................................................................
                #define _LARGEFILE64_SOURCE
        #endif
        #ifndef _FILE_OFFSET_BIT
                #define _FILE_OFFSET_BIT 64
        #endif
#endif

#if defined(__APPLE__) || defined(IOAPI_NO_64)
// In darwin and perhaps other BSD variants off_t is a 64 bit value, hence no need for specific 64 bit functions
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko(stream, offset, origin)
#else
#define FOPEN_FUNC(filename, mode) fopen64(filename, mode)
#define FTELLO_FUNC(stream) ftello64(stream)
#define FSEEKO_FUNC(stream, offset, origin) fseeko64(stream, offset, origin)
#endif

#include "tinydir.h"

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <time.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <fcntl.h>

................................................................................
        FindClose(hFind);
        ret = 1;
      }
  }
  return ret;
}
#else
#if defined(unix) || defined(__APPLE__)
uLong filetime(f, tmzip, dt)
    char *f;               /* name of file to get info on */
    tm_zip *tmzip;         /* return value: access, modific. and creation times */
    uLong *dt;             /* dostime */
{
  int ret=0;
  struct stat s;        /* results of stat() */
................................................................................
    printf("MiniZip 1.1, demo of zLib + MiniZip64 package, written by Gilles Vollant\n");
    printf("more info on MiniZip at http://www.winimage.com/zLibDll/minizip.html\n\n");
}

void do_help()
{
    printf("Usage : minizip [-o] [-a] [-0 to -9] [-p password] [-j] file.zip [files_to_add]\n\n" \
           "  -r  Scan directories recursively\n" \
           "  -o  Overwrite existing file.zip\n" \
           "  -a  Append to existing file.zip\n" \
           "  -0  Store only\n" \
           "  -1  Compress faster\n" \
           "  -9  Compress better\n\n" \
           "  -j  exclude path. store only the file name.\n\n");
}
................................................................................
     largeFile = 1;

                fclose(pFile);
  }

 return largeFile;
}

void addFileToZip(zipFile zf, const char *filenameinzip, const char *password, int opt_exclude_path,int opt_compress_level) {
    FILE * fin;
    int size_read;
    const char *savefilenameinzip;
    zip_fileinfo zi;
    unsigned long crcFile=0;
    int zip64 = 0;
    int err=0;
    int size_buf=WRITEBUFFERSIZE;
    unsigned char buf[WRITEBUFFERSIZE];
    zi.tmz_date.tm_sec = zi.tmz_date.tm_min = zi.tmz_date.tm_hour =
    zi.tmz_date.tm_mday = zi.tmz_date.tm_mon = zi.tmz_date.tm_year = 0;
    zi.dosDate = 0;
    zi.internal_fa = 0;
    zi.external_fa = 0;
    filetime(filenameinzip,&zi.tmz_date,&zi.dosDate);

/*
    err = zipOpenNewFileInZip(zf,filenameinzip,&zi,
                     NULL,0,NULL,0,NULL / * comment * /,
                     (opt_compress_level != 0) ? Z_DEFLATED : 0,
                     opt_compress_level);
*/
    if ((password != NULL) && (err==ZIP_OK))
        err = getFileCrc(filenameinzip,buf,size_buf,&crcFile);

    zip64 = isLargeFile(filenameinzip);

   /* The path name saved, should not include a leading slash. */
   /*if it did, windows/xp and dynazip couldn't read the zip file. */
     savefilenameinzip = filenameinzip;
     while( savefilenameinzip[0] == '\\' || savefilenameinzip[0] == '/' )
     {
         savefilenameinzip++;
     }

     /*should the zip file contain any path at all?*/
     if( opt_exclude_path )
     {
         const char *tmpptr;
         const char *lastslash = 0;
         for( tmpptr = savefilenameinzip; *tmpptr; tmpptr++)
         {
             if( *tmpptr == '\\' || *tmpptr == '/')
             {
                 lastslash = tmpptr;
             }
         }
         if( lastslash != NULL )
         {
             savefilenameinzip = lastslash+1; // base filename follows last slash.
         }
     }

     /**/
    err = zipOpenNewFileInZip3_64(zf,savefilenameinzip,&zi,
                     NULL,0,NULL,0,NULL /* comment*/,
                     (opt_compress_level != 0) ? Z_DEFLATED : 0,
                     opt_compress_level,0,
                     /* -MAX_WBITS, DEF_MEM_LEVEL, Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY, */
                     -MAX_WBITS, DEF_MEM_LEVEL, Z_DEFAULT_STRATEGY,
                     password,crcFile, zip64);

    if (err != ZIP_OK)
        printf("error in opening %s in zipfile\n",filenameinzip);
    else
    {
        fin = FOPEN_FUNC(filenameinzip,"rb");
        if (fin==NULL)
        {
            err=ZIP_ERRNO;
            printf("error in opening %s for reading\n",filenameinzip);
        }
    }

    if (err == ZIP_OK)
        do
        {
            err = ZIP_OK;
            size_read = (int)fread(buf,1,size_buf,fin);
            if (size_read < size_buf)
                if (feof(fin)==0)
            {
                printf("error in reading %s\n",filenameinzip);
                err = ZIP_ERRNO;
            }

            if (size_read>0)
            {
                err = zipWriteInFileInZip (zf,buf,size_read);
                if (err<0)
                {
                    printf("error in writing %s in the zipfile\n",
                                     filenameinzip);
                }

            }
        } while ((err == ZIP_OK) && (size_read>0));

    if (fin)
        fclose(fin);

    if (err<0)
        err=ZIP_ERRNO;
    else
    {
        err = zipCloseFileInZip(zf);
        if (err!=ZIP_OK)
            printf("error in closing %s in the zipfile\n",
                        filenameinzip);
    }
}


void addPathToZip(zipFile zf, const char *filenameinzip, const char *password, int opt_exclude_path,int opt_compress_level) {
    tinydir_dir dir;
    int i;
    char newname[512];

    tinydir_open_sorted(&dir, filenameinzip);

    for (i = 0; i < dir.n_files; i++)
    {
        tinydir_file file;
        tinydir_readfile_n(&dir, &file, i);
        if(strcmp(file.name,".")==0) continue;
        if(strcmp(file.name,"..")==0) continue;
        sprintf(newname,"%s/%s",dir.path,file.name);
        if (file.is_dir)
        {
            addPathToZip(zf,newname,password,opt_exclude_path,opt_compress_level);
        } else {
            addFileToZip(zf,newname,password,opt_exclude_path,opt_compress_level);
        }
    }

    tinydir_close(&dir);
}


int main(argc,argv)
    int argc;
    char *argv[];
{
    int i;
    int opt_recursive=0;
    int opt_overwrite=1;
    int opt_compress_level=Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION;
    int opt_exclude_path=0;
    int zipfilenamearg = 0;
    char filename_try[MAXFILENAME+16];
    int zipok;
    int err=0;
    int size_buf=0;
................................................................................
                        opt_overwrite = 1;
                    if ((c=='a') || (c=='A'))
                        opt_overwrite = 2;
                    if ((c>='0') && (c<='9'))
                        opt_compress_level = c-'0';
                    if ((c=='j') || (c=='J'))
                        opt_exclude_path = 1;
                    if ((c=='r') || (c=='R'))
                        opt_recursive = 1;
                    if (((c=='p') || (c=='P')) && (i+1<argc))
                    {
                        password=argv[i+1];
                        i++;
                    }
                }
            }
................................................................................

        for (i=zipfilenamearg+1;(i<argc) && (err==ZIP_OK);i++)
        {
            if (!((((*(argv[i]))=='-') || ((*(argv[i]))=='/')) &&
                  ((argv[i][1]=='o') || (argv[i][1]=='O') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='a') || (argv[i][1]=='A') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='p') || (argv[i][1]=='P') ||
                   (argv[i][1]=='r') || (argv[i][1]=='R') ||
                   ((argv[i][1]>='0') || (argv[i][1]<='9'))) &&
                  (strlen(argv[i]) == 2)))
            {

                if(opt_recursive) {

















                    addPathToZip(zf,argv[i],password,opt_exclude_path,opt_compress_level);











































                } else {












































                    addFileToZip(zf,argv[i],password,opt_exclude_path,opt_compress_level);
                }
            }
        }
        errclose = zipClose(zf,NULL);
        if (errclose != ZIP_OK)
            printf("error in closing %s\n",filename_try);
    }

Added compat/zlib/contrib/minizip/tinydir.h.
































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































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/*
Copyright (c) 2013-2017, tinydir authors:
- Cong Xu
- Lautis Sun
- Baudouin Feildel
- Andargor <[email protected]>
All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:

1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this
   list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
   this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
   and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR
ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES;
LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND
ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
*/
#ifndef TINYDIR_H
#define TINYDIR_H

#ifdef __cplusplus
extern "C" {
#endif

#if ((defined _UNICODE) && !(defined UNICODE))
#define UNICODE
#endif

#if ((defined UNICODE) && !(defined _UNICODE))
#define _UNICODE
#endif

#include <errno.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#ifdef _MSC_VER
# define WIN32_LEAN_AND_MEAN
# include <windows.h>
# include <tchar.h>
# pragma warning(push)
# pragma warning (disable : 4996)
#else
# include <dirent.h>
# include <libgen.h>
# include <sys/stat.h>
# include <stddef.h>
#endif
#ifdef __MINGW32__
# include <tchar.h>
#endif


/* types */

/* Windows UNICODE wide character support */
#if defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__
# define _tinydir_char_t TCHAR
# define TINYDIR_STRING(s) _TEXT(s)
# define _tinydir_strlen _tcslen
# define _tinydir_strcpy _tcscpy
# define _tinydir_strcat _tcscat
# define _tinydir_strcmp _tcscmp
# define _tinydir_strrchr _tcsrchr
# define _tinydir_strncmp _tcsncmp
#else
# define _tinydir_char_t char
# define TINYDIR_STRING(s) s
# define _tinydir_strlen strlen
# define _tinydir_strcpy strcpy
# define _tinydir_strcat strcat
# define _tinydir_strcmp strcmp
# define _tinydir_strrchr strrchr
# define _tinydir_strncmp strncmp
#endif

#if (defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__)
# include <windows.h>
# define _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX MAX_PATH
#elif defined  __linux__
# include <limits.h>
# define _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX PATH_MAX
#elif defined(__unix__) || (defined(__APPLE__) && defined(__MACH__))
# include <sys/param.h>
# if defined(BSD)
#  include <limits.h>
#  define _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX PATH_MAX
# endif
#endif

#ifndef _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX
#define _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX 4096
#endif

#ifdef _MSC_VER
/* extra chars for the "\\*" mask */
# define _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA 2
#else
# define _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA 0
#endif

#define _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX 256

#if (defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__)
#define _TINYDIR_DRIVE_MAX 3
#endif

#ifdef _MSC_VER
# define _TINYDIR_FUNC static __inline
#elif !defined __STDC_VERSION__ || __STDC_VERSION__ < 199901L
# define _TINYDIR_FUNC static __inline__
#else
# define _TINYDIR_FUNC static inline
#endif

/* readdir_r usage; define TINYDIR_USE_READDIR_R to use it (if supported) */
#ifdef TINYDIR_USE_READDIR_R

/* readdir_r is a POSIX-only function, and may not be available under various
 * environments/settings, e.g. MinGW. Use readdir fallback */
#if _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 1 || _XOPEN_SOURCE || _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE ||\
	_POSIX_SOURCE
# define _TINYDIR_HAS_READDIR_R
#endif
#if _POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200112L
# define _TINYDIR_HAS_FPATHCONF
# include <unistd.h>
#endif
#if _BSD_SOURCE || _SVID_SOURCE || \
	(_POSIX_C_SOURCE >= 200809L || _XOPEN_SOURCE >= 700)
# define _TINYDIR_HAS_DIRFD
# include <sys/types.h>
#endif
#if defined _TINYDIR_HAS_FPATHCONF && defined _TINYDIR_HAS_DIRFD &&\
	defined _PC_NAME_MAX
# define _TINYDIR_USE_FPATHCONF
#endif
#if defined __MINGW32__ || !defined _TINYDIR_HAS_READDIR_R ||\
	!(defined _TINYDIR_USE_FPATHCONF || defined NAME_MAX)
# define _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
#endif

/* Use readdir by default */
#else
# define _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
#endif

/* MINGW32 has two versions of dirent, ASCII and UNICODE*/
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#if (defined __MINGW32__) && (defined _UNICODE)
#define _TINYDIR_DIR _WDIR
#define _tinydir_dirent _wdirent
#define _tinydir_opendir _wopendir
#define _tinydir_readdir _wreaddir
#define _tinydir_closedir _wclosedir
#else
#define _TINYDIR_DIR DIR
#define _tinydir_dirent dirent
#define _tinydir_opendir opendir
#define _tinydir_readdir readdir
#define _tinydir_closedir closedir
#endif
#endif

/* Allow user to use a custom allocator by defining _TINYDIR_MALLOC and _TINYDIR_FREE. */
#if    defined(_TINYDIR_MALLOC) &&  defined(_TINYDIR_FREE)
#elif !defined(_TINYDIR_MALLOC) && !defined(_TINYDIR_FREE)
#else
#error "Either define both alloc and free or none of them!"
#endif

#if !defined(_TINYDIR_MALLOC)
	#define _TINYDIR_MALLOC(_size) malloc(_size)
	#define _TINYDIR_FREE(_ptr)    free(_ptr)
#endif /* !defined(_TINYDIR_MALLOC) */

typedef struct tinydir_file
{
	_tinydir_char_t path[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t name[_TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t *extension;
	int is_dir;
	int is_reg;

#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifdef __MINGW32__
	struct _stat _s;
#else
	struct stat _s;
#endif
#endif
} tinydir_file;

typedef struct tinydir_dir
{
	_tinydir_char_t path[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	int has_next;
	size_t n_files;

	tinydir_file *_files;
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	HANDLE _h;
	WIN32_FIND_DATA _f;
#else
	_TINYDIR_DIR *_d;
	struct _tinydir_dirent *_e;
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	struct _tinydir_dirent *_ep;
#endif
#endif
} tinydir_dir;


/* declarations */

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open(tinydir_dir *dir, const _tinydir_char_t *path);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open_sorted(tinydir_dir *dir, const _tinydir_char_t *path);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
void tinydir_close(tinydir_dir *dir);

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_next(tinydir_dir *dir);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_readfile(const tinydir_dir *dir, tinydir_file *file);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_readfile_n(const tinydir_dir *dir, tinydir_file *file, size_t i);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open_subdir_n(tinydir_dir *dir, size_t i);

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_file_open(tinydir_file *file, const _tinydir_char_t *path);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
void _tinydir_get_ext(tinydir_file *file);
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int _tinydir_file_cmp(const void *a, const void *b);
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
_TINYDIR_FUNC
size_t _tinydir_dirent_buf_size(_TINYDIR_DIR *dirp);
#endif
#endif


/* definitions*/

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open(tinydir_dir *dir, const _tinydir_char_t *path)
{
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	int error;
	int size;	/* using int size */
#endif
#else
	_tinydir_char_t path_buf[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
#endif
	_tinydir_char_t *pathp;

	if (dir == NULL || path == NULL || _tinydir_strlen(path) == 0)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (_tinydir_strlen(path) + _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA >= _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX)
	{
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return -1;
	}

	/* initialise dir */
	dir->_files = NULL;
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	dir->_h = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
#else
	dir->_d = NULL;
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	dir->_ep = NULL;
#endif
#endif
	tinydir_close(dir);

	_tinydir_strcpy(dir->path, path);
	/* Remove trailing slashes */
	pathp = &dir->path[_tinydir_strlen(dir->path) - 1];
	while (pathp != dir->path && (*pathp == TINYDIR_STRING('\\') || *pathp == TINYDIR_STRING('/')))
	{
		*pathp = TINYDIR_STRING('\0');
		pathp++;
	}
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	_tinydir_strcpy(path_buf, dir->path);
	_tinydir_strcat(path_buf, TINYDIR_STRING("\\*"));
#if (defined WINAPI_FAMILY) && (WINAPI_FAMILY != WINAPI_FAMILY_DESKTOP_APP)
	dir->_h = FindFirstFileEx(path_buf, FindExInfoStandard, &dir->_f, FindExSearchNameMatch, NULL, 0);
#else
	dir->_h = FindFirstFile(path_buf, &dir->_f);
#endif
	if (dir->_h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
#else
	dir->_d = _tinydir_opendir(path);
	if (dir->_d == NULL)
	{
#endif
		goto bail;
	}

	/* read first file */
	dir->has_next = 1;
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifdef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	dir->_e = _tinydir_readdir(dir->_d);
#else
	/* allocate dirent buffer for readdir_r */
	size = _tinydir_dirent_buf_size(dir->_d); /* conversion to int */
	if (size == -1) return -1;
	dir->_ep = (struct _tinydir_dirent*)_TINYDIR_MALLOC(size);
	if (dir->_ep == NULL) return -1;

	error = readdir_r(dir->_d, dir->_ep, &dir->_e);
	if (error != 0) return -1;
#endif
	if (dir->_e == NULL)
	{
		dir->has_next = 0;
	}
#endif

	return 0;

bail:
	tinydir_close(dir);
	return -1;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open_sorted(tinydir_dir *dir, const _tinydir_char_t *path)
{
	/* Count the number of files first, to pre-allocate the files array */
	size_t n_files = 0;
	if (tinydir_open(dir, path) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}
	while (dir->has_next)
	{
		n_files++;
		if (tinydir_next(dir) == -1)
		{
			goto bail;
		}
	}
	tinydir_close(dir);

	if (tinydir_open(dir, path) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}

	dir->n_files = 0;
	dir->_files = (tinydir_file *)_TINYDIR_MALLOC(sizeof *dir->_files * n_files);
	if (dir->_files == NULL)
	{
		goto bail;
	}
	while (dir->has_next)
	{
		tinydir_file *p_file;
		dir->n_files++;

		p_file = &dir->_files[dir->n_files - 1];
		if (tinydir_readfile(dir, p_file) == -1)
		{
			goto bail;
		}

		if (tinydir_next(dir) == -1)
		{
			goto bail;
		}

		/* Just in case the number of files has changed between the first and
		second reads, terminate without writing into unallocated memory */
		if (dir->n_files == n_files)
		{
			break;
		}
	}

	qsort(dir->_files, dir->n_files, sizeof(tinydir_file), _tinydir_file_cmp);

	return 0;

bail:
	tinydir_close(dir);
	return -1;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
void tinydir_close(tinydir_dir *dir)
{
	if (dir == NULL)
	{
		return;
	}

	memset(dir->path, 0, sizeof(dir->path));
	dir->has_next = 0;
	dir->n_files = 0;
	_TINYDIR_FREE(dir->_files);
	dir->_files = NULL;
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	if (dir->_h != INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
	{
		FindClose(dir->_h);
	}
	dir->_h = INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE;
#else
	if (dir->_d)
	{
		_tinydir_closedir(dir->_d);
	}
	dir->_d = NULL;
	dir->_e = NULL;
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	_TINYDIR_FREE(dir->_ep);
	dir->_ep = NULL;
#endif
#endif
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_next(tinydir_dir *dir)
{
	if (dir == NULL)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (!dir->has_next)
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
		return -1;
	}

#ifdef _MSC_VER
	if (FindNextFile(dir->_h, &dir->_f) == 0)
#else
#ifdef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
	dir->_e = _tinydir_readdir(dir->_d);
#else
	if (dir->_ep == NULL)
	{
		return -1;
	}
	if (readdir_r(dir->_d, dir->_ep, &dir->_e) != 0)
	{
		return -1;
	}
#endif
	if (dir->_e == NULL)
#endif
	{
		dir->has_next = 0;
#ifdef _MSC_VER
		if (GetLastError() != ERROR_SUCCESS &&
			GetLastError() != ERROR_NO_MORE_FILES)
		{
			tinydir_close(dir);
			errno = EIO;
			return -1;
		}
#endif
	}

	return 0;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_readfile(const tinydir_dir *dir, tinydir_file *file)
{
	if (dir == NULL || file == NULL)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
#ifdef _MSC_VER
	if (dir->_h == INVALID_HANDLE_VALUE)
#else
	if (dir->_e == NULL)
#endif
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
		return -1;
	}
	if (_tinydir_strlen(dir->path) +
		_tinydir_strlen(
#ifdef _MSC_VER
			dir->_f.cFileName
#else
			dir->_e->d_name
#endif
		) + 1 + _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA >=
		_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX)
	{
		/* the path for the file will be too long */
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return -1;
	}
	if (_tinydir_strlen(
#ifdef _MSC_VER
			dir->_f.cFileName
#else
			dir->_e->d_name
#endif
		) >= _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX)
	{
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return -1;
	}

	_tinydir_strcpy(file->path, dir->path);
	_tinydir_strcat(file->path, TINYDIR_STRING("/"));
	_tinydir_strcpy(file->name,
#ifdef _MSC_VER
		dir->_f.cFileName
#else
		dir->_e->d_name
#endif
	);
	_tinydir_strcat(file->path, file->name);
#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifdef __MINGW32__
	if (_tstat(
#else
	if (stat(
#endif
		file->path, &file->_s) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}
#endif
	_tinydir_get_ext(file);

	file->is_dir =
#ifdef _MSC_VER
		!!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY);
#else
		S_ISDIR(file->_s.st_mode);
#endif
	file->is_reg =
#ifdef _MSC_VER
		!!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NORMAL) ||
		(
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DEVICE) &&
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_DIRECTORY) &&
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_ENCRYPTED) &&
#ifdef FILE_ATTRIBUTE_INTEGRITY_STREAM
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_INTEGRITY_STREAM) &&
#endif
#ifdef FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NO_SCRUB_DATA
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_NO_SCRUB_DATA) &&
#endif
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_OFFLINE) &&
			!(dir->_f.dwFileAttributes & FILE_ATTRIBUTE_TEMPORARY));
#else
		S_ISREG(file->_s.st_mode);
#endif

	return 0;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_readfile_n(const tinydir_dir *dir, tinydir_file *file, size_t i)
{
	if (dir == NULL || file == NULL)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (i >= dir->n_files)
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
		return -1;
	}

	memcpy(file, &dir->_files[i], sizeof(tinydir_file));
	_tinydir_get_ext(file);

	return 0;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_open_subdir_n(tinydir_dir *dir, size_t i)
{
	_tinydir_char_t path[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	if (dir == NULL)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (i >= dir->n_files || !dir->_files[i].is_dir)
	{
		errno = ENOENT;
		return -1;
	}

	_tinydir_strcpy(path, dir->_files[i].path);
	tinydir_close(dir);
	if (tinydir_open_sorted(dir, path) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}

	return 0;
}

/* Open a single file given its path */
_TINYDIR_FUNC
int tinydir_file_open(tinydir_file *file, const _tinydir_char_t *path)
{
	tinydir_dir dir;
	int result = 0;
	int found = 0;
	_tinydir_char_t dir_name_buf[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t file_name_buf[_TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t *dir_name;
	_tinydir_char_t *base_name;
#if (defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__)
	_tinydir_char_t drive_buf[_TINYDIR_PATH_MAX];
	_tinydir_char_t ext_buf[_TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX];
#endif

	if (file == NULL || path == NULL || _tinydir_strlen(path) == 0)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	if (_tinydir_strlen(path) + _TINYDIR_PATH_EXTRA >= _TINYDIR_PATH_MAX)
	{
		errno = ENAMETOOLONG;
		return -1;
	}

	/* Get the parent path */
#if (defined _MSC_VER || defined __MINGW32__)
#if ((defined _MSC_VER) && (_MSC_VER >= 1400))
		_tsplitpath_s(
			path,
			drive_buf, _TINYDIR_DRIVE_MAX,
			dir_name_buf, _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX,
			file_name_buf, _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX,
			ext_buf, _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX);
#else
		_tsplitpath(
			path,
			drive_buf,
			dir_name_buf,
			file_name_buf,
			ext_buf);
#endif

/* _splitpath_s not work fine with only filename and widechar support */
#ifdef _UNICODE
		if (drive_buf[0] == L'\xFEFE')
			drive_buf[0] = '\0';
		if (dir_name_buf[0] == L'\xFEFE')
			dir_name_buf[0] = '\0';
#endif

	if (errno)
	{
		errno = EINVAL;
		return -1;
	}
	/* Emulate the behavior of dirname by returning "." for dir name if it's
	empty */
	if (drive_buf[0] == '\0' && dir_name_buf[0] == '\0')
	{
		_tinydir_strcpy(dir_name_buf, TINYDIR_STRING("."));
	}
	/* Concatenate the drive letter and dir name to form full dir name */
	_tinydir_strcat(drive_buf, dir_name_buf);
	dir_name = drive_buf;
	/* Concatenate the file name and extension to form base name */
	_tinydir_strcat(file_name_buf, ext_buf);
	base_name = file_name_buf;
#else
	_tinydir_strcpy(dir_name_buf, path);
	dir_name = dirname(dir_name_buf);
	_tinydir_strcpy(file_name_buf, path);
	base_name =basename(file_name_buf);
#endif

	/* Open the parent directory */
	if (tinydir_open(&dir, dir_name) == -1)
	{
		return -1;
	}

	/* Read through the parent directory and look for the file */
	while (dir.has_next)
	{
		if (tinydir_readfile(&dir, file) == -1)
		{
			result = -1;
			goto bail;
		}
		if (_tinydir_strcmp(file->name, base_name) == 0)
		{
			/* File found */
			found = 1;
			break;
		}
		tinydir_next(&dir);
	}
	if (!found)
	{
		result = -1;
		errno = ENOENT;
	}

bail:
	tinydir_close(&dir);
	return result;
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
void _tinydir_get_ext(tinydir_file *file)
{
	_tinydir_char_t *period = _tinydir_strrchr(file->name, TINYDIR_STRING('.'));
	if (period == NULL)
	{
		file->extension = &(file->name[_tinydir_strlen(file->name)]);
	}
	else
	{
		file->extension = period + 1;
	}
}

_TINYDIR_FUNC
int _tinydir_file_cmp(const void *a, const void *b)
{
	const tinydir_file *fa = (const tinydir_file *)a;
	const tinydir_file *fb = (const tinydir_file *)b;
	if (fa->is_dir != fb->is_dir)
	{
		return -(fa->is_dir - fb->is_dir);
	}
	return _tinydir_strncmp(fa->name, fb->name, _TINYDIR_FILENAME_MAX);
}

#ifndef _MSC_VER
#ifndef _TINYDIR_USE_READDIR
/*
The following authored by Ben Hutchings <[email protected]>
from https://womble.decadent.org.uk/readdir_r-advisory.html
*/
/* Calculate the required buffer size (in bytes) for directory      *
* entries read from the given directory handle.  Return -1 if this  *
* this cannot be done.                                              *
*                                                                   *
* This code does not trust values of NAME_MAX that are less than    *
* 255, since some systems (including at least HP-UX) incorrectly    *
* define it to be a smaller value.                                  */
_TINYDIR_FUNC
size_t _tinydir_dirent_buf_size(_TINYDIR_DIR *dirp)
{
	long name_max;
	size_t name_end;
	/* parameter may be unused */
	(void)dirp;

#if defined _TINYDIR_USE_FPATHCONF
	name_max = fpathconf(dirfd(dirp), _PC_NAME_MAX);
	if (name_max == -1)
#if defined(NAME_MAX)
		name_max = (NAME_MAX > 255) ? NAME_MAX : 255;
#else
		return (size_t)(-1);
#endif
#elif defined(NAME_MAX)
 	name_max = (NAME_MAX > 255) ? NAME_MAX : 255;
#else
#error "buffer size for readdir_r cannot be determined"
#endif
	name_end = (size_t)offsetof(struct _tinydir_dirent, d_name) + name_max + 1;
	return (name_end > sizeof(struct _tinydir_dirent) ?
		name_end : sizeof(struct _tinydir_dirent));
}
#endif
#endif

#ifdef __cplusplus
}
#endif

# if defined (_MSC_VER)
# pragma warning(pop)
# endif

#endif

compat/zlib/win32/zdll.lib became a regular file.

cannot compute difference between binary files

Changes to doc/AddErrInfo.3.

54
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this points to the first byte of an array of \fIlength\fR bytes
containing a string to append to the \fB\-errorinfo\fR return option.
This byte array may contain embedded null bytes
unless \fIlength\fR is negative.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
A message to be appended to the \fB\-errorinfo\fR return option
in the form of a Tcl_Obj value.
.AP int length in
The number of bytes to copy from \fImessage\fR when
appending to the \fB\-errorinfo\fR return option.
If negative, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.AP Tcl_Obj *errorObjPtr in
The \fB\-errorcode\fR return option will be set to this value.
.AP char *element in
String to record as one element of the \fB\-errorcode\fR return option.
Last \fIelement\fR argument must be NULL.
.AP va_list argList in
An argument list which must have been initialized using






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this points to the first byte of an array of \fIlength\fR bytes
containing a string to append to the \fB\-errorinfo\fR return option.
This byte array may contain embedded null bytes
unless \fIlength\fR is negative.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
A message to be appended to the \fB\-errorinfo\fR return option
in the form of a Tcl_Obj value.
.AP size_t length in
The number of bytes to copy from \fImessage\fR when
appending to the \fB\-errorinfo\fR return option.
If TCL_AUTO_LENGTH, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.AP Tcl_Obj *errorObjPtr in
The \fB\-errorcode\fR return option will be set to this value.
.AP char *element in
String to record as one element of the \fB\-errorcode\fR return option.
Last \fIelement\fR argument must be NULL.
.AP va_list argList in
An argument list which must have been initialized using

Changes to doc/Alloc.3.

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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Alloc 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_Alloc, Tcl_Free, Tcl_Realloc, Tcl_AttemptAlloc, Tcl_AttemptRealloc, ckalloc, ckfree, ckrealloc, attemptckalloc, attemptckrealloc \- allocate or free heap memory
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_Alloc\fR(\fIsize\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_Free\fR(\fIptr\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_Realloc\fR(\fIptr, size\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_AttemptAlloc\fR(\fIsize\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_AttemptRealloc\fR(\fIptr, size\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBckalloc\fR(\fIsize\fR)
.sp
void
\fBckfree\fR(\fIptr\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBckrealloc\fR(\fIptr, size\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBattemptckalloc\fR(\fIsize\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBattemptckrealloc\fR(\fIptr, size\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS char *size
.AP "unsigned int" size in
Size in bytes of the memory block to allocate.
.AP char *ptr in
Pointer to memory block to free or realloc.
.BE
................................................................................
function to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR and \fBTcl_Realloc\fR, except that
\fBTcl_AttemptAlloc\fR and \fBTcl_AttemptRealloc\fR will not cause the Tcl
interpreter to \fBpanic\fR if the memory allocation fails.  If the
allocation fails, these functions will return NULL.  Note that on some
platforms, but not all, attempting to allocate a zero-sized block of
memory will also cause these functions to return NULL.
.PP
The procedures \fBckalloc\fR, \fBckfree\fR, \fBckrealloc\fR,
\fBattemptckalloc\fR, and \fBattemptckrealloc\fR are implemented
as macros.  Normally, they are synonyms for the corresponding
procedures documented on this page.  When Tcl and all modules
calling Tcl are compiled with \fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR defined, however,


these macros are redefined to be special debugging versions
of these procedures.  To support Tcl's memory debugging within a
module, use the macros rather than direct calls to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR, etc.

.SH KEYWORDS
alloc, allocation, free, malloc, memory, realloc, TCL_MEM_DEBUG






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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Alloc 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_Alloc, Tcl_Free, Tcl_Realloc, Tcl_AttemptAlloc, Tcl_AttemptRealloc \- allocate or free heap memory
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_Alloc\fR(\fIsize\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_Free\fR(\fIptr\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_Realloc\fR(\fIptr, size\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_AttemptAlloc\fR(\fIsize\fR)
.sp






void *



\fBTcl_AttemptRealloc\fR(\fIptr, size\fR)






.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS char *size
.AP "unsigned int" size in
Size in bytes of the memory block to allocate.
.AP char *ptr in
Pointer to memory block to free or realloc.
.BE
................................................................................
function to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR and \fBTcl_Realloc\fR, except that
\fBTcl_AttemptAlloc\fR and \fBTcl_AttemptRealloc\fR will not cause the Tcl
interpreter to \fBpanic\fR if the memory allocation fails.  If the
allocation fails, these functions will return NULL.  Note that on some
platforms, but not all, attempting to allocate a zero-sized block of
memory will also cause these functions to return NULL.
.PP




When a module or Tcl itself is compiled with \fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR defined,
the procedures \fBTcl_Alloc\fR, \fBTcl_Free\fR, \fBTcl_Realloc\fR,
\fBTcl_AttemptAlloc\fR, and \fBTcl_AttempRealloc\fR are implemented
as macros, redefined to be special debugging versions of these procedures.



.SH KEYWORDS
alloc, allocation, free, malloc, memory, realloc, TCL_MEM_DEBUG

Changes to doc/AssocData.3.

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.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_GetAssocData, Tcl_SetAssocData, Tcl_DeleteAssocData \- manage associations of string keys and user specified data with Tcl interpreters
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_GetAssocData\fR(\fIinterp, key, delProcPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_SetAssocData\fR(\fIinterp, key, delProc, clientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DeleteAssocData\fR(\fIinterp, key\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_InterpDeleteProc **delProcPtr
................................................................................
Key for association with which to store data or from which to delete or
retrieve data.  Typically the module prefix for a package.
.AP Tcl_InterpDeleteProc *delProc in
Procedure to call when \fIinterp\fR is deleted.
.AP Tcl_InterpDeleteProc **delProcPtr in
Pointer to location in which to store address of current deletion procedure
for association.  Ignored if NULL.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value associated with the given key in this
interpreter.  This data is owned by the caller.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These procedures allow extensions to associate their own data with
................................................................................
If the \fIdeleteProc\fR argument is non-NULL it specifies the address of a
procedure to invoke if the interpreter is deleted before the association
is deleted.  \fIDeleteProc\fR should have arguments and result that match
the type \fBTcl_InterpDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_InterpDeleteProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE
.PP
When \fIdeleteProc\fR is invoked the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR
arguments will be the same as the corresponding arguments passed to
\fBTcl_SetAssocData\fR.
The deletion procedure will \fInot\fR be invoked if the association






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.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_GetAssocData, Tcl_SetAssocData, Tcl_DeleteAssocData \- manage associations of string keys and user specified data with Tcl interpreters
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_GetAssocData\fR(\fIinterp, key, delProcPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_SetAssocData\fR(\fIinterp, key, delProc, clientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DeleteAssocData\fR(\fIinterp, key\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_InterpDeleteProc **delProcPtr
................................................................................
Key for association with which to store data or from which to delete or
retrieve data.  Typically the module prefix for a package.
.AP Tcl_InterpDeleteProc *delProc in
Procedure to call when \fIinterp\fR is deleted.
.AP Tcl_InterpDeleteProc **delProcPtr in
Pointer to location in which to store address of current deletion procedure
for association.  Ignored if NULL.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value associated with the given key in this
interpreter.  This data is owned by the caller.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These procedures allow extensions to associate their own data with
................................................................................
If the \fIdeleteProc\fR argument is non-NULL it specifies the address of a
procedure to invoke if the interpreter is deleted before the association
is deleted.  \fIDeleteProc\fR should have arguments and result that match
the type \fBTcl_InterpDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_InterpDeleteProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE
.PP
When \fIdeleteProc\fR is invoked the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR
arguments will be the same as the corresponding arguments passed to
\fBTcl_SetAssocData\fR.
The deletion procedure will \fInot\fR be invoked if the association

Changes to doc/Async.3.

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.sp
int
\fBTcl_AsyncReady\fR()
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_AsyncHandler clientData
.AP Tcl_AsyncProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke to handle an asynchronous event.
.AP ClientData clientData in
One-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.AP Tcl_AsyncHandler async in
Token for asynchronous event handler.
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Tcl interpreter in which command was being evaluated when handler was
invoked, or NULL if handler was invoked when there was no interpreter
active.
................................................................................
the world is in a safe state, and \fIproc\fR can then carry out
the actions associated with the asynchronous event.
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the
type \fBTcl_AsyncProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_AsyncProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIcode\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument passed to \fBTcl_AsyncCreate\fR when the handler was
created.






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.sp
int
\fBTcl_AsyncReady\fR()
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_AsyncHandler clientData
.AP Tcl_AsyncProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke to handle an asynchronous event.
.AP void *clientData in
One-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.AP Tcl_AsyncHandler async in
Token for asynchronous event handler.
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Tcl interpreter in which command was being evaluated when handler was
invoked, or NULL if handler was invoked when there was no interpreter
active.
................................................................................
the world is in a safe state, and \fIproc\fR can then carry out
the actions associated with the asynchronous event.
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the
type \fBTcl_AsyncProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_AsyncProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIcode\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument passed to \fBTcl_AsyncCreate\fR when the handler was
created.

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unsigned char *
\fBTcl_SetByteArrayLength\fR(\fIobjPtr, length\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const unsigned char" *lengthPtr in/out
.AP "const unsigned char" *bytes in
The array of bytes used to initialize or set a byte-array value. May be NULL
even if \fIlength\fR is non-zero.
.AP int length in
The length of the array of bytes.  It must be >= 0.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in/out
For \fBTcl_SetByteArrayObj\fR, this points to the value to be converted to
byte-array type.  For \fBTcl_GetByteArrayFromObj\fR and
\fBTcl_SetByteArrayLength\fR, this points to the value from which to get
the byte-array value; if \fIobjPtr\fR does not already point to a byte-array
value, it will be converted to one.
.AP int *lengthPtr out






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unsigned char *
\fBTcl_SetByteArrayLength\fR(\fIobjPtr, length\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const unsigned char" *lengthPtr in/out
.AP "const unsigned char" *bytes in
The array of bytes used to initialize or set a byte-array value. May be NULL
even if \fIlength\fR is non-zero.
.AP size_t length in
The length of the array of bytes.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in/out
For \fBTcl_SetByteArrayObj\fR, this points to the value to be converted to
byte-array type.  For \fBTcl_GetByteArrayFromObj\fR and
\fBTcl_SetByteArrayLength\fR, this points to the value from which to get
the byte-array value; if \fIobjPtr\fR does not already point to a byte-array
value, it will be converted to one.
.AP int *lengthPtr out

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\fBTcl_DontCallWhenDeleted\fR(\fIinterp\fR, \fIproc\fR, \fIclientData\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_InterpDeleteProc clientData
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter with which to associated callback.
.AP Tcl_InterpDeleteProc *proc in
Procedure to call when \fIinterp\fR is deleted.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CallWhenDeleted\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be called by
\fBTcl_DeleteInterp\fR if/when \fIinterp\fR is deleted at some future
time.  \fIProc\fR will be invoked just before the interpreter
................................................................................
is deleted, but the interpreter will still be valid at the
time of the call.
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the
type \fBTcl_InterpDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_InterpDeleteProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters are
copies of the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR arguments given
to \fBTcl_CallWhenDeleted\fR.
Typically, \fIclientData\fR points to an application-specific






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\fBTcl_DontCallWhenDeleted\fR(\fIinterp\fR, \fIproc\fR, \fIclientData\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_InterpDeleteProc clientData
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter with which to associated callback.
.AP Tcl_InterpDeleteProc *proc in
Procedure to call when \fIinterp\fR is deleted.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CallWhenDeleted\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be called by
\fBTcl_DeleteInterp\fR if/when \fIinterp\fR is deleted at some future
time.  \fIProc\fR will be invoked just before the interpreter
................................................................................
is deleted, but the interpreter will still be valid at the
time of the call.
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the
type \fBTcl_InterpDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_InterpDeleteProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters are
copies of the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR arguments given
to \fBTcl_CallWhenDeleted\fR.
Typically, \fIclientData\fR points to an application-specific

Changes to doc/Cancel.3.

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not NULL, this object will have its reference count decremented before
\fBTcl_CancelEval\fR returns.
.AP int flags in
ORed combination of flag bits that specify additional options.
For \fBTcl_CancelEval\fR, only \fBTCL_CANCEL_UNWIND\fR is currently
supported.  For \fBTcl_Canceled\fR, only \fBTCL_LEAVE_ERR_MSG\fR and
\fBTCL_CANCEL_UNWIND\fR are currently supported.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Currently reserved for future use.
It should be set to NULL.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CancelEval\fR cancels or unwinds the script in progress soon after
the next invocation of asynchronous handlers, causing \fBTCL_ERROR\fR to be






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not NULL, this object will have its reference count decremented before
\fBTcl_CancelEval\fR returns.
.AP int flags in
ORed combination of flag bits that specify additional options.
For \fBTcl_CancelEval\fR, only \fBTCL_CANCEL_UNWIND\fR is currently
supported.  For \fBTcl_Canceled\fR, only \fBTCL_LEAVE_ERR_MSG\fR and
\fBTCL_CANCEL_UNWIND\fR are currently supported.
.AP void *clientData in
Currently reserved for future use.
It should be set to NULL.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CancelEval\fR cancels or unwinds the script in progress soon after
the next invocation of asynchronous handlers, causing \fBTCL_ERROR\fR to be

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.sp
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_ChannelType clientData
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter for error reporting.
.AP "const Tcl_ChannelType" *typePtr in
The new channel I/O procedures to use for \fIchannel\fR.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to channel I/O procedures.
.AP int mask in
Conditions under which \fIchannel\fR will be used: OR-ed combination of
\fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR.
This can be a subset of the operations currently allowed on \fIchannel\fR.
.AP Tcl_Channel channel in
An existing Tcl channel such as returned by \fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR.






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.sp
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_ChannelType clientData
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter for error reporting.
.AP "const Tcl_ChannelType" *typePtr in
The new channel I/O procedures to use for \fIchannel\fR.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to channel I/O procedures.
.AP int mask in
Conditions under which \fIchannel\fR will be used: OR-ed combination of
\fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR.
This can be a subset of the operations currently allowed on \fIchannel\fR.
.AP Tcl_Channel channel in
An existing Tcl channel such as returned by \fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR.

Changes to doc/Class.3.

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.sp
Tcl_Object
\fBTcl_CopyObjectInstance\fR(\fIinterp, object, name, nsName\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ObjectDeleted\fR(\fIobject\fR)
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_ObjectGetMetadata\fR(\fIobject, metaTypePtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ObjectSetMetadata\fR(\fIobject, metaTypePtr, metadata\fR)
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_ClassGetMetadata\fR(\fIclass, metaTypePtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetMetadata\fR(\fIclass, metaTypePtr, metadata\fR)
.sp
Tcl_ObjectMapMethodNameProc
\fBTcl_ObjectGetMethodNameMapper\fR(\fIobject\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ObjectSetMethodNameMapper\fR(\fIobject\fR, \fImethodNameMapper\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS ClientData metadata in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in/out
Interpreter providing the context for looking up or creating an object, and
into whose result error messages will be written on failure.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
The name of the object to look up.
.AP Tcl_Object object in
Reference to the object to operate upon.
................................................................................
The arguments to the command to create the instance of the class.
.AP int skip in
The number of arguments at the start of the argument array, \fIobjv\fR, that
are not arguments to any constructors.
.AP Tcl_ObjectMetadataType *metaTypePtr in
The type of \fImetadata\fR being set with \fBTcl_ClassSetMetadata\fR or
retrieved with \fBTcl_ClassGetMetadata\fR.
.AP ClientData metadata in
An item of metadata to attach to the class, or NULL to remove the metadata
associated with a particular \fImetaTypePtr\fR.
.AP "Tcl_ObjectMapMethodNameProc" "methodNameMapper" in
A pointer to a function to call to adjust the mapping of objects and method
names to implementations, or NULL when no such mapping is required.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
.SS "TCL_OBJECTMETADATADELETEPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are used to delete metadata associated with
a class or object.
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_ObjectMetadataDeleteProc\fR(
        ClientData \fImetadata\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fImetadata\fR argument gives the address of the metadata to be
deleted.
.SS "TCL_CLONEPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are used to create copies of metadata
associated with a class or object.
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_CloneProc\fR(
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        ClientData \fIsrcMetadata\fR,
        ClientData *\fIdstMetadataPtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinterp\fR argument gives a place to write an error message when the
attempt to clone the object is to fail, in which case the clone procedure must
also return TCL_ERROR; it should return TCL_OK otherwise.
The \fIsrcMetadata\fR argument gives the address of the metadata to be cloned,
and the cloned metadata should be written into the variable pointed to by






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.sp
Tcl_Object
\fBTcl_CopyObjectInstance\fR(\fIinterp, object, name, nsName\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ObjectDeleted\fR(\fIobject\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_ObjectGetMetadata\fR(\fIobject, metaTypePtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ObjectSetMetadata\fR(\fIobject, metaTypePtr, metadata\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_ClassGetMetadata\fR(\fIclass, metaTypePtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetMetadata\fR(\fIclass, metaTypePtr, metadata\fR)
.sp
Tcl_ObjectMapMethodNameProc
\fBTcl_ObjectGetMethodNameMapper\fR(\fIobject\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ObjectSetMethodNameMapper\fR(\fIobject\fR, \fImethodNameMapper\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS void *metadata in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in/out
Interpreter providing the context for looking up or creating an object, and
into whose result error messages will be written on failure.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
The name of the object to look up.
.AP Tcl_Object object in
Reference to the object to operate upon.
................................................................................
The arguments to the command to create the instance of the class.
.AP int skip in
The number of arguments at the start of the argument array, \fIobjv\fR, that
are not arguments to any constructors.
.AP Tcl_ObjectMetadataType *metaTypePtr in
The type of \fImetadata\fR being set with \fBTcl_ClassSetMetadata\fR or
retrieved with \fBTcl_ClassGetMetadata\fR.
.AP void *metadata in
An item of metadata to attach to the class, or NULL to remove the metadata
associated with a particular \fImetaTypePtr\fR.
.AP "Tcl_ObjectMapMethodNameProc" "methodNameMapper" in
A pointer to a function to call to adjust the mapping of objects and method
names to implementations, or NULL when no such mapping is required.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
.SS "TCL_OBJECTMETADATADELETEPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are used to delete metadata associated with
a class or object.
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_ObjectMetadataDeleteProc\fR(
        void *\fImetadata\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fImetadata\fR argument gives the address of the metadata to be
deleted.
.SS "TCL_CLONEPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are used to create copies of metadata
associated with a class or object.
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_CloneProc\fR(
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        void *\fIsrcMetadata\fR,
        void **\fIdstMetadataPtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinterp\fR argument gives a place to write an error message when the
attempt to clone the object is to fail, in which case the clone procedure must
also return TCL_ERROR; it should return TCL_OK otherwise.
The \fIsrcMetadata\fR argument gives the address of the metadata to be cloned,
and the cloned metadata should be written into the variable pointed to by

Changes to doc/CrtChannel.3.

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.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Channel
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR(\fItypePtr, channelName, instanceData, mask\fR)
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_GetChannelInstanceData\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
.sp
const Tcl_ChannelType *
\fBTcl_GetChannelType\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_GetChannelName\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
................................................................................
can be called to perform I/O and other functions on the channel.
.AP "const char" *channelName in
The name of this channel, such as \fBfile3\fR; must not be in use
by any other channel. Can be NULL, in which case the channel is
created without a name. If the created channel is assigned to one
of the standard channels (\fBstdin\fR, \fBstdout\fR or \fBstderr\fR),
the assigned channel name will be the name of the standard channel.
.AP ClientData instanceData in
Arbitrary one-word value to be associated with this channel.  This
value is passed to procedures in \fItypePtr\fR when they are invoked.
.AP int mask in
OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR and \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR to indicate
whether a channel is readable and writable.
.AP Tcl_Channel channel in
The channel to operate on.
.AP int direction in
\fBTCL_READABLE\fR means the input handle is wanted; \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR
means the output handle is wanted.
.AP ClientData *handlePtr out
Points to the location where the desired OS-specific handle should be
stored.
.AP int size in
The size, in bytes, of buffers to allocate in this channel.
.AP int mask in
An OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR
and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR that indicates events that have occurred on
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIblockModeProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
the generic layer to set blocking and nonblocking mode on the device.
\fIBlockModeProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverBlockModeProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fImode\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created.  The \fImode\fR
argument is either \fBTCL_MODE_BLOCKING\fR or \fBTCL_MODE_NONBLOCKING\fR to
set the device into blocking or nonblocking mode. The function should
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIcloseProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by the
generic layer to clean up driver-related information when the channel is
closed. \fICloseProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverCloseProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinstanceData\fR argument is the same as the value provided to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when the channel was created. The function should
release any storage maintained by the channel driver for this channel, and
close the input and output devices encapsulated by this channel. All queued
................................................................................
Alternatively, channels that support closing the read and write sides
independently may set \fIcloseProc\fR to \fBTCL_CLOSE2PROC\fR and set
\fIclose2Proc\fR to the address of a function that matches the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverClose2Proc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclose2Proc\fR will be called with \fIflags\fR set to an OR'ed
combination of \fBTCL_CLOSE_READ\fR or \fBTCL_CLOSE_WRITE\fR to
indicate that the driver should close the read and/or write side of
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIinputProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by the
generic layer to read data from the file or device and store it in an
internal buffer. \fIInputProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverInputProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        char *\fIbuf\fR,
        int \fIbufSize\fR,
        int *\fIerrorCodePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when the channel was created.  The \fIbuf\fR
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIoutputProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by the
generic layer to transfer data from an internal buffer to the output device.
\fIOutputProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverOutputProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        const char *\fIbuf\fR,
        int \fItoWrite\fR,
        int *\fIerrorCodePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when the channel was created. The \fIbuf\fR
................................................................................
The \fIseekProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by the
generic layer to move the access point at which subsequent input or output
operations will be applied. \fISeekProc\fR must match the following
prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverSeekProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        long \fIoffset\fR,
        int \fIseekMode\fR,
        int *\fIerrorCodePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinstanceData\fR argument is the same as the value given to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created.  \fIOffset\fR and
................................................................................
within files larger than 2GB.  The \fIwideSeekProc\fR will be called
in preference to the \fIseekProc\fR, but both must be defined if the
\fIwideSeekProc\fR is defined.  \fIWideSeekProc\fR must match the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef Tcl_WideInt \fBTcl_DriverWideSeekProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_WideInt \fIoffset\fR,
        int \fIseekMode\fR,
        int *\fIerrorCodePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The arguments and return values mean the same thing as with
\fIseekProc\fR above, except that the type of offsets and the return
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIsetOptionProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
the generic layer to set a channel type specific option on a channel.
\fIsetOptionProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverSetOptionProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        const char *\fIoptionName\fR,
        const char *\fInewValue\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIoptionName\fR is the name of an option to set, and \fInewValue\fR is
the new value for that option, as a string. The \fIinstanceData\fR is the
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIgetOptionProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
the generic layer to get the value of a channel type specific option on a
channel. \fIgetOptionProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverGetOptionProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        const char *\fIoptionName\fR,
        Tcl_DString *\fIoptionValue\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIOptionName\fR is the name of an option supported by this type of
channel. If the option name is not NULL, the function stores its current
................................................................................
The \fIwatchProc\fR field contains the address of a function called
by the generic layer to initialize the event notification mechanism to
notice events of interest on this channel.
\fIWatchProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_DriverWatchProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fImask\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created. The \fImask\fR
argument is an OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR
and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR; it indicates events the caller is interested in
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIgetHandleProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
the generic layer to retrieve a device-specific handle from the channel.
\fIGetHandleProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverGetHandleProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fIdirection\fR,
        ClientData *\fIhandlePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created. The \fIdirection\fR
argument is either \fBTCL_READABLE\fR to retrieve the handle used
for input, or \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR to retrieve the handle used for
output.
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIflushProc\fR field is currently reserved for future use.
It should be set to NULL.
\fIFlushProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverFlushProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR);
.CE
.PP
This value can be retrieved with \fBTcl_ChannelFlushProc\fR, which returns
a pointer to the function.
.SS HANDLERPROC
.PP
The \fIhandlerProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
................................................................................
the generic layer to notify the channel that an event occurred.  It should
be defined for stacked channel drivers that wish to be notified of events
that occur on the underlying (stacked) channel.
\fIHandlerProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverHandlerProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fIinterestMask\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to \fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR
when this channel was created.  The \fIinterestMask\fR is an OR-ed
combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR or \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR; it indicates what
type of event occurred on this channel.
................................................................................
The action \fITCL_CHANNEL_THREAD_INSERT\fR is used to notify the
driver that it should update or initialize any thread-specific data it
might be maintaining using the calling thread as the associate. See
\fBTcl_CutChannel\fR and \fBTcl_SpliceChannel\fR for more detail.
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_DriverThreadActionProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fIaction\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created.
.PP
These values can be retrieved with \fBTcl_ChannelThreadActionProc\fR,
................................................................................
.PP
The \fItruncateProc\fR field contains the address of the function
called by the generic layer when a channel is truncated to some
length. It can be NULL.
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverTruncateProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_WideInt \fIlength\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created, and
\fIlength\fR is the new length of the underlying file, which should
not be negative. The result should be 0 on success or an errno code






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.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Channel
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR(\fItypePtr, channelName, instanceData, mask\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_GetChannelInstanceData\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
.sp
const Tcl_ChannelType *
\fBTcl_GetChannelType\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_GetChannelName\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
................................................................................
can be called to perform I/O and other functions on the channel.
.AP "const char" *channelName in
The name of this channel, such as \fBfile3\fR; must not be in use
by any other channel. Can be NULL, in which case the channel is
created without a name. If the created channel is assigned to one
of the standard channels (\fBstdin\fR, \fBstdout\fR or \fBstderr\fR),
the assigned channel name will be the name of the standard channel.
.AP void *instanceData in
Arbitrary one-word value to be associated with this channel.  This
value is passed to procedures in \fItypePtr\fR when they are invoked.
.AP int mask in
OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR and \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR to indicate
whether a channel is readable and writable.
.AP Tcl_Channel channel in
The channel to operate on.
.AP int direction in
\fBTCL_READABLE\fR means the input handle is wanted; \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR
means the output handle is wanted.
.AP void **handlePtr out
Points to the location where the desired OS-specific handle should be
stored.
.AP int size in
The size, in bytes, of buffers to allocate in this channel.
.AP int mask in
An OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR
and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR that indicates events that have occurred on
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIblockModeProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
the generic layer to set blocking and nonblocking mode on the device.
\fIBlockModeProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverBlockModeProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fImode\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created.  The \fImode\fR
argument is either \fBTCL_MODE_BLOCKING\fR or \fBTCL_MODE_NONBLOCKING\fR to
set the device into blocking or nonblocking mode. The function should
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIcloseProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by the
generic layer to clean up driver-related information when the channel is
closed. \fICloseProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverCloseProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinstanceData\fR argument is the same as the value provided to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when the channel was created. The function should
release any storage maintained by the channel driver for this channel, and
close the input and output devices encapsulated by this channel. All queued
................................................................................
Alternatively, channels that support closing the read and write sides
independently may set \fIcloseProc\fR to \fBTCL_CLOSE2PROC\fR and set
\fIclose2Proc\fR to the address of a function that matches the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverClose2Proc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclose2Proc\fR will be called with \fIflags\fR set to an OR'ed
combination of \fBTCL_CLOSE_READ\fR or \fBTCL_CLOSE_WRITE\fR to
indicate that the driver should close the read and/or write side of
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIinputProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by the
generic layer to read data from the file or device and store it in an
internal buffer. \fIInputProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverInputProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        char *\fIbuf\fR,
        int \fIbufSize\fR,
        int *\fIerrorCodePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when the channel was created.  The \fIbuf\fR
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIoutputProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by the
generic layer to transfer data from an internal buffer to the output device.
\fIOutputProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverOutputProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        const char *\fIbuf\fR,
        int \fItoWrite\fR,
        int *\fIerrorCodePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when the channel was created. The \fIbuf\fR
................................................................................
The \fIseekProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by the
generic layer to move the access point at which subsequent input or output
operations will be applied. \fISeekProc\fR must match the following
prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverSeekProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        long \fIoffset\fR,
        int \fIseekMode\fR,
        int *\fIerrorCodePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinstanceData\fR argument is the same as the value given to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created.  \fIOffset\fR and
................................................................................
within files larger than 2GB.  The \fIwideSeekProc\fR will be called
in preference to the \fIseekProc\fR, but both must be defined if the
\fIwideSeekProc\fR is defined.  \fIWideSeekProc\fR must match the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef Tcl_WideInt \fBTcl_DriverWideSeekProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_WideInt \fIoffset\fR,
        int \fIseekMode\fR,
        int *\fIerrorCodePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The arguments and return values mean the same thing as with
\fIseekProc\fR above, except that the type of offsets and the return
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIsetOptionProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
the generic layer to set a channel type specific option on a channel.
\fIsetOptionProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverSetOptionProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        const char *\fIoptionName\fR,
        const char *\fInewValue\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIoptionName\fR is the name of an option to set, and \fInewValue\fR is
the new value for that option, as a string. The \fIinstanceData\fR is the
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIgetOptionProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
the generic layer to get the value of a channel type specific option on a
channel. \fIgetOptionProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverGetOptionProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        const char *\fIoptionName\fR,
        Tcl_DString *\fIoptionValue\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIOptionName\fR is the name of an option supported by this type of
channel. If the option name is not NULL, the function stores its current
................................................................................
The \fIwatchProc\fR field contains the address of a function called
by the generic layer to initialize the event notification mechanism to
notice events of interest on this channel.
\fIWatchProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_DriverWatchProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fImask\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created. The \fImask\fR
argument is an OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR
and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR; it indicates events the caller is interested in
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIgetHandleProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
the generic layer to retrieve a device-specific handle from the channel.
\fIGetHandleProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverGetHandleProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fIdirection\fR,
        void **\fIhandlePtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created. The \fIdirection\fR
argument is either \fBTCL_READABLE\fR to retrieve the handle used
for input, or \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR to retrieve the handle used for
output.
................................................................................
.PP
The \fIflushProc\fR field is currently reserved for future use.
It should be set to NULL.
\fIFlushProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverFlushProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR);
.CE
.PP
This value can be retrieved with \fBTcl_ChannelFlushProc\fR, which returns
a pointer to the function.
.SS HANDLERPROC
.PP
The \fIhandlerProc\fR field contains the address of a function called by
................................................................................
the generic layer to notify the channel that an event occurred.  It should
be defined for stacked channel drivers that wish to be notified of events
that occur on the underlying (stacked) channel.
\fIHandlerProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverHandlerProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fIinterestMask\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to \fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR
when this channel was created.  The \fIinterestMask\fR is an OR-ed
combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR or \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR; it indicates what
type of event occurred on this channel.
................................................................................
The action \fITCL_CHANNEL_THREAD_INSERT\fR is used to notify the
driver that it should update or initialize any thread-specific data it
might be maintaining using the calling thread as the associate. See
\fBTcl_CutChannel\fR and \fBTcl_SpliceChannel\fR for more detail.
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_DriverThreadActionProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        int \fIaction\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created.
.PP
These values can be retrieved with \fBTcl_ChannelThreadActionProc\fR,
................................................................................
.PP
The \fItruncateProc\fR field contains the address of the function
called by the generic layer when a channel is truncated to some
length. It can be NULL.
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_DriverTruncateProc\fR(
        void *\fIinstanceData\fR,
        Tcl_WideInt \fIlength\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIInstanceData\fR is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannel\fR when this channel was created, and
\fIlength\fR is the new length of the underlying file, which should
not be negative. The result should be 0 on success or an errno code

Changes to doc/CrtChnlHdlr.3.

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.AP int mask in
Conditions under which \fIproc\fR should be called: OR-ed combination of
\fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR. Specify
a zero value to temporarily disable an existing handler.
.AP Tcl_FileProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke whenever the channel indicated by \fIchannel\fR meets
the conditions specified by \fImask\fR.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateChannelHandler\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be called in the
future whenever input or output becomes possible on the channel identified
by \fIchannel\fR, or whenever an exceptional condition exists for
................................................................................
invoked are specified by the \fImask\fR argument.
See the manual entry for \fBfileevent\fR for a precise description of
what it means for a channel to be readable or writable.
\fIProc\fR must conform to the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_ChannelProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        int \fImask\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannelHandler\fR when the handler was created. Typically,
\fIclientData\fR points to a data structure containing application-specific
information about the channel. \fIMask\fR is an integer mask indicating






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.AP int mask in
Conditions under which \fIproc\fR should be called: OR-ed combination of
\fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR. Specify
a zero value to temporarily disable an existing handler.
.AP Tcl_FileProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke whenever the channel indicated by \fIchannel\fR meets
the conditions specified by \fImask\fR.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateChannelHandler\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be called in the
future whenever input or output becomes possible on the channel identified
by \fIchannel\fR, or whenever an exceptional condition exists for
................................................................................
invoked are specified by the \fImask\fR argument.
See the manual entry for \fBfileevent\fR for a precise description of
what it means for a channel to be readable or writable.
\fIProc\fR must conform to the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_ChannelProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        int \fImask\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument is the same as the value passed to
\fBTcl_CreateChannelHandler\fR when the handler was created. Typically,
\fIclientData\fR points to a data structure containing application-specific
information about the channel. \fIMask\fR is an integer mask indicating

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.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CloseProc clientData
.AP Tcl_Channel channel in
The channel for which to create or delete a close callback.
.AP Tcl_CloseProc *proc in
The procedure to call as the callback.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateCloseHandler\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be called when
\fIchannel\fR is closed with \fBTcl_Close\fR or
\fBTcl_UnregisterChannel\fR, or using the Tcl \fBclose\fR command.
\fIProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CloseProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR is the same as the value provided in the call to
\fBTcl_CreateCloseHandler\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_DeleteCloseHandler\fR removes a close callback for \fIchannel\fR.
The \fIproc\fR and \fIclientData\fR identify which close callback to






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.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CloseProc clientData
.AP Tcl_Channel channel in
The channel for which to create or delete a close callback.
.AP Tcl_CloseProc *proc in
The procedure to call as the callback.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateCloseHandler\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be called when
\fIchannel\fR is closed with \fBTcl_Close\fR or
\fBTcl_UnregisterChannel\fR, or using the Tcl \fBclose\fR command.
\fIProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CloseProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR is the same as the value provided in the call to
\fBTcl_CreateCloseHandler\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_DeleteCloseHandler\fR removes a close callback for \fIchannel\fR.
The \fIproc\fR and \fIclientData\fR identify which close callback to

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.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to create new command.
.AP "const char" *cmdName in
Name of command.
.AP Tcl_CmdProc *proc in
Implementation of new command:  \fIproc\fR will be called whenever
\fIcmdName\fR is invoked as a command.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR and \fIdeleteProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Procedure to call before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter;
allows for command-specific cleanup.  If NULL, then no procedure is
called before the command is deleted.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
the process of being deleted, then it does not create a new command
and it returns NULL.
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the type
\fBTcl_CmdProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_CmdProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIargc\fR,
        const char *\fIargv\fR[]);
.CE
.PP
When \fIproc\fR is invoked the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR
parameters will be copies of the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR
................................................................................
\fIDeleteProc\fR is invoked before the command is deleted, and gives the
application an opportunity to release any structures associated
with the command.  \fIDeleteProc\fR should have arguments and
result that match the type \fBTcl_CmdDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CmdDeleteProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument passed to \fBTcl_CreateCommand\fR.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateObjCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommand, Tcl_GetCommandInfo,
Tcl_SetCommandInfo, Tcl_GetCommandName, Tcl_SetObjResult
.SH KEYWORDS
bind, command, create, delete, interpreter, namespace






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.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to create new command.
.AP "const char" *cmdName in
Name of command.
.AP Tcl_CmdProc *proc in
Implementation of new command:  \fIproc\fR will be called whenever
\fIcmdName\fR is invoked as a command.
.AP voie *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR and \fIdeleteProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Procedure to call before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter;
allows for command-specific cleanup.  If NULL, then no procedure is
called before the command is deleted.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
the process of being deleted, then it does not create a new command
and it returns NULL.
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the type
\fBTcl_CmdProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_CmdProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIargc\fR,
        const char *\fIargv\fR[]);
.CE
.PP
When \fIproc\fR is invoked the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR
parameters will be copies of the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR
................................................................................
\fIDeleteProc\fR is invoked before the command is deleted, and gives the
application an opportunity to release any structures associated
with the command.  \fIDeleteProc\fR should have arguments and
result that match the type \fBTcl_CmdDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CmdDeleteProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument passed to \fBTcl_CreateCommand\fR.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateObjCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommand, Tcl_GetCommandInfo,
Tcl_SetCommandInfo, Tcl_GetCommandName, Tcl_SetObjResult
.SH KEYWORDS
bind, command, create, delete, interpreter, namespace

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Conditions under which \fIproc\fR should be called:
OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR,
and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR.  May be set to 0 to temporarily disable
a handler.
.AP Tcl_FileProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke whenever the file or device indicated
by \fIfile\fR meets the conditions specified by \fImask\fR.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateFileHandler\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be
invoked in the future whenever I/O becomes possible on a file
or an exceptional condition exists for the file.  The file
................................................................................
as \fBvwait\fR.
.PP
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the
type \fBTcl_FileProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_FileProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        int \fImask\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter to \fIproc\fR is a copy
of the \fIclientData\fR
argument given to \fBTcl_CreateFileHandler\fR when the callback
was created.  Typically, \fIclientData\fR points to a data






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Conditions under which \fIproc\fR should be called:
OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR, \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR,
and \fBTCL_EXCEPTION\fR.  May be set to 0 to temporarily disable
a handler.
.AP Tcl_FileProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke whenever the file or device indicated
by \fIfile\fR meets the conditions specified by \fImask\fR.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateFileHandler\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be
invoked in the future whenever I/O becomes possible on a file
or an exceptional condition exists for the file.  The file
................................................................................
as \fBvwait\fR.
.PP
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the
type \fBTcl_FileProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_FileProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        int \fImask\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter to \fIproc\fR is a copy
of the \fIclientData\fR
argument given to \fBTcl_CreateFileHandler\fR when the callback
was created.  Typically, \fIclientData\fR points to a data

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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_CreateObjCommand 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_CreateObjCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommandFromToken, Tcl_GetCommandInfo, Tcl_GetCommandInfoFromToken, Tcl_SetCommandInfo, Tcl_SetCommandInfoFromToken, Tcl_GetCommandName, Tcl_GetCommandFullName, Tcl_GetCommandFromObj \- implement new commands in C
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Command
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(\fIinterp, cmdName, proc, clientData, deleteProc\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
\fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR(\fIinterp, token\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_GetCommandFullName\fR(\fIinterp, token, objPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Command
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr\fR)








.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to create a new command or that contains a command.
.AP char *cmdName in
Name of command.
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
Implementation of the new command: \fIproc\fR will be called whenever
\fIcmdName\fR is invoked as a command.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR and \fIdeleteProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Procedure to call before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter;
allows for command-specific cleanup. If NULL, then no procedure is
called before the command is deleted.
.AP Tcl_Command token in
Token for command, returned by previous call to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR.
The command must not have been deleted.
.AP Tcl_CmdInfo *infoPtr in/out
Pointer to structure containing various information about a
Tcl command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
Value containing the name of a Tcl command.



.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR defines a new command in \fIinterp\fR
and associates it with procedure \fIproc\fR
such that whenever \fIname\fR is
invoked as a Tcl command (e.g., via a call to \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR)
................................................................................
the process of being deleted, then it does not create a new command
and it returns NULL.
\fIproc\fR should have arguments and result that match the type
\fBTcl_ObjCmdProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_ObjCmdProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIobjc\fR,
        Tcl_Obj *const \fIobjv\fR[]);
.CE
.PP
When \fIproc\fR is invoked, the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters
will be copies of the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR arguments given to
................................................................................
\fIDeleteProc\fR is invoked before the command is deleted, and gives the
application an opportunity to release any structures associated
with the command.  \fIDeleteProc\fR should have arguments and
result that match the type \fBTcl_CmdDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CmdDeleteProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument passed to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_DeleteCommand\fR deletes a command from a command interpreter.
Once the call completes, attempts to invoke \fIcmdName\fR in
................................................................................
pointed to by \fIinfoPtr\fR and returns 1.
A \fBTcl_CmdInfo\fR structure has the following fields:
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_CmdInfo {
    int \fIisNativeObjectProc\fR;
    Tcl_ObjCmdProc *\fIobjProc\fR;
    ClientData \fIobjClientData\fR;
    Tcl_CmdProc *\fIproc\fR;
    ClientData \fIclientData\fR;
    Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *\fIdeleteProc\fR;
    ClientData \fIdeleteData\fR;
    Tcl_Namespace *\fInamespacePtr\fR;
} \fBTcl_CmdInfo\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fIisNativeObjectProc\fR field has the value 1
if \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR was called to register the command;
it is 0 if only \fBTcl_CreateCommand\fR was called.
................................................................................
that implements the command.
If \fBTcl_CreateCommand\fR was called for this command,
this is the procedure passed to it;
otherwise, this is a compatibility procedure
registered by \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR
that simply calls the command's
value-based procedure after converting its string arguments to Tcl values.
The field \fIdeleteData\fR is the ClientData value
to pass to \fIdeleteProc\fR;  it is normally the same as
\fIclientData\fR but may be set independently using the
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR procedure.
The field \fInamespacePtr\fR holds a pointer to the
Tcl_Namespace that contains the command.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetCommandInfoFromToken\fR is identical to
\fBTcl_GetCommandInfo\fR except that it uses a command token returned
from \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR in place of the command name.  If the
\fItoken\fR parameter is NULL, it returns 0; otherwise, it returns 1
and fills in the structure designated by \fIinfoPtr\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR is used to modify the procedures and
ClientData values associated with a command.
Its \fIcmdName\fR argument is the name of a command in \fIinterp\fR.
\fIcmdName\fR may include \fB::\fR namespace qualifiers
to identify a command in a particular namespace.
If this command does not exist then \fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR returns 0.
Otherwise, it copies the information from \fI*infoPtr\fR to
Tcl's internal structure for the command and returns 1.
.PP
................................................................................
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR except that it takes a command token as
returned by \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR instead of the command name.
If the \fItoken\fR parameter is NULL, it returns 0.  Otherwise, it
copies the information from \fI*infoPtr\fR to Tcl's internal structure
for the command and returns 1.
.PP
Note that \fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR and
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfoFromToken\fR both allow the ClientData for a
command's deletion procedure to be given a different value than the
ClientData for its command procedure.
.PP
Note that neither \fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR nor
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfoFromToken\fR will change a command's namespace.
Use \fBTcl_Eval\fR to call the \fBrename\fR command to do that.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR provides a mechanism for tracking commands
that have been renamed.
................................................................................
The name, including all namespace prefixes,
is appended to the value specified by \fIobjPtr\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR returns a token for the command
specified by the name in a \fBTcl_Obj\fR.
The command name is resolved relative to the current namespace.
Returns NULL if the command is not found.
















.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateCommand(3), Tcl_ResetResult(3), Tcl_SetObjResult(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
bind, command, create, delete, namespace, value






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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_CreateObjCommand 3 8.0 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_CreateObjCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommand, Tcl_DeleteCommandFromToken, Tcl_GetCommandInfo, Tcl_GetCommandInfoFromToken, Tcl_SetCommandInfo, Tcl_SetCommandInfoFromToken, Tcl_GetCommandName, Tcl_GetCommandFullName, Tcl_GetCommandFromObj, Tcl_RegisterCommandTypeName, Tcl_GetCommandTypeName \- implement new commands in C
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Command
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(\fIinterp, cmdName, proc, clientData, deleteProc\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
\fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR(\fIinterp, token\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_GetCommandFullName\fR(\fIinterp, token, objPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Command
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr\fR)
.sp
.VS "info cmdtype feature"
void
\fBTcl_RegisterCommandTypeName\fR(\fIproc, typeName\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_GetCommandTypeName\fR(\fItoken\fR)
.VE "info cmdtype feature"
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to create a new command or that contains a command.
.AP char *cmdName in
Name of command.
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
Implementation of the new command: \fIproc\fR will be called whenever
\fIcmdName\fR is invoked as a command.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR and \fIdeleteProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Procedure to call before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter;
allows for command-specific cleanup. If NULL, then no procedure is
called before the command is deleted.
.AP Tcl_Command token in
Token for command, returned by previous call to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR.
The command must not have been deleted.
.AP Tcl_CmdInfo *infoPtr in/out
Pointer to structure containing various information about a
Tcl command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
Value containing the name of a Tcl command.
.AP "const char" *typeName in
Indicates the name of the type of command implementation associated
with a particular \fIproc\fR, or NULL to break the association.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR defines a new command in \fIinterp\fR
and associates it with procedure \fIproc\fR
such that whenever \fIname\fR is
invoked as a Tcl command (e.g., via a call to \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR)
................................................................................
the process of being deleted, then it does not create a new command
and it returns NULL.
\fIproc\fR should have arguments and result that match the type
\fBTcl_ObjCmdProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_ObjCmdProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIobjc\fR,
        Tcl_Obj *const \fIobjv\fR[]);
.CE
.PP
When \fIproc\fR is invoked, the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters
will be copies of the \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR arguments given to
................................................................................
\fIDeleteProc\fR is invoked before the command is deleted, and gives the
application an opportunity to release any structures associated
with the command.  \fIDeleteProc\fR should have arguments and
result that match the type \fBTcl_CmdDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CmdDeleteProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument passed to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_DeleteCommand\fR deletes a command from a command interpreter.
Once the call completes, attempts to invoke \fIcmdName\fR in
................................................................................
pointed to by \fIinfoPtr\fR and returns 1.
A \fBTcl_CmdInfo\fR structure has the following fields:
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_CmdInfo {
    int \fIisNativeObjectProc\fR;
    Tcl_ObjCmdProc *\fIobjProc\fR;
    void *\fIobjClientData\fR;
    Tcl_CmdProc *\fIproc\fR;
    void *\fIclientData\fR;
    Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *\fIdeleteProc\fR;
    void *\fIdeleteData\fR;
    Tcl_Namespace *\fInamespacePtr\fR;
} \fBTcl_CmdInfo\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fIisNativeObjectProc\fR field has the value 1
if \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR was called to register the command;
it is 0 if only \fBTcl_CreateCommand\fR was called.
................................................................................
that implements the command.
If \fBTcl_CreateCommand\fR was called for this command,
this is the procedure passed to it;
otherwise, this is a compatibility procedure
registered by \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR
that simply calls the command's
value-based procedure after converting its string arguments to Tcl values.
The field \fIdeleteData\fR is the clientData value
to pass to \fIdeleteProc\fR;  it is normally the same as
\fIclientData\fR but may be set independently using the
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR procedure.
The field \fInamespacePtr\fR holds a pointer to the
Tcl_Namespace that contains the command.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetCommandInfoFromToken\fR is identical to
\fBTcl_GetCommandInfo\fR except that it uses a command token returned
from \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR in place of the command name.  If the
\fItoken\fR parameter is NULL, it returns 0; otherwise, it returns 1
and fills in the structure designated by \fIinfoPtr\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR is used to modify the procedures and
clientData values associated with a command.
Its \fIcmdName\fR argument is the name of a command in \fIinterp\fR.
\fIcmdName\fR may include \fB::\fR namespace qualifiers
to identify a command in a particular namespace.
If this command does not exist then \fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR returns 0.
Otherwise, it copies the information from \fI*infoPtr\fR to
Tcl's internal structure for the command and returns 1.
.PP
................................................................................
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR except that it takes a command token as
returned by \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR instead of the command name.
If the \fItoken\fR parameter is NULL, it returns 0.  Otherwise, it
copies the information from \fI*infoPtr\fR to Tcl's internal structure
for the command and returns 1.
.PP
Note that \fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR and
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfoFromToken\fR both allow the clientData for a
command's deletion procedure to be given a different value than the
clientData for its command procedure.
.PP
Note that neither \fBTcl_SetCommandInfo\fR nor
\fBTcl_SetCommandInfoFromToken\fR will change a command's namespace.
Use \fBTcl_Eval\fR to call the \fBrename\fR command to do that.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR provides a mechanism for tracking commands
that have been renamed.
................................................................................
The name, including all namespace prefixes,
is appended to the value specified by \fIobjPtr\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR returns a token for the command
specified by the name in a \fBTcl_Obj\fR.
The command name is resolved relative to the current namespace.
Returns NULL if the command is not found.
.PP
.VS "info cmdtype feature"
\fBTcl_RegisterCommandTypeName\fR is used to associate a name (the
\fItypeName\fR argument) with a particular implementation function so that it
can then be looked up with \fBTcl_GetCommandTypeName\fR, which in turn is
called with a command token that information is wanted for and which returns
the name of the type that was registered for the implementation function used
for that command. (The lookup functionality is surfaced virtually directly in Tcl via
\fBinfo cmdtype\fR.) If there is no function registered for a particular
function, the result will be the string literal
.QW \fBnative\fR .
The registration of a name can be undone by registering a mapping to NULL
instead. The result from \fBTcl_GetCommandTypeName\fR will be exactly that
string which was registered, and not a copy; use of a compile-time constant
string is \fIstrongly recommended\fR.
.VE "info cmdtype feature"
.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateCommand(3), Tcl_ResetResult(3), Tcl_SetObjResult(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
bind, command, create, delete, namespace, value

Changes to doc/CrtTimerHdlr.3.

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\fBTcl_DeleteTimerHandler\fR(\fItoken\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_TimerToken milliseconds
.AP int milliseconds  in
How many milliseconds to wait before invoking \fIproc\fR.
.AP Tcl_TimerProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke after \fImilliseconds\fR have elapsed.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.AP Tcl_TimerToken token in
Token for previously created timer handler (the return value
from some previous call to \fBTcl_CreateTimerHandler\fR).
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
................................................................................
\fIproc\fR, then the call to \fIproc\fR will be delayed.
.PP
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and return value that match
the type \fBTcl_TimerProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_TimerProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter to \fIproc\fR is a
copy of the \fIclientData\fR argument given to
\fBTcl_CreateTimerHandler\fR when the callback
was created.  Typically, \fIclientData\fR points to a data
structure containing application-specific information about






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\fBTcl_DeleteTimerHandler\fR(\fItoken\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_TimerToken milliseconds
.AP int milliseconds  in
How many milliseconds to wait before invoking \fIproc\fR.
.AP Tcl_TimerProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke after \fImilliseconds\fR have elapsed.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.AP Tcl_TimerToken token in
Token for previously created timer handler (the return value
from some previous call to \fBTcl_CreateTimerHandler\fR).
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
................................................................................
\fIproc\fR, then the call to \fIproc\fR will be delayed.
.PP
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and return value that match
the type \fBTcl_TimerProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_TimerProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter to \fIproc\fR is a
copy of the \fIclientData\fR argument given to
\fBTcl_CreateTimerHandler\fR when the callback
was created.  Typically, \fIclientData\fR points to a data
structure containing application-specific information about

Changes to doc/CrtTrace.3.

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Flags governing the trace execution.  See below for details.
.AP Tcl_CmdObjTraceProc *objProc in
Procedure to call for each command that is executed.  See below for
details of the calling sequence.
.AP Tcl_CmdTraceProc *proc in
Procedure to call for each command that is executed.  See below for
details on the calling sequence.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIobjProc\fR or \fIproc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdObjTraceDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Procedure to call when the trace is deleted.  See below for details of
the calling sequence.  A NULL pointer is permissible and results in no
callback when the trace is deleted.
.AP Tcl_Trace trace in
Token for trace to be removed (return value from previous call
................................................................................
interpreter.
.PP
\fIobjProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the type,
\fBTcl_CmdObjTraceProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_CmdObjTraceProc\fR(
        \fBClientData\fR \fIclientData\fR,
        \fBTcl_Interp\fR* \fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIlevel\fR,
        const char *\fIcommand\fR,
        \fBTcl_Command\fR \fIcommandToken\fR,
        int \fIobjc\fR,
        \fBTcl_Obj\fR *const \fIobjv\fR[]);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters are copies of the
corresponding arguments given to \fBTcl_CreateTrace\fR.
\fIClientData\fR typically points to an application-specific data
structure that describes what to do when \fIobjProc\fR is invoked.  The
\fIlevel\fR parameter gives the nesting level of the command (1 for
top-level commands passed to \fBTcl_Eval\fR by the application, 2 for
the next-level commands passed to \fBTcl_Eval\fR as part of parsing or
interpreting level-1 commands, and so on). The \fIcommand\fR parameter
points to a string containing the text of the command, before any
argument substitution.  The \fIcommandToken\fR parameter is a Tcl
................................................................................
When \fBTcl_DeleteTrace\fR is called, the interpreter invokes the
\fIdeleteProc\fR that was passed as a parameter to
\fBTcl_CreateObjTrace\fR.  The \fIdeleteProc\fR must match the type,
\fBTcl_CmdObjTraceDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CmdObjTraceDeleteProc\fR(
        \fBClientData\fR \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter will be the same as the
\fIclientData\fR parameter that was originally passed to
\fBTcl_CreateObjTrace\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateTrace\fR is an alternative interface for command tracing,
................................................................................
compatibility with code that was developed for older versions of the
Tcl interpreter.  It is similar to \fBTcl_CreateObjTrace\fR, except
that its \fIproc\fR parameter should have arguments and result that
match the type \fBTcl_CmdTraceProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CmdTraceProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIlevel\fR,
        char *\fIcommand\fR,
        Tcl_CmdProc *\fIcmdProc\fR,
        ClientData \fIcmdClientData\fR,
        int \fIargc\fR,
        const char *\fIargv\fR[]);
.CE
.PP
The parameters to the \fIproc\fR callback are similar to those of the
\fIobjProc\fR callback above. The \fIcommandToken\fR is
replaced with \fIcmdProc\fR, a pointer to the (string-based) command






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Flags governing the trace execution.  See below for details.
.AP Tcl_CmdObjTraceProc *objProc in
Procedure to call for each command that is executed.  See below for
details of the calling sequence.
.AP Tcl_CmdTraceProc *proc in
Procedure to call for each command that is executed.  See below for
details on the calling sequence.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIobjProc\fR or \fIproc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdObjTraceDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Procedure to call when the trace is deleted.  See below for details of
the calling sequence.  A NULL pointer is permissible and results in no
callback when the trace is deleted.
.AP Tcl_Trace trace in
Token for trace to be removed (return value from previous call
................................................................................
interpreter.
.PP
\fIobjProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the type,
\fBTcl_CmdObjTraceProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_CmdObjTraceProc\fR(
        \fBvoid *\fR \fIclientData\fR,
        \fBTcl_Interp\fR* \fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIlevel\fR,
        const char *\fIcommand\fR,
        \fBTcl_Command\fR \fIcommandToken\fR,
        int \fIobjc\fR,
        \fBTcl_Obj\fR *const \fIobjv\fR[]);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters are copies of the
corresponding arguments given to \fBTcl_CreateTrace\fR.
\fIclientData\fR typically points to an application-specific data
structure that describes what to do when \fIobjProc\fR is invoked.  The
\fIlevel\fR parameter gives the nesting level of the command (1 for
top-level commands passed to \fBTcl_Eval\fR by the application, 2 for
the next-level commands passed to \fBTcl_Eval\fR as part of parsing or
interpreting level-1 commands, and so on). The \fIcommand\fR parameter
points to a string containing the text of the command, before any
argument substitution.  The \fIcommandToken\fR parameter is a Tcl
................................................................................
When \fBTcl_DeleteTrace\fR is called, the interpreter invokes the
\fIdeleteProc\fR that was passed as a parameter to
\fBTcl_CreateObjTrace\fR.  The \fIdeleteProc\fR must match the type,
\fBTcl_CmdObjTraceDeleteProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CmdObjTraceDeleteProc\fR(
        \fBvoid *\fR \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter will be the same as the
\fIclientData\fR parameter that was originally passed to
\fBTcl_CreateObjTrace\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateTrace\fR is an alternative interface for command tracing,
................................................................................
compatibility with code that was developed for older versions of the
Tcl interpreter.  It is similar to \fBTcl_CreateObjTrace\fR, except
that its \fIproc\fR parameter should have arguments and result that
match the type \fBTcl_CmdTraceProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CmdTraceProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIlevel\fR,
        char *\fIcommand\fR,
        Tcl_CmdProc *\fIcmdProc\fR,
        void *\fIcmdClientData\fR,
        int \fIargc\fR,
        const char *\fIargv\fR[]);
.CE
.PP
The parameters to the \fIproc\fR callback are similar to those of the
\fIobjProc\fR callback above. The \fIcommandToken\fR is
replaced with \fIcmdProc\fR, a pointer to the (string-based) command

Changes to doc/DString.3.

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char *
\fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR(\fIdsPtr, element\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR(\fIdsPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DStringEndSublist\fR(\fIdsPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_DStringLength\fR(\fIdsPtr\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_DStringValue\fR(\fIdsPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DStringSetLength\fR(\fIdsPtr, newLength\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.AS Tcl_DString newLength in/out
.AP Tcl_DString *dsPtr in/out
Pointer to structure that is used to manage a dynamic string.
.AP "const char" *bytes in
Pointer to characters to append to dynamic string.
.AP "const char" *element in
Pointer to characters to append as list element to dynamic string.
.AP int length in
Number of bytes from \fIbytes\fR to add to dynamic string.  If -1,
add all characters up to null terminating character.
.AP int newLength in
New length for dynamic string, not including null terminating
character.
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in/out
Interpreter whose result is to be set from or moved to the
dynamic string.
.BE







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char *
\fBTcl_DStringAppendElement\fR(\fIdsPtr, element\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DStringStartSublist\fR(\fIdsPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DStringEndSublist\fR(\fIdsPtr\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_DStringLength\fR(\fIdsPtr\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_DStringValue\fR(\fIdsPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DStringSetLength\fR(\fIdsPtr, newLength\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.AS Tcl_DString newLength in/out
.AP Tcl_DString *dsPtr in/out
Pointer to structure that is used to manage a dynamic string.
.AP "const char" *bytes in
Pointer to characters to append to dynamic string.
.AP "const char" *element in
Pointer to characters to append as list element to dynamic string.
.AP size_t length in
Number of bytes from \fIbytes\fR to add to dynamic string.  If TCL_AUTO_LENGTH,
add all characters up to null terminating character.
.AP size_t newLength in
New length for dynamic string, not including null terminating
character.
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in/out
Interpreter whose result is to be set from or moved to the
dynamic string.
.BE

Changes to doc/DoWhenIdle.3.

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\fBTcl_DoWhenIdle\fR(\fIproc, clientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_CancelIdleCall\fR(\fIproc, clientData\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_IdleProc clientData
.AP Tcl_IdleProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_DoWhenIdle\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be invoked
when the application becomes idle.  The application is
considered to be idle when \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR has been
................................................................................
use \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR to dispatch events.
.PP
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the
type \fBTcl_IdleProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_IdleProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter to \fIproc\fR is a copy of the \fIclientData\fR
argument given to \fBTcl_DoWhenIdle\fR.  Typically, \fIclientData\fR
points to a data structure containing application-specific information about
what \fIproc\fR should do.
.PP






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\fBTcl_DoWhenIdle\fR(\fIproc, clientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_CancelIdleCall\fR(\fIproc, clientData\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_IdleProc clientData
.AP Tcl_IdleProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke.
.AP coid *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_DoWhenIdle\fR arranges for \fIproc\fR to be invoked
when the application becomes idle.  The application is
considered to be idle when \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR has been
................................................................................
use \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR to dispatch events.
.PP
\fIProc\fR should have arguments and result that match the
type \fBTcl_IdleProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_IdleProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter to \fIproc\fR is a copy of the \fIclientData\fR
argument given to \fBTcl_DoWhenIdle\fR.  Typically, \fIclientData\fR
points to a data structure containing application-specific information about
what \fIproc\fR should do.
.PP

Changes to doc/DumpActiveMemory.3.

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They are only functional when Tcl has been compiled with
\fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR defined at compile-time.  When \fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR
is not defined, these functions are all no-ops.
.PP
\fBTcl_DumpActiveMemory\fR will output a list of all currently
allocated memory to the specified file.  The information output for
each allocated block of memory is:  starting and ending addresses
(excluding guard zone), size, source file where \fBckalloc\fR was
called to allocate the block and line number in that file.  It is
especially useful to call \fBTcl_DumpActiveMemory\fR after the Tcl
interpreter has been deleted.
.PP
\fBTcl_InitMemory\fR adds the Tcl \fBmemory\fR command to the
interpreter given by \fIinterp\fR.  \fBTcl_InitMemory\fR is called
by \fBTcl_Main\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_ValidateAllMemory\fR forces a validation of the guard zones of
all currently allocated blocks of memory.  Normally validation of a
block occurs when its freed, unless full validation is enabled, in
which case validation of all blocks occurs when \fBckalloc\fR and
\fBckfree\fR are called.  This function forces the validation to occur
at any point.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
TCL_MEM_DEBUG, memory

.SH KEYWORDS
memory, debug








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They are only functional when Tcl has been compiled with
\fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR defined at compile-time.  When \fBTCL_MEM_DEBUG\fR
is not defined, these functions are all no-ops.
.PP
\fBTcl_DumpActiveMemory\fR will output a list of all currently
allocated memory to the specified file.  The information output for
each allocated block of memory is:  starting and ending addresses
(excluding guard zone), size, source file where \fBTcl_Alloc\fR was
called to allocate the block and line number in that file.  It is
especially useful to call \fBTcl_DumpActiveMemory\fR after the Tcl
interpreter has been deleted.
.PP
\fBTcl_InitMemory\fR adds the Tcl \fBmemory\fR command to the
interpreter given by \fIinterp\fR.  \fBTcl_InitMemory\fR is called
by \fBTcl_Main\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_ValidateAllMemory\fR forces a validation of the guard zones of
all currently allocated blocks of memory.  Normally validation of a
block occurs when its freed, unless full validation is enabled, in
which case validation of all blocks occurs when \fBTcl_Alloc\fR and
\fBTcl_Free\fR are called.  This function forces the validation to occur
at any point.

.SH "SEE ALSO"
TCL_MEM_DEBUG, memory

.SH KEYWORDS
memory, debug


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376
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.AP "const char" *src in
For the \fBTcl_ExternalToUtf\fR functions, an array of bytes in the
specified encoding that are to be converted to UTF-8.  For the
\fBTcl_UtfToExternal\fR and \fBTcl_WinUtfToTChar\fR functions, an array of
UTF-8 characters to be converted to the specified encoding.
.AP "const TCHAR" *tsrc in
An array of Windows TCHAR characters to convert to UTF-8.
.AP int srcLen in
Length of \fIsrc\fR or \fItsrc\fR in bytes.  If the length is negative, the
encoding-specific length of the string is used.
.AP Tcl_DString *dstPtr out
Pointer to an uninitialized or free \fBTcl_DString\fR in which the converted
result will be stored.
.AP int flags in
Various flag bits OR-ed together.
................................................................................
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_EncodingType {
    const char *\fIencodingName\fR;
    Tcl_EncodingConvertProc *\fItoUtfProc\fR;
    Tcl_EncodingConvertProc *\fIfromUtfProc\fR;
    Tcl_EncodingFreeProc *\fIfreeProc\fR;
    ClientData \fIclientData\fR;
    int \fInullSize\fR;
} \fBTcl_EncodingType\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fIencodingName\fR provides a string name for the encoding, by
which it can be referred in other procedures such as
\fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR.  The \fItoUtfProc\fR refers to a callback
................................................................................
CNS11643) are not accepted.
.PP
The callback procedures \fItoUtfProc\fR and \fIfromUtfProc\fR should match the
type \fBTcl_EncodingConvertProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_EncodingConvertProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        const char *\fIsrc\fR,
        int \fIsrcLen\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR,
        Tcl_EncodingState *\fIstatePtr\fR,
        char *\fIdst\fR,
        int \fIdstLen\fR,
        int *\fIsrcReadPtr\fR,
................................................................................
procedure will be a non-NULL location.
.PP
The callback procedure \fIfreeProc\fR, if non-NULL, should match the type
\fBTcl_EncodingFreeProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_EncodingFreeProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
This \fIfreeProc\fR function is called when the encoding is deleted.  The
\fIclientData\fR parameter is the same as the \fIclientData\fR field
specified to \fBTcl_CreateEncoding\fR when the encoding was created.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetEncodingSearchPath\fR and \fBTcl_SetEncodingSearchPath\fR






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.AP "const char" *src in
For the \fBTcl_ExternalToUtf\fR functions, an array of bytes in the
specified encoding that are to be converted to UTF-8.  For the
\fBTcl_UtfToExternal\fR and \fBTcl_WinUtfToTChar\fR functions, an array of
UTF-8 characters to be converted to the specified encoding.
.AP "const TCHAR" *tsrc in
An array of Windows TCHAR characters to convert to UTF-8.
.AP size_t srcLen in
Length of \fIsrc\fR or \fItsrc\fR in bytes.  If the length is negative, the
encoding-specific length of the string is used.
.AP Tcl_DString *dstPtr out
Pointer to an uninitialized or free \fBTcl_DString\fR in which the converted
result will be stored.
.AP int flags in
Various flag bits OR-ed together.
................................................................................
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_EncodingType {
    const char *\fIencodingName\fR;
    Tcl_EncodingConvertProc *\fItoUtfProc\fR;
    Tcl_EncodingConvertProc *\fIfromUtfProc\fR;
    Tcl_EncodingFreeProc *\fIfreeProc\fR;
    void *\fIclientData\fR;
    int \fInullSize\fR;
} \fBTcl_EncodingType\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fIencodingName\fR provides a string name for the encoding, by
which it can be referred in other procedures such as
\fBTcl_GetEncoding\fR.  The \fItoUtfProc\fR refers to a callback
................................................................................
CNS11643) are not accepted.
.PP
The callback procedures \fItoUtfProc\fR and \fIfromUtfProc\fR should match the
type \fBTcl_EncodingConvertProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_EncodingConvertProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        const char *\fIsrc\fR,
        int \fIsrcLen\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR,
        Tcl_EncodingState *\fIstatePtr\fR,
        char *\fIdst\fR,
        int \fIdstLen\fR,
        int *\fIsrcReadPtr\fR,
................................................................................
procedure will be a non-NULL location.
.PP
The callback procedure \fIfreeProc\fR, if non-NULL, should match the type
\fBTcl_EncodingFreeProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_EncodingFreeProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
This \fIfreeProc\fR function is called when the encoding is deleted.  The
\fIclientData\fR parameter is the same as the \fIclientData\fR field
specified to \fBTcl_CreateEncoding\fR when the encoding was created.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetEncodingSearchPath\fR and \fBTcl_SetEncodingSearchPath\fR

Changes to doc/Exit.3.

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Exact meaning may
be platform-specific.  0 usually means a normal exit, any nonzero value
usually means that an error occurred.
.AP Tcl_ExitProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke before exiting application, or (for
\fBTcl_SetExitProc\fR) NULL to uninstall the current application exit
procedure.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The procedures described here provide a graceful mechanism to end the
execution of a \fBTcl\fR application. Exit handlers are invoked to cleanup the
................................................................................
Note that if other code invokes \fBexit\fR system procedure directly, or
otherwise causes the application to terminate without calling
\fBTcl_Exit\fR, the exit handlers will not be run.
\fBTcl_Exit\fR internally invokes the \fBexit\fR system call, thus it never
returns control to its caller.
If an application exit handler has been installed (see
\fBTcl_SetExitProc\fR), that handler is invoked with an argument
consisting of the exit status (cast to ClientData); the application
exit handler should not return control to Tcl.
.PP
\fBTcl_Finalize\fR is similar to \fBTcl_Exit\fR except that it does not
exit from the current process.
It is useful for cleaning up when a process is finished using \fBTcl\fR but
wishes to continue executing, and when \fBTcl\fR is used in a dynamically
loaded extension that is about to be unloaded.
................................................................................
by \fBTcl_FinalizeThread\fR and \fBTcl_ExitThread\fR.
This provides a hook for cleanup operations such as flushing buffers
and freeing global memory.
\fIProc\fR should match the type \fBTcl_ExitProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_ExitProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter to \fIproc\fR is a
copy of the \fIclientData\fR argument given to
\fBTcl_CreateExitHandler\fR or \fBTcl_CreateThreadExitHandler\fR when
the callback
was created.  Typically, \fIclientData\fR points to a data
................................................................................
\fBTcl_SetExitProc\fR installs an application exit handler, returning
the previously-installed application exit handler or NULL if no
application handler was installed.  If an application exit handler is
installed, that exit handler takes over complete responsibility for
finalization of Tcl's subsystems via \fBTcl_Finalize\fR at an
appropriate time.  The argument passed to \fIproc\fR when it is
invoked will be the exit status code (as passed to \fBTcl_Exit\fR)
cast to a ClientData value.


.SH "SEE ALSO"
exit(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, callback, cleanup, dynamic loading, end application, exit, unloading, thread






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Exact meaning may
be platform-specific.  0 usually means a normal exit, any nonzero value
usually means that an error occurred.
.AP Tcl_ExitProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke before exiting application, or (for
\fBTcl_SetExitProc\fR) NULL to uninstall the current application exit
procedure.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The procedures described here provide a graceful mechanism to end the
execution of a \fBTcl\fR application. Exit handlers are invoked to cleanup the
................................................................................
Note that if other code invokes \fBexit\fR system procedure directly, or
otherwise causes the application to terminate without calling
\fBTcl_Exit\fR, the exit handlers will not be run.
\fBTcl_Exit\fR internally invokes the \fBexit\fR system call, thus it never
returns control to its caller.
If an application exit handler has been installed (see
\fBTcl_SetExitProc\fR), that handler is invoked with an argument
consisting of the exit status (cast to void *); the application
exit handler should not return control to Tcl.
.PP
\fBTcl_Finalize\fR is similar to \fBTcl_Exit\fR except that it does not
exit from the current process.
It is useful for cleaning up when a process is finished using \fBTcl\fR but
wishes to continue executing, and when \fBTcl\fR is used in a dynamically
loaded extension that is about to be unloaded.
................................................................................
by \fBTcl_FinalizeThread\fR and \fBTcl_ExitThread\fR.
This provides a hook for cleanup operations such as flushing buffers
and freeing global memory.
\fIProc\fR should match the type \fBTcl_ExitProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_ExitProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR parameter to \fIproc\fR is a
copy of the \fIclientData\fR argument given to
\fBTcl_CreateExitHandler\fR or \fBTcl_CreateThreadExitHandler\fR when
the callback
was created.  Typically, \fIclientData\fR points to a data
................................................................................
\fBTcl_SetExitProc\fR installs an application exit handler, returning
the previously-installed application exit handler or NULL if no
application handler was installed.  If an application exit handler is
installed, that exit handler takes over complete responsibility for
finalization of Tcl's subsystems via \fBTcl_Finalize\fR at an
appropriate time.  The argument passed to \fIproc\fR when it is
invoked will be the exit status code (as passed to \fBTcl_Exit\fR)
cast to a void *value.
.PP
\fBTcl_SetExitProc\fR can not be used in stub-enabled extensions.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
exit(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, callback, cleanup, dynamic loading, end application, exit, unloading, thread

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.sp
int
\fBTcl_FSRegister\fR(\fIclientData, fsPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_FSUnregister\fR(\fIfsPtr\fR)
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_FSData\fR(\fIfsPtr\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_FSMountsChanged\fR(\fIfsPtr\fR)
.sp
const Tcl_Filesystem *
\fBTcl_FSGetFileSystemForPath\fR(\fIpathPtr\fR)
................................................................................
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_FSJoinToPath\fR(\fIbasePtr, objc, objv\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_FSConvertToPathType\fR(\fIinterp, pathPtr\fR)
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_FSGetInternalRep\fR(\fIpathPtr, fsPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_FSGetTranslatedPath\fR(\fIinterp, pathPtr\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_FSGetTranslatedStringPath\fR(\fIinterp, pathPtr\fR)
................................................................................
Only files or directories matching this pattern will be returned.
.AP Tcl_GlobTypeData *types in
Only files or directories matching the type descriptions contained in
this structure will be returned. This parameter may be NULL.
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter to use either for results, evaluation, or reporting error
messages.
.AP ClientData clientData in
The native description of the path value to create.
.AP Tcl_Obj *firstPtr in
The first of two path values to compare. The value may be converted
to \fBpath\fR type.
.AP Tcl_Obj *secondPtr in
The second of two path values to compare. The value may be converted
to \fBpath\fR type.
................................................................................
Name of a procedure to look up in the file's symbol table
.AP "const char" *sym2 in
Name of a procedure to look up in the file's symbol table
.AP Tcl_PackageInitProc **proc1Ptr out
Filled with the init function for this code.
.AP Tcl_PackageInitProc **proc2Ptr out
Filled with the safe-init function for this code.
.AP ClientData *clientDataPtr out
Filled with the clientData value to pass to this code's unload
function when it is called.
.AP Tcl_LoadHandle *loadHandlePtr out
Filled with an abstract token representing the loaded file.
.AP Tcl_FSUnloadFileProc **unloadProcPtr out
Filled with the function to use to unload this piece of code.
.AP Tcl_LoadHandle loadHandle in
................................................................................
freed. This function is of little practical use, and
\fBTcl_FSGetNormalizedPath\fR or \fBTcl_FSGetNativePath\fR are usually
better functions to use for most purposes.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSGetTranslatedStringPath\fR does the same as
\fBTcl_FSGetTranslatedPath\fR, but returns a character string or NULL.
The string returned is dynamically allocated and owned by the caller,
which must store it or call \fBckfree\fR to ensure it is freed. Again,
\fBTcl_FSGetNormalizedPath\fR or \fBTcl_FSGetNativePath\fR are usually
better functions to use for most purposes.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSNewNativePath\fR performs something like the reverse of the
usual obj->path->nativerep conversions. If some code retrieves a path
in native form (from, e.g.\ \fBreadlink\fR or a native dialog), and that path
is to be used at the Tcl level, then calling this function is an
................................................................................
absolute.
.PP
It returns one of \fBTCL_PATH_ABSOLUTE\fR, \fBTCL_PATH_RELATIVE\fR, or
\fBTCL_PATH_VOLUME_RELATIVE\fR
.SS "PORTABLE STAT RESULT API"
.PP
\fBTcl_AllocStatBuf\fR allocates a \fITcl_StatBuf\fR on the system heap (which
may be deallocated by being passed to \fBckfree\fR). This allows extensions to
invoke \fBTcl_FSStat\fR and \fBTcl_FSLstat\fR without being dependent on the
size of the buffer. That in turn depends on the flags used to build Tcl.
.PP
.VS 8.6
The portable fields of a \fITcl_StatBuf\fR may be read using the following
functions, each of which returns the value of the corresponding field listed
in the table below. Note that on some platforms there may be other fields in
................................................................................
not check if the same filesystem is registered multiple times (and in
general that is not a good thing to do). \fBTCL_OK\fR will be returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSUnregister\fR removes the given filesystem structure from
the list of known filesystems, if it is known, and returns \fBTCL_OK\fR. If
the filesystem is not currently registered, \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSData\fR will return the ClientData associated with the given
filesystem, if that filesystem is registered. Otherwise it will
return NULL.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSMountsChanged\fR is used to inform the Tcl's core that
the set of mount points for the given (already registered) filesystem
have changed, and that cached file representations may therefore no
longer be correct.
................................................................................
cache the fact that this path belongs to this filesystem. Such caches
are invalidated when filesystem structures are added or removed from
Tcl's internal list of known filesystems.
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_FSPathInFilesystemProc\fR(
        Tcl_Obj *\fIpathPtr\fR,
        ClientData *\fIclientDataPtr\fR);
.CE
.SS DUPINTERNALREPPROC
.PP
This function makes a copy of a path's internal representation, and is
called when Tcl needs to duplicate a path value. If NULL, Tcl will
simply not copy the internal representation, which may then need to be
regenerated later.
.PP
.CS
typedef ClientData \fBTcl_FSDupInternalRepProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.SS FREEINTERNALREPPROC
Free the internal representation. This must be implemented if internal
representations need freeing (i.e.\ if some memory is allocated when an
internal representation is generated), but may otherwise be NULL.
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_FSFreeInternalRepProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.SS INTERNALTONORMALIZEDPROC
.PP
Function to convert internal representation to a normalized path. Only
required if the filesystem creates pure path values with no string/path
representation. The return value is a Tcl value whose string
representation is the normalized path.
.PP
.CS
typedef Tcl_Obj *\fBTcl_FSInternalToNormalizedProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.SS CREATEINTERNALREPPROC
.PP
Function to take a path value, and calculate an internal
representation for it, and store that native representation in the
value. May be NULL if paths have no internal representation, or if
the \fITcl_FSPathInFilesystemProc\fR for this filesystem always
immediately creates an internal representation for paths it accepts.
.PP
.CS
typedef ClientData \fBTcl_FSCreateInternalRepProc\fR(
        Tcl_Obj *\fIpathPtr\fR);
.CE
.SS NORMALIZEPATHPROC
.PP
Function to normalize a path. Should be implemented for all
filesystems which can have multiple string representations for the same
path value. In Tcl, every






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.sp
int
\fBTcl_FSRegister\fR(\fIclientData, fsPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_FSUnregister\fR(\fIfsPtr\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_FSData\fR(\fIfsPtr\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_FSMountsChanged\fR(\fIfsPtr\fR)
.sp
const Tcl_Filesystem *
\fBTcl_FSGetFileSystemForPath\fR(\fIpathPtr\fR)
................................................................................
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_FSJoinToPath\fR(\fIbasePtr, objc, objv\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_FSConvertToPathType\fR(\fIinterp, pathPtr\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_FSGetInternalRep\fR(\fIpathPtr, fsPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_FSGetTranslatedPath\fR(\fIinterp, pathPtr\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_FSGetTranslatedStringPath\fR(\fIinterp, pathPtr\fR)
................................................................................
Only files or directories matching this pattern will be returned.
.AP Tcl_GlobTypeData *types in
Only files or directories matching the type descriptions contained in
this structure will be returned. This parameter may be NULL.
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter to use either for results, evaluation, or reporting error
messages.
.AP void *clientData in
The native description of the path value to create.
.AP Tcl_Obj *firstPtr in
The first of two path values to compare. The value may be converted
to \fBpath\fR type.
.AP Tcl_Obj *secondPtr in
The second of two path values to compare. The value may be converted
to \fBpath\fR type.
................................................................................
Name of a procedure to look up in the file's symbol table
.AP "const char" *sym2 in
Name of a procedure to look up in the file's symbol table
.AP Tcl_PackageInitProc **proc1Ptr out
Filled with the init function for this code.
.AP Tcl_PackageInitProc **proc2Ptr out
Filled with the safe-init function for this code.
.AP void **clientDataPtr out
Filled with the clientData value to pass to this code's unload
function when it is called.
.AP Tcl_LoadHandle *loadHandlePtr out
Filled with an abstract token representing the loaded file.
.AP Tcl_FSUnloadFileProc **unloadProcPtr out
Filled with the function to use to unload this piece of code.
.AP Tcl_LoadHandle loadHandle in
................................................................................
freed. This function is of little practical use, and
\fBTcl_FSGetNormalizedPath\fR or \fBTcl_FSGetNativePath\fR are usually
better functions to use for most purposes.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSGetTranslatedStringPath\fR does the same as
\fBTcl_FSGetTranslatedPath\fR, but returns a character string or NULL.
The string returned is dynamically allocated and owned by the caller,
which must store it or call \fBTcl_Free\fR to ensure it is freed. Again,
\fBTcl_FSGetNormalizedPath\fR or \fBTcl_FSGetNativePath\fR are usually
better functions to use for most purposes.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSNewNativePath\fR performs something like the reverse of the
usual obj->path->nativerep conversions. If some code retrieves a path
in native form (from, e.g.\ \fBreadlink\fR or a native dialog), and that path
is to be used at the Tcl level, then calling this function is an
................................................................................
absolute.
.PP
It returns one of \fBTCL_PATH_ABSOLUTE\fR, \fBTCL_PATH_RELATIVE\fR, or
\fBTCL_PATH_VOLUME_RELATIVE\fR
.SS "PORTABLE STAT RESULT API"
.PP
\fBTcl_AllocStatBuf\fR allocates a \fITcl_StatBuf\fR on the system heap (which
may be deallocated by being passed to \fBTcl_Free\fR). This allows extensions to
invoke \fBTcl_FSStat\fR and \fBTcl_FSLstat\fR without being dependent on the
size of the buffer. That in turn depends on the flags used to build Tcl.
.PP
.VS 8.6
The portable fields of a \fITcl_StatBuf\fR may be read using the following
functions, each of which returns the value of the corresponding field listed
in the table below. Note that on some platforms there may be other fields in
................................................................................
not check if the same filesystem is registered multiple times (and in
general that is not a good thing to do). \fBTCL_OK\fR will be returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSUnregister\fR removes the given filesystem structure from
the list of known filesystems, if it is known, and returns \fBTCL_OK\fR. If
the filesystem is not currently registered, \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSData\fR will return the clientData associated with the given
filesystem, if that filesystem is registered. Otherwise it will
return NULL.
.PP
\fBTcl_FSMountsChanged\fR is used to inform the Tcl's core that
the set of mount points for the given (already registered) filesystem
have changed, and that cached file representations may therefore no
longer be correct.
................................................................................
cache the fact that this path belongs to this filesystem. Such caches
are invalidated when filesystem structures are added or removed from
Tcl's internal list of known filesystems.
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_FSPathInFilesystemProc\fR(
        Tcl_Obj *\fIpathPtr\fR,
        void **\fIclientDataPtr\fR);
.CE
.SS DUPINTERNALREPPROC
.PP
This function makes a copy of a path's internal representation, and is
called when Tcl needs to duplicate a path value. If NULL, Tcl will
simply not copy the internal representation, which may then need to be
regenerated later.
.PP
.CS
typedef void *\fBTcl_FSDupInternalRepProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.SS FREEINTERNALREPPROC
Free the internal representation. This must be implemented if internal
representations need freeing (i.e.\ if some memory is allocated when an
internal representation is generated), but may otherwise be NULL.
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_FSFreeInternalRepProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.SS INTERNALTONORMALIZEDPROC
.PP
Function to convert internal representation to a normalized path. Only
required if the filesystem creates pure path values with no string/path
representation. The return value is a Tcl value whose string
representation is the normalized path.
.PP
.CS
typedef Tcl_Obj *\fBTcl_FSInternalToNormalizedProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.SS CREATEINTERNALREPPROC
.PP
Function to take a path value, and calculate an internal
representation for it, and store that native representation in the
value. May be NULL if paths have no internal representation, or if
the \fITcl_FSPathInFilesystemProc\fR for this filesystem always
immediately creates an internal representation for paths it accepts.
.PP
.CS
typedef void *\fBTcl_FSCreateInternalRepProc\fR(
        Tcl_Obj *\fIpathPtr\fR);
.CE
.SS NORMALIZEPATHPROC
.PP
Function to normalize a path. Should be implemented for all
filesystems which can have multiple string representations for the same
path value. In Tcl, every

Changes to doc/FindExec.3.

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.PP
\fBTcl_GetNameOfExecutable\fR simply returns a pointer to the
internal full path name of the executable file as computed by
\fBTcl_FindExecutable\fR.  This procedure call is the C API
equivalent to the \fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR command.  NULL
is returned if the internal full path name has not been
computed or unknown.



.SH KEYWORDS
binary, executable file






<
>
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.PP
\fBTcl_GetNameOfExecutable\fR simply returns a pointer to the
internal full path name of the executable file as computed by
\fBTcl_FindExecutable\fR.  This procedure call is the C API
equivalent to the \fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR command.  NULL
is returned if the internal full path name has not been
computed or unknown.

.PP
\fBTcl_FindExecutable\fR can not be used in stub-enabled extensions.
.SH KEYWORDS
binary, executable file

Changes to doc/GetOpnFl.3.

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String identifying channel, such as \fBstdin\fR or \fBfile4\fR.
.AP int write in
Non-zero means the file will be used for writing, zero means it will
be used for reading.
.AP int checkUsage in
If non-zero, then an error will be generated if the file was not opened
for the access indicated by \fIwrite\fR.
.AP ClientData *filePtr out
Points to word in which to store pointer to FILE structure for
the file given by \fIchanID\fR.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_GetOpenFile\fR takes as argument a file identifier of the form






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String identifying channel, such as \fBstdin\fR or \fBfile4\fR.
.AP int write in
Non-zero means the file will be used for writing, zero means it will
be used for reading.
.AP int checkUsage in
If non-zero, then an error will be generated if the file was not opened
for the access indicated by \fIwrite\fR.
.AP void **filePtr out
Points to word in which to store pointer to FILE structure for
the file given by \fIchanID\fR.
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_GetOpenFile\fR takes as argument a file identifier of the form

Changes to doc/GetTime.3.

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.AP Tcl_Time *timePtr out
Points to memory in which to store the date and time information.
.AP Tcl_GetTimeProc getProc in
Pointer to handler function replacing \fBTcl_GetTime\fR's access to the OS.
.AP Tcl_ScaleTimeProc scaleProc in
Pointer to handler function for the conversion of time delays in the
virtual domain to real-time.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Value passed through to the two handler functions.
.AP Tcl_GetTimeProc *getProcPtr out
Pointer to place the currently registered get handler function into.
.AP Tcl_ScaleTimeProc *scaleProcPtr out
Pointer to place the currently registered scale handler function into.
.AP ClientData *clientDataPtr out
Pointer to place the currently registered pass-through value into.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBTcl_GetTime\fR function retrieves the current time as a
\fITcl_Time\fR structure in memory the caller provides.  This
structure has the following definition:
................................................................................
any argument which is NULL is ignored and not set.
.PP
The signatures of the handler functions are as follows:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_GetTimeProc\fR(
        Tcl_Time *\fItimebuf\fR,
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
typedef void \fBTcl_ScaleTimeProc\fR(
        Tcl_Time *\fItimebuf\fR,
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fItimebuf\fR fields contain the time to manipulate, and the
\fIclientData\fR fields contain a pointer supplied at the time the handler
functions were registered.
.PP
Any handler pair specified has to return data which is consistent between






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.AP Tcl_Time *timePtr out
Points to memory in which to store the date and time information.
.AP Tcl_GetTimeProc getProc in
Pointer to handler function replacing \fBTcl_GetTime\fR's access to the OS.
.AP Tcl_ScaleTimeProc scaleProc in
Pointer to handler function for the conversion of time delays in the
virtual domain to real-time.
.AP void *clientData in
Value passed through to the two handler functions.
.AP Tcl_GetTimeProc *getProcPtr out
Pointer to place the currently registered get handler function into.
.AP Tcl_ScaleTimeProc *scaleProcPtr out
Pointer to place the currently registered scale handler function into.
.AP void **clientDataPtr out
Pointer to place the currently registered pass-through value into.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBTcl_GetTime\fR function retrieves the current time as a
\fITcl_Time\fR structure in memory the caller provides.  This
structure has the following definition:
................................................................................
any argument which is NULL is ignored and not set.
.PP
The signatures of the handler functions are as follows:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_GetTimeProc\fR(
        Tcl_Time *\fItimebuf\fR,
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
typedef void \fBTcl_ScaleTimeProc\fR(
        Tcl_Time *\fItimebuf\fR,
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fItimebuf\fR fields contain the time to manipulate, and the
\fIclientData\fR fields contain a pointer supplied at the time the handler
functions were registered.
.PP
Any handler pair specified has to return data which is consistent between

Changes to doc/Hash.3.

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\fBTcl_CreateHashEntry\fR(\fItablePtr, key, newPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DeleteHashEntry\fR(\fIentryPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_HashEntry *
\fBTcl_FindHashEntry\fR(\fItablePtr, key\fR)
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_GetHashValue\fR(\fIentryPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_SetHashValue\fR(\fIentryPtr, value\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR(\fItablePtr, entryPtr\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
Key to use for probe into table.  Exact form depends on
\fIkeyType\fR used to create table.
.AP int *newPtr out
The word at \fI*newPtr\fR is set to 1 if a new entry was created
and 0 if there was already an entry for \fIkey\fR.
.AP Tcl_HashEntry *entryPtr in
Pointer to hash table entry.
.AP ClientData value in
New value to assign to hash table entry.  Need not have type
ClientData, but must fit in same space as ClientData.
.AP Tcl_HashSearch *searchPtr in
Pointer to record to use to keep track of progress in enumerating
all the entries in a hash table.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
A hash table consists of zero or more entries, each consisting of a
................................................................................
.PP
\fBTcl_FindHashEntry\fR is similar to \fBTcl_CreateHashEntry\fR
except that it does not create a new entry if the key doesn't exist;
instead, it returns NULL as result.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetHashValue\fR and \fBTcl_SetHashValue\fR are used to
read and write an entry's value, respectively.
Values are stored and retrieved as type
.QW ClientData ,
which is
large enough to hold a pointer value.  On almost all machines this is
large enough to hold an integer value too.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns the key for a given hash table entry,
either as a pointer to a string, a one-word
.PQ "char *"
key, or
as a pointer to the first word of an array of integers, depending
on the \fIkeyType\fR used to create a hash table.
................................................................................
\fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR or \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_HashStats\fR returns a dynamically-allocated string with
overall information about a hash table, such as the number of
entries it contains, the number of buckets in its hash array,
and the utilization of the buckets.
It is the caller's responsibility to free the result string
by passing it to \fBckfree\fR.
.PP
The header file \fBtcl.h\fR defines the actual data structures
used to implement hash tables.
This is necessary so that clients can allocate Tcl_HashTable
structures and so that macros can be used to read and write
the values of entries.
However, users of the hashing routines should never refer directly






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\fBTcl_CreateHashEntry\fR(\fItablePtr, key, newPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DeleteHashEntry\fR(\fIentryPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_HashEntry *
\fBTcl_FindHashEntry\fR(\fItablePtr, key\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_GetHashValue\fR(\fIentryPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_SetHashValue\fR(\fIentryPtr, value\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR(\fItablePtr, entryPtr\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
Key to use for probe into table.  Exact form depends on
\fIkeyType\fR used to create table.
.AP int *newPtr out
The word at \fI*newPtr\fR is set to 1 if a new entry was created
and 0 if there was already an entry for \fIkey\fR.
.AP Tcl_HashEntry *entryPtr in
Pointer to hash table entry.
.AP void *value in
New value to assign to hash table entry.

.AP Tcl_HashSearch *searchPtr in
Pointer to record to use to keep track of progress in enumerating
all the entries in a hash table.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
A hash table consists of zero or more entries, each consisting of a
................................................................................
.PP
\fBTcl_FindHashEntry\fR is similar to \fBTcl_CreateHashEntry\fR
except that it does not create a new entry if the key doesn't exist;
instead, it returns NULL as result.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetHashValue\fR and \fBTcl_SetHashValue\fR are used to
read and write an entry's value, respectively.





.PP
\fBTcl_GetHashKey\fR returns the key for a given hash table entry,
either as a pointer to a string, a one-word
.PQ "char *"
key, or
as a pointer to the first word of an array of integers, depending
on the \fIkeyType\fR used to create a hash table.
................................................................................
\fBTcl_FirstHashEntry\fR or \fBTcl_NextHashEntry\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_HashStats\fR returns a dynamically-allocated string with
overall information about a hash table, such as the number of
entries it contains, the number of buckets in its hash array,
and the utilization of the buckets.
It is the caller's responsibility to free the result string
by passing it to \fBTcl_Free\fR.
.PP
The header file \fBtcl.h\fR defines the actual data structures
used to implement hash tables.
This is necessary so that clients can allocate Tcl_HashTable
structures and so that macros can be used to read and write
the values of entries.
However, users of the hashing routines should never refer directly

Changes to doc/IntObj.3.

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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_IntObj 3 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_NewIntObj, Tcl_NewLongObj, Tcl_NewWideIntObj, Tcl_SetIntObj, Tcl_SetLongObj, Tcl_SetWideIntObj, Tcl_GetIntFromObj, Tcl_GetLongFromObj, Tcl_GetWideIntFromObj, Tcl_NewBignumObj, Tcl_SetBignumObj, Tcl_GetBignumFromObj, Tcl_TakeBignumFromObj \- manipulate Tcl values as integers
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_NewIntObj\fR(\fIintValue\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
\fBTcl_SetLongObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, longValue\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_SetWideIntObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, wideValue\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, intPtr\fR)
.sp



int
\fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, longPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, widePtr\fR)
.sp
.sp
................................................................................
int
\fBTcl_TakeBignumFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, bigValue\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_InitBignumFromDouble\fR(\fIinterp, doubleValue, bigValue\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_WideInt doubleValue in/out


.AP int intValue in
Integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP long longValue in
Long integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP Tcl_WideInt wideValue in
Wide integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in/out
................................................................................
and \fBTcl_SetBignumObj\fR routines each set the value of an existing
Tcl value pointed to by \fIobjPtr\fR to the integral value provided
by the other argument.  The \fIobjPtr\fR argument must point to an
unshared Tcl value.  Any attempt to set the value of a shared Tcl value
violates Tcl's copy-on-write policy.  Any existing string representation
or internal representation in the unshared Tcl value will be freed
as a consequence of setting the new value.










.PP
The \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR, \fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR,
\fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR, \fBTcl_GetBignumFromObj\fR, and
\fBTcl_TakeBignumFromObj\fR routines attempt to retrieve an integral
value of the appropriate type from the Tcl value \fIobjPtr\fR.  If the
attempt succeeds, then \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned, and the value is
written to the storage provided by the caller.  The attempt might






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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_IntObj 3 8.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_NewIntObj, Tcl_NewLongObj, Tcl_NewWideIntObj, Tcl_SetIntObj, Tcl_SetLongObj, Tcl_SetWideIntObj, Tcl_GetIntFromObj, Tcl_GetIntForIndex, Tcl_GetLongFromObj, Tcl_GetWideIntFromObj, Tcl_NewBignumObj, Tcl_SetBignumObj, Tcl_GetBignumFromObj, Tcl_TakeBignumFromObj \- manipulate Tcl values as integers
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_NewIntObj\fR(\fIintValue\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
\fBTcl_SetLongObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, longValue\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_SetWideIntObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, wideValue\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, intPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetIntForIndex\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, endValue, intPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, longPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, widePtr\fR)
.sp
.sp
................................................................................
int
\fBTcl_TakeBignumFromObj\fR(\fIinterp, objPtr, bigValue\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_InitBignumFromDouble\fR(\fIinterp, doubleValue, bigValue\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_WideInt doubleValue in/out
.AP int endValue in
\fBTcl_GetIntForIndex\fR will return this when the input value is "end".
.AP int intValue in
Integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP long longValue in
Long integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP Tcl_WideInt wideValue in
Wide integer value used to initialize or set a Tcl value.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in/out
................................................................................
and \fBTcl_SetBignumObj\fR routines each set the value of an existing
Tcl value pointed to by \fIobjPtr\fR to the integral value provided
by the other argument.  The \fIobjPtr\fR argument must point to an
unshared Tcl value.  Any attempt to set the value of a shared Tcl value
violates Tcl's copy-on-write policy.  Any existing string representation
or internal representation in the unshared Tcl value will be freed
as a consequence of setting the new value.
.PP
The \fBTcl_GetIntForIndex\fR routine attempts to retrieve an index
value from the Tcl value \fIobjPtr\fR.  If the attempt succeeds,
then \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned, and the value is written to the
storage provided by the caller.  The attempt might fail if
\fIobjPtr\fR does not hold an index value.  If the attempt fails,
then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned, and if \fIinterp\fR is non-NULL,
an error message is left in \fIinterp\fR.  The \fBTcl_ObjType\fR
of \fIobjPtr\fR may be changed to make subsequent calls to the
same routine more efficient.
.PP
The \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR, \fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR,
\fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR, \fBTcl_GetBignumFromObj\fR, and
\fBTcl_TakeBignumFromObj\fR routines attempt to retrieve an integral
value of the appropriate type from the Tcl value \fIobjPtr\fR.  If the
attempt succeeds, then \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned, and the value is
written to the storage provided by the caller.  The attempt might

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Function to call when a particular limit is exceeded.  If the
\fIhandlerProc\fR removes or raises the limit during its processing,
the limited interpreter will be permitted to continue to process after
the handler returns.  Many handlers may be attached to the same
interpreter limit; their order of execution is not defined, and they
must be identified by \fIhandlerProc\fR and \fIclientData\fR when they
are deleted.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary pointer-sized word used to pass some context to the
\fIhandlerProc\fR function.
.AP Tcl_LimitHandlerDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Function to call whenever a handler is deleted.  May be NULL if the
\fIclientData\fR requires no deletion.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
To add a handler callback to be invoked when a limit is exceeded, call
\fBTcl_LimitAddHandler\fR.  The \fIhandlerProc\fR argument describes
the function that will actually be called; it should have the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_LimitHandlerProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument to the handler will be whatever is
passed to the \fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_LimitAddHandler\fR,
and the \fIinterp\fR is the interpreter that had its limit exceeded.
.PP
................................................................................
\fBTCL_STATIC\fR or NULL if no deletion action is necessary, or
\fBTCL_DYNAMIC\fR if all that is necessary is to free the structure with
\fBTcl_Free\fR.  Otherwise, it should refer to a function with the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_LimitHandlerDeleteProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
A limit handler may be deleted using \fBTcl_LimitRemoveHandler\fR; the
handler removed will be the first one found (out of the handlers added
with \fBTcl_LimitAddHandler\fR) with exactly matching \fItype\fR,
\fIhandlerProc\fR and \fIclientData\fR arguments.  This function
always invokes the \fIdeleteProc\fR on the \fIclientData\fR (unless
the \fIdeleteProc\fR was NULL or \fBTCL_STATIC\fR).
.SH KEYWORDS
interpreter, resource, limit, commands, time, callback






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Function to call when a particular limit is exceeded.  If the
\fIhandlerProc\fR removes or raises the limit during its processing,
the limited interpreter will be permitted to continue to process after
the handler returns.  Many handlers may be attached to the same
interpreter limit; their order of execution is not defined, and they
must be identified by \fIhandlerProc\fR and \fIclientData\fR when they
are deleted.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary pointer-sized word used to pass some context to the
\fIhandlerProc\fR function.
.AP Tcl_LimitHandlerDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Function to call whenever a handler is deleted.  May be NULL if the
\fIclientData\fR requires no deletion.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
To add a handler callback to be invoked when a limit is exceeded, call
\fBTcl_LimitAddHandler\fR.  The \fIhandlerProc\fR argument describes
the function that will actually be called; it should have the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_LimitHandlerProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument to the handler will be whatever is
passed to the \fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_LimitAddHandler\fR,
and the \fIinterp\fR is the interpreter that had its limit exceeded.
.PP
................................................................................
\fBTCL_STATIC\fR or NULL if no deletion action is necessary, or
\fBTCL_DYNAMIC\fR if all that is necessary is to free the structure with
\fBTcl_Free\fR.  Otherwise, it should refer to a function with the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_LimitHandlerDeleteProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
A limit handler may be deleted using \fBTcl_LimitRemoveHandler\fR; the
handler removed will be the first one found (out of the handlers added
with \fBTcl_LimitAddHandler\fR) with exactly matching \fItype\fR,
\fIhandlerProc\fR and \fIclientData\fR arguments.  This function
always invokes the \fIdeleteProc\fR on the \fIclientData\fR (unless
the \fIdeleteProc\fR was NULL or \fBTCL_STATIC\fR).
.SH KEYWORDS
interpreter, resource, limit, commands, time, callback

Changes to doc/LinkVar.3.

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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_LinkVar 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_LinkVar, Tcl_UnlinkVar, Tcl_UpdateLinkedVar \- link Tcl variable to C variable
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
int
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName, addr, type\fR)





.sp
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_UpdateLinkedVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_Interp writable
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter that contains \fIvarName\fR.
Also used by \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR to return error messages.
.AP "const char" *varName in
Name of global variable.
.AP char *addr in
Address of C variable that is to be linked to \fIvarName\fR.





.AP int type in

Type of C variable.  Must be one of \fBTCL_LINK_INT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_UINT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_CHAR\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_UCHAR\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_SHORT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_USHORT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_LONG\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_ULONG\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_INT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_UINT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_FLOAT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_DOUBLE\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR, or










\fBTCL_LINK_STRING\fR, optionally OR'ed with \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR
to make Tcl variable read-only.




.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR uses variable traces to keep the Tcl variable
named by \fIvarName\fR in sync with the C variable at the address
given by \fIaddr\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is read the value of the C variable will
be returned, and whenever the Tcl variable is written the C
variable will be updated to have the same value.
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR normally returns \fBTCL_OK\fR;  if an error occurs
while setting up the link (e.g. because \fIvarName\fR is the
name of array) then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned and the interpreter's result
contains an error message.
.PP







The \fItype\fR argument specifies the type of the C variable,

and must have one of the following values, optionally OR'ed with
\fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR:
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_INT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBint\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like the empty
string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_UINT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBunsigned int\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned int\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_CHAR\fR

The C variable is of type \fBchar\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and be in the range of the
\fBchar\fR datatype; attempts to write non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.






.TP







\fBTCL_LINK_UCHAR\fR

The C variable is of type \fBunsigned char\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned char\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.






.TP








\fBTCL_LINK_SHORT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBshort\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and be in the range of the
\fBshort\fR datatype; attempts to write non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_USHORT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBunsigned short\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned short\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_LONG\fR

The C variable is of type \fBlong\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR; attempts to write
non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_ULONG\fR

The C variable is of type \fBunsigned long\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned long\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_DOUBLE\fR

The C variable is of type \fBdouble\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper real
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetDoubleFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-real values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer or real representations (like the
empty string, '.', '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are
accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_FLOAT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBfloat\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper real
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetDoubleFromObj\fR and must be within the
range acceptable for a \fBfloat\fR; attempts to
write non-real values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
or real representations (like the empty string, '.', '+', '-' or
the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_INT\fR


The C variable is of type \fBTcl_WideInt\fR (which is an integer type
at least 64-bits wide on all platforms that can support it.)
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like the empty
string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_UINT\fR

The C variable is of type \fBTcl_WideUInt\fR (which is an unsigned
integer type at least 64-bits wide on all platforms that can support
it.)
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR (it will be
cast to unsigned);
.\" FIXME! Use bignums instead.
attempts to write non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be
rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like
the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR

The C variable is of type \fBint\fR.
If its value is zero then it will read from Tcl as
.QW 0 ;
otherwise it will read from Tcl as
.QW 1 .
Whenever \fIvarName\fR is
modified, the C variable will be set to a 0 or 1 value.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper boolean
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetBooleanFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-boolean values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_STRING\fR

The C variable is of type \fBchar *\fR.
If its value is not NULL then it must be a pointer to a string
allocated with \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or \fBckalloc\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is modified the current C string will be
freed and new memory will be allocated to hold a copy of the variable's
new value.
If the C variable contains a NULL pointer then the Tcl variable
will read as
.QW NULL .

.PP
If the \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR flag is present in \fItype\fR then the
variable will be read-only from Tcl, so that its value can only be
changed by modifying the C variable.
Attempts to write the variable from Tcl will be rejected with errors.
.PP
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR removes the link previously set up for the






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'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_LinkVar 3 7.5 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_LinkArray, Tcl_LinkVar, Tcl_UnlinkVar, Tcl_UpdateLinkedVar \- link Tcl variable to C variable
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
int
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName, addr, type\fR)
.sp
.VS "TIP 312"
int
\fBTcl_LinkArray\fR(\fIinterp, varName, addr, type, size\fR)
.VE "TIP 312"
.sp
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_UpdateLinkedVar\fR(\fIinterp, varName\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_Interp varName in
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter that contains \fIvarName\fR.
Also used by \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR to return error messages.
.AP "const char" *varName in
Name of global variable.
.AP void *addr in
Address of C variable that is to be linked to \fIvarName\fR.
.sp
.VS "TIP 312"
In \fBTcl_LinkArray\fR, may be NULL to tell Tcl to create the storage
for the array in the variable.
.VE "TIP 312"
.AP int type in
Type of C variable for \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR or type of array element for
\fBTcl_LinkArray\fR.  Must be one of \fBTCL_LINK_INT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_UINT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_CHAR\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_UCHAR\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_SHORT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_USHORT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_LONG\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_ULONG\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_INT\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_UINT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_FLOAT\fR, \fBTCL_LINK_DOUBLE\fR,
\fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR, or one of the extra ones listed below.
.sp
In \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR, the additional linked type \fBTCL_LINK_STRING\fR may be
used.
.sp
.VS "TIP 312"
In \fBTcl_LinkArray\fR, the additional linked types \fBTCL_LINK_CHARS\fR and
\fBTCL_LINK_BYTES\fR may be used.
.VE "TIP 312"
.sp
All the above for both functions may be
optionally OR'ed with \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR to make the Tcl
variable read-only.
.AP size_t size in
.VS "TIP 312"
The number of elements in the C array. Must be greater than zero.
.VE "TIP 312"
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR uses variable traces to keep the Tcl variable
named by \fIvarName\fR in sync with the C variable at the address
given by \fIaddr\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is read the value of the C variable will
be returned, and whenever the Tcl variable is written the C
variable will be updated to have the same value.
\fBTcl_LinkVar\fR normally returns \fBTCL_OK\fR;  if an error occurs
while setting up the link (e.g. because \fIvarName\fR is the
name of array) then \fBTCL_ERROR\fR is returned and the interpreter's result
contains an error message.
.PP
.VS "TIP 312"
\fBTcl_LinkArray\fR is similar, but for arrays of fixed size (given by
the \fIsize\fR argument). When asked to allocate the backing C array
storage (via the \fIaddr\fR argument being NULL), it writes the
address that it allocated to the Tcl interpreter result.
.VE "TIP 312"
.PP
The \fItype\fR argument specifies the type of the C variable,
or the type of the elements of the C array,
and must have one of the following values, optionally OR'ed with
\fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR:
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_INT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBint\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like the empty
string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_UINT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBunsigned int\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned int\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_CHAR\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBchar\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and be in the range of the
\fBchar\fR datatype; attempts to write non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.RS
.PP
.VS "TIP 312"
If using an array of these, consider using \fBTCL_LINK_CHARS\fR instead.
.VE "TIP 312"
.RE
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_CHARS\fR
.VS "TIP 312"
The C array is of type \fBchar *\fR and is mapped into Tcl as a string.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have the same length as
the underlying storage. Only supported with \fBTcl_LinkArray\fR.
.VE "TIP 312"
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_UCHAR\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBunsigned char\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned char\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.RS
.PP
.VS "TIP 312"
If using an array of these, consider using \fBTCL_LINK_BYTES\fR instead.
.VE "TIP 312"
.RE
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_BYTES\fR
.VS "TIP 312"
The C array is of type \fBunsigned char *\fR and is mapped into Tcl
as a bytearray.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have the same length as
the underlying storage. Only supported with \fBTcl_LinkArray\fR.
.VE "TIP 312"
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_SHORT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBshort\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and be in the range of the
\fBshort\fR datatype; attempts to write non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_USHORT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBunsigned short\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned short\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_LONG\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBlong\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetLongFromObj\fR; attempts to write
non-integer or out-of-range
values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete
integer representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the
hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_ULONG\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBunsigned long\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR and in the
platform's defined range for the \fBunsigned long\fR type; attempts to
write non-integer values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
representations (like the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary
prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_DOUBLE\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBdouble\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper real
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetDoubleFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-real values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer or real representations (like the
empty string, '.', '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are
accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_FLOAT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBfloat\fR.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper real
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetDoubleFromObj\fR and must be within the
range acceptable for a \fBfloat\fR; attempts to
write non-real values (or values outside the range) into
\fIvarName\fR will be rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer
or real representations (like the empty string, '.', '+', '-' or
the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_INT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBTcl_WideInt\fR
(which is an integer type
at least 64-bits wide on all platforms that can support it.)
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper integer
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like the empty
string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_WIDE_UINT\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBTcl_WideUInt\fR
(which is an unsigned integer type at least 64-bits wide on all platforms that
can support it.)
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper unsigned
integer form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetWideIntFromObj\fR (it will be
cast to unsigned);
.\" FIXME! Use bignums instead.
attempts to write non-integer values into \fIvarName\fR will be
rejected with Tcl errors. Incomplete integer representations (like
the empty string, '+', '-' or the hex/octal/binary prefix) are accepted
as if they are valid too.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_BOOLEAN\fR
.
The C variable, or each element of the C array, is of type \fBint\fR.
If its value is zero then it will read from Tcl as
.QW 0 ;
otherwise it will read from Tcl as
.QW 1 .
Whenever \fIvarName\fR is
modified, the C variable will be set to a 0 or 1 value.
Any value written into the Tcl variable must have a proper boolean
form acceptable to \fBTcl_GetBooleanFromObj\fR;  attempts to write
non-boolean values into \fIvarName\fR will be rejected with
Tcl errors.
.TP
\fBTCL_LINK_STRING\fR
.
The C variable is of type \fBchar *\fR.
If its value is not NULL then it must be a pointer to a string
allocated with \fBTcl_Alloc\fR.
Whenever the Tcl variable is modified the current C string will be
freed and new memory will be allocated to hold a copy of the variable's
new value.
If the C variable contains a NULL pointer then the Tcl variable
will read as
.QW NULL .
This is only supported by \fBTcl_LinkVar\fR.
.PP
If the \fBTCL_LINK_READ_ONLY\fR flag is present in \fItype\fR then the
variable will be read-only from Tcl, so that its value can only be
changed by modifying the C variable.
Attempts to write the variable from Tcl will be rejected with errors.
.PP
\fBTcl_UnlinkVar\fR removes the link previously set up for the

Changes to doc/Method.3.

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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Method 3 0.1 TclOO "TclOO Library Functions"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_ClassSetConstructor, Tcl_ClassSetDestructor, Tcl_MethodDeclarerClass, Tcl_MethodDeclarerObject, Tcl_MethodIsPublic, Tcl_MethodIsType, Tcl_MethodName, Tcl_NewInstanceMethod, Tcl_NewMethod, Tcl_ObjectContextInvokeNext, Tcl_ObjectContextIsFiltering, Tcl_ObjectContextMethod, Tcl_ObjectContextObject, Tcl_ObjectContextSkippedArgs \- manipulate methods and method-call contexts
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tclOO.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Method
\fBTcl_NewMethod\fR(\fIinterp, class, nameObj, isPublic,
              methodTypePtr, clientData\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Method
\fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR(\fIinterp, object, nameObj, isPublic,
                      methodTypePtr, clientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetConstructor\fR(\fIinterp, class, method\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetDestructor\fR(\fIinterp, class, method\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Class
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerClass\fR(\fImethod\fR)
................................................................................
.sp
Tcl_Object
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerObject\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_MethodName\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp

int
\fBTcl_MethodIsPublic\fR(\fImethod\fR)




.sp
int
\fBTcl_MethodIsType\fR(\fImethod, methodTypePtr, clientDataPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ObjectContextInvokeNext\fR(\fIinterp, context, objc, objv, skip\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
Tcl_Object
\fBTcl_ObjectContextObject\fR(\fIcontext\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ObjectContextSkippedArgs\fR(\fIcontext\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS ClientData clientData in
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in/out
The interpreter holding the object or class to create or update a method in.
.AP Tcl_Object object in
The object to create the method in.
.AP Tcl_Class class in
The class to create the method in.
.AP Tcl_Obj *nameObj in
The name of the method to create. Should not be NULL unless creating
constructors or destructors.
.AP int isPublic in
A flag saying what the visibility of the method is. The only supported public
values of this flag are 0 for a non-exported method, and 1 for an exported
method.





.AP Tcl_MethodType *methodTypePtr in
A description of the type of the method to create, or the type of method to
compare against.
.AP ClientData clientData in
A piece of data that is passed to the implementation of the method without
interpretation.
.AP ClientData *clientDataPtr out
A pointer to a variable in which to write the \fIclientData\fR value supplied
when the method was created. If NULL, the \fIclientData\fR value will not be
retrieved.
.AP Tcl_Method method in
A reference to a method to query.
.AP Tcl_ObjectContext context in
A reference to a method-call context. Note that client code \fImust not\fR
................................................................................
that class.
.PP
Given a method, the entity that declared it can be found using
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerClass\fR which returns the class that the method is
attached to (or NULL if the method is not attached to any class) and
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerObject\fR which returns the object that the method is
attached to (or NULL if the method is not attached to an object). The name of
the method can be retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodName\fR and whether the method
is exported is retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodIsPublic\fR. The type of the method




can also be introspected upon to a limited degree; the function
\fBTcl_MethodIsType\fR returns whether a method is of a particular type,
assigning the per-method \fIclientData\fR to the variable pointed to by
\fIclientDataPtr\fR if (that is non-NULL) if the type is matched.
.SS "METHOD CREATION"
.PP
Methods are created by \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR and \fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR,
which
create a method attached to a class or an object respectively. In both cases,
the \fInameObj\fR argument gives the name of the method to create, the
\fIisPublic\fR argument states whether the method should be exported




initially, the \fImethodTypePtr\fR argument describes the implementation of
the method (see the \fBMETHOD TYPES\fR section below) and the \fIclientData\fR
argument gives some implementation-specific data that is passed on to the
implementation of the method when it is called.
.PP
When the \fInameObj\fR argument to \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR is NULL, an
unnamed method is created, which is used for constructors and destructors.
Constructors should be installed into their class using the
................................................................................
that the \fIclientData\fR can just be copied directly.
.SS "TCL_METHODCALLPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are called when the method is invoked.
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_MethodCallProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        Tcl_ObjectContext \fIobjectContext\fR,
        int \fIobjc\fR,
        Tcl_Obj *const *\fIobjv\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument to a Tcl_MethodCallProc is the value that was
................................................................................
.SS "TCL_METHODDELETEPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are used when a method is deleted, whether
through a new method being created or because the object or class is deleted.
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_MethodDeleteProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument to a Tcl_MethodDeleteProc will be the same as
the value passed to the \fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR or
\fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR when the method was created.
.SS "TCL_CLONEPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are used to copy a method when the object or
class is copied using \fBTcl_CopyObjectInstance\fR (or \fBoo::copy\fR).
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_CloneProc\fR(
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        ClientData \fIoldClientData\fR,
        ClientData *\fInewClientDataPtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinterp\fR argument gives a place to write an error message when the
attempt to clone the object is to fail, in which case the clone procedure must
also return TCL_ERROR; it should return TCL_OK otherwise.
The \fIoldClientData\fR field to a Tcl_CloneProc gives the value from the
method being copied from, and the \fInewClientDataPtr\fR field will point to






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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Method 3 0.1 TclOO "TclOO Library Functions"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_ClassSetConstructor, Tcl_ClassSetDestructor, Tcl_MethodDeclarerClass, Tcl_MethodDeclarerObject, Tcl_MethodIsPublic, Tcl_MethodIsPrivate, Tcl_MethodIsType, Tcl_MethodName, Tcl_NewInstanceMethod, Tcl_NewMethod, Tcl_ObjectContextInvokeNext, Tcl_ObjectContextIsFiltering, Tcl_ObjectContextMethod, Tcl_ObjectContextObject, Tcl_ObjectContextSkippedArgs \- manipulate methods and method-call contexts
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tclOO.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_Method
\fBTcl_NewMethod\fR(\fIinterp, class, nameObj, flags, methodTypePtr,
              clientData\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Method
\fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR(\fIinterp, object, nameObj, flags, methodTypePtr,
                      clientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetConstructor\fR(\fIinterp, class, method\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_ClassSetDestructor\fR(\fIinterp, class, method\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Class
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerClass\fR(\fImethod\fR)
................................................................................
.sp
Tcl_Object
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerObject\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_MethodName\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp
.VS TIP500
int
\fBTcl_MethodIsPublic\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.VE TIP500
.sp
int
\fBTcl_MethodIsPrivate\fR(\fImethod\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_MethodIsType\fR(\fImethod, methodTypePtr, clientDataPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ObjectContextInvokeNext\fR(\fIinterp, context, objc, objv, skip\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
Tcl_Object
\fBTcl_ObjectContextObject\fR(\fIcontext\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ObjectContextSkippedArgs\fR(\fIcontext\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS void *clientData in
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in/out
The interpreter holding the object or class to create or update a method in.
.AP Tcl_Object object in
The object to create the method in.
.AP Tcl_Class class in
The class to create the method in.
.AP Tcl_Obj *nameObj in
The name of the method to create. Should not be NULL unless creating
constructors or destructors.
.AP int flags in
A flag saying (currently) what the visibility of the method is. The supported
public values of this flag are \fBTCL_OO_METHOD_PUBLIC\fR (which is fixed at 1
for backward compatibility) for an exported method,
\fBTCL_OO_METHOD_UNEXPORTED\fR (which is fixed at 0 for backward
compatibility) for a non-exported method,
.VS TIP500
and \fBTCL_OO_METHOD_PRIVATE\fR for a private method.
.VE TIP500
.AP Tcl_MethodType *methodTypePtr in
A description of the type of the method to create, or the type of method to
compare against.
.AP void *clientData in
A piece of data that is passed to the implementation of the method without
interpretation.
.AP void **clientDataPtr out
A pointer to a variable in which to write the \fIclientData\fR value supplied
when the method was created. If NULL, the \fIclientData\fR value will not be
retrieved.
.AP Tcl_Method method in
A reference to a method to query.
.AP Tcl_ObjectContext context in
A reference to a method-call context. Note that client code \fImust not\fR
................................................................................
that class.
.PP
Given a method, the entity that declared it can be found using
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerClass\fR which returns the class that the method is
attached to (or NULL if the method is not attached to any class) and
\fBTcl_MethodDeclarerObject\fR which returns the object that the method is
attached to (or NULL if the method is not attached to an object). The name of
the method can be retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodName\fR, whether the method
is exported is retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodIsPublic\fR,
.VS TIP500
and whether the method is private is retrieved with \fBTcl_MethodIsPrivate\fR.
.VE TIP500
The type of the method
can also be introspected upon to a limited degree; the function
\fBTcl_MethodIsType\fR returns whether a method is of a particular type,
assigning the per-method \fIclientData\fR to the variable pointed to by
\fIclientDataPtr\fR if (that is non-NULL) if the type is matched.
.SS "METHOD CREATION"
.PP
Methods are created by \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR and \fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR,
which
create a method attached to a class or an object respectively. In both cases,
the \fInameObj\fR argument gives the name of the method to create, the
\fIflags\fR argument states whether the method should be exported
initially
.VS TIP500
or be marked as a private method,
.VE TIP500
the \fImethodTypePtr\fR argument describes the implementation of
the method (see the \fBMETHOD TYPES\fR section below) and the \fIclientData\fR
argument gives some implementation-specific data that is passed on to the
implementation of the method when it is called.
.PP
When the \fInameObj\fR argument to \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR is NULL, an
unnamed method is created, which is used for constructors and destructors.
Constructors should be installed into their class using the
................................................................................
that the \fIclientData\fR can just be copied directly.
.SS "TCL_METHODCALLPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are called when the method is invoked.
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_MethodCallProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        Tcl_ObjectContext \fIobjectContext\fR,
        int \fIobjc\fR,
        Tcl_Obj *const *\fIobjv\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument to a Tcl_MethodCallProc is the value that was
................................................................................
.SS "TCL_METHODDELETEPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are used when a method is deleted, whether
through a new method being created or because the object or class is deleted.
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_MethodDeleteProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument to a Tcl_MethodDeleteProc will be the same as
the value passed to the \fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_NewMethod\fR or
\fBTcl_NewInstanceMethod\fR when the method was created.
.SS "TCL_CLONEPROC FUNCTION SIGNATURE"
.PP
Functions matching this signature are used to copy a method when the object or
class is copied using \fBTcl_CopyObjectInstance\fR (or \fBoo::copy\fR).
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_CloneProc\fR(
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        void *\fIoldClientData\fR,
        void **\fInewClientDataPtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIinterp\fR argument gives a place to write an error message when the
attempt to clone the object is to fail, in which case the clone procedure must
also return TCL_ERROR; it should return TCL_OK otherwise.
The \fIoldClientData\fR field to a Tcl_CloneProc gives the value from the
method being copied from, and the \fInewClientDataPtr\fR field will point to

Changes to doc/NRE.3.

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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny.
.\" Copyright (c) 2018 by Nathan Coulter. 
.\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH NRE 3 8.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
Called in order to evaluate a command.  Is often just a small wrapper that uses
\fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR to call \fInreProc\fR using a new trampoline.  Behaves
in the same way as the \fIproc\fR argument to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(3)
(\fIq.v.\fR).
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *nreProc in
Called instead of \fIproc\fR when a trampoline is already in use.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value passed to \fIproc\fR, \fInreProc\fR, \fIdeleteProc\fR
and \fIobjProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
Called before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter, allowing for
command-specific cleanup. May be NULL.
.AP int objc in
Number of items in \fIobjv\fR.
................................................................................
Token to use instead of one derived from the first word of \fIobjv\fR in order
to evaluate a command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *resultPtr out
Pointer to an unshared Tcl_Obj where the result of the evaluation is stored if
the return code is TCL_OK.
.AP Tcl_NRPostProc *postProcPtr in
A function to push.
.AP ClientData data0 in
.AP ClientData data1 in
.AP ClientData data2 in
.AP ClientData data3 in
\fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR are four one-word values that will be passed
to the function designated by \fIpostProcPtr\fR when it is invoked.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These functions provide an interface to the function stack that an interpreter
iterates through to evaluate commands.  The routine behind a command is
................................................................................
.PP
\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR pushes \fIpostProcPtr\fR.  The signature for
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR is:
.PP
.CS
typedef int
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR(
        \fBClientData\fR \fIdata\fR[],
        \fBTcl_Interp\fR *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIresult\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIdata\fR is a pointer to an array containing \fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR.
\fIresult\fR is the value returned by the previous function implementing part
the routine.
................................................................................
.PP
The following command uses \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR, which consumes space on the C
stack, to evalute a script:
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    int result;
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr;

................................................................................
trampoline instead of consuming space on the C stack.  A new version of
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR is just a a wrapper that uses \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR to
call \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    return \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR(interp, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR,
            clientData, objc, objv);
}
.CE
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr;

    \fI... preparation ...\fR
................................................................................
    return \fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR(interp, objPtr, 0);
}
.CE
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRPostProc\fR(
    ClientData data[],
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int result)
{
    /* \fIdata[0] .. data[3]\fR are the four words of data
     * passed to \fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR */

    \fI... postprocessing ...\fR

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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny.
.\" Copyright (c) 2018 by Nathan Coulter.
.\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH NRE 3 8.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
Called in order to evaluate a command.  Is often just a small wrapper that uses
\fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR to call \fInreProc\fR using a new trampoline.  Behaves
in the same way as the \fIproc\fR argument to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(3)
(\fIq.v.\fR).
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *nreProc in
Called instead of \fIproc\fR when a trampoline is already in use.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value passed to \fIproc\fR, \fInreProc\fR, \fIdeleteProc\fR
and \fIobjProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
Called before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter, allowing for
command-specific cleanup. May be NULL.
.AP int objc in
Number of items in \fIobjv\fR.
................................................................................
Token to use instead of one derived from the first word of \fIobjv\fR in order
to evaluate a command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *resultPtr out
Pointer to an unshared Tcl_Obj where the result of the evaluation is stored if
the return code is TCL_OK.
.AP Tcl_NRPostProc *postProcPtr in
A function to push.
.AP void *data0 in
.AP void *data1 in
.AP void *data2 in
.AP void *data3 in
\fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR are four one-word values that will be passed
to the function designated by \fIpostProcPtr\fR when it is invoked.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These functions provide an interface to the function stack that an interpreter
iterates through to evaluate commands.  The routine behind a command is
................................................................................
.PP
\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR pushes \fIpostProcPtr\fR.  The signature for
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR is:
.PP
.CS
typedef int
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR(
        \fBvoid *\fR \fIdata\fR[],
        \fBTcl_Interp\fR *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIresult\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIdata\fR is a pointer to an array containing \fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR.
\fIresult\fR is the value returned by the previous function implementing part
the routine.
................................................................................
.PP
The following command uses \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR, which consumes space on the C
stack, to evalute a script:
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    void *clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    int result;
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr;

................................................................................
trampoline instead of consuming space on the C stack.  A new version of
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR is just a a wrapper that uses \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR to
call \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    void *clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    return \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR(interp, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR,
            clientData, objc, objv);
}
.CE
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR
    void *clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr;

    \fI... preparation ...\fR
................................................................................
    return \fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR(interp, objPtr, 0);
}
.CE
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRPostProc\fR(
    void *data[],
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int result)
{
    /* \fIdata[0] .. data[3]\fR are the four words of data
     * passed to \fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR */

    \fI... postprocessing ...\fR

Changes to doc/Namespace.3.

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.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_NamespaceDeleteProc allowOverwrite in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in/out
The interpreter in which the namespace exists and where name lookups
are performed. Also where error result messages are written.
.AP "const char" *name in
The name of the namespace or command to be created or accessed.
.AP ClientData clientData in
A context pointer by the creator of the namespace.  Not interpreted by
Tcl at all.
.AP Tcl_NamespaceDeleteProc *deleteProc in
A pointer to function to call when the namespace is deleted, or NULL
if no such callback is to be performed.
.AP Tcl_Namespace *nsPtr in
The namespace to be manipulated, or NULL (for other than
................................................................................
the global namespace.)
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateNamespace\fR creates a new namespace.  The
\fIdeleteProc\fR will have the following type signature:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_NamespaceDeleteProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fBTcl_DeleteNamespace\fR deletes a namespace, calling the
\fIdeleteProc\fR defined for the namespace (if any).
.PP
\fBTcl_AppendExportList\fR retrieves the export patterns for a
namespace given namespace and appends them (as list items) to






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.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_NamespaceDeleteProc allowOverwrite in/out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in/out
The interpreter in which the namespace exists and where name lookups
are performed. Also where error result messages are written.
.AP "const char" *name in
The name of the namespace or command to be created or accessed.
.AP void *clientData in
A context pointer by the creator of the namespace.  Not interpreted by
Tcl at all.
.AP Tcl_NamespaceDeleteProc *deleteProc in
A pointer to function to call when the namespace is deleted, or NULL
if no such callback is to be performed.
.AP Tcl_Namespace *nsPtr in
The namespace to be manipulated, or NULL (for other than
................................................................................
the global namespace.)
.PP
\fBTcl_CreateNamespace\fR creates a new namespace.  The
\fIdeleteProc\fR will have the following type signature:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_NamespaceDeleteProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fBTcl_DeleteNamespace\fR deletes a namespace, calling the
\fIdeleteProc\fR defined for the namespace (if any).
.PP
\fBTcl_AppendExportList\fR retrieves the export patterns for a
namespace given namespace and appends them (as list items) to

Changes to doc/Notifier.3.

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.sp
Tcl_ThreadId
\fBTcl_GetCurrentThread\fR()
.sp
void
\fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR(\fIdeleteProc, clientData\fR)
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_InitNotifier\fR()
.sp
void
\fBTcl_FinalizeNotifier\fR(\fIclientData\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR(\fItimePtr\fR)
................................................................................
.AS Tcl_EventDeleteProc *notifierProcPtr
.AP Tcl_EventSetupProc *setupProc in
Procedure to invoke to prepare for event wait in \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR.
.AP Tcl_EventCheckProc *checkProc in
Procedure for \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR to invoke after waiting for
events.  Checks to see if any events have occurred and, if so,
queues them.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIsetupProc\fR, \fIcheckProc\fR, or
\fIdeleteProc\fR.
.AP "const Tcl_Time" *timePtr in
Indicates the maximum amount of time to wait for an event.  This
is specified as an interval (how long to wait), not an absolute
time (when to wakeup).  If the pointer passed to \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR
is NULL, it means there is no maximum wait time:  wait forever if
necessary.
.AP Tcl_Event *evPtr in
An event to add to the event queue.  The storage for the event must
have been allocated by the caller using \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or \fBckalloc\fR.
.AP Tcl_QueuePosition position in
Where to add the new event in the queue:  \fBTCL_QUEUE_TAIL\fR,
\fBTCL_QUEUE_HEAD\fR, or \fBTCL_QUEUE_MARK\fR.
.AP Tcl_ThreadId threadId in
A unique identifier for a thread.
.AP Tcl_EventDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Procedure to invoke for each queued event in \fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR.
................................................................................
The procedure \fBTcl_CreateEventSource\fR creates a new event source.
Its arguments specify the setup procedure and check procedure for
the event source.
\fISetupProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_EventSetupProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument to \fBTcl_CreateEventSource\fR;  it is typically used to
point to private information managed by the event source.
The \fIflags\fR argument will be the same as the \fIflags\fR
................................................................................
The second procedure provided by each event source is its check
procedure, indicated by the \fIcheckProc\fR argument to
\fBTcl_CreateEventSource\fR.  \fICheckProc\fR must match the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_EventCheckProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The arguments to this procedure are the same as those for \fIsetupProc\fR.
\fBCheckProc\fR is invoked by \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR after it has waited
for events.  Presumably at least one event source is now prepared to
queue an event.  \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR calls each of the event sources
................................................................................
Another example of deferring events happens in Tk if
\fBTk_RestrictEvents\fR has been invoked to defer certain kinds
of window events.
.PP
When \fIproc\fR returns 1, \fBTcl_ServiceEvent\fR will remove the
event from the event queue and free its storage.
Note that the storage for an event must be allocated by
the event source (using \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or the Tcl macro \fBckalloc\fR)
before calling \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR, but it
will be freed by \fBTcl_ServiceEvent\fR, not by the event source.
.PP
Threaded applications work in a
similar manner, except that there is a separate event queue for
each thread containing a Tcl interpreter.
Calling \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR in a multithreaded application adds
................................................................................
for each event in the queue, deleting those for with the procedure
returns 1.  Events for which the procedure returns 0 are left in the
queue.  \fIProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_EventDeleteProc\fR(
        Tcl_Event *\fIevPtr\fR,
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument to \fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR; it is typically used to point to
private information managed by the event source.  The \fIevPtr\fR will
point to the next event in the queue.
.PP






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.sp
Tcl_ThreadId
\fBTcl_GetCurrentThread\fR()
.sp
void
\fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR(\fIdeleteProc, clientData\fR)
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_InitNotifier\fR()
.sp
void
\fBTcl_FinalizeNotifier\fR(\fIclientData\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR(\fItimePtr\fR)
................................................................................
.AS Tcl_EventDeleteProc *notifierProcPtr
.AP Tcl_EventSetupProc *setupProc in
Procedure to invoke to prepare for event wait in \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR.
.AP Tcl_EventCheckProc *checkProc in
Procedure for \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR to invoke after waiting for
events.  Checks to see if any events have occurred and, if so,
queues them.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIsetupProc\fR, \fIcheckProc\fR, or
\fIdeleteProc\fR.
.AP "const Tcl_Time" *timePtr in
Indicates the maximum amount of time to wait for an event.  This
is specified as an interval (how long to wait), not an absolute
time (when to wakeup).  If the pointer passed to \fBTcl_WaitForEvent\fR
is NULL, it means there is no maximum wait time:  wait forever if
necessary.
.AP Tcl_Event *evPtr in
An event to add to the event queue.  The storage for the event must
have been allocated by the caller using \fBTcl_Alloc\fR.
.AP Tcl_QueuePosition position in
Where to add the new event in the queue:  \fBTCL_QUEUE_TAIL\fR,
\fBTCL_QUEUE_HEAD\fR, or \fBTCL_QUEUE_MARK\fR.
.AP Tcl_ThreadId threadId in
A unique identifier for a thread.
.AP Tcl_EventDeleteProc *deleteProc in
Procedure to invoke for each queued event in \fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR.
................................................................................
The procedure \fBTcl_CreateEventSource\fR creates a new event source.
Its arguments specify the setup procedure and check procedure for
the event source.
\fISetupProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_EventSetupProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument to \fBTcl_CreateEventSource\fR;  it is typically used to
point to private information managed by the event source.
The \fIflags\fR argument will be the same as the \fIflags\fR
................................................................................
The second procedure provided by each event source is its check
procedure, indicated by the \fIcheckProc\fR argument to
\fBTcl_CreateEventSource\fR.  \fICheckProc\fR must match the
following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_EventCheckProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The arguments to this procedure are the same as those for \fIsetupProc\fR.
\fBCheckProc\fR is invoked by \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR after it has waited
for events.  Presumably at least one event source is now prepared to
queue an event.  \fBTcl_DoOneEvent\fR calls each of the event sources
................................................................................
Another example of deferring events happens in Tk if
\fBTk_RestrictEvents\fR has been invoked to defer certain kinds
of window events.
.PP
When \fIproc\fR returns 1, \fBTcl_ServiceEvent\fR will remove the
event from the event queue and free its storage.
Note that the storage for an event must be allocated by
the event source (using \fBTcl_Alloc\fR)
before calling \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR, but it
will be freed by \fBTcl_ServiceEvent\fR, not by the event source.
.PP
Threaded applications work in a
similar manner, except that there is a separate event queue for
each thread containing a Tcl interpreter.
Calling \fBTcl_QueueEvent\fR in a multithreaded application adds
................................................................................
for each event in the queue, deleting those for with the procedure
returns 1.  Events for which the procedure returns 0 are left in the
queue.  \fIProc\fR should match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef int \fBTcl_EventDeleteProc\fR(
        Tcl_Event *\fIevPtr\fR,
        void *\fIclientData\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument to \fBTcl_DeleteEvents\fR; it is typically used to point to
private information managed by the event source.  The \fIevPtr\fR will
point to the next event in the queue.
.PP

Changes to doc/Object.3.

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.SH "THE TCL_OBJ STRUCTURE"
.PP
Each Tcl value is represented by a \fBTcl_Obj\fR structure
which is defined as follows.
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_Obj {
    int \fIrefCount\fR;
    char *\fIbytes\fR;
    int \fIlength\fR;
    const Tcl_ObjType *\fItypePtr\fR;
    union {
        long \fIlongValue\fR;
        double \fIdoubleValue\fR;
        void *\fIotherValuePtr\fR;
        Tcl_WideInt \fIwideValue\fR;
        struct {






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.SH "THE TCL_OBJ STRUCTURE"
.PP
Each Tcl value is represented by a \fBTcl_Obj\fR structure
which is defined as follows.
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_Obj {
    size_t \fIrefCount\fR;
    char *\fIbytes\fR;
    size_t \fIlength\fR;
    const Tcl_ObjType *\fItypePtr\fR;
    union {
        long \fIlongValue\fR;
        double \fIdoubleValue\fR;
        void *\fIotherValuePtr\fR;
        Tcl_WideInt \fIwideValue\fR;
        struct {

Changes to doc/ObjectType.3.

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We require the string representation's byte array
to have a null after the last byte, at offset \fIlength\fR,
and to have no null bytes before that; this allows string representations
to be treated as conventional null character-terminated C strings.
These restrictions are easily met by using Tcl's internal UTF encoding
for the string representation, same as one would do for other
Tcl routines accepting string values as arguments.
Storage for the byte array must be allocated in the heap by \fBTcl_Alloc\fR
or \fBckalloc\fR.  Note that \fIupdateStringProc\fRs must allocate
enough storage for the string's bytes and the terminating null byte.
.PP
The \fIupdateStringProc\fR for Tcl's built-in double type, for example,
calls Tcl_PrintDouble to write to a buffer of size TCL_DOUBLE_SPACE,
then allocates and copies the string representation to just enough
space to hold it.  A pointer to the allocated space is stored in
the \fIbytes\fR member.






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We require the string representation's byte array
to have a null after the last byte, at offset \fIlength\fR,
and to have no null bytes before that; this allows string representations
to be treated as conventional null character-terminated C strings.
These restrictions are easily met by using Tcl's internal UTF encoding
for the string representation, same as one would do for other
Tcl routines accepting string values as arguments.
Storage for the byte array must be allocated in the heap by \fBTcl_Alloc\fR.
Note that \fIupdateStringProc\fRs must allocate
enough storage for the string's bytes and the terminating null byte.
.PP
The \fIupdateStringProc\fR for Tcl's built-in double type, for example,
calls Tcl_PrintDouble to write to a buffer of size TCL_DOUBLE_SPACE,
then allocates and copies the string representation to just enough
space to hold it.  A pointer to the allocated space is stored in
the \fIbytes\fR member.

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.sp
int
\fBTcl_ReadChars\fR(\fIchannel, readObjPtr, charsToRead, appendFlag\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_Read\fR(\fIchannel, readBuf, bytesToRead\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetsObj\fR(\fIchannel, lineObjPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_Gets\fR(\fIchannel, lineRead\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_Ungets\fR(\fIchannel, input, inputLen, addAtEnd\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_WriteObj\fR(\fIchannel, writeObjPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_WriteChars\fR(\fIchannel, charBuf, bytesToWrite\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_Write\fR(\fIchannel, byteBuf, bytesToWrite\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ReadRaw\fR(\fIchannel, readBuf, bytesToRead\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_WriteRaw\fR(\fIchannel, byteBuf, bytesToWrite\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_Eof\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_Flush\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
................................................................................
\fBTCL_ENFORCE_MODE\fR. If \fBTCL_STDIN\fR is set, stdin for the first child
in the pipe is the pipe channel, otherwise it is the same as the standard
input of the invoking process; likewise for \fBTCL_STDOUT\fR and
\fBTCL_STDERR\fR. If \fBTCL_ENFORCE_MODE\fR is not set, then the pipe can
redirect stdio handles to override the stdio handles for which
\fBTCL_STDIN\fR, \fBTCL_STDOUT\fR and \fBTCL_STDERR\fR have been set.  If it
is set, then such redirections cause an error.
.AP ClientData handle in
Operating system specific handle for I/O to a file. For Unix this is a
file descriptor, for Windows it is a HANDLE.
.AP int readOrWrite in
OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR and \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR to indicate
what operations are valid on \fIhandle\fR.
.AP "const char" *channelName in
The name of the channel.
................................................................................
The pattern to match on, passed to Tcl_StringMatch, or NULL.
.AP Tcl_Channel channel in
A Tcl channel for input or output.  Must have been the return value
from a procedure such as \fBTcl_OpenFileChannel\fR.
.AP Tcl_Obj *readObjPtr in/out
A pointer to a Tcl value in which to store the characters read from the
channel.
.AP int charsToRead in
The number of characters to read from the channel.  If the channel's encoding
is \fBbinary\fR, this is equivalent to the number of bytes to read from the
channel.
.AP int appendFlag in
If non-zero, data read from the channel will be appended to the value.
Otherwise, the data will replace the existing contents of the value.
.AP char *readBuf out
A buffer in which to store the bytes read from the channel.
.AP int bytesToRead in
The number of bytes to read from the channel.  The buffer \fIreadBuf\fR must
be large enough to hold this many bytes.
.AP Tcl_Obj *lineObjPtr in/out
A pointer to a Tcl value in which to store the line read from the
channel.  The line read will be appended to the current value of the
value.
.AP Tcl_DString *lineRead in/out
A pointer to a Tcl dynamic string in which to store the line read from the
channel.  Must have been initialized by the caller.  The line read will be
appended to any data already in the dynamic string.
.AP "const char" *input in
The input to add to a channel buffer.
.AP int inputLen in
Length of the input
.AP int addAtEnd in
Flag indicating whether the input should be added to the end or
beginning of the channel buffer.
.AP Tcl_Obj *writeObjPtr in
A pointer to a Tcl value whose contents will be output to the channel.
.AP "const char" *charBuf in
A buffer containing the characters to output to the channel.
.AP "const char" *byteBuf in
A buffer containing the bytes to output to the channel.
.AP int bytesToWrite in
The number of bytes to consume from \fIcharBuf\fR or \fIbyteBuf\fR and
output to the channel.
.AP Tcl_WideInt offset in
How far to move the access point in the channel at which the next input or
output operation will be applied, measured in bytes from the position
given by \fIseekMode\fR.  May be either positive or negative.
.AP int seekMode in






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.sp
int
\fBTcl_ReadChars\fR(\fIchannel, readObjPtr, charsToRead, appendFlag\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_Read\fR(\fIchannel, readBuf, bytesToRead\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_GetsObj\fR(\fIchannel, lineObjPtr\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_Gets\fR(\fIchannel, lineRead\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_Ungets\fR(\fIchannel, input, inputLen, addAtEnd\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_WriteObj\fR(\fIchannel, writeObjPtr\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_WriteChars\fR(\fIchannel, charBuf, bytesToWrite\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_Write\fR(\fIchannel, byteBuf, bytesToWrite\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_ReadRaw\fR(\fIchannel, readBuf, bytesToRead\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_WriteRaw\fR(\fIchannel, byteBuf, bytesToWrite\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_Eof\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_Flush\fR(\fIchannel\fR)
................................................................................
\fBTCL_ENFORCE_MODE\fR. If \fBTCL_STDIN\fR is set, stdin for the first child
in the pipe is the pipe channel, otherwise it is the same as the standard
input of the invoking process; likewise for \fBTCL_STDOUT\fR and
\fBTCL_STDERR\fR. If \fBTCL_ENFORCE_MODE\fR is not set, then the pipe can
redirect stdio handles to override the stdio handles for which
\fBTCL_STDIN\fR, \fBTCL_STDOUT\fR and \fBTCL_STDERR\fR have been set.  If it
is set, then such redirections cause an error.
.AP void *handle in
Operating system specific handle for I/O to a file. For Unix this is a
file descriptor, for Windows it is a HANDLE.
.AP int readOrWrite in
OR-ed combination of \fBTCL_READABLE\fR and \fBTCL_WRITABLE\fR to indicate
what operations are valid on \fIhandle\fR.
.AP "const char" *channelName in
The name of the channel.
................................................................................
The pattern to match on, passed to Tcl_StringMatch, or NULL.
.AP Tcl_Channel channel in
A Tcl channel for input or output.  Must have been the return value
from a procedure such as \fBTcl_OpenFileChannel\fR.
.AP Tcl_Obj *readObjPtr in/out
A pointer to a Tcl value in which to store the characters read from the
channel.
.AP size_t charsToRead in
The number of characters to read from the channel.  If the channel's encoding
is \fBbinary\fR, this is equivalent to the number of bytes to read from the
channel.
.AP int appendFlag in
If non-zero, data read from the channel will be appended to the value.
Otherwise, the data will replace the existing contents of the value.
.AP char *readBuf out
A buffer in which to store the bytes read from the channel.
.AP size_t bytesToRead in
The number of bytes to read from the channel.  The buffer \fIreadBuf\fR must
be large enough to hold this many bytes.
.AP Tcl_Obj *lineObjPtr in/out
A pointer to a Tcl value in which to store the line read from the
channel.  The line read will be appended to the current value of the
value.
.AP Tcl_DString *lineRead in/out
A pointer to a Tcl dynamic string in which to store the line read from the
channel.  Must have been initialized by the caller.  The line read will be
appended to any data already in the dynamic string.
.AP "const char" *input in
The input to add to a channel buffer.
.AP size_t inputLen in
Length of the input
.AP int addAtEnd in
Flag indicating whether the input should be added to the end or
beginning of the channel buffer.
.AP Tcl_Obj *writeObjPtr in
A pointer to a Tcl value whose contents will be output to the channel.
.AP "const char" *charBuf in
A buffer containing the characters to output to the channel.
.AP "const char" *byteBuf in
A buffer containing the bytes to output to the channel.
.AP size_t bytesToWrite in
The number of bytes to consume from \fIcharBuf\fR or \fIbyteBuf\fR and
output to the channel.
.AP Tcl_WideInt offset in
How far to move the access point in the channel at which the next input or
output operation will be applied, measured in bytes from the position
given by \fIseekMode\fR.  May be either positive or negative.
.AP int seekMode in

Changes to doc/OpenTcp.3.

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for the local end of the connection.  If NULL, a default interface is
chosen.
.AP int async in
If nonzero, the client socket is connected asynchronously to the server.
.AP "unsigned int" flags in
ORed combination of \fBTCL_TCPSERVER\fR flags that specify additional
informations about the socket being created.
.AP ClientData sock in
Platform-specific handle for client TCP socket.
.AP Tcl_TcpAcceptProc *proc in
Pointer to a procedure to invoke each time a new connection is
accepted via the socket.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These functions are convenience procedures for creating
channels that communicate over TCP sockets.
The operations on a channel
................................................................................
allow connections from any network interface.
Each time a client connects to this socket, Tcl creates a channel
for the new connection and invokes \fIproc\fR with information about
the channel. \fIProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_TcpAcceptProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Channel \fIchannel\fR,
        char *\fIhostName\fR,
        int \fIport\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument to \fBTcl_OpenTcpServer\fR, \fIchannel\fR will be the handle






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for the local end of the connection.  If NULL, a default interface is
chosen.
.AP int async in
If nonzero, the client socket is connected asynchronously to the server.
.AP "unsigned int" flags in
ORed combination of \fBTCL_TCPSERVER\fR flags that specify additional
informations about the socket being created.
.AP void *sock in
Platform-specific handle for client TCP socket.
.AP Tcl_TcpAcceptProc *proc in
Pointer to a procedure to invoke each time a new connection is
accepted via the socket.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These functions are convenience procedures for creating
channels that communicate over TCP sockets.
The operations on a channel
................................................................................
allow connections from any network interface.
Each time a client connects to this socket, Tcl creates a channel
for the new connection and invokes \fIproc\fR with information about
the channel. \fIProc\fR must match the following prototype:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_TcpAcceptProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Channel \fIchannel\fR,
        char *\fIhostName\fR,
        int \fIport\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR argument will be the same as the \fIclientData\fR
argument to \fBTcl_OpenTcpServer\fR, \fIchannel\fR will be the handle

Changes to doc/Panic.3.

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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Panic 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\"  Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_Panic, Tcl_SetPanicProc \- report fatal error and abort
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
void
\fBTcl_Panic\fR(\fIformat\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fI...\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR(\fIpanicProc\fR)
.sp



.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_PanicProc *panicProc
.AP "const char*" format in
A printf-style format string.
.AP "" arg in
Arguments matching the format string.
.AP va_list argList in
................................................................................
In a freshly loaded Tcl library, \fBTcl_Panic\fR prints the formatted
error message to the standard error file of the process, and then
calls \fBabort\fR to terminate the process.  \fBTcl_Panic\fR does not
return. On Windows, when a debugger is running, the formatted error
message is sent to the debugger in stead. If the windows executable
does not have a stderr channel (e.g. \fBwish.exe\fR), then a
system dialog box is used to display the panic message.








.PP
\fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR may be used to modify the behavior of
\fBTcl_Panic\fR.  The \fIpanicProc\fR argument should match the
type \fBTcl_PanicProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_PanicProc\fR(
................................................................................
application or the platform.
.PP
Although the primary callers of \fBTcl_Panic\fR are the procedures of
the Tcl library, \fBTcl_Panic\fR is a public function and may be called
by any extension or application that wishes to abort the process and
have a panic message displayed the same way that panic messages from Tcl
will be displayed.


.SH "SEE ALSO"
abort(3), printf(3), exec(n), format(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, fatal, error






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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_Panic 3 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\"  Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
Tcl_Panic, Tcl_SetPanicProc, Tcl_ConsolePanic \- report fatal error and abort
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
void
\fBTcl_Panic\fR(\fIformat\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fI...\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR(\fIpanicProc\fR)
.sp
void
\fBTcl_ConsolePanic\fR(\fIformat\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fIarg\fR, \fI...\fR)
.sp
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_PanicProc *panicProc
.AP "const char*" format in
A printf-style format string.
.AP "" arg in
Arguments matching the format string.
.AP va_list argList in
................................................................................
In a freshly loaded Tcl library, \fBTcl_Panic\fR prints the formatted
error message to the standard error file of the process, and then
calls \fBabort\fR to terminate the process.  \fBTcl_Panic\fR does not
return. On Windows, when a debugger is running, the formatted error
message is sent to the debugger in stead. If the windows executable
does not have a stderr channel (e.g. \fBwish.exe\fR), then a
system dialog box is used to display the panic message.
.PP
If your application doesn't use \fBTcl_Main\fR or \fBTk_Main\fR
and you want to implicitly use the stderr channel of your
application's C runtime (in stead of the stderr channel of the
C runtime used by Tcl), you can call \fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR
with \fBTcl_ConsolePanic\fR as its argument. On platforms which
only have one C runtime (almost all platforms except Windows)
\fBTcl_ConsolePanic\fR is equivalent to NULL.
.PP
\fBTcl_SetPanicProc\fR may be used to modify the behavior of
\fBTcl_Panic\fR.  The \fIpanicProc\fR argument should match the
type \fBTcl_PanicProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_PanicProc\fR(
................................................................................
application or the platform.
.PP
Although the primary callers of \fBTcl_Panic\fR are the procedures of
the Tcl library, \fBTcl_Panic\fR is a public function and may be called
by any extension or application that wishes to abort the process and
have a panic message displayed the same way that panic messages from Tcl
will be displayed.
.PP
This function can not be used in stub-enabled extensions.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
abort(3), printf(3), exec(n), format(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, fatal, error

Changes to doc/ParseArgs.3.

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stored in \fIremObjv\fR.
.AP "Tcl_Obj *const" *objv in
The array of arguments to be parsed.
.AP Tcl_Obj ***remObjv out
Pointer to a variable that will hold the array of unprocessed arguments.
Should be NULL if no return of unprocessed arguments is required. If
\fIobjcPtr\fR is updated to a non-zero value, the array returned through this
must be deallocated using \fBckfree\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBTcl_ParseArgsObjv\fR function provides a system for parsing argument
lists of the form
.QW "\fB\-someName \fIsomeValue\fR ..." .
Such argument lists are commonly found both in the arguments to a program and
................................................................................
.CS
typedef struct {
    int \fItype\fR;
    const char *\fIkeyStr\fR;
    void *\fIsrcPtr\fR;
    void *\fIdstPtr\fR;
    const char *\fIhelpStr\fR;
    ClientData \fIclientData\fR;
} \fBTcl_ArgvInfo\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fIkeyStr\fR field contains the name of the option; by convention, this
will normally begin with a
.QW \fB\-\fR
character. The \fItype\fR, \fIsrcPtr\fR, \fIdstPtr\fR and \fIclientData\fR
................................................................................
As noted above, the \fItype\fR field is used to describe the interpretation of
the argument's value. The following values are acceptable values for
\fItype\fR:
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_CONSTANT\fR
.
The argument does not take any following value argument. If this argument is
present, the int pointed to by the \fIsrcPtr\fR field is copied to the
\fIdstPtr\fR field. The \fIclientData\fR field is ignored.
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_END\fR
.
This value marks the end of all option descriptors in the table. All other
fields are ignored.
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_FLOAT\fR
................................................................................
This argument optionally takes a following value argument; it is up to the
handler callback function passed in \fIsrcPtr\fR to decide. That function will
have the following signature:
.RS
.PP
.CS
typedef int (\fBTcl_ArgvFuncProc\fR)(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Obj *\fIobjPtr\fR,
        void *\fIdstPtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The result is a boolean value indicating whether to consume the following
argument. The \fIclientData\fR is the value from the table entry, the
\fIobjPtr\fR is the value that represents the following argument or NULL if
................................................................................
function passed in \fIsrcPtr\fR returns how many (or a negative number to
signal an error, in which case it should also set the interpreter result). The
function will have the following signature:
.RS
.PP
.CS
typedef int (\fBTcl_ArgvGenFuncProc\fR)(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIobjc\fR,
        Tcl_Obj *const *\fIobjv\fR,
        void *\fIdstPtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR is the value from the table entry, the \fIinterp\fR is






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stored in \fIremObjv\fR.
.AP "Tcl_Obj *const" *objv in
The array of arguments to be parsed.
.AP Tcl_Obj ***remObjv out
Pointer to a variable that will hold the array of unprocessed arguments.
Should be NULL if no return of unprocessed arguments is required. If
\fIobjcPtr\fR is updated to a non-zero value, the array returned through this
must be deallocated using \fBTcl_Free\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBTcl_ParseArgsObjv\fR function provides a system for parsing argument
lists of the form
.QW "\fB\-someName \fIsomeValue\fR ..." .
Such argument lists are commonly found both in the arguments to a program and
................................................................................
.CS
typedef struct {
    int \fItype\fR;
    const char *\fIkeyStr\fR;
    void *\fIsrcPtr\fR;
    void *\fIdstPtr\fR;
    const char *\fIhelpStr\fR;
    void *\fIclientData\fR;
} \fBTcl_ArgvInfo\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fIkeyStr\fR field contains the name of the option; by convention, this
will normally begin with a
.QW \fB\-\fR
character. The \fItype\fR, \fIsrcPtr\fR, \fIdstPtr\fR and \fIclientData\fR
................................................................................
As noted above, the \fItype\fR field is used to describe the interpretation of
the argument's value. The following values are acceptable values for
\fItype\fR:
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_CONSTANT\fR
.
The argument does not take any following value argument. If this argument is
present, the \fIsrcPtr\fR field (casted to \fIint\fR) is copied to the variable
pointed to by the \fIdstPtr\fR field. The \fIclientData\fR field is ignored.
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_END\fR
.
This value marks the end of all option descriptors in the table. All other
fields are ignored.
.TP
\fBTCL_ARGV_FLOAT\fR
................................................................................
This argument optionally takes a following value argument; it is up to the
handler callback function passed in \fIsrcPtr\fR to decide. That function will
have the following signature:
.RS
.PP
.CS
typedef int (\fBTcl_ArgvFuncProc\fR)(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Obj *\fIobjPtr\fR,
        void *\fIdstPtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The result is a boolean value indicating whether to consume the following
argument. The \fIclientData\fR is the value from the table entry, the
\fIobjPtr\fR is the value that represents the following argument or NULL if
................................................................................
function passed in \fIsrcPtr\fR returns how many (or a negative number to
signal an error, in which case it should also set the interpreter result). The
function will have the following signature:
.RS
.PP
.CS
typedef int (\fBTcl_ArgvGenFuncProc\fR)(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIobjc\fR,
        Tcl_Obj *const *\fIobjv\fR,
        void *\fIdstPtr\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR is the value from the table entry, the \fIinterp\fR is

Changes to doc/ParseCmd.3.

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    int \fInumTokens\fR;
    ...
} \fBTcl_Parse\fR;

typedef struct Tcl_Token {
    int \fItype\fR;
    const char *\fIstart\fR;
    int \fIsize\fR;
    int \fInumComponents\fR;
} \fBTcl_Token\fR;
.CE
.PP
The first five fields of a Tcl_Parse structure
are filled in only by \fBTcl_ParseCommand\fR.
These fields are not used by the other parsing procedures.
.PP






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    int \fInumTokens\fR;
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} \fBTcl_Parse\fR;

typedef struct Tcl_Token {
    int \fItype\fR;
    const char *\fIstart\fR;
    size_t \fIsize\fR;
    size_t \fInumComponents\fR;
} \fBTcl_Token\fR;
.CE
.PP
The first five fields of a Tcl_Parse structure
are filled in only by \fBTcl_ParseCommand\fR.
These fields are not used by the other parsing procedures.
.PP

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\fBTcl_Preserve\fR(\fIclientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_Release\fR(\fIclientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_EventuallyFree\fR(\fIclientData, freeProc\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_FreeProc clientData
.AP ClientData clientData in
Token describing structure to be freed or reallocated.  Usually a pointer
to memory for structure.
.AP Tcl_FreeProc *freeProc in
Procedure to invoke to free \fIclientData\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
................................................................................
same as the \fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_EventuallyFree\fR.
The type of \fIblockPtr\fR (\fBchar *\fR) is different than the type of the
\fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_EventuallyFree\fR for historical
reasons, but the value is the same.
.PP
When the \fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_EventuallyFree\fR
refers to storage allocated and returned by a prior call to
\fBTcl_Alloc\fR, \fBckalloc\fR, or another function of the Tcl library,
then the \fIfreeProc\fR argument should be given the special value of
\fBTCL_DYNAMIC\fR.
.PP
This mechanism can be used to solve the problem described above
by placing \fBTcl_Preserve\fR and \fBTcl_Release\fR calls around
actions that may cause undesired storage re-allocation.  The
mechanism is intended only for short-term use (i.e. while procedures






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\fBTcl_Preserve\fR(\fIclientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_Release\fR(\fIclientData\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_EventuallyFree\fR(\fIclientData, freeProc\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_FreeProc clientData
.AP void *clientData in
Token describing structure to be freed or reallocated.  Usually a pointer
to memory for structure.
.AP Tcl_FreeProc *freeProc in
Procedure to invoke to free \fIclientData\fR.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
................................................................................
same as the \fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_EventuallyFree\fR.
The type of \fIblockPtr\fR (\fBchar *\fR) is different than the type of the
\fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_EventuallyFree\fR for historical
reasons, but the value is the same.
.PP
When the \fIclientData\fR argument to \fBTcl_EventuallyFree\fR
refers to storage allocated and returned by a prior call to
\fBTcl_Alloc\fR or another function of the Tcl library,
then the \fIfreeProc\fR argument should be given the special value of
\fBTCL_DYNAMIC\fR.
.PP
This mechanism can be used to solve the problem described above
by placing \fBTcl_Preserve\fR and \fBTcl_Release\fR calls around
actions that may cause undesired storage re-allocation.  The
mechanism is intended only for short-term use (i.e. while procedures

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by \fBTcl_GetRegExpFromObj\fR or \fBTcl_RegExpCompile\fR.
.AP char *start in
If \fItext\fR is just a portion of some other string, this argument
identifies the beginning of the larger string.
If it is not the same as \fItext\fR, then no
.QW \fB^\fR
matches will be allowed.
.AP int index in
Specifies which range is desired:  0 means the range of the entire
match, 1 or greater means the range that matched a parenthesized
sub-expression.
.AP "const char" **startPtr out
The address of the first character in the range is stored here, or
NULL if there is no such range.
.AP "const char" **endPtr out
................................................................................
is stored here, or NULL if there is no such range.
.AP int cflags in
OR-ed combination of the compilation flags \fBTCL_REG_ADVANCED\fR,
\fBTCL_REG_EXTENDED\fR, \fBTCL_REG_BASIC\fR, \fBTCL_REG_EXPANDED\fR,
\fBTCL_REG_QUOTE\fR, \fBTCL_REG_NOCASE\fR, \fBTCL_REG_NEWLINE\fR,
\fBTCL_REG_NLSTOP\fR, \fBTCL_REG_NLANCH\fR, \fBTCL_REG_NOSUB\fR, and
\fBTCL_REG_CANMATCH\fR. See below for more information.
.AP int offset in
The character offset into the text where matching should begin.
The value of the offset has no impact on \fB^\fR matches.  This
behavior is controlled by \fIeflags\fR.
.AP int nmatches in
The number of matching subexpressions that should be remembered for
later use.  If this value is 0, then no subexpression match
information will be computed.  If the value is \-1, then
all of the matching subexpressions will be remembered.  Any other
value will be taken as the maximum number of subexpressions to
remember.
.AP int eflags in
OR-ed combination of the execution flags \fBTCL_REG_NOTBOL\fR and
\fBTCL_REG_NOTEOL\fR. See below for more information.
.AP Tcl_RegExpInfo *infoPtr out
................................................................................
\fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR retrieves information about the last match
performed with a given regular expression \fIregexp\fR.  The
\fIinfoPtr\fR argument contains a pointer to a structure that is
defined as follows:
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_RegExpInfo {
    int \fInsubs\fR;
    Tcl_RegExpIndices *\fImatches\fR;
    long \fIextendStart\fR;
} \fBTcl_RegExpInfo\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fInsubs\fR field contains a count of the number of parenthesized
subexpressions within the regular expression.  If the \fBTCL_REG_NOSUB\fR
was used, then this value will be zero.  The \fImatches\fR field
points to an array of \fInsubs\fR+1 values that indicate the bounds of each
................................................................................
range matched by the entire regular expression, and subsequent elements
refer to the parenthesized subexpressions in the order that they
appear in the pattern.  Each element is a structure that is defined as
follows:
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_RegExpIndices {
    long \fIstart\fR;
    long \fIend\fR;
} \fBTcl_RegExpIndices\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fIstart\fR and \fIend\fR values are Unicode character indices
relative to the offset location within \fIobjPtr\fR where matching began.
The \fIstart\fR index identifies the first character of the matched
subexpression.  The \fIend\fR index identifies the first character






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by \fBTcl_GetRegExpFromObj\fR or \fBTcl_RegExpCompile\fR.
.AP char *start in
If \fItext\fR is just a portion of some other string, this argument
identifies the beginning of the larger string.
If it is not the same as \fItext\fR, then no
.QW \fB^\fR
matches will be allowed.
.AP size_t index in
Specifies which range is desired:  0 means the range of the entire
match, 1 or greater means the range that matched a parenthesized
sub-expression.
.AP "const char" **startPtr out
The address of the first character in the range is stored here, or
NULL if there is no such range.
.AP "const char" **endPtr out
................................................................................
is stored here, or NULL if there is no such range.
.AP int cflags in
OR-ed combination of the compilation flags \fBTCL_REG_ADVANCED\fR,
\fBTCL_REG_EXTENDED\fR, \fBTCL_REG_BASIC\fR, \fBTCL_REG_EXPANDED\fR,
\fBTCL_REG_QUOTE\fR, \fBTCL_REG_NOCASE\fR, \fBTCL_REG_NEWLINE\fR,
\fBTCL_REG_NLSTOP\fR, \fBTCL_REG_NLANCH\fR, \fBTCL_REG_NOSUB\fR, and
\fBTCL_REG_CANMATCH\fR. See below for more information.
.AP size_t offset in
The character offset into the text where matching should begin.
The value of the offset has no impact on \fB^\fR matches.  This
behavior is controlled by \fIeflags\fR.
.AP size_t nmatches in
The number of matching subexpressions that should be remembered for
later use.  If this value is 0, then no subexpression match
information will be computed.  If the value is TCL_INDEX_NONE, then
all of the matching subexpressions will be remembered.  Any other
value will be taken as the maximum number of subexpressions to
remember.
.AP int eflags in
OR-ed combination of the execution flags \fBTCL_REG_NOTBOL\fR and
\fBTCL_REG_NOTEOL\fR. See below for more information.
.AP Tcl_RegExpInfo *infoPtr out
................................................................................
\fBTcl_RegExpGetInfo\fR retrieves information about the last match
performed with a given regular expression \fIregexp\fR.  The
\fIinfoPtr\fR argument contains a pointer to a structure that is
defined as follows:
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_RegExpInfo {
    size_t \fInsubs\fR;
    Tcl_RegExpIndices *\fImatches\fR;
    size_t \fIextendStart\fR;
} \fBTcl_RegExpInfo\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fInsubs\fR field contains a count of the number of parenthesized
subexpressions within the regular expression.  If the \fBTCL_REG_NOSUB\fR
was used, then this value will be zero.  The \fImatches\fR field
points to an array of \fInsubs\fR+1 values that indicate the bounds of each
................................................................................
range matched by the entire regular expression, and subsequent elements
refer to the parenthesized subexpressions in the order that they
appear in the pattern.  Each element is a structure that is defined as
follows:
.PP
.CS
typedef struct Tcl_RegExpIndices {
    size_t \fIstart\fR;
    size_t \fIend\fR;
} \fBTcl_RegExpIndices\fR;
.CE
.PP
The \fIstart\fR and \fIend\fR values are Unicode character indices
relative to the offset location within \fIobjPtr\fR where matching began.
The \fIstart\fR index identifies the first character of the matched
subexpression.  The \fIend\fR index identifies the first character

Changes to doc/SaveResult.3.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2004. (not subject to US copyright)

'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_SaveResult 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SaveInterpState, Tcl_RestoreInterpState, Tcl_DiscardInterpState, Tcl_SaveResult, Tcl_RestoreResult, Tcl_DiscardResult \- save and restore an interpreter's state


.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_InterpState
\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR(\fIinterp, status\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
\fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR(\fIinterp, savedPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR(\fIsavedPtr\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_InterpState savedPtr
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter for which state should be saved.
.AP int status in
Return code value to save as part of interpreter state.
.AP Tcl_InterpState state in
Saved state token to be restored or discarded.
.AP Tcl_SavedResult *savedPtr in
Pointer to location where interpreter result should be saved or restored.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These routines allows a C procedure to take a snapshot of the current
state of an interpreter so that it can be restored after a call
to \fBTcl_Eval\fR or some other routine that modifies the interpreter
state.  There are two triplets of routines meant to work together.
.PP
The first triplet stores the snapshot of interpreter state in
an opaque token returned by \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR.  That token
value may then be passed back to one of \fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR
or \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR, depending on whether the interp
state is to be restored.  So long as one of the latter two routines
is called, Tcl will take care of memory management.
.PP
The second triplet stores the snapshot of only the interpreter
result (not its complete state) in memory allocated by the caller.
These routines are passed a pointer to \fBTcl_SavedResult\fR
that is used to store enough information to restore the interpreter result.
\fBTcl_SavedResult\fR can be allocated on the stack of the calling
procedure.  These routines do not save the state of any error
information in the interpreter (e.g. the \fB\-errorcode\fR or
\fB\-errorinfo\fR return options, when an error is in progress).
.PP
Because the routines \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR,
\fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR, and \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR perform
a superset of the functions provided by the other routines,
any new code should only make use of the more powerful routines.
The older, weaker routines \fBTcl_SaveResult\fR, \fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR,
and \fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR continue to exist only for the sake
of existing programs that may already be using them.
.PP
\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR takes a snapshot of those portions of
interpreter state that make up the full result of script evaluation.
This include the interpreter result, the return code (passed in
as the \fIstatus\fR argument, and any return options, including

\fB\-errorinfo\fR and \fB\-errorcode\fR when an error is in progress.
This snapshot is returned as an opaque token of type \fBTcl_InterpState\fR.
The call to \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR does not itself change the
state of the interpreter.  Unlike \fBTcl_SaveResult\fR, it does
not reset the interpreter.


.PP
\fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR accepts a \fBTcl_InterpState\fR token
previously returned by \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR and restores the
state of the interp to the state held in that snapshot.  The return
value of \fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR is the status value originally

passed to \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR when the snapshot token was
created.
.PP
\fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR is called to release a \fBTcl_InterpState\fR
token previously returned by \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR when that
snapshot is not to be restored to an interp.


.PP

The \fBTcl_InterpState\fR token returned by \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR
must eventually be passed to either \fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR
or \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR to avoid a memory leak.  Once
the \fBTcl_InterpState\fR token is passed to one of them, the
token is no longer valid and should not be used anymore.

.PP
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR moves the string and value results
of \fIinterp\fR into the location specified by \fIstatePtr\fR.
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR clears the result for \fIinterp\fR and
leaves the result in its normal empty initialized state.



.PP
\fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR moves the string and value results from
\fIstatePtr\fR back into \fIinterp\fR.  Any result or error that was
already in the interpreter will be cleared.  The \fIstatePtr\fR is left
in an uninitialized state and cannot be used until another call to



\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR releases the saved interpreter state
stored at \fBstatePtr\fR.  The state structure is left in an
uninitialized state and cannot be used until another call to

\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR.
.PP
Once \fBTcl_SaveResult\fR is called to save the interpreter
result, either \fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR or
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR must be called to properly clean up the
memory associated with the saved state.

.SH KEYWORDS
result, state, interp


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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1997 by Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Contributions from Don Porter, NIST, 2004. (not subject to US copyright)
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Nathan Coulter.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH Tcl_SaveResult 3 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_SaveInterpState, Tcl_RestoreInterpState, Tcl_DiscardInterpState,
Tcl_SaveResult, Tcl_RestoreResult, Tcl_DiscardResult \- Save and restore the
state of an an interpreter.
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_InterpState
\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR(\fIinterp, status\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
\fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR(\fIinterp, savedPtr\fR)
.sp
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR(\fIsavedPtr\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_InterpState savedPtr
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
The interpreter for the operation.
.AP int status in
The return code for the state.
.AP Tcl_InterpState state in
A token for saved state.
.AP Tcl_SavedResult *savedPtr in
A pointer to storage for saved state.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These routines save the state of an interpreter before a call to a routine such
as \fBTcl_Eval\fR, and restore the state afterwards.


.PP
















\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR saves the parts of \fIinterp\fR that comprise the











result of a script, including the resulting value, the return code passed as
\fIstatus\fR, and any options such as \fB\-errorinfo\fR and \fB\-errorcode\fR.




It returns a token for the saved state.  The interpreter result is not reset
and no interpreter state is changed.
.PP
\fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR restores the state indicated by \fIstate\fR and



returns the \fIstatus\fR originally passed in the corresponding call to
\fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR.

.PP
If a saved state is not restored, \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR must be called


to release it.  A token used to discard or restore state must not be used
again.
.PP
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR, \fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR, and \fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR are
deprecated.  Instead use \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR,
\fBTcl_RestoreInterpState\fR, and \fBTcl_DiscardInterpState\fR, which are more



capable.
.PP
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR moves the result of \fIinterp\fR to the location



\fIstatePtr\fR points to and returns the interpreter result to its initial
state.  It does not save options such as \fB\-errorcode\fR or
\fB\-errorinfo\fR.
.PP




\fBTcl_RestoreResult\fR clears any existing result or error in \fIinterp\fR and
moves the result from \fIstatePtr\fR back to \fIinterp\fR.  \fIstatePtr\fR is
then in an undefined state and must not be used until passed again to
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR releases the state stored at \fBstatePtr\fR, which is


then in an undefined state and must not be used until passed again to
\fBTcl_SaveResult\fR.
.PP


If a saved result is not restored, \fBTcl_DiscardResult\fR must be called to

release it.
.SH KEYWORDS
result, state, interp

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.sp
int
\fBTcl_SplitList\fR(\fIinterp, list, argcPtr, argvPtr\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_Merge\fR(\fIargc, argv\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ScanElement\fR(\fIsrc, flagsPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ScanCountedElement\fR(\fIsrc, length, flagsPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ConvertElement\fR(\fIsrc, dst, flags\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_ConvertCountedElement\fR(\fIsrc, length, dst, flags\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const char *const" ***argvPtr out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp out
Interpreter to use for error reporting.  If NULL, then no error message
is left.
.AP char *list in
................................................................................
Array of strings to merge together into a single list.
Each string will become a separate element of the list.
.AP "const char" *src in
String that is to become an element of a list.
.AP int *flagsPtr in
Pointer to word to fill in with information about \fIsrc\fR.
The value of *\fIflagsPtr\fR must be passed to \fBTcl_ConvertElement\fR.
.AP int length in
Number of bytes in string \fIsrc\fR.
.AP char *dst in
Place to copy converted list element.  Must contain enough characters
to hold converted string.
.AP int flags in
Information about \fIsrc\fR. Must be value returned by previous
call to \fBTcl_ScanElement\fR, possibly OR-ed






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.sp
int
\fBTcl_SplitList\fR(\fIinterp, list, argcPtr, argvPtr\fR)
.sp
char *
\fBTcl_Merge\fR(\fIargc, argv\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_ScanElement\fR(\fIsrc, flagsPtr\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_ScanCountedElement\fR(\fIsrc, length, flagsPtr\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_ConvertElement\fR(\fIsrc, dst, flags\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_ConvertCountedElement\fR(\fIsrc, length, dst, flags\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const char *const" ***argvPtr out
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp out
Interpreter to use for error reporting.  If NULL, then no error message
is left.
.AP char *list in
................................................................................
Array of strings to merge together into a single list.
Each string will become a separate element of the list.
.AP "const char" *src in
String that is to become an element of a list.
.AP int *flagsPtr in
Pointer to word to fill in with information about \fIsrc\fR.
The value of *\fIflagsPtr\fR must be passed to \fBTcl_ConvertElement\fR.
.AP size_t length in
Number of bytes in string \fIsrc\fR.
.AP char *dst in
Place to copy converted list element.  Must contain enough characters
to hold converted string.
.AP int flags in
Information about \fIsrc\fR. Must be value returned by previous
call to \fBTcl_ScanElement\fR, possibly OR-ed

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The \fIinterp\fR argument identifies the interpreter in which the package
is to be loaded.  The initialization procedure must return \fBTCL_OK\fR or
\fBTCL_ERROR\fR to indicate whether or not it completed successfully; in
the event of an error it should set the interpreter's result to point to an
error message.  The result or error from the initialization procedure will
be returned as the result of the \fBload\fR command that caused the
initialization procedure to be invoked.


.SH KEYWORDS
initialization procedure, package, static linking
.SH "SEE ALSO"
load(n), package(n), Tcl_PkgRequire(3)






>
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The \fIinterp\fR argument identifies the interpreter in which the package
is to be loaded.  The initialization procedure must return \fBTCL_OK\fR or
\fBTCL_ERROR\fR to indicate whether or not it completed successfully; in
the event of an error it should set the interpreter's result to point to an
error message.  The result or error from the initialization procedure will
be returned as the result of the \fBload\fR command that caused the
initialization procedure to be invoked.
.PP
This function can not be used in stub-enabled extensions.
.SH KEYWORDS
initialization procedure, package, static linking
.SH "SEE ALSO"
load(n), package(n), Tcl_PkgRequire(3)

Changes to doc/StringObj.3.

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.sp
Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_GetUnicodeFromObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, lengthPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_GetUnicode\fR(\fIobjPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_GetUniChar\fR(\fIobjPtr, index\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetCharLength\fR(\fIobjPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_GetRange\fR(\fIobjPtr, first, last\fR)
................................................................................
\fBTcl_ConcatObj\fR(\fIobjc, objv\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const Tcl_UniChar" *appendObjPtr in/out
.AP "const char" *bytes in
Points to the first byte of an array of UTF-8-encoded bytes
used to set or append to a string value.
This byte array may contain embedded null characters
unless \fInumChars\fR is negative.  (Applications needing null bytes
should represent them as the two-byte sequence \fI\e700\e600\fR, use
\fBTcl_ExternalToUtf\fR to convert, or \fBTcl_NewByteArrayObj\fR if
the string is a collection of uninterpreted bytes.)
.AP int length in
The number of bytes to copy from \fIbytes\fR when
initializing, setting, or appending to a string value.
If negative, all bytes up to the first null are used.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *unicode in
Points to the first byte of an array of Unicode characters
used to set or append to a string value.
This byte array may contain embedded null characters
unless \fInumChars\fR is negative.
.AP int numChars in
The number of Unicode characters to copy from \fIunicode\fR when
initializing, setting, or appending to a string value.
If negative, all characters up to the first null character are used.
.AP int index in
The index of the Unicode character to return.
.AP int first in
The index of the first Unicode character in the Unicode range to be
returned as a new value.
.AP int last in
The index of the last Unicode character in the Unicode range to be
returned as a new value.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in/out
Points to a value to manipulate.
.AP Tcl_Obj *appendObjPtr in
The value to append to \fIobjPtr\fR in \fBTcl_AppendObjToObj\fR.
.AP int *lengthPtr out
................................................................................
If non-NULL, the location where \fBTcl_GetStringFromObj\fR will store
the length of a value's string representation.
.AP "const char" *string in
Null-terminated string value to append to \fIobjPtr\fR.
.AP va_list argList in
An argument list which must have been initialized using
\fBva_start\fR, and cleared using \fBva_end\fR.
.AP int limit in
Maximum number of bytes to be appended.
.AP "const char" *ellipsis in
Suffix to append when the limit leads to string truncation.
If NULL is passed then the suffix
.QW "..."
is used.
.AP "const char" *format in
Format control string including % conversion specifiers.
.AP int objc in
The number of elements to format or concatenate.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objv[] in
The array of values to format or concatenate.
.AP int newLength in
New length for the string value of \fIobjPtr\fR, not including the
final null character.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The procedures described in this manual entry allow Tcl values to
be manipulated as string values.  They use the internal representation
................................................................................
\fIlengthPtr\fR if it is non-NULL.  The storage referenced by the returned
byte pointer is owned by the value manager and should not be modified by
the caller.  The procedure \fBTcl_GetUnicode\fR is used in the common case
where the caller does not need the length of the unicode string
representation.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetUniChar\fR returns the \fIindex\fR'th character in the
value's Unicode representation.

.PP
\fBTcl_GetRange\fR returns a newly created value comprised of the
characters between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR (inclusive) in the
value's Unicode representation.  If the value's Unicode
representation is invalid, the Unicode representation is regenerated
from the value's string representation.
.PP






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.sp
Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_GetUnicodeFromObj\fR(\fIobjPtr, lengthPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_GetUnicode\fR(\fIobjPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetUniChar\fR(\fIobjPtr, index\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_GetCharLength\fR(\fIobjPtr\fR)
.sp
Tcl_Obj *
\fBTcl_GetRange\fR(\fIobjPtr, first, last\fR)
................................................................................
\fBTcl_ConcatObj\fR(\fIobjc, objv\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const Tcl_UniChar" *appendObjPtr in/out
.AP "const char" *bytes in
Points to the first byte of an array of UTF-8-encoded bytes
used to set or append to a string value.
This byte array may contain embedded null characters
unless \fInumChars\fR is TCL_AUTO_LENGTH.  (Applications needing null bytes
should represent them as the two-byte sequence \fI\e700\e600\fR, use
\fBTcl_ExternalToUtf\fR to convert, or \fBTcl_NewByteArrayObj\fR if
the string is a collection of uninterpreted bytes.)
.AP size_t length in
The number of bytes to copy from \fIbytes\fR when
initializing, setting, or appending to a string value.
If TCL_AUTO_LENGTH, all bytes up to the first null are used.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *unicode in
Points to the first byte of an array of Unicode characters
used to set or append to a string value.
This byte array may contain embedded null characters
unless \fInumChars\fR is negative.
.AP size_t numChars in
The number of Unicode characters to copy from \fIunicode\fR when
initializing, setting, or appending to a string value.
If TCL_AUTO_LENGTH, all characters up to the first null character are used.
.AP size_t index in
The index of the Unicode character to return.
.AP size_t first in
The index of the first Unicode character in the Unicode range to be
returned as a new value.
.AP size_t last in
The index of the last Unicode character in the Unicode range to be
returned as a new value.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in/out
Points to a value to manipulate.
.AP Tcl_Obj *appendObjPtr in
The value to append to \fIobjPtr\fR in \fBTcl_AppendObjToObj\fR.
.AP int *lengthPtr out
................................................................................
If non-NULL, the location where \fBTcl_GetStringFromObj\fR will store
the length of a value's string representation.
.AP "const char" *string in
Null-terminated string value to append to \fIobjPtr\fR.
.AP va_list argList in
An argument list which must have been initialized using
\fBva_start\fR, and cleared using \fBva_end\fR.
.AP size_t limit in
Maximum number of bytes to be appended.
.AP "const char" *ellipsis in
Suffix to append when the limit leads to string truncation.
If NULL is passed then the suffix
.QW "..."
is used.
.AP "const char" *format in
Format control string including % conversion specifiers.
.AP int objc in
The number of elements to format or concatenate.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objv[] in
The array of values to format or concatenate.
.AP size_t newLength in
New length for the string value of \fIobjPtr\fR, not including the
final null character.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The procedures described in this manual entry allow Tcl values to
be manipulated as string values.  They use the internal representation
................................................................................
\fIlengthPtr\fR if it is non-NULL.  The storage referenced by the returned
byte pointer is owned by the value manager and should not be modified by
the caller.  The procedure \fBTcl_GetUnicode\fR is used in the common case
where the caller does not need the length of the unicode string
representation.
.PP
\fBTcl_GetUniChar\fR returns the \fIindex\fR'th character in the
value's Unicode representation. If the index is out of range or
it references a low surrogate preceded by a high surrogate, it returns -1;
.PP
\fBTcl_GetRange\fR returns a newly created value comprised of the
characters between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR (inclusive) in the
value's Unicode representation.  If the value's Unicode
representation is invalid, the Unicode representation is regenerated
from the value's string representation.
.PP

Changes to doc/TCL_MEM_DEBUG.3.

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.PP
Once memory debugging support has been compiled into Tcl, the C
functions \fBTcl_ValidateAllMemory\fR, and \fBTcl_DumpActiveMemory\fR,
and the Tcl \fBmemory\fR command can be used to validate and examine
memory usage.
.SH "GUARD ZONES"
.PP
When memory debugging is enabled, whenever a call to \fBckalloc\fR is
made, slightly more memory than requested is allocated so the memory
debugging code can keep track of the allocated memory, and eight-byte
.QW "guard zones"
are placed in front of and behind the space that will be
returned to the caller.  (The sizes of the guard zones are defined by the
C #define \fBLOW_GUARD_SIZE\fR and #define \fBHIGH_GUARD_SIZE\fR
in the file \fIgeneric/tclCkalloc.c\fR \(em it can
be extended if you suspect large overwrite problems, at some cost in
performance.)  A known pattern is written into the guard zones and, on
a call to \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones of the space being freed are
checked to see if either zone has been modified in any way.  If one
has been, the guard bytes and their new contents are identified, and a
.QW "low guard failed"
or
.QW "high guard failed"
message is issued.  The
.QW "guard failed"
message includes the address of the memory packet and
the file name and line number of the code that called \fBckfree\fR.
This allows you to detect the common sorts of one-off problems, where
not enough space was allocated to contain the data written, for
example.
.SH "DEBUGGING DIFFICULT MEMORY CORRUPTION PROBLEMS"
.PP
Normally, Tcl compiled with memory debugging enabled will make it easy
to isolate a corruption problem.  Turning on memory validation with
the memory command can help isolate difficult problems.  If you
suspect (or know) that corruption is occurring before the Tcl
interpreter comes up far enough for you to issue commands, you can set
\fBMEM_VALIDATE\fR define, recompile tclCkalloc.c and rebuild Tcl.
This will enable memory validation from the first call to
\fBckalloc\fR, again, at a large performance impact.
.PP
If you are desperate and validating memory on every call to
\fBckalloc\fR and \fBckfree\fR is not enough, you can explicitly call
\fBTcl_ValidateAllMemory\fR directly at any point.  It takes a \fIchar
*\fR and an \fIint\fR which are normally the filename and line number
of the caller, but they can actually be anything you want.  Remember
to remove the calls after you find the problem.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
ckalloc, memory, Tcl_ValidateAllMemory, Tcl_DumpActiveMemory
.SH KEYWORDS
memory, debug






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.PP
Once memory debugging support has been compiled into Tcl, the C
functions \fBTcl_ValidateAllMemory\fR, and \fBTcl_DumpActiveMemory\fR,
and the Tcl \fBmemory\fR command can be used to validate and examine
memory usage.
.SH "GUARD ZONES"
.PP
When memory debugging is enabled, whenever a call to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR is
made, slightly more memory than requested is allocated so the memory
debugging code can keep track of the allocated memory, and eight-byte
.QW "guard zones"
are placed in front of and behind the space that will be
returned to the caller.  (The sizes of the guard zones are defined by the
C #define \fBLOW_GUARD_SIZE\fR and #define \fBHIGH_GUARD_SIZE\fR
in the file \fIgeneric/tclCkalloc.c\fR \(em it can
be extended if you suspect large overwrite problems, at some cost in
performance.)  A known pattern is written into the guard zones and, on
a call to \fBTcl_Free\fR, the guard zones of the space being freed are
checked to see if either zone has been modified in any way.  If one
has been, the guard bytes and their new contents are identified, and a
.QW "low guard failed"
or
.QW "high guard failed"
message is issued.  The
.QW "guard failed"
message includes the address of the memory packet and
the file name and line number of the code that called \fBTcl_Free\fR.
This allows you to detect the common sorts of one-off problems, where
not enough space was allocated to contain the data written, for
example.
.SH "DEBUGGING DIFFICULT MEMORY CORRUPTION PROBLEMS"
.PP
Normally, Tcl compiled with memory debugging enabled will make it easy
to isolate a corruption problem.  Turning on memory validation with
the memory command can help isolate difficult problems.  If you
suspect (or know) that corruption is occurring before the Tcl
interpreter comes up far enough for you to issue commands, you can set
\fBMEM_VALIDATE\fR define, recompile tclCkalloc.c and rebuild Tcl.
This will enable memory validation from the first call to
\fBTcl_Alloc\fR, again, at a large performance impact.
.PP
If you are desperate and validating memory on every call to
\fBTcl_Alloc\fR and \fBTcl_Free\fR is not enough, you can explicitly call
\fBTcl_ValidateAllMemory\fR directly at any point.  It takes a \fIchar
*\fR and an \fIint\fR which are normally the filename and line number
of the caller, but they can actually be anything you want.  Remember
to remove the calls after you find the problem.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_Alloc, memory, Tcl_ValidateAllMemory, Tcl_DumpActiveMemory
.SH KEYWORDS
memory, debug

Changes to doc/Tcl.n.

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(see below) unless quoted.
.IP "[2] \fBEvaluation.\fR"
A command is evaluated in two steps.
First, the Tcl interpreter breaks the command into \fIwords\fR
and performs substitutions as described below.
These substitutions are performed in the same way for all
commands.
Secondly, the first word is used to locate a command procedure to
carry out the command, then all of the words of the command are
passed to the command procedure.
The command procedure is free to interpret each of its words
in any way it likes, such as an integer, variable name, list,
or Tcl script.
Different commands interpret their words differently.
.IP "[3] \fBWords.\fR"
Words of a command are separated by white space (except for
newlines, which are command separators).
.IP "[4] \fBDouble quotes.\fR"






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(see below) unless quoted.
.IP "[2] \fBEvaluation.\fR"
A command is evaluated in two steps.
First, the Tcl interpreter breaks the command into \fIwords\fR
and performs substitutions as described below.
These substitutions are performed in the same way for all
commands.
Secondly, the first word is used to locate a routine to
carry out the command, and the remaining words of the command are
passed to that routine.
The routine is free to interpret each of its words
in any way it likes, such as an integer, variable name, list,
or Tcl script.
Different commands interpret their words differently.
.IP "[3] \fBWords.\fR"
Words of a command are separated by white space (except for
newlines, which are command separators).
.IP "[4] \fBDouble quotes.\fR"

Changes to doc/TclZlib.3.

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section \fBGZIP OPTIONS DICTIONARY\fR for details about the contents of this
dictionary.
.AP "unsigned int" initValue in
The initial value for the checksum algorithm.
.AP "unsigned char" *bytes in
An array of bytes to run the checksum algorithm over, or NULL to get the
recommended initial value for the checksum algorithm.
.AP int length in
The number of bytes in the array.
.AP int mode in
What mode to operate the stream in. Should be either
\fBTCL_ZLIB_STREAM_DEFLATE\fR for a compressing stream or
\fBTCL_ZLIB_STREAM_INFLATE\fR for a decompressing stream.
.AP Tcl_ZlibStream *zshandlePtr out
A pointer to a variable in which to write the abstract token for the stream
................................................................................
Whether and how to flush the stream after writing the data to it. Must be one
of: \fBTCL_ZLIB_NO_FLUSH\fR if no flushing is to be done, \fBTCL_ZLIB_FLUSH\fR
if the currently compressed data must be made available for access using
\fBTcl_ZlibStreamGet\fR, \fBTCL_ZLIB_FULLFLUSH\fR if the stream must be put
into a state where the decompressor can recover from on corruption, or
\fBTCL_ZLIB_FINALIZE\fR to ensure that the stream is finished and that any
trailer demanded by the format is written.
.AP int count in
The maximum number of bytes to get from the stream, or -1 to get all remaining
bytes from the stream's buffers.
.AP Tcl_Obj *compDict in
A byte array value that is the compression dictionary to use with the stream.
Note that this is \fInot a Tcl dictionary\fR, and it is recommended that this
only ever be used with streams that were created with their \fIformat\fR set
to \fBTCL_ZLIB_FORMAT_ZLIB\fR because the other formats have no mechanism to
indicate whether a compression dictionary was present other than to fail on
decompression.






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section \fBGZIP OPTIONS DICTIONARY\fR for details about the contents of this
dictionary.
.AP "unsigned int" initValue in
The initial value for the checksum algorithm.
.AP "unsigned char" *bytes in
An array of bytes to run the checksum algorithm over, or NULL to get the
recommended initial value for the checksum algorithm.
.AP size_t length in
The number of bytes in the array.
.AP int mode in
What mode to operate the stream in. Should be either
\fBTCL_ZLIB_STREAM_DEFLATE\fR for a compressing stream or
\fBTCL_ZLIB_STREAM_INFLATE\fR for a decompressing stream.
.AP Tcl_ZlibStream *zshandlePtr out
A pointer to a variable in which to write the abstract token for the stream
................................................................................
Whether and how to flush the stream after writing the data to it. Must be one
of: \fBTCL_ZLIB_NO_FLUSH\fR if no flushing is to be done, \fBTCL_ZLIB_FLUSH\fR
if the currently compressed data must be made available for access using
\fBTcl_ZlibStreamGet\fR, \fBTCL_ZLIB_FULLFLUSH\fR if the stream must be put
into a state where the decompressor can recover from on corruption, or
\fBTCL_ZLIB_FINALIZE\fR to ensure that the stream is finished and that any
trailer demanded by the format is written.
.AP size_t count in
The maximum number of bytes to get from the stream, or TCL_AUTO_LENGTH to get
all remaining bytes from the stream's buffers.
.AP Tcl_Obj *compDict in
A byte array value that is the compression dictionary to use with the stream.
Note that this is \fInot a Tcl dictionary\fR, and it is recommended that this
only ever be used with streams that were created with their \fIformat\fR set
to \fBTCL_ZLIB_FORMAT_ZLIB\fR because the other formats have no mechanism to
indicate whether a compression dictionary was present other than to fail on
decompression.

Changes to doc/Tcl_Main.3.

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evaluated.  In interactive mode, if an EOF or channel error
is encountered on the standard input channel, then \fBTcl_Main\fR
itself will evaluate the \fBexit\fR command after the main loop
procedure (if any) returns.  In non-interactive mode, after
\fBTcl_Main\fR evaluates the startup script, and the main loop
procedure (if any) returns, \fBTcl_Main\fR will also evaluate
the \fBexit\fR command.


.SH "SEE ALSO"
tclsh(1), Tcl_GetStdChannel(3), Tcl_StandardChannels(3), Tcl_AppInit(3),
exit(n), encoding(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
application-specific initialization, command-line arguments, main program






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evaluated.  In interactive mode, if an EOF or channel error
is encountered on the standard input channel, then \fBTcl_Main\fR
itself will evaluate the \fBexit\fR command after the main loop
procedure (if any) returns.  In non-interactive mode, after
\fBTcl_Main\fR evaluates the startup script, and the main loop
procedure (if any) returns, \fBTcl_Main\fR will also evaluate
the \fBexit\fR command.
.PP
This function can not be used in stub-enabled extensions.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
tclsh(1), Tcl_GetStdChannel(3), Tcl_StandardChannels(3), Tcl_AppInit(3),
exit(n), encoding(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
application-specific initialization, command-line arguments, main program

Changes to doc/Thread.3.

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int
\fBTcl_JoinThread\fR(\fIid, result\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CreateThreadProc proc out
.AP Tcl_Condition *condPtr in
A condition variable, which must be associated with a mutex lock.
.AP Tcl_Mutex *mutexPtr in

A mutex lock.

.AP "const Tcl_Time" *timePtr in
A time limit on the condition wait.  NULL to wait forever.
Note that a polling value of 0 seconds does not make much sense.
.AP Tcl_ThreadDataKey *keyPtr in
This identifies a block of thread local storage.  The key should be
static and process-wide, yet each thread will end up associating
a different block of storage with this key.
................................................................................
The referred storage will contain the id of the newly created thread as
returned by the operating system.
.AP Tcl_ThreadId id in
Id of the thread waited upon.
.AP Tcl_ThreadCreateProc *proc in
This procedure will act as the \fBmain()\fR of the newly created
thread. The specified \fIclientData\fR will be its sole argument.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary information. Passed as sole argument to the \fIproc\fR.
.AP int stackSize in
The size of the stack given to the new thread.
.AP int flags in
Bitmask containing flags allowing the caller to modify behavior of
the new thread.
.AP int *result out
................................................................................
the \fBNotifier\fR manual page for more information on these procedures.
.PP
A mutex is a lock that is used to serialize all threads through a piece
of code by calling \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR and \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR.
If one thread holds a mutex, any other thread calling \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR will
block until \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR is called.
A mutex can be destroyed after its use by calling \fBTcl_MutexFinalize\fR.
The result of locking a mutex twice from the same thread is undefined.
On some platforms it will result in a deadlock.




The \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR, \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR and \fBTcl_MutexFinalize\fR
procedures are defined as empty macros if not compiling with threads enabled.
For declaration of mutexes the \fBTCL_DECLARE_MUTEX\fR macro should be used.
This macro assures correct mutex handling even when the core is compiled
without threads enabled.
.PP
A condition variable is used as a signaling mechanism:
................................................................................
.PP
It should then be defined like this example, which just counts up to a given
value and then finishes.
.PP
.CS
static \fBTcl_ThreadCreateType\fR
MyThreadImplFunc(
    ClientData clientData)
{
    int i, limit = (int) clientData;
    for (i=0 ; i<limit ; i++) {
        /* doing nothing at all here */
    }
    \fBTCL_THREAD_CREATE_RETURN\fR;
}
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
To create the above thread, make it execute, and wait for it to finish, we
would do this:
.PP
.CS
int limit = 1000000000;
ClientData limitData = (void*)((intptr_t) limit);
Tcl_ThreadId id;    \fI/* holds identity of thread created */\fR
int result;

if (\fBTcl_CreateThread\fR(&id, MyThreadImplFunc, limitData,
        \fBTCL_THREAD_STACK_DEFAULT\fR,
        \fBTCL_THREAD_JOINABLE\fR) != TCL_OK) {
    \fI/* Thread did not create correctly */\fR






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int
\fBTcl_JoinThread\fR(\fIid, result\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CreateThreadProc proc out
.AP Tcl_Condition *condPtr in
A condition variable, which must be associated with a mutex lock.
.AP Tcl_Mutex *mutexPtr in
.VS TIP509
A recursive mutex lock.
.VE TIP509
.AP "const Tcl_Time" *timePtr in
A time limit on the condition wait.  NULL to wait forever.
Note that a polling value of 0 seconds does not make much sense.
.AP Tcl_ThreadDataKey *keyPtr in
This identifies a block of thread local storage.  The key should be
static and process-wide, yet each thread will end up associating
a different block of storage with this key.
................................................................................
The referred storage will contain the id of the newly created thread as
returned by the operating system.
.AP Tcl_ThreadId id in
Id of the thread waited upon.
.AP Tcl_ThreadCreateProc *proc in
This procedure will act as the \fBmain()\fR of the newly created
thread. The specified \fIclientData\fR will be its sole argument.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary information. Passed as sole argument to the \fIproc\fR.
.AP int stackSize in
The size of the stack given to the new thread.
.AP int flags in
Bitmask containing flags allowing the caller to modify behavior of
the new thread.
.AP int *result out
................................................................................
the \fBNotifier\fR manual page for more information on these procedures.
.PP
A mutex is a lock that is used to serialize all threads through a piece
of code by calling \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR and \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR.
If one thread holds a mutex, any other thread calling \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR will
block until \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR is called.
A mutex can be destroyed after its use by calling \fBTcl_MutexFinalize\fR.
.VS TIP509
Mutexes are reentrant: they can be locked several times from the same
thread. However there must be exactly one call to
\fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR for each call to \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR in order
for a thread to release a mutex completely.
.VE TIP509
The \fBTcl_MutexLock\fR, \fBTcl_MutexUnlock\fR and \fBTcl_MutexFinalize\fR
procedures are defined as empty macros if not compiling with threads enabled.
For declaration of mutexes the \fBTCL_DECLARE_MUTEX\fR macro should be used.
This macro assures correct mutex handling even when the core is compiled
without threads enabled.
.PP
A condition variable is used as a signaling mechanism:
................................................................................
.PP
It should then be defined like this example, which just counts up to a given
value and then finishes.
.PP
.CS
static \fBTcl_ThreadCreateType\fR
MyThreadImplFunc(
    void *clientData)
{
    int i, limit = (int) clientData;
    for (i=0 ; i<limit ; i++) {
        /* doing nothing at all here */
    }
    \fBTCL_THREAD_CREATE_RETURN\fR;
}
................................................................................
.CE
.PP
To create the above thread, make it execute, and wait for it to finish, we
would do this:
.PP
.CS
int limit = 1000000000;
void *limitData = (void*)((intptr_t) limit);
Tcl_ThreadId id;    \fI/* holds identity of thread created */\fR
int result;

if (\fBTcl_CreateThread\fR(&id, MyThreadImplFunc, limitData,
        \fBTCL_THREAD_STACK_DEFAULT\fR,
        \fBTCL_THREAD_JOINABLE\fR) != TCL_OK) {
    \fI/* Thread did not create correctly */\fR

Changes to doc/ToUpper.3.

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.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_UniCharToUpper, Tcl_UniCharToLower, Tcl_UniCharToTitle, Tcl_UtfToUpper, Tcl_UtfToLower, Tcl_UtfToTitle \- routines for manipulating the case of Unicode characters and UTF-8 strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_UniCharToUpper\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_UniCharToLower\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_UniCharToTitle\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR(\fIstr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToLower\fR(\fIstr\fR)
................................................................................
\fBTcl_UtfToLower\fR is the same as \fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR except it
turns each character in the string into its lower-case equivalent.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToTitle\fR is the same as \fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR except it
turns the first character in the string into its title-case equivalent
and all following characters into their lower-case equivalents.

.SH BUGS
.PP
At this time, the case conversions are only defined for the ISO8859-1
characters.  Unicode characters above 0x00ff are not modified by these
routines.

.SH KEYWORDS
utf, unicode, toupper, tolower, totitle, case






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.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_UniCharToUpper, Tcl_UniCharToLower, Tcl_UniCharToTitle, Tcl_UtfToUpper, Tcl_UtfToLower, Tcl_UtfToTitle \- routines for manipulating the case of Unicode characters and UTF-8 strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharToUpper\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharToLower\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharToTitle\fR(\fIch\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR(\fIstr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfToLower\fR(\fIstr\fR)
................................................................................
\fBTcl_UtfToLower\fR is the same as \fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR except it
turns each character in the string into its lower-case equivalent.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToTitle\fR is the same as \fBTcl_UtfToUpper\fR except it
turns the first character in the string into its title-case equivalent
and all following characters into their lower-case equivalents.







.SH KEYWORDS
utf, unicode, toupper, tolower, totitle, case

Changes to doc/TraceCmd.3.

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.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_CommandTraceInfo, Tcl_TraceCommand, Tcl_UntraceCommand \- monitor renames and deletes of a command
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_CommandTraceInfo(\fIinterp, cmdName, flags, proc, prevClientData\fB)\fR
.sp
int
\fBTcl_TraceCommand(\fIinterp, cmdName, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
.sp
void
\fBTcl_UntraceCommand(\fIinterp, cmdName, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
................................................................................
.AP "const char" *cmdName in
Name of command.
.AP int flags in
OR'ed collection of the values \fBTCL_TRACE_RENAME\fR and
\fBTCL_TRACE_DELETE\fR.
.AP Tcl_CommandTraceProc *proc in
Procedure to call when specified operations occur to \fIcmdName\fR.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary argument to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.AP ClientData prevClientData in
If non-NULL, gives last value returned by \fBTcl_CommandTraceInfo\fR,
so this call will return information about next trace.  If NULL, this
call will return information about first trace.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_TraceCommand\fR allows a C procedure to monitor operations
................................................................................
.PP
Whenever one of the specified operations occurs to the command,
\fIproc\fR will be invoked.  It should have arguments and result that
match the type \fBTcl_CommandTraceProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CommandTraceProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        const char *\fIoldName\fR,
        const char *\fInewName\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters will have the same
values as those passed to \fBTcl_TraceCommand\fR when the trace was
created.  \fIClientData\fR typically points to an application-specific
data structure that describes what to do when \fIproc\fR is invoked.
\fIOldName\fR gives the name of the command being renamed, and
\fInewName\fR gives the name that the command is being renamed to (or
NULL when the command is being deleted.)
\fIFlags\fR is an OR'ed combination of bits potentially providing
several pieces of information.  One of the bits \fBTCL_TRACE_RENAME\fR and
\fBTCL_TRACE_DELETE\fR will be set in \fIflags\fR to indicate which






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.BS
.SH NAME
Tcl_CommandTraceInfo, Tcl_TraceCommand, Tcl_UntraceCommand \- monitor renames and deletes of a command
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB#include <tcl.h>\fR
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_CommandTraceInfo(\fIinterp, cmdName, flags, proc, prevClientData\fB)\fR
.sp
int
\fBTcl_TraceCommand(\fIinterp, cmdName, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
.sp
void
\fBTcl_UntraceCommand(\fIinterp, cmdName, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
................................................................................
.AP "const char" *cmdName in
Name of command.
.AP int flags in
OR'ed collection of the values \fBTCL_TRACE_RENAME\fR and
\fBTCL_TRACE_DELETE\fR.
.AP Tcl_CommandTraceProc *proc in
Procedure to call when specified operations occur to \fIcmdName\fR.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary argument to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.AP void *prevClientData in
If non-NULL, gives last value returned by \fBTcl_CommandTraceInfo\fR,
so this call will return information about next trace.  If NULL, this
call will return information about first trace.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBTcl_TraceCommand\fR allows a C procedure to monitor operations
................................................................................
.PP
Whenever one of the specified operations occurs to the command,
\fIproc\fR will be invoked.  It should have arguments and result that
match the type \fBTcl_CommandTraceProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef void \fBTcl_CommandTraceProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        const char *\fIoldName\fR,
        const char *\fInewName\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters will have the same
values as those passed to \fBTcl_TraceCommand\fR when the trace was
created.  \fIclientData\fR typically points to an application-specific
data structure that describes what to do when \fIproc\fR is invoked.
\fIOldName\fR gives the name of the command being renamed, and
\fInewName\fR gives the name that the command is being renamed to (or
NULL when the command is being deleted.)
\fIFlags\fR is an OR'ed combination of bits potentially providing
several pieces of information.  One of the bits \fBTCL_TRACE_RENAME\fR and
\fBTCL_TRACE_DELETE\fR will be set in \fIflags\fR to indicate which

Changes to doc/TraceVar.3.

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int
\fBTcl_TraceVar2(\fIinterp, name1, name2, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
.sp
\fBTcl_UntraceVar(\fIinterp, varName, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
.sp
\fBTcl_UntraceVar2(\fIinterp, name1, name2, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_VarTraceInfo(\fIinterp, varName, flags, proc, prevClientData\fB)\fR
.sp
ClientData
\fBTcl_VarTraceInfo2(\fIinterp, name1, name2, flags, proc, prevClientData\fB)\fR
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_VarTraceProc prevClientData
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter containing variable.
.AP "const char" *varName in
Name of variable.  May refer to a scalar variable, to
an array variable with no index, or to an array variable
with a parenthesized index.
.AP int flags in
................................................................................
\fBTCL_TRACE_WRITES\fR, \fBTCL_TRACE_UNSETS\fR, \fBTCL_TRACE_ARRAY\fR,
\fBTCL_GLOBAL_ONLY\fR, \fBTCL_NAMESPACE_ONLY\fR,
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_DYNAMIC\fR and \fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_OBJECT\fR.
Not all flags are used by all
procedures.  See below for more information.
.AP Tcl_VarTraceProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke whenever one of the traced operations occurs.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.AP "const char" *name1 in
Name of scalar or array variable (without array index).
.AP "const char" *name2 in
For a trace on an element of an array, gives the index of the
element.  For traces on scalar variables or on whole arrays,
is NULL.
.AP ClientData prevClientData in
If non-NULL, gives last value returned by \fBTcl_VarTraceInfo\fR or
\fBTcl_VarTraceInfo2\fR, so this call will return information about
next trace.  If NULL, this call will return information about first
trace.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
................................................................................
This gives the trace procedure a chance to update the array before
array names or array get is called.  Note that this is called
before an array set, but that will trigger write traces.
.TP
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_DYNAMIC\fR
The result of invoking the \fIproc\fR is a dynamically allocated
string that will be released by the Tcl library via a call to
\fBckfree\fR.  Must not be specified at the same time as
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_OBJECT\fR.
.TP
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_OBJECT\fR
The result of invoking the \fIproc\fR is a Tcl_Obj* (cast to a char*)
with a reference count of at least one.  The ownership of that
reference will be transferred to the Tcl core for release (when the
core has finished with it) via a call to \fBTcl_DecrRefCount\fR.  Must
................................................................................
Whenever one of the specified operations occurs on the variable,
\fIproc\fR will be invoked.
It should have arguments and result that match the type
\fBTcl_VarTraceProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef char *\fBTcl_VarTraceProc\fR(
        ClientData \fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        char *\fIname1\fR,
        char *\fIname2\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters will
have the same values as those passed to \fBTcl_TraceVar\fR when the
trace was created.
\fIClientData\fR typically points to an application-specific
data structure that describes what to do when \fIproc\fR
is invoked.
\fIName1\fR and \fIname2\fR give the name of the traced variable
in the normal two-part form (see the description of \fBTcl_TraceVar2\fR
below for details).
\fIFlags\fR is an OR-ed combination of bits providing several
pieces of information.
................................................................................
successful completion.
If \fIproc\fR returns a non-NULL value it signifies that an
error occurred.
The return value must be a pointer to a static character string
containing an error message,
unless (\fIexactly\fR one of) the \fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_DYNAMIC\fR and
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_OBJECT\fR flags is set, which specify that the result is
either a dynamic string (to be released with \fBckfree\fR) or a
Tcl_Obj* (cast to char* and to be released with
\fBTcl_DecrRefCount\fR) containing the error message.
If a trace procedure returns an error, no further traces are
invoked for the access and the traced access aborts with the
given message.
Trace procedures can use this facility to make variables
read-only, for example (but note that the value of the variable
................................................................................
The return value from \fIproc\fR is only used during read and
write tracing.
During unset traces, the return value is ignored and all relevant
trace procedures will always be invoked.
.SH "RESTRICTIONS"
.PP
A trace procedure can be called at any time, even when there
is a partially formed result in the interpreter's result area.  If
the trace procedure does anything that could damage this result (such
as calling \fBTcl_Eval\fR) then it must save the original values of
the interpreter's \fBresult\fR and \fBfreeProc\fR fields and restore
them before it returns.
.SH "UNDEFINED VARIABLES"
.PP
It is legal to set a trace on an undefined variable.
The variable will still appear to be undefined until the
first time its value is set.
If an undefined variable is traced and then unset, the unset will fail
with an error






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int
\fBTcl_TraceVar2(\fIinterp, name1, name2, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
.sp
\fBTcl_UntraceVar(\fIinterp, varName, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
.sp
\fBTcl_UntraceVar2(\fIinterp, name1, name2, flags, proc, clientData\fB)\fR
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_VarTraceInfo(\fIinterp, varName, flags, proc, prevClientData\fB)\fR
.sp
void *
\fBTcl_VarTraceInfo2(\fIinterp, name1, name2, flags, proc, prevClientData\fB)\fR
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS void *prevClientData
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter containing variable.
.AP "const char" *varName in
Name of variable.  May refer to a scalar variable, to
an array variable with no index, or to an array variable
with a parenthesized index.
.AP int flags in
................................................................................
\fBTCL_TRACE_WRITES\fR, \fBTCL_TRACE_UNSETS\fR, \fBTCL_TRACE_ARRAY\fR,
\fBTCL_GLOBAL_ONLY\fR, \fBTCL_NAMESPACE_ONLY\fR,
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_DYNAMIC\fR and \fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_OBJECT\fR.
Not all flags are used by all
procedures.  See below for more information.
.AP Tcl_VarTraceProc *proc in
Procedure to invoke whenever one of the traced operations occurs.
.AP void *clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value to pass to \fIproc\fR.
.AP "const char" *name1 in
Name of scalar or array variable (without array index).
.AP "const char" *name2 in
For a trace on an element of an array, gives the index of the
element.  For traces on scalar variables or on whole arrays,
is NULL.
.AP void *prevClientData in
If non-NULL, gives last value returned by \fBTcl_VarTraceInfo\fR or
\fBTcl_VarTraceInfo2\fR, so this call will return information about
next trace.  If NULL, this call will return information about first
trace.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
................................................................................
This gives the trace procedure a chance to update the array before
array names or array get is called.  Note that this is called
before an array set, but that will trigger write traces.
.TP
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_DYNAMIC\fR
The result of invoking the \fIproc\fR is a dynamically allocated
string that will be released by the Tcl library via a call to
\fBTcl_Free\fR.  Must not be specified at the same time as
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_OBJECT\fR.
.TP
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_OBJECT\fR
The result of invoking the \fIproc\fR is a Tcl_Obj* (cast to a char*)
with a reference count of at least one.  The ownership of that
reference will be transferred to the Tcl core for release (when the
core has finished with it) via a call to \fBTcl_DecrRefCount\fR.  Must
................................................................................
Whenever one of the specified operations occurs on the variable,
\fIproc\fR will be invoked.
It should have arguments and result that match the type
\fBTcl_VarTraceProc\fR:
.PP
.CS
typedef char *\fBTcl_VarTraceProc\fR(
        void *\fIclientData\fR,
        Tcl_Interp *\fIinterp\fR,
        char *\fIname1\fR,
        char *\fIname2\fR,
        int \fIflags\fR);
.CE
.PP
The \fIclientData\fR and \fIinterp\fR parameters will
have the same values as those passed to \fBTcl_TraceVar\fR when the
trace was created.
\fIclientData\fR typically points to an application-specific
data structure that describes what to do when \fIproc\fR
is invoked.
\fIName1\fR and \fIname2\fR give the name of the traced variable
in the normal two-part form (see the description of \fBTcl_TraceVar2\fR
below for details).
\fIFlags\fR is an OR-ed combination of bits providing several
pieces of information.
................................................................................
successful completion.
If \fIproc\fR returns a non-NULL value it signifies that an
error occurred.
The return value must be a pointer to a static character string
containing an error message,
unless (\fIexactly\fR one of) the \fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_DYNAMIC\fR and
\fBTCL_TRACE_RESULT_OBJECT\fR flags is set, which specify that the result is
either a dynamic string (to be released with \fBTcl_Free\fR) or a
Tcl_Obj* (cast to char* and to be released with
\fBTcl_DecrRefCount\fR) containing the error message.
If a trace procedure returns an error, no further traces are
invoked for the access and the traced access aborts with the
given message.
Trace procedures can use this facility to make variables
read-only, for example (but note that the value of the variable
................................................................................
The return value from \fIproc\fR is only used during read and
write tracing.
During unset traces, the return value is ignored and all relevant
trace procedures will always be invoked.
.SH "RESTRICTIONS"
.PP
A trace procedure can be called at any time, even when there
are partially formed results stored in the interpreter.  If
the trace procedure does anything that could damage this result (such
as calling \fBTcl_Eval\fR) then it must use the \fBTcl_SaveInterpState\fR
and related routines to save and restore the original state of
the interpreter before it returns.
.SH "UNDEFINED VARIABLES"
.PP
It is legal to set a trace on an undefined variable.
The variable will still appear to be undefined until the
first time its value is set.
If an undefined variable is traced and then unset, the unset will fail
with an error

Changes to doc/Utf.3.

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Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_UtfToUniCharDString\fR(\fIsrc, length, dsPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharLen\fR(\fIuniStr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharNcmp\fR(\fIucs, uct, numChars\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharNcasecmp\fR(\fIucs, uct, numChars\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharCaseMatch\fR(\fIuniStr, uniPattern, nocase\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfNcmp\fR(\fIcs, ct, numChars\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfNcasecmp\fR(\fIcs, ct, numChars\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfCharComplete\fR(\fIsrc, length\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR(\fIsrc, length\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR(\fIsrc\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfPrev\fR(\fIsrc, start\fR)
.sp
Tcl_UniChar
\fBTcl_UniCharAtIndex\fR(\fIsrc, index\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfAtIndex\fR(\fIsrc, index\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR(\fIsrc, readPtr, dst\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniPattern in/out
.AP char *buf out
Buffer in which the UTF-8 representation of the Tcl_UniChar is stored.  At most
\fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes are stored in the buffer.
.AP int ch in
................................................................................
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *ucs in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uct in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniPattern in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP int length in
The length of the UTF-8 string in bytes (not UTF-8 characters).  If
negative, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.AP int uniLength in
The length of the Unicode string in characters.  Must be greater than or
equal to 0.
.AP "Tcl_DString" *dsPtr in/out
A pointer to a previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.
.AP "unsigned long" numChars in
The number of characters to compare.
.AP "const char" *start in
Pointer to the beginning of a UTF-8 string.
.AP int index in
The index of a character (not byte) in the UTF-8 string.
.AP int *readPtr out
If non-NULL, filled with the number of bytes in the backslash sequence,
including the backslash character.
.AP char *dst out
Buffer in which the bytes represented by the backslash sequence are stored.
At most \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes are stored in the buffer.
................................................................................
.AP int nocase in
Specifies whether the match should be done case-sensitive (0) or
case-insensitive (1).
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These routines convert between UTF-8 strings and Tcl_UniChars.  A
Tcl_UniChar is a Unicode character represented as an unsigned, fixed-size
quantity.  A UTF-8 character is a Unicode character represented as
a varying-length sequence of up to \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes.  A multibyte UTF-8
sequence consists of a lead byte followed by some number of trail bytes.
.PP
\fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR is the maximum number of bytes that it takes to
represent one Unicode character in the UTF-8 representation.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtf\fR stores the Tcl_UniChar \fIch\fR as a UTF-8 string
in starting at \fIbuf\fR.  The return value is the number of bytes stored
in \fIbuf\fR.




.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR reads one UTF-8 character starting at \fIsrc\fR
and stores it as a Tcl_UniChar in \fI*chPtr\fR.  The return value is the
number of bytes read from \fIsrc\fR.  The caller must ensure that the
source buffer is long enough such that this routine does not run off the
end and dereference non-existent or random memory; if the source buffer
is known to be null-terminated, this will not happen.  If the input is



not in proper UTF-8 format, \fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR will store the first
byte of \fIsrc\fR in \fI*chPtr\fR as a Tcl_UniChar between 0x0000 and
0x00ff and return 1.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtfDString\fR converts the given Unicode string
to UTF-8, storing the result in a previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.
You must specify \fIuniLength\fR, the length of the given Unicode string.
................................................................................
\fBTcl_UniCharLen\fR corresponds to \fBstrlen\fR for Unicode
characters.  It accepts a null-terminated Unicode string and returns
the number of Unicode characters (not bytes) in that string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharNcmp\fR and \fBTcl_UniCharNcasecmp\fR correspond to
\fBstrncmp\fR and \fBstrncasecmp\fR, respectively, for Unicode characters.
They accept two null-terminated Unicode strings and the number of characters
to compare.  Both strings are assumed to be at least \fInumChars\fR characters
long. \fBTcl_UniCharNcmp\fR  compares the two strings character-by-character
according to the Unicode character ordering.  It returns an integer greater
than, equal to, or less than 0 if the first string is greater than, equal
to, or less than the second string respectively.  \fBTcl_UniCharNcasecmp\fR
is the Unicode case insensitive version.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharCaseMatch\fR is the Unicode equivalent to
\fBTcl_StringCaseMatch\fR.  It accepts a null-terminated Unicode string,
a Unicode pattern, and a boolean value specifying whether the match should
be case sensitive and returns whether the string matches the pattern.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfNcmp\fR corresponds to \fBstrncmp\fR for UTF-8 strings. It
accepts two null-terminated UTF-8 strings and the number of characters
to compare.  (Both strings are assumed to be at least \fInumChars\fR
characters long.)  \fBTcl_UtfNcmp\fR compares the two strings
character-by-character according to the Unicode character ordering.
It returns an integer greater than, equal to, or less than 0 if the
first string is greater than, equal to, or less than the second string
respectively.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfNcasecmp\fR corresponds to \fBstrncasecmp\fR for UTF-8
................................................................................
characters.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfCharComplete\fR returns 1 if the source UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR
of \fIlength\fR bytes is long enough to be decoded by
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR, or 0 otherwise.  This function does not guarantee
that the UTF-8 string is properly formed.  This routine is used by
procedures that are operating on a byte at a time and need to know if a
full Tcl_UniChar has been seen.
.PP
\fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR corresponds to \fBstrlen\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns the number of Tcl_UniChars that are represented by the UTF-8 string
\fIsrc\fR.  The length of the source string is \fIlength\fR bytes.  If the
length is negative, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfFindFirst\fR corresponds to \fBstrchr\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns a pointer to the first occurrence of the Tcl_UniChar \fIch\fR
in the null-terminated UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The null terminator is
considered part of the UTF-8 string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfFindLast\fR corresponds to \fBstrrchr\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the Tcl_UniChar \fIch\fR
in the null-terminated UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The null terminator is
considered part of the UTF-8 string.
.PP
Given \fIsrc\fR, a pointer to some location in a UTF-8 string,
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR returns a pointer to the next UTF-8 character in the
string.  The caller must not ask for the next character after the last
character in the string if the string is not terminated by a null
................................................................................
the start of the UTF-8 string.  If \fIsrc\fR was already at \fIstart\fR, the
return value will be \fIstart\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharAtIndex\fR corresponds to a C string array dereference or the
Pascal Ord() function.  It returns the Tcl_UniChar represented at the
specified character (not byte) \fIindex\fR in the UTF-8 string
\fIsrc\fR.  The source string must contain at least \fIindex\fR
characters.  Behavior is undefined if a negative \fIindex\fR is given.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfAtIndex\fR returns a pointer to the specified character (not
byte) \fIindex\fR in the UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The source string must
contain at least \fIindex\fR characters.  This is equivalent to calling
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR \fIindex\fR times.  If a negative \fIindex\fR is given,
the return pointer points to the first character in the source string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR is a utility procedure used by several of the Tcl
commands.  It parses a backslash sequence and stores the properly formed
UTF-8 character represented by the backslash sequence in the output
buffer \fIdst\fR.  At most \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes are stored in the buffer.
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR modifies \fI*readPtr\fR to contain the number






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Tcl_UniChar *
\fBTcl_UtfToUniCharDString\fR(\fIsrc, length, dsPtr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharLen\fR(\fIuniStr\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharNcmp\fR(\fIucs, uct, uniLength\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharNcasecmp\fR(\fIucs, uct, uniLength\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharCaseMatch\fR(\fIuniStr, uniPattern, nocase\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfNcmp\fR(\fIcs, ct, length\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfNcasecmp\fR(\fIcs, ct, length\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UtfCharComplete\fR(\fIsrc, length\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR(\fIsrc, length\fR)
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR(\fIsrc\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfPrev\fR(\fIsrc, start\fR)
.sp
int
\fBTcl_UniCharAtIndex\fR(\fIsrc, index\fR)
.sp
const char *
\fBTcl_UtfAtIndex\fR(\fIsrc, index\fR)
.sp
size_t
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR(\fIsrc, readPtr, dst\fR)
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniPattern in/out
.AP char *buf out
Buffer in which the UTF-8 representation of the Tcl_UniChar is stored.  At most
\fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes are stored in the buffer.
.AP int ch in
................................................................................
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *ucs in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uct in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP "const Tcl_UniChar" *uniPattern in
A null-terminated Unicode string.
.AP size_t length in
The length of the UTF-8 string in bytes (not UTF-8 characters).  If
TCL_AUTO_LENGTH, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.AP size_t uniLength in
The length of the Unicode string in characters.

.AP "Tcl_DString" *dsPtr in/out
A pointer to a previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.


.AP "const char" *start in
Pointer to the beginning of a UTF-8 string.
.AP size_t index in
The index of a character (not byte) in the UTF-8 string.
.AP int *readPtr out
If non-NULL, filled with the number of bytes in the backslash sequence,
including the backslash character.
.AP char *dst out
Buffer in which the bytes represented by the backslash sequence are stored.
At most \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes are stored in the buffer.
................................................................................
.AP int nocase in
Specifies whether the match should be done case-sensitive (0) or
case-insensitive (1).
.BE

.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These routines convert between UTF-8 strings and Unicode characters.  An
Unicode character represented as an unsigned, fixed-size
quantity.  A UTF-8 character is a Unicode character represented as
a varying-length sequence of up to \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes.  A multibyte UTF-8
sequence consists of a lead byte followed by some number of trail bytes.
.PP
\fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR is the maximum number of bytes that it takes to
represent one Unicode character in the UTF-8 representation.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtf\fR stores the character \fIch\fR as a UTF-8 string
in starting at \fIbuf\fR.  The return value is the number of bytes stored
in \fIbuf\fR. If ch is a high surrogate (range U+D800 - U+DBFF), then
the return value will be 1 and a single byte in the range 0xF0 - 0xF4
will be stored. If you still want to produce UTF-8 output for it (even
though knowing it's an illegal code-point on its own), just call
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtf\fR again specifying ch = -1.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR reads one UTF-8 character starting at \fIsrc\fR
and stores it as a Tcl_UniChar in \fI*chPtr\fR.  The return value is the
number of bytes read from \fIsrc\fR.  The caller must ensure that the
source buffer is long enough such that this routine does not run off the
end and dereference non-existent or random memory; if the source buffer
is known to be null-terminated, this will not happen.  If the input is
a byte in the range 0x80 - 0x9F, \fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR assumes the
cp1252 encoding, stores the corresponding Tcl_UniChar in \fI*chPtr\fR
and returns 1. If the input is otherwise
not in proper UTF-8 format, \fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR will store the first
byte of \fIsrc\fR in \fI*chPtr\fR as a Tcl_UniChar between 0x0000 and
0x00ff and return 1.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharToUtfDString\fR converts the given Unicode string
to UTF-8, storing the result in a previously initialized \fBTcl_DString\fR.
You must specify \fIuniLength\fR, the length of the given Unicode string.
................................................................................
\fBTcl_UniCharLen\fR corresponds to \fBstrlen\fR for Unicode
characters.  It accepts a null-terminated Unicode string and returns
the number of Unicode characters (not bytes) in that string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharNcmp\fR and \fBTcl_UniCharNcasecmp\fR correspond to
\fBstrncmp\fR and \fBstrncasecmp\fR, respectively, for Unicode characters.
They accept two null-terminated Unicode strings and the number of characters
to compare.  Both strings are assumed to be at least \fIuniLength\fR characters
long. \fBTcl_UniCharNcmp\fR  compares the two strings character-by-character
according to the Unicode character ordering.  It returns an integer greater
than, equal to, or less than 0 if the first string is greater than, equal
to, or less than the second string respectively.  \fBTcl_UniCharNcasecmp\fR
is the Unicode case insensitive version.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharCaseMatch\fR is the Unicode equivalent to
\fBTcl_StringCaseMatch\fR.  It accepts a null-terminated Unicode string,
a Unicode pattern, and a boolean value specifying whether the match should
be case sensitive and returns whether the string matches the pattern.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfNcmp\fR corresponds to \fBstrncmp\fR for UTF-8 strings. It
accepts two null-terminated UTF-8 strings and the number of characters
to compare.  (Both strings are assumed to be at least \fIlength\fR
characters long.)  \fBTcl_UtfNcmp\fR compares the two strings
character-by-character according to the Unicode character ordering.
It returns an integer greater than, equal to, or less than 0 if the
first string is greater than, equal to, or less than the second string
respectively.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfNcasecmp\fR corresponds to \fBstrncasecmp\fR for UTF-8
................................................................................
characters.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfCharComplete\fR returns 1 if the source UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR
of \fIlength\fR bytes is long enough to be decoded by
\fBTcl_UtfToUniChar\fR, or 0 otherwise.  This function does not guarantee
that the UTF-8 string is properly formed.  This routine is used by
procedures that are operating on a byte at a time and need to know if a
full Unicode character has been seen.
.PP
\fBTcl_NumUtfChars\fR corresponds to \fBstrlen\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns the number of Tcl_UniChars that are represented by the UTF-8 string
\fIsrc\fR.  The length of the source string is \fIlength\fR bytes.  If the
length is negative, all bytes up to the first null byte are used.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfFindFirst\fR corresponds to \fBstrchr\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns a pointer to the first occurrence of the Unicode character \fIch\fR
in the null-terminated UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The null terminator is
considered part of the UTF-8 string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfFindLast\fR corresponds to \fBstrrchr\fR for UTF-8 strings.  It
returns a pointer to the last occurrence of the Unicode character \fIch\fR
in the null-terminated UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The null terminator is
considered part of the UTF-8 string.
.PP
Given \fIsrc\fR, a pointer to some location in a UTF-8 string,
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR returns a pointer to the next UTF-8 character in the
string.  The caller must not ask for the next character after the last
character in the string if the string is not terminated by a null
................................................................................
the start of the UTF-8 string.  If \fIsrc\fR was already at \fIstart\fR, the
return value will be \fIstart\fR.
.PP
\fBTcl_UniCharAtIndex\fR corresponds to a C string array dereference or the
Pascal Ord() function.  It returns the Tcl_UniChar represented at the
specified character (not byte) \fIindex\fR in the UTF-8 string
\fIsrc\fR.  The source string must contain at least \fIindex\fR
characters.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfAtIndex\fR returns a pointer to the specified character (not
byte) \fIindex\fR in the UTF-8 string \fIsrc\fR.  The source string must
contain at least \fIindex\fR characters.  This is equivalent to calling
\fBTcl_UtfNext\fR \fIindex\fR times.  If \fIindex\fR is TCL_INDEX_NONE,
the return pointer points to the first character in the source string.
.PP
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR is a utility procedure used by several of the Tcl
commands.  It parses a backslash sequence and stores the properly formed
UTF-8 character represented by the backslash sequence in the output
buffer \fIdst\fR.  At most \fBTCL_UTF_MAX\fR bytes are stored in the buffer.
\fBTcl_UtfBackslash\fR modifies \fI*readPtr\fR to contain the number

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH abstract n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
oo::abstract \- a class that does not allow direct instances of itself
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBoo::abstract\fI method \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.fi
.SH "CLASS HIERARCHY"
.nf
\fBoo::object\fR
   \(-> \fBoo::class\fR
       \(-> \fBoo::abstract\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
Abstract classes are classes that can contain definitions, but which cannot be
directly manufactured; they are intended to only ever be inherited from and
instantiated indirectly. The characteristic methods of \fBoo::class\fR
(\fBcreate\fR and \fBnew\fR) are not exported by an instance of
\fBoo::abstract\fR.
.PP
Note that \fBoo::abstract\fR is not itself an instance of \fBoo::abstract\fR.
.SS CONSTRUCTOR
The \fBoo::abstract\fR class does not define an explicit constructor; this
means that it is effectively the same as the constructor of the
\fBoo::class\fR class.
.SS DESTRUCTOR
The \fBoo::abstract\fR class does not define an explicit destructor;
destroying an instance of it is just like destroying an ordinary class (and
will destroy all its subclasses).
.SS "EXPORTED METHODS"
The \fBoo::abstract\fR class defines no new exported methods.
.SS "NON-EXPORTED METHODS"
The \fBoo::abstract\fR class explicitly states that \fBcreate\fR,
\fBcreateWithNamespace\fR, and \fBnew\fR are unexported.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example defines a simple class hierarchy and creates a new instance of
it. It then invokes a method of the object before destroying the hierarchy and
showing that the destruction is transitive.
.PP
.CS
\fBoo::abstract\fR create fruit {
    method eat {} {
        puts "yummy!"
    }
}
oo::class create banana {
    superclass fruit
    method peel {} {
        puts "skin now off"
    }
}
set b [banana \fBnew\fR]
$b peel              \fI\(-> prints 'skin now off'\fR
$b eat               \fI\(-> prints 'yummy!'\fR
set f [fruit new]    \fI\(-> error 'unknown method "new"...'\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
oo::define(n), oo::object(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abstract class, class, metaclass, object
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/append.n.

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.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Append all of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to the current value
of variable \fIvarName\fR.  If \fIvarName\fR does not exist,
it is given a value equal to the concatenation of all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments.





The result of this command is the new value stored in variable
\fIvarName\fR.
This command provides an efficient way to build up long
variables incrementally.
For example,
.QW "\fBappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
................................................................................
puts $var
# Prints 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
concat(n), lappend(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
append, variable
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff

'\" End:






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.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Append all of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to the current value
of variable \fIvarName\fR.  If \fIvarName\fR does not exist,
it is given a value equal to the concatenation of all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments.
.VS TIP508
If \fIvarName\fR indicate an element that does not exist of an array that has
a default value set, the concatenation of the default value and all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments will be stored in the array element.
.VE TIP508
The result of this command is the new value stored in variable
\fIvarName\fR.
This command provides an efficient way to build up long
variables incrementally.
For example,
.QW "\fBappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
................................................................................
puts $var
# Prints 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
concat(n), lappend(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
append, variable
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/array.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH array n 8.3 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
array \- Manipulate array variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBarray \fIoption arrayName\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
................................................................................
\fISearchId\fR indicates which search on \fIarrayName\fR to
check, and must have been the return value from a previous
invocation of \fBarray startsearch\fR.
This option is particularly useful if an array has an element
with an empty name, since the return value from
\fBarray nextelement\fR will not indicate whether the search
has been completed.















































.TP
\fBarray donesearch \fIarrayName searchId\fR
This command terminates an array search and destroys all the
state associated with that search.  \fISearchId\fR indicates
which search on \fIarrayName\fR to destroy, and must have
been the return value from a previous invocation of
\fBarray startsearch\fR.  Returns an empty string.
.TP
\fBarray exists \fIarrayName\fR
Returns 1 if \fIarrayName\fR is an array variable, 0 if there
is no variable by that name or if it is a scalar variable.
.TP









\fBarray get \fIarrayName\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
Returns a list containing pairs of elements.  The first
element in each pair is the name of an element in \fIarrayName\fR
and the second element of each pair is the value of the
array element.  The order of the pairs is undefined.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, then all of the elements of the
array are included in the result.
................................................................................
    number of buckets with 10 or more entries: 0
    average search distance for entry: 1.2
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), string(n), variable(n), trace(n), foreach(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
array, element names, search










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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 1993-1994 The Regents of the University of California.
'\" Copyright (c) 1994-1996 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH array n 8.7 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
array \- Manipulate array variables
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBarray \fIoption arrayName\fR ?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
................................................................................
\fISearchId\fR indicates which search on \fIarrayName\fR to
check, and must have been the return value from a previous
invocation of \fBarray startsearch\fR.
This option is particularly useful if an array has an element
with an empty name, since the return value from
\fBarray nextelement\fR will not indicate whether the search
has been completed.
.TP
\fBarray default \fIsubcommand arrayName args...\fR
.VS TIP508
Manages the default value of the array. Arrays initially have no default
value, but this command allows you to set one; the default value will be
returned when reading from an element of the array \fIarrayName\fR if the read
would otherwise result in an error. Note that this may cause the \fBappend\fR,
\fBdict\fR, \fBincr\fR and \fBlappend\fR commands to change their behavior in
relation to non-existing array elements.
.RS
.PP
The \fIsubcommand\fR argument controls what exact operation will be performed
on the default value of \fIarrayName\fR. Supported \fIsubcommand\fRs are:
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBarray default exists \fIarrayName\fR
.VS TIP508
This returns a boolean value indicating whether a default value has been set
for the array \fIarrayName\fR. Returns a false value if \fIarrayName\fR does
not exist. Raises an error if \fIarrayName\fR is an existing variable that is
not an array.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBarray default get \fIarrayName\fR
.VS TIP508
This returns the current default value for the array \fIarrayName\fR.  Raises
an error if \fIarrayName\fR is an existing variable that is not an array, or
if \fIarrayName\fR is an array without a default value.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBarray default set \fIarrayName value\fR
.VS TIP508
This sets the default value for the array \fIarrayName\fR to \fIvalue\fR.
Returns the empty string. Raises an error if \fIarrayName\fR is an existing
variable that is not an array, or if \fIarrayName\fR is an illegal name for an
array. If \fIarrayName\fR does not currently exist, it is created as an empty
array as well as having its default value set.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBarray default unset \fIarrayName\fR
.VS TIP508
This removes the default value for the array \fIarrayName\fR and returns the
empty string. Does nothing if \fIarrayName\fR does not have a default
value. Raises an error if \fIarrayName\fR is an existing variable that is not
an array.
.VE TIP508
.RE
.TP
\fBarray donesearch \fIarrayName searchId\fR
This command terminates an array search and destroys all the
state associated with that search.  \fISearchId\fR indicates
which search on \fIarrayName\fR to destroy, and must have
been the return value from a previous invocation of
\fBarray startsearch\fR.  Returns an empty string.
.TP
\fBarray exists \fIarrayName\fR
Returns 1 if \fIarrayName\fR is an array variable, 0 if there
is no variable by that name or if it is a scalar variable.
.TP
\fBarray for {\fIkeyVariable valueVariable\fB} \fIarrayName body\fP
The first argument is a two element list of variable names for the
key and value of each entry in the array.  The second argument is the
array name to iterate over.  The third argument is the body to execute
for each key and value returned.
The ordering of the returned keys is undefined.
If an array element is deleted or a new array element is inserted during
the \fIarray for\fP process, the command will terminate with an error.
.TP
\fBarray get \fIarrayName\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
Returns a list containing pairs of elements.  The first
element in each pair is the name of an element in \fIarrayName\fR
and the second element of each pair is the value of the
array element.  The order of the pairs is undefined.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, then all of the elements of the
array are included in the result.
................................................................................
    number of buckets with 10 or more entries: 0
    average search distance for entry: 1.2
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), string(n), variable(n), trace(n), foreach(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
array, element names, search
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Added doc/callback.n.
















































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH callback n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
callback, mymethod \- generate callbacks to methods
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBcallback\fR \fImethodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?
\fBmymethod\fR \fImethodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
The \fBcallback\fR command,
'\" Based on notes in the tcllib docs, we know the provenance of mymethod
also called \fBmymethod\fR for compatibility with the ooutil and snit packages
of Tcllib,
and which should only be used from within the context of a call to a method
(i.e. inside a method, constructor or destructor body) is used to generate a
script fragment that will invoke the method, \fImethodName\fR, on the current
object (as reported by \fBself\fR) when executed. Any additional arguments
provided will be provided as leading arguments to the callback. The resulting
script fragment shall be a proper list.
.PP
Note that it is up to the caller to ensure that the current object is able to
handle the call of \fImethodName\fR; this command does not check that.
\fImethodName\fR may refer to any exported or unexported method, but may not
refer to a private method as those can only be invoked directly from within
methods. If there is no such method present at the point when the callback is
invoked, the standard \fBunknown\fR method handler will be called.
.SH EXAMPLE
This is a simple echo server class. The \fBcallback\fR command is used in two
places, to arrange for the incoming socket connections to be handled by the
\fIAccept\fR method, and to arrange for the incoming bytes on those
connections to be handled by the \fIReceive\fR method.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create EchoServer {
    variable server clients
    constructor {port} {
        set server [socket -server [\fBcallback\fR Accept] $port]
        set clients {}
    }
    destructor {
        chan close $server
        foreach client [dict keys $clients] {
            chan close $client
        }
    }

    method Accept {channel clientAddress clientPort} {
        dict set clients $channel [dict create \e
                address $clientAddress port $clientPort]
        chan event $channel readable [\fBcallback\fR Receive $channel]
    }
    method Receive {channel} {
        if {[chan gets $channel line] >= 0} {
            my echo $channel $line
        } else {
            chan close $channel
            dict unset clients $channel
        }
    }

    method echo {channel line} {
        dict with clients $channel {
            chan puts $channel \e
                    [format {[%s:%d] %s} $address $port $line]
        }
    }
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
chan(n), fileevent(n), my(n), self(n), socket(n), trace(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
callback, object
.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/cd.n.

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.CS
\fBcd\fR ../lib
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
filename(n), glob(n), pwd(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
working directory










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\fBcd\fR ../lib
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
filename(n), glob(n), pwd(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
working directory
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Added doc/classvariable.n.




























































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2011-2015 Andreas Kupries
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH classvariable n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
classvariable \- create link from local variable to variable in class
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBclassvariable\fR \fIvariableName\fR ?\fI...\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
The \fBclassvariable\fR command is available within methods. It takes a series
of one or more variable names and makes them available in the method's scope;
those variable names must not be qualified and must not refer to array
elements. The originating scope for the variables is the namespace of the
class that the method was defined by. In other words, the referenced variables
are shared between all instances of that class.
.PP
Note: This command is equivalent to the command \fBtypevariable\fR provided by
the snit package in tcllib for approximately the same purpose. If used in a
method defined directly on a class instance (e.g., through the
\fBoo::objdefine\fR \fBmethod\fR definition) this is very much like just
using:
.PP
.CS
namespace upvar [namespace current] $var $var
.CE
.PP
for each variable listed to \fBclassvariable\fR.
.SH EXAMPLE
This class counts how many instances of it have been made.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create Counted {
    initialise {
        variable count 0
    }

    variable number
    constructor {} {
        \fBclassvariable\fR count
        set number [incr count]
    }

    method report {} {
        \fBclassvariable\fR count
        puts "This is instance $number of $count"
    }
}

set a [Counted new]
set b [Counted new]
$a report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 1 of 2\fR
set c [Counted new]
$b report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 2 of 3\fR
$c report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 3 of 3\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
global(n), namespace(n), oo::class(n), oo::define(n), upvar(n), variable(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
class, class variable, variable
.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

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If a format string lacks a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group,
it is possible for the time to be ambiguous because it appears twice
in the same day, once without and once with Daylight Saving Time.
If this situation occurs, the first occurrence of the time is chosen.
(For this reason, it is wise to have the input string contain the
time zone when converting local times.  This caveat does not apply to
UTC times.)













.SH "FORMAT GROUPS"
.PP
The following format groups are recognized by the \fBclock scan\fR and
\fBclock format\fR commands.
.TP
\fB%a\fR
On output, receives an abbreviation (\fIe.g.,\fR \fBMon\fR) for the day
................................................................................
time.  This is useful for determining the time on a specific day or
doing other date-relative conversions.
.PP
The \fIinputString\fR argument consists of zero or more specifications of the
following form:
.TP
\fItime\fR

A time of day, which is of the form: \fBhh?:mm?:ss?? ?meridian? ?zone?\fR
or \fBhhmm ?meridian? ?zone?\fR



If no meridian is specified, \fBhh\fR is interpreted on
a 24-hour clock.
.TP
\fIdate\fR
A specific month and day with optional year.  The
acceptable formats are
.QW "\fBmm/dd\fR?\fB/yy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fBmonthname dd\fR?\fB, yy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fBday, dd monthname \fR?\fByy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fBdd monthname yy\fR" ,
.QW "?\fBCC\fR?\fByymmdd\fR" ,
and
.QW "\fBdd-monthname-\fR?\fBCC\fR?\fByy\fR" .

The default year is the current year.  If the year is less
than 100, we treat the years 00-68 as 2000-2068 and the years 69-99
as 1969-1999.  Not all platforms can represent the years 38-70, so
an error may result if these years are used.
.TP
\fIISO 8601 point-in-time\fR

An ISO 8601 point-in-time specification, such as
.QW \fICCyymmdd\fBT\fIhhmmss\fR,
where \fBT\fR is the literal
.QW T ,
.QW "\fICCyymmdd hhmmss\fR" ,
or
.QW \fICCyymmdd\fBT\fIhh:mm:ss\fR .
Note that only these three formats are accepted.
The command does \fInot\fR accept the full range of point-in-time
specifications specified in ISO8601.  Other formats can be recognized by
giving an explicit \fB\-format\fR option to the \fBclock scan\fR command.
.TP
\fIrelative time\fR

A specification relative to the current time.  The format is \fBnumber
unit\fR. Acceptable units are \fByear\fR, \fBfortnight\fR,
\fBmonth\fR, \fBweek\fR, \fBday\fR,
\fBhour\fR, \fBminute\fR (or \fBmin\fR), and \fBsecond\fR (or \fBsec\fR).  The
unit can be specified as a singular or plural, as in \fB3 weeks\fR.
These modifiers may also be specified:
\fBtomorrow\fR, \fByesterday\fR, \fBtoday\fR, \fBnow\fR,






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If a format string lacks a \fB%z\fR or \fB%Z\fR format group,
it is possible for the time to be ambiguous because it appears twice
in the same day, once without and once with Daylight Saving Time.
If this situation occurs, the first occurrence of the time is chosen.
(For this reason, it is wise to have the input string contain the
time zone when converting local times.  This caveat does not apply to
UTC times.)
.PP
If the interpretation of the groups yields an impossible time because
a field is out of range, enough of that field's unit will be added to
or subtracted from the time to bring it in range. Thus, if attempting to
scan or format day 0 of the month, one day will be subtracted from day
1 of the month, yielding the last day of the previous month.
.PP
If the interpretation of the groups yields an impossible time because
a Daylight Saving Time change skips over that time, or an ambiguous
time because a Daylight Saving Time change skips back so that the clock
observes the given time twice, and no time zone specifier (\fB%z\fR
or \fB%Z\fR) is present in the format, the time is interpreted as
if the clock had not changed.
.SH "FORMAT GROUPS"
.PP
The following format groups are recognized by the \fBclock scan\fR and
\fBclock format\fR commands.
.TP
\fB%a\fR
On output, receives an abbreviation (\fIe.g.,\fR \fBMon\fR) for the day
................................................................................
time.  This is useful for determining the time on a specific day or
doing other date-relative conversions.
.PP
The \fIinputString\fR argument consists of zero or more specifications of the
following form:
.TP
\fItime\fR
.
A time of day, which is of the form:

.QW "\fIhh\fR?\fB:\fImm\fR?\fB:\fIss\fR?? ?\fImeridian\fR? ?\fIzone\fR?"
or
.QW "\fBhhmm \fR?\fBmeridian\fR? ?\fBzone\fR?" .
If no \fImeridian\fR is specified, \fIhh\fR is interpreted on
a 24-hour clock.
.TP
\fIdate\fR
.
A specific month and day with optional year.  The
acceptable formats are
.QW "\fImm\fB/\fIdd\fR?\fB/\fIyy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fImonthname dd\fR?\fB, \fIyy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fIday\fB, \fIdd monthname \fR?\fIyy\fR?" ,
.QW "\fIdd monthname yy\fR" ,
.QW "?\fICC\fR?\fIyymmdd\fR" ,
and
.QW "\fIdd\fB-\fImonthname\fB-\fR?\fICC\fR?\fIyy\fR" .
The default year is the current year.  If the year is less
than 100, we treat the years 00-68 as 2000-2068 and the years 69-99
as 1969-1999.  Not all platforms can represent the years 38-70, so
an error may result if these years are used.
.TP
\fIISO 8601 point-in-time\fR
.
An ISO 8601 point-in-time specification, such as
.QW \fICCyymmdd\fBT\fIhhmmss\fR,
where \fBT\fR is the literal
.QW T ,
.QW "\fICCyymmdd hhmmss\fR" ,
or
.QW \fICCyymmdd\fBT\fIhh\fB:\fImm\fB:\fIss\fR .
Note that only these three formats are accepted.
The command does \fInot\fR accept the full range of point-in-time
specifications specified in ISO8601.  Other formats can be recognized by
giving an explicit \fB\-format\fR option to the \fBclock scan\fR command.
.TP
\fIrelative time\fR
.
A specification relative to the current time.  The format is \fBnumber
unit\fR. Acceptable units are \fByear\fR, \fBfortnight\fR,
\fBmonth\fR, \fBweek\fR, \fBday\fR,
\fBhour\fR, \fBminute\fR (or \fBmin\fR), and \fBsecond\fR (or \fBsec\fR).  The
unit can be specified as a singular or plural, as in \fB3 weeks\fR.
These modifiers may also be specified:
\fBtomorrow\fR, \fByesterday\fR, \fBtoday\fR, \fBnow\fR,

Added doc/cookiejar.n.


















































































































































































































































































































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2014-2018 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH "cookiejar" n 0.1 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
cookiejar \- Implementation of the Tcl http package cookie jar protocol
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require\fR \fBcookiejar\fR ?\fB0.1\fR?

\fB::http::cookiejar configure\fR ?\fIoptionName\fR? ?\fIoptionValue\fR?
\fB::http::cookiejar create\fR \fIname\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?
\fB::http::cookiejar new\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?

\fIcookiejar\fR \fBdestroy\fR
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBforceLoadDomainData\fR
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBgetCookies\fR \fIprotocol host path\fR
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBstoreCookie\fR \fIoptions\fR
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBlookup\fR ?\fIhost\fR? ?\fIkey\fR?
.fi
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The cookiejar package provides an implementation of the http package's cookie
jar protocol using an SQLite database. It provides one main command,
\fB::http::cookiejar\fR, which is a TclOO class that should be instantiated to
create a cookie jar that manages a particular HTTP session.
.PP
The database management policy can be controlled at the package level by the
\fBconfigure\fR method on the \fB::http::cookiejar\fR class object:
.TP
\fB::http::cookiejar configure\fR ?\fIoptionName\fR? ?\fIoptionValue\fR?
.
If neither \fIoptionName\fR nor \fIoptionValue\fR are supplied, this returns a
copy of the configuration as a Tcl dictionary. If just \fIoptionName\fR is
supplied, just the value of the named option is returned. If both
\fIoptionName\fR and \fIoptionValue\fR are given, the named option is changed
to be the given value.
.RS
.PP
Supported options are:
.TP
\fB\-domainfile \fIfilename\fR
.
A file (defaulting to within the cookiejar package) with a description of the
list of top-level domains (e.g., \fB.com\fR or \fB.co.jp\fR). Such domains
\fImust not\fR accept cookies set upon them. Note that the list of such
domains is both security-sensitive and \fInot\fR constant and should be
periodically refetched. Cookie jars maintain their own cache of the domain
list.
.TP
\fB\-domainlist \fIurl\fR
.
A URL to fetch the list of top-level domains (e.g., \fB.com\fR or
\fB.co.jp\fR) from.  Such domains \fImust not\fR accept cookies set upon
them. Note that the list of such domains is both security-sensitive and
\fInot\fR constant and should be periodically refetched. Cookie jars maintain
their own cache of the domain list.
.TP
\fB\-domainrefresh \fIintervalMilliseconds\fR
.
The number of milliseconds between checks of the \fI\-domainlist\fR for new
domains.
.TP
\fB\-loglevel \fIlevel\fR
.
The logging level of this package. The logging level must be (in order of
decreasing verbosity) one of \fBdebug\fR, \fBinfo\fR, \fBwarn\fR, or
\fBerror\fR.
.TP
\fB\-offline \fIflag\fR
.
Allows the cookie managment engine to be placed into offline mode. In offline
mode, the list of domains is read immediately from the file configured in the
\fB\-domainfile\fR option, and the \fB\-domainlist\fR option is not used; it
also makes the \fB\-domainrefresh\fR option be effectively ignored.
.TP
\fB\-purgeold \fIintervalMilliseconds\fR
.
The number of milliseconds between checks of the database for expired
cookies; expired cookies are deleted.
.TP
\fB\-retain \fIcookieCount\fR
.
The maximum number of cookies to retain in the database.
.TP
\fB\-vacuumtrigger \fIdeletionCount\fR
.
A count of the number of persistent cookie deletions to go between vacuuming
the database.
.RE
.PP
Cookie jar instances may be made with any of the standard TclOO instance
creation methods (\fBcreate\fR or \fBnew\fR).
.TP
\fB::http::cookiejar new\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?
.
If a \fIfilename\fR argument is provided, it is the name of a file containing
an SQLite database that will contain the persistent cookies maintained by the
cookie jar; the database will be created if the file does not already
exist. If \fIfilename\fR is not supplied, the database will be held entirely within
memory, which effectively forces all cookies within it to be session cookies.
.SS "INSTANCE METHODS"
.PP
The following methods are supported on the instances:
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBdestroy\fR
.
This is the standard TclOO destruction method. It does \fInot\fR delete the
SQLite database if it is written to disk. Callers are responsible for ensuring
that the cookie jar is not in use by the http package at the time of
destruction.
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBforceLoadDomainData\fR
.
This method causes the cookie jar to immediately load (and cache) the domain
list data. The domain list will be loaded from the \fB\-domainlist\fR
configured a the package level if that is enabled, and otherwise will be
obtained from the \fB\-domainfile\fR configured at the package level.
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBgetCookies\fR \fIprotocol host path\fR
.
This method obtains the cookies for a particular HTTP request. \fIThis
implements the http cookie jar protocol.\fR
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBpolicyAllow\fR \fIoperation domain path\fR
.
This method is called by the \fBstoreCookie\fR method to get a decision on
whether to allow \fIoperation\fR to be performed for the \fIdomain\fR and
\fIpath\fR. This is checked immediately before the database is updated but
after the built-in security checks are done, and should return a boolean
value; if the value is false, the operation is rejected and the database is
not modified. The supported \fIoperation\fRs are:
.RS
.TP
\fBdelete\fR
.
The \fIdomain\fR is seeking to delete a cookie.
.TP
\fBsession\fR
.
The \fIdomain\fR is seeking to create or update a session cookie.
.TP
\fBset\fR
.
The \fIdomain\fR is seeking to create or update a persistent cookie (with a
defined lifetime).
.PP
The default implementation of this method just returns true, but subclasses of
this class may impose their own rules.
.RE
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBstoreCookie\fR \fIoptions\fR
.
This method stores a single cookie from a particular HTTP response. Cookies
that fail security checks are ignored. \fIThis implements the http cookie jar
protocol.\fR
.TP
\fIcookiejar\fR \fBlookup\fR ?\fIhost\fR? ?\fIkey\fR?
.
This method looks a cookie by exact host (or domain) matching. If neither
\fIhost\fR nor \fIkey\fR are supplied, the list of hosts for which a cookie is
stored is returned. If just \fIhost\fR (which may be a hostname or a domain
name) is supplied, the list of cookie keys stored for that host is returned.
If both \fIhost\fR and \fIkey\fR are supplied, the value for that key is
returned; it is an error if no such host or key match exactly.
.SH "EXAMPLES"
.PP
The simplest way of using a cookie jar is to just permanently configure it at
the start of the application.
.PP
.CS
package require http
\fBpackage require cookiejar\fR

set cookiedb ~/.tclcookies.db
http::configure -cookiejar [\fBhttp::cookiejar new\fR $cookiedb]

# No further explicit steps are required to use cookies
set tok [http::geturl http://core.tcl.tk/]
.CE
.PP
To only allow a particular domain to use cookies, perhaps because you only
want to enable a particular host to create and manipulate sessions, create a
subclass that imposes that policy.
.PP
.CS
package require http
\fBpackage require cookiejar\fR

oo::class create MyCookieJar {
    superclass \fBhttp::cookiejar\fR

    method \fBpolicyAllow\fR {operation domain path} {
        return [expr {$domain eq "my.example.com"}]
    }
}

set cookiedb ~/.tclcookies.db
http::configure -cookiejar [MyCookieJar new $cookiedb]

# No further explicit steps are required to use cookies
set tok [http::geturl http://core.tcl.tk/]
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
http(n), oo::class(n), sqlite3(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
cookie, internet, security policy, www
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/coroutine.n.

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'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
coroutine, yield, yieldto \- Create and produce values from coroutines
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBcoroutine \fIname command\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fByield\fR ?\fIvalue\fR?
.VS TIP396
\fByieldto\fR \fIcommand\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fIname\fR ?\fIvalue...\fR?

.VE TIP396



.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBcoroutine\fR command creates a new coroutine context (with associated
command) named \fIname\fR and executes that context by calling \fIcommand\fR,
passing in the other remaining arguments without further interpretation. Once
................................................................................
of the context can then be resumed by calling the context command, optionally
passing in the \fIsingle\fR value to use as the result of the \fByield\fR call
that caused
the context to be suspended. If the coroutine context never yields and instead
returns conventionally, the result of the \fBcoroutine\fR command will be the
result of the evaluation of the context.
.PP
.VS TIP396
The coroutine may also suspend its execution by use of the \fByieldto\fR
command, which instead of returning, cedes execution to some command called
\fIcommand\fR (resolved in the context of the coroutine) and to which \fIany
number\fR of arguments may be passed. Since every coroutine has a context
command, \fByieldto\fR can be used to transfer control directly from one
coroutine to another (this is only advisable if the two coroutines are
expecting this to happen) but \fIany\fR command may be the target. If a
................................................................................
decide what to do with those values.
.PP
The recommended way of writing a version of \fByield\fR that allows resumption
with multiple arguments is by using \fByieldto\fR and the \fBreturn\fR
command, like this:
.PP
.CS
proc yieldm {value} {
    \fByieldto\fR return -level 0 $value
}
.CE
.VE TIP396
.PP
The coroutine can also be deleted by destroying the command \fIname\fR, and
the name of the current coroutine can be retrieved by using
\fBinfo coroutine\fR.
If there are deletion traces on variables in the coroutine's
implementation, they will fire at the point when the coroutine is explicitly
deleted (or, naturally, if the command returns conventionally).
.PP
At the point when \fIcommand\fR is called, the current namespace will be the
global namespace and there will be no stack frames above it (in the sense of
\fBupvar\fR and \fBuplevel\fR). However, which command to call will be
determined in the namespace that the \fBcoroutine\fR command was called from.













































.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example shows a coroutine that will produce an infinite sequence of
even values, and a loop that consumes the first ten of them.
.PP
.CS
proc allNumbers {} {
................................................................................
    }
}} allNumbers
for {set i 1} {$i <= 20} {incr i} {
    puts "prime#$i = [\fIeratosthenes\fR]"
}
.CE
.PP
.VS TIP396
This example shows how a value can be passed around a group of three
coroutines that yield to each other:
.PP
.CS
proc juggler {name target {value ""}} {
    if {$value eq ""} {
        set value [\fByield\fR [info coroutine]]
    }
    while {$value ne ""} {
        puts "$name : $value"
        set value [string range $value 0 end-1]
        lassign [\fByieldto\fR $target $value] value
    }
}
\fBcoroutine\fR j1 juggler Larry [
    \fBcoroutine\fR j2 juggler Curly [
        \fBcoroutine\fR j3 juggler Moe j1]] "Nyuck!Nyuck!Nyuck!"
.CE
.VE TIP396











































.SS "DETAILED SEMANTICS"
.PP
This example demonstrates that coroutines start from the global namespace, and
that \fIcommand\fR resolution happens before the coroutine stack is created.
.PP
.CS
proc report {where level} {






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'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
coroutine, yield, yieldto \- Create and produce values from coroutines
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBcoroutine \fIname command\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fByield\fR ?\fIvalue\fR?

\fByieldto\fR \fIcommand\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fIname\fR ?\fIvalue...\fR?
.sp
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
\fBcoroinject \fIcoroName command\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
\fBcoroprobe \fIcoroName command\fR ?\fIarg...\fR?
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBcoroutine\fR command creates a new coroutine context (with associated
command) named \fIname\fR and executes that context by calling \fIcommand\fR,
passing in the other remaining arguments without further interpretation. Once
................................................................................
of the context can then be resumed by calling the context command, optionally
passing in the \fIsingle\fR value to use as the result of the \fByield\fR call
that caused
the context to be suspended. If the coroutine context never yields and instead
returns conventionally, the result of the \fBcoroutine\fR command will be the
result of the evaluation of the context.
.PP

The coroutine may also suspend its execution by use of the \fByieldto\fR
command, which instead of returning, cedes execution to some command called
\fIcommand\fR (resolved in the context of the coroutine) and to which \fIany
number\fR of arguments may be passed. Since every coroutine has a context
command, \fByieldto\fR can be used to transfer control directly from one
coroutine to another (this is only advisable if the two coroutines are
expecting this to happen) but \fIany\fR command may be the target. If a
................................................................................
decide what to do with those values.
.PP
The recommended way of writing a version of \fByield\fR that allows resumption
with multiple arguments is by using \fByieldto\fR and the \fBreturn\fR
command, like this:
.PP
.CS
proc yieldMultiple {value} {
    tailcall \fByieldto\fR string cat $value
}
.CE

.PP
The coroutine can also be deleted by destroying the command \fIname\fR, and
the name of the current coroutine can be retrieved by using
\fBinfo coroutine\fR.
If there are deletion traces on variables in the coroutine's
implementation, they will fire at the point when the coroutine is explicitly
deleted (or, naturally, if the command returns conventionally).
.PP
At the point when \fIcommand\fR is called, the current namespace will be the
global namespace and there will be no stack frames above it (in the sense of
\fBupvar\fR and \fBuplevel\fR). However, which command to call will be
determined in the namespace that the \fBcoroutine\fR command was called from.
.PP
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
A suspended coroutine (i.e., one that has \fByield\fRed or \fByieldto\fR-d)
may have its state inspected (or modified) at that point by using
\fBcoroprobe\fR to run a command at the point where the coroutine is at. The
command takes the name of the coroutine to run the command in, \fIcoroName\fR,
and the name of a command (any any arguments it requires) to immediately run
at that point. The result of that command is the result of the \fBcoroprobe\fR
command, and the gross state of the coroutine remains the same afterwards
(i.e., the coroutine is still expecting the results of a \fByield\fR or
\fByieldto\fR as before) though variables may have been changed.
.PP
Similarly, the \fBcoroinject\fR command may be used to place a command to be
run inside a suspended coroutine (when it is resumed) to process arguments,
with quite a bit of similarity to \fBcoroprobe\fR. However, with
\fBcoroinject\fR there are several key differences:
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.IP \(bu
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
The coroutine is not immediately resumed after the injection has been done.  A
consequence of this is that multiple injections may be done before the
coroutine is resumed. There injected commands are performed in \fIreverse
order of definition\fR (that is, they are internally stored on a stack).
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.IP \(bu
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
An additional two arguments are appended to the list of arguments to be run
(that is, the \fIcommand\fR and its \fIargs\fR are extended by two elements).
The first is the name of the command that suspended the coroutine (\fByield\fR
or \fByieldto\fR), and the second is the argument (or list of arguments, in
the case of \fByieldto\fR) that is the current resumption value.
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.IP \(bu
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
The result of the injected command is used as the result of the \fByield\fR or
\fByieldto\fR that caused the coroutine to become suspended. Where there are
multiple injected commands, the result of one becomes the resumption value
processed by the next.
.PP
The injection is a one-off. It is not retained once it has been executed. It
may \fByield\fR or \fByieldto\fR as part of its execution.
.PP
Note that running coroutines may be neither probed nor injected; the
operations may only be applied to
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example shows a coroutine that will produce an infinite sequence of
even values, and a loop that consumes the first ten of them.
.PP
.CS
proc allNumbers {} {
................................................................................
    }
}} allNumbers
for {set i 1} {$i <= 20} {incr i} {
    puts "prime#$i = [\fIeratosthenes\fR]"
}
.CE
.PP

This example shows how a value can be passed around a group of three
coroutines that yield to each other:
.PP
.CS
proc juggler {name target {value ""}} {
    if {$value eq ""} {
        set value [\fByield\fR [info coroutine]]
    }
    while {$value ne ""} {
        puts "$name : $value"
        set value [string range $value 0 end-1]
        lassign [\fByieldto\fR \fI$target\fR $value] value
    }
}
\fBcoroutine\fR j1 juggler Larry [
    \fBcoroutine\fR j2 juggler Curly [
        \fBcoroutine\fR j3 juggler Moe j1]] "Nyuck!Nyuck!Nyuck!"
.CE
.PP
.VS "8.7, TIP383"
This example shows a simple coroutine that collects non-empty values and
returns a list of them when not given an argument. It also shows how we can
look inside the coroutine to find out what it is doing, and how we can modify
the input on a one-off basis.
.PP
.CS
proc collectorImpl {} {
    set me [info coroutine]
    set accumulator {}
    for {set val [\fByield\fR $me]} {$val ne ""} {set val [\fByield\fR]} {
        lappend accumulator $val
    }
    return $accumulator
}

\fBcoroutine\fR collect collectorImpl
\fIcollect\fR 123
\fIcollect\fR "abc def"
\fIcollect\fR 456

puts [\fBcoroprobe \fIcollect\fR set accumulator]
# ==> 123 {abc def} 456

\fIcollect\fR "pqr"

\fBcoroinject \fIcollect\fR apply {{type value} {
    puts "Received '$value' at a $type in [info coroutine]"
    return [string toupper $value]
}}

\fIcollect\fR rst
# ==> Received 'rst' at a yield in ::collect
\fIcollect\fR xyz

puts [\fIcollect\fR]
# ==> 123 {abc def} 456 pqr RST xyz
.CE
.PP
This example shows a simple coroutine that collects non-empty values and
returns a list of them when not given an argument. It also shows how we can
look inside the coroutine to find out what it is doing.
.VE "8.7, TIP383"
.SS "DETAILED SEMANTICS"
.PP
This example demonstrates that coroutines start from the global namespace, and
that \fIcommand\fR resolution happens before the coroutine stack is created.
.PP
.CS
proc report {where level} {

Changes to doc/define.n.

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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2007 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH define n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
configuration of all subclasses of the class and all objects that are
instances of that class or which mix it in (as modified by any per-instance
configuration). The way in which the configuration is done is controlled by
either the \fIdefScript\fR argument or by the \fIsubcommand\fR and following
\fIarg\fR arguments; when the second is present, it is exactly as if all the
arguments from \fIsubcommand\fR onwards are made into a list and that list is
used as the \fIdefScript\fR argument.




.SS "CONFIGURING CLASSES"
.PP
The following commands are supported in the \fIdefScript\fR for
\fBoo::define\fR, each of which may also be used in the \fIsubcommand\fR form:





















.TP
\fBconstructor\fI argList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates the constructor for a class. The formal arguments to
the constructor (defined using the same format as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR
command) will be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the constructor will be
\fIbodyScript\fR. When the body of the constructor is evaluated, the current
namespace of the constructor will be a namespace that is unique to the object
being constructed. Within the constructor, the \fBnext\fR command should be
used to call the superclasses' constructors. If \fIbodyScript\fR is the empty
string, the constructor will be deleted.
.TP
\fBdeletemethod\fI name\fR ?\fIname ...\fR
.

This deletes each of the methods called \fIname\fR from a class. The methods
must have previously existed in that class. Does not affect the superclasses
of the class, nor does it affect the subclasses or instances of the class
(except when they have a call chain through the class being modified).
.TP
\fBdestructor\fI bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates the destructor for a class. Destructors take no
arguments, and the body of the destructor will be \fIbodyScript\fR. The
destructor is called when objects of the class are deleted, and when called
will have the object's unique namespace as the current namespace. Destructors
................................................................................
\fBexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be exported
(i.e. usable outside an instance through the instance object's command) by the
class being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined
by a superclass; subclass exports override superclass visibility, and may in
turn be overridden by instances.
.TP
\fBfilter\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fImethodName ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
sets or updates the list of method names that are used to guard whether
method call to instances of the class may be called and what the method's
results are. Each \fImethodName\fR names a single filtering method (which may
be exposed or not exposed); it is not an error for a non-existent method to be
named since they may be defined by subclasses.
.VS
By default, this slot works by appending.
.VE
.TP
\fBforward\fI name cmdName \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.
This creates or updates a forwarded method called \fIname\fR. The method is
defined be forwarded to the command called \fIcmdName\fR, with additional
arguments, \fIarg\fR etc., added before those arguments specified by the
caller of the method. The \fIcmdName\fR will always be resolved using the
rules of the invoking objects' namespaces, i.e., when \fIcmdName\fR is not
fully-qualified, the command will be searched for in each object's namespace,
using the instances' namespace's path, or by looking in the global namespace.
The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case letter, and
non-exported otherwise.







.TP









\fBmethod\fI name argList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates a method that is implemented as a procedure-like
script. The name of the method is \fIname\fR, the formal arguments to the
method (defined using the same format as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR command) will
be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the method will be \fIbodyScript\fR. When
the body of the method is evaluated, the current namespace of the method will
be a namespace that is unique to the current object. The method will be
exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case letter, and non-exported
otherwise; this behavior can be overridden via \fBexport\fR and
\fBunexport\fR.
.TP
\fBmixin\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
sets or updates the list of additional classes that are to be mixed into
all the instances of the class being defined. Each \fIclassName\fR argument
names a single class that is to be mixed in.
.VS
By default, this slot works by replacement.
.VE
.TP
\fBrenamemethod\fI fromName toName\fR
.
This renames the method called \fIfromName\fR in a class to \fItoName\fR. The
method must have previously existed in the class, and \fItoName\fR must not
previously refer to a method in that class. Does not affect the superclasses
of the class, nor does it affect the subclasses or instances of the class
(except when they have a call chain through the class being modified). Does
not change the export status of the method; if it was exported before, it will
be afterwards.










.TP
\fBself\fI subcommand arg ...\fR
.TP
\fBself\fI script\fR
.TP
\fBself\fR
.
................................................................................
.QW "\fBoo::objdefine \fIcls subcommand ...\fR" .
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP470
If no arguments at all are used, this gives the name of the class currently
being configured.
.VE TIP470





.RE
.TP
\fBsuperclass\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?
.VS

This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
allows the alteration of the superclasses of the class being defined.
Each \fIclassName\fR argument names one class that is to be a superclass of
the defined class. Note that objects must not be changed from being classes to
being non-classes or vice-versa, that an empty parent class is equivalent to
\fBoo::object\fR, and that the parent classes of \fBoo::object\fR and
\fBoo::class\fR may not be modified.
.VS
By default, this slot works by replacement.
.VE
.TP
\fBunexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be not exported
(i.e. not usable outside the instance through the instance object's command,
but instead just through the \fBmy\fR command visible in each object's
context) by the class being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be
actually defined by a superclass; subclass unexports override superclass
visibility, and may be overridden by instance unexports.
.TP
\fBvariable\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIname ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below) arranges for each of the named
variables to be automatically made
available in the methods, constructor and destructor declared by the class
being defined. Each variable name must not have any namespace
separators and must not look like an array access. All variables will be

actually present in the instance object on which the method is executed. Note
that the variable lists declared by a superclass or subclass are completely
disjoint, as are variable lists declared by instances; the list of variable
names is just for methods (and constructors and destructors) declared by this
class. By default, this slot works by appending.











.VE
.SS "CONFIGURING OBJECTS"


.PP
The following commands are supported in the \fIdefScript\fR for
\fBoo::objdefine\fR, each of which may also be used in the \fIsubcommand\fR
form:


.TP
\fBclass\fI className\fR









.
This allows the class of an object to be changed after creation. Note that the
class's constructors are not called when this is done, and so the object may
well be in an inconsistent state unless additional configuration work is done.















.TP
\fBdeletemethod\fI name\fR ?\fIname ...\fR
.
This deletes each of the methods called \fIname\fR from an object. The methods
must have previously existed in that object. Does not affect the classes that


the object is an instance of.
.TP


































\fBexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be exported
(i.e. usable outside the object through the object's command) by the object
being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined by a
class or superclass; object exports override class visibility.
.TP
\fBfilter\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fImethodName ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
sets or updates the list of method names that are used to guard whether a
method call to the object may be called and what the method's results are.
Each \fImethodName\fR names a single filtering method (which may be exposed or
not exposed); it is not an error for a non-existent method to be named. Note
that the actual list of filters also depends on the filters set upon any
classes that the object is an instance of.
.VS
By default, this slot works by appending.
.VE
.TP
\fBforward\fI name cmdName \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.
This creates or updates a forwarded object method called \fIname\fR. The
method is defined be forwarded to the command called \fIcmdName\fR, with
additional arguments, \fIarg\fR etc., added before those arguments specified
by the caller of the method. Forwarded methods should be deleted using the
\fBmethod\fR subcommand. The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with
a lower-case letter, and non-exported otherwise.







.TP
\fBmethod\fI name argList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates, updates or deletes an object method. The name of the method is
\fIname\fR, the formal arguments to the method (defined using the same format
as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR command) will be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the
method will be \fIbodyScript\fR. When the body of the method is evaluated, the
current namespace of the method will be a namespace that is unique to the
object. The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case
letter, and non-exported otherwise.













.TP
\fBmixin\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?
.VS

This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
.VE
sets or updates a per-object list of additional classes that are to be
mixed into the object. Each argument, \fIclassName\fR, names a single class
that is to be mixed in.
.VS
By default, this slot works by replacement.
.VE
.TP
\fBrenamemethod\fI fromName toName\fR
.
This renames the method called \fIfromName\fR in an object to \fItoName\fR.
The method must have previously existed in the object, and \fItoName\fR must
not previously refer to a method in that object. Does not affect the classes
that the object is an instance of. Does not change the export status of the
method; if it was exported before, it will be afterwards.

.TP
\fBself \fR
.

.VS TIP470









This gives the name of the object currently being configured.

.VE TIP470
.TP
\fBunexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be not exported
(i.e. not usable outside the object through the object's command, but instead
just through the \fBmy\fR command visible in the object's context) by the
object being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined
by a class; instance unexports override class visibility.
.TP
\fBvariable\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIname ...\fR?
.VS
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below) arranges for each of the named
variables to be automatically made available in the methods declared by the
object being defined.  Each variable name must not have any namespace
separators and must not look like an array access. All variables will be

actually present in the object on which the method is executed. Note that the
variable lists declared by the classes and mixins of which the object is an
instance are completely disjoint; the list of variable names is just for
methods declared by this object. By default, this slot works by appending.






































































.SH "SLOTTED DEFINITIONS"
Some of the configurable definitions of a class or object are \fIslotted
definitions\fR. This means that the configuration is implemented by a slot
object, that is an instance of the class \fBoo::Slot\fR, which manages a list
of values (class names, variable names, etc.) that comprises the contents of
the slot. The class defines three operations (as methods) that may be done on
the slot:
.VE
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-append\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?
.VS

This appends the given \fImember\fR elements to the slot definition.
.VE
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-clear\fR
.VS

This sets the slot definition to the empty list.




.VE
.TP





\fIslot\fR \fB\-set\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?
.VS

This replaces the slot definition with the given \fImember\fR elements.
.PP
A consequence of this is that any use of a slot's default operation where the
first member argument begins with a hyphen will be an error. One of the above
operations should be used explicitly in those circumstances.
.SS "SLOT IMPLEMENTATION"
Internally, slot objects also define a method \fB\-\-default\-operation\fR
which is forwarded to the default operation of the slot (thus, for the class
.QW \fBvariable\fR
slot, this is forwarded to
.QW "\fBmy \-append\fR" ),
and these methods which provide the implementation interface:
.VE
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fBGet\fR
.VS

Returns a list that is the current contents of the slot. This method must
always be called from a stack frame created by a call to \fBoo::define\fR or

\fBoo::objdefine\fR.






.VE

.TP


















\fIslot\fR \fBSet \fIelementList\fR
.VS

Sets the contents of the slot to the list \fIelementList\fR and returns the
empty string. This method must always be called from a stack frame created by
a call to \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR.










.PP
The implementation of these methods is slot-dependent (and responsible for
accessing the correct part of the class or object definition). Slots also have
an unknown method handler to tie all these pieces together, and they hide
their \fBdestroy\fR method so that it is not invoked inadvertently. It is
\fIrecommended\fR that any user changes to the slot mechanism be restricted to
defining new operations whose names start with a hyphen.







.VE
.SH EXAMPLES
This example demonstrates how to use both forms of the \fBoo::define\fR and
\fBoo::objdefine\fR commands (they work in the same way), as well as
illustrating four of the subcommands of them.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c
c create o
\fBoo::define\fR c \fBmethod\fR foo {} {
    puts "world"
}
................................................................................
}
\fBoo::objdefine\fR inst {
    \fBmixin -append\fR B
}
inst m1              \fI\(-> prints "red brick"\fR
inst m2              \fI\(-> prints "blue brick"\fR
.CE




































































































































.SH "SEE ALSO"
next(n), oo::class(n), oo::object(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
class, definition, method, object, slot
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:
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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2007-2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH define n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
configuration of all subclasses of the class and all objects that are
instances of that class or which mix it in (as modified by any per-instance
configuration). The way in which the configuration is done is controlled by
either the \fIdefScript\fR argument or by the \fIsubcommand\fR and following
\fIarg\fR arguments; when the second is present, it is exactly as if all the
arguments from \fIsubcommand\fR onwards are made into a list and that list is
used as the \fIdefScript\fR argument.
.PP
Note that the constructor for \fBoo::class\fR will call \fBoo::define\fR on
the script argument that it is provided. This is a convenient way to create
and define a class in one step.
.SH "CONFIGURING CLASSES"
.PP
The following commands are supported in the \fIdefScript\fR for
\fBoo::define\fR, each of which may also be used in the \fIsubcommand\fR form:
.TP
\fBclassmethod\fI name\fR ?\fIargList bodyScrip\fR?
.VS TIP478
This creates a class method, or (if \fIargList\fR and \fIbodyScript\fR are
omitted) promotes an existing method on the class object to be a class
method. The \fIname\fR, \fIargList\fR and \fIbodyScript\fR arguments are as in
the \fBmethod\fR definition, below.
.RS
.PP
Class methods can be called on either the class itself or on the instances of
that class. When they are called, the current object (see the \fBsel\fR and
\fBmy\fR commands) is the class on which they are called or the class of the
instance on which they are called, depending on whether they are called on the
class or an instance of the class, respectively. If called on a subclass or
instance of the subclass, the current object is the subclass.
.PP
In a private definition context, the methods as invoked on classes are
\fInot\fR private, but the methods as invoked on instances of classes are
private.
.RE
.VE TIP478
.TP
\fBconstructor\fI argList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates the constructor for a class. The formal arguments to
the constructor (defined using the same format as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR
command) will be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the constructor will be
\fIbodyScript\fR. When the body of the constructor is evaluated, the current
namespace of the constructor will be a namespace that is unique to the object
being constructed. Within the constructor, the \fBnext\fR command should be
used to call the superclasses' constructors. If \fIbodyScript\fR is the empty
string, the constructor will be deleted.
.RS

.PP
Classes do not need to have a constructor defined. If none is specified, the
superclass's constructor will be used instead.
.RE


.TP
\fBdestructor\fI bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates the destructor for a class. Destructors take no
arguments, and the body of the destructor will be \fIbodyScript\fR. The
destructor is called when objects of the class are deleted, and when called
will have the object's unique namespace as the current namespace. Destructors
................................................................................
\fBexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be exported
(i.e. usable outside an instance through the instance object's command) by the
class being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined
by a superclass; subclass exports override superclass visibility, and may in
turn be overridden by instances.













.TP
\fBforward\fI name cmdName \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.
This creates or updates a forwarded method called \fIname\fR. The method is
defined be forwarded to the command called \fIcmdName\fR, with additional
arguments, \fIarg\fR etc., added before those arguments specified by the
caller of the method. The \fIcmdName\fR will always be resolved using the
rules of the invoking objects' namespaces, i.e., when \fIcmdName\fR is not
fully-qualified, the command will be searched for in each object's namespace,
using the instances' namespace's path, or by looking in the global namespace.
The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case letter, and
non-exported otherwise.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), this command creates private forwarded methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBinitialise\fI script\fR
.TP
\fBinitialize\fI script\fR
.VS TIP478
This evaluates \fIscript\fR in a context which supports local variables and
where the current namespace is the instance namespace of the class object
itself. This is useful for setting up, e.g., class-scoped variables.
.VE TIP478
.TP
\fBmethod\fI name \fR?\fIoption\fR? \fIargList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates or updates a method that is implemented as a procedure-like
script. The name of the method is \fIname\fR, the formal arguments to the
method (defined using the same format as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR command) will
be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the method will be \fIbodyScript\fR. When
the body of the method is evaluated, the current namespace of the method will
be a namespace that is unique to the current object. The method will be
exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case letter, and non-exported
otherwise; this behavior can be overridden via \fBexport\fR and
\fBunexport\fR
.VS  TIP519
or by specifying \fB\-export\fR, \fB\-private\fR or \fB\-unexport\fR in the
optional parameter \fIoption\fR.
.VE TIP519
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below) or if the \fB\-private\fR flag is given for \fIoption\fR, this command
creates private procedure-like methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBprivate \fIcmd arg...\fR
.TP
\fBprivate \fIscript\fR
.
.VS TIP500
This evaluates the \fIscript\fR (or the list of command and arguments given by
\fIcmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs) in a context where the definitions made on the
current class will be private definitions.
.RS
.PP
The following class definition commands are affected by \fBprivate\fR:
\fBforward\fR, \fBmethod\fR, \fBself\fR, and \fBvariable\fR. Nesting
\fBprivate\fR inside \fBprivate\fR has no cumulative effect; the innermost
definition context is just a private definition context. All other definition
commands have no difference in behavior when used in a private definition
context.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fBself\fI subcommand arg ...\fR
.TP
\fBself\fI script\fR
.TP
\fBself\fR
.
................................................................................
.QW "\fBoo::objdefine \fIcls subcommand ...\fR" .
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP470
If no arguments at all are used, this gives the name of the class currently
being configured.
.VE TIP470
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), the definitions on the class object will also be made in a private
definition context.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBsuperclass\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?

.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)

allows the alteration of the superclasses of the class being defined.
Each \fIclassName\fR argument names one class that is to be a superclass of
the defined class. Note that objects must not be changed from being classes to
being non-classes or vice-versa, that an empty parent class is equivalent to
\fBoo::object\fR, and that the parent classes of \fBoo::object\fR and
\fBoo::class\fR may not be modified.

By default, this slot works by replacement.

.TP
\fBunexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be not exported
(i.e. not usable outside the instance through the instance object's command,
but instead just through the \fBmy\fR command visible in each object's
context) by the class being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be
actually defined by a superclass; subclass unexports override superclass
visibility, and may be overridden by instance unexports.
.TP
\fBvariable\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below) arranges for each of the named
variables to be automatically made
available in the methods, constructor and destructor declared by the class
being defined. Each variable name must not have any namespace
separators and must not look like an array access. All variables will be
actually present in the namespace of the instance object on which the method
is executed. Note
that the variable lists declared by a superclass or subclass are completely
disjoint, as are variable lists declared by instances; the list of variable
names is just for methods (and constructors and destructors) declared by this
class. By default, this slot works by appending.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), this slot manipulates the list of private variable bindings for this
class. In a private variable binding, the name of the variable within the
instance object is different to the name given in the definition; the name
used in the definition is the name that you use to access the variable within
the methods of this class, and the name of the variable in the instance
namespace has a unique prefix that makes accidental use from other classes
extremely unlikely.
.VE TIP500

.RE
.SS "ADVANCED CLASS CONFIGURATION OPTIONS"
.PP



The following definitions are also supported, but are not required in simple
programs:
.TP

\fBdefinitionnamespace\fR ?\fIkind\fR? \fInamespaceName\fR
.VS TIP524
This allows control over what namespace will be used by the \fBoo::define\fR
and \fBoo::objdefine\fR commands to look up the definition commands they
use. When any object has a definition operation applied to it, \fIthe class that
it is an instance of\fR (and its superclasses and mixins) is consulted for
what definition namespace to use. \fBoo::define\fR gets the class definition
namespace, and \fB::oo::objdefine\fR gets the instance definition namespace,
but both otherwise use the identical lookup operation.
.RS



.PP
This sets the definition namespace of kind \fIkind\fR provided by the current
class to \fInamespaceName\fR. The \fInamespaceName\fR must refer to a
currently existing namespace, or must be the empty string (to stop the current
class from having such a namespace connected). The \fIkind\fR, if supplied,
must be either \fB\-class\fR (the default) or \fB\-instance\fR to specify the
whether the namespace for use with \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR
respectively is being set.
.PP
The class \fBoo::object\fR has its instance namespace locked to
\fB::oo::objdefine\fR, and the class \fBoo::class\fR has its class namespace
locked to \fB::oo::define\fR. A consequence of this is that effective use of
this feature for classes requires the definition of a metaclass.
.RE
.VE TIP524
.TP
\fBdeletemethod\fI name\fR ?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This deletes each of the methods called \fIname\fR from a class. The methods
must have previously existed in that class. Does not affect the superclasses
of the class, nor does it affect the subclasses or instances of the class
(except when they have a call chain through the class being modified) or the
class object itself.
.TP
\fBfilter\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fImethodName ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
sets or updates the list of method names that are used to guard whether
method call to instances of the class may be called and what the method's
results are. Each \fImethodName\fR names a single filtering method (which may
be exposed or not exposed); it is not an error for a non-existent method to be
named since they may be defined by subclasses.
By default, this slot works by appending.
.TP
\fBmixin\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
sets or updates the list of additional classes that are to be mixed into
all the instances of the class being defined. Each \fIclassName\fR argument
names a single class that is to be mixed in.
By default, this slot works by replacement.
.TP
\fBrenamemethod\fI fromName toName\fR
.
This renames the method called \fIfromName\fR in a class to \fItoName\fR. The
method must have previously existed in the class, and \fItoName\fR must not
previously refer to a method in that class. Does not affect the superclasses
of the class, nor does it affect the subclasses or instances of the class
(except when they have a call chain through the class being modified), or the
class object itself. Does
not change the export status of the method; if it was exported before, it will
be afterwards.
.SH "CONFIGURING OBJECTS"
.PP
The following commands are supported in the \fIdefScript\fR for
\fBoo::objdefine\fR, each of which may also be used in the \fIsubcommand\fR
form:
.TP
\fBexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be exported
(i.e. usable outside the object through the object's command) by the object
being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined by a
class or superclass; object exports override class visibility.














.TP
\fBforward\fI name cmdName \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.
This creates or updates a forwarded object method called \fIname\fR. The
method is defined be forwarded to the command called \fIcmdName\fR, with
additional arguments, \fIarg\fR etc., added before those arguments specified
by the caller of the method. Forwarded methods should be deleted using the
\fBmethod\fR subcommand. The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with
a lower-case letter, and non-exported otherwise.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), this command creates private forwarded methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBmethod\fI name \fR?\fIoption\fR? \fIargList bodyScript\fR
.
This creates, updates or deletes an object method. The name of the method is
\fIname\fR, the formal arguments to the method (defined using the same format
as for the Tcl \fBproc\fR command) will be \fIargList\fR, and the body of the
method will be \fIbodyScript\fR. When the body of the method is evaluated, the
current namespace of the method will be a namespace that is unique to the
object. The method will be exported if \fIname\fR starts with a lower-case
letter, and non-exported otherwise;
.VS  TIP519
this can be overridden by specifying \fB\-export\fR, \fB\-private\fR or
\fB\-unexport\fR in the optional parameter \fIoption\fR, or via the
\fBexport\fR and \fBunexport\fR definitions.
.VE TIP519
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below) or if the \fB\-private\fR flag is given for \fIoption\fR, this command
creates private procedure-like methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBmixin\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIclassName ...\fR?

.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)

sets or updates a per-object list of additional classes that are to be
mixed into the object. Each argument, \fIclassName\fR, names a single class
that is to be mixed in.

By default, this slot works by replacement.

.TP







\fBprivate \fIcmd arg...\fR
.TP


\fBprivate \fIscript\fR
.VS TIP500
This evaluates the \fIscript\fR (or the list of command and arguments given by
\fIcmd\fR and \fIarg\fRs) in a context where the definitions made on the
current object will be private definitions.
.RS
.PP
The following class definition commands are affected by \fBprivate\fR:
\fBforward\fR, \fBmethod\fR, and \fBvariable\fR. Nesting \fBprivate\fR inside
\fBprivate\fR has no cumulative effect; the innermost definition context is
just a private definition context. All other definition commands have no
difference in behavior when used in a private definition context.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fBunexport\fI name \fR?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This arranges for each of the named methods, \fIname\fR, to be not exported
(i.e. not usable outside the object through the object's command, but instead
just through the \fBmy\fR command visible in the object's context) by the
object being defined. Note that the methods themselves may be actually defined
by a class; instance unexports override class visibility.
.TP
\fBvariable\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fIname ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below) arranges for each of the named
variables to be automatically made available in the methods declared by the
object being defined.  Each variable name must not have any namespace
separators and must not look like an array access. All variables will be
actually present in the namespace of the object on which the method is
executed. Note that the
variable lists declared by the classes and mixins of which the object is an
instance are completely disjoint; the list of variable names is just for
methods declared by this object. By default, this slot works by appending.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP500
If in a private definition context (see the \fBprivate\fR definition command,
below), this slot manipulates the list of private variable bindings for this
object.  In a private variable binding, the name of the variable within the
instance object is different to the name given in the definition; the name
used in the definition is the name that you use to access the variable within
the methods of this instance object, and the name of the variable in the
instance namespace has a unique prefix that makes accidental use from
superclass methods extremely unlikely.
.VE TIP500
.RE
.SS "ADVANCED OBJECT CONFIGURATION OPTIONS"
.PP
The following definitions are also supported, but are not required in simple
programs:
.TP
\fBclass\fI className\fR
.
This allows the class of an object to be changed after creation. Note that the
class's constructors are not called when this is done, and so the object may
well be in an inconsistent state unless additional configuration work is done.
.TP
\fBdeletemethod\fI name\fR ?\fIname ...\fR
.
This deletes each of the methods called \fIname\fR from an object. The methods
must have previously existed in that object (e.g., because it was created
through \fBoo::objdefine method\fR). Does not affect the classes that the
object is an instance of, or remove the exposure of those class-provided
methods in the instance of that class.
.TP
\fBfilter\fR ?\fI\-slotOperation\fR? ?\fImethodName ...\fR?
.
This slot (see \fBSLOTTED DEFINITIONS\fR below)
sets or updates the list of method names that are used to guard whether a
method call to the object may be called and what the method's results are.
Each \fImethodName\fR names a single filtering method (which may be exposed or
not exposed); it is not an error for a non-existent method to be named. Note
that the actual list of filters also depends on the filters set upon any
classes that the object is an instance of.
By default, this slot works by appending.
.TP
\fBrenamemethod\fI fromName toName\fR
.
This renames the method called \fIfromName\fR in an object to \fItoName\fR.
The method must have previously existed in the object, and \fItoName\fR must
not previously refer to a method in that object. Does not affect the classes
that the object is an instance of and cannot rename in an instance object the
methods provided by those classes (though a \fBoo::objdefine forward\fRed
method may provide an equivalent capability). Does not change the export
status of the method; if it was exported before, it will be afterwards.
.TP
\fBself \fR
.VS TIP470
This gives the name of the object currently being configured.
.VE TIP470
.SH "PRIVATE METHODS"
.VS TIP500
When a class or instance has a private method, that private method can only be
invoked from within methods of that class or instance. Other callers of the
object's methods \fIcannot\fR invoke private methods, it is as if the private
methods do not exist. However, a private method of a class \fIcan\fR be
invoked from the class's methods when those methods are being used on another
instance object; this means that a class can use them to coordinate behaviour
between several instances of itself without interfering with how other
classes (especially either subclasses or superclasses) interact. Private
methods precede all mixed in classes in the method call order (as reported by
\fBself call\fR).
.VE TIP500
.SH "SLOTTED DEFINITIONS"
Some of the configurable definitions of a class or object are \fIslotted
definitions\fR. This means that the configuration is implemented by a slot
object, that is an instance of the class \fBoo::Slot\fR, which manages a list
of values (class names, variable names, etc.) that comprises the contents of
the slot. The class defines five operations (as methods) that may be done on
the slot:

.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-append\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?

.
This appends the given \fImember\fR elements to the slot definition.

.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-clear\fR

.
This sets the slot definition to the empty list.
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-prepend\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?
.VS TIP516
This prepends the given \fImember\fR elements to the slot definition.
.VE TIP516
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-remove\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?
.VS TIP516
This removes the given \fImember\fR elements from the slot definition.
.VE TIP516
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fB\-set\fR ?\fImember ...\fR?

.
This replaces the slot definition with the given \fImember\fR elements.
.PP
A consequence of this is that any use of a slot's default operation where the
first member argument begins with a hyphen will be an error. One of the above
operations should be used explicitly in those circumstances.
.SS "SLOT IMPLEMENTATION"
Internally, slot objects also define a method \fB\-\-default\-operation\fR
which is forwarded to the default operation of the slot (thus, for the class
.QW \fBvariable\fR
slot, this is forwarded to
.QW "\fBmy \-append\fR" ),
and these methods which provide the implementation interface:

.TP
\fIslot\fR \fBGet\fR

.
Returns a list that is the current contents of the slot, but does not modify
the slot. This method must always be called from a stack frame created by a
call to \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR. This method \fIshould not\fR
return an error unless it is called from outside a definition context or with
the wrong number of arguments.
.RS
.PP
.VS TIP516
The elements of the list should be fully resolved, if that is a meaningful
concept to the slot.
.VE TIP516
.RE
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fBResolve\fR \fIslotElement\fR
.VS TIP516
Returns \fIslotElement\fR with a resolution operation applied to it, but does
not modify the slot. For slots of simple strings, this is an operation that
does nothing, whereas for slots of classes, this maps a class name to its
fully-qualified class name.  This method must always be called from a stack
frame created by a call to \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR.  This
method \fIshould not\fR return an error unless it is called from outside a
definition context or with the wrong number of arguments; unresolvable
arguments should be returned as is (as not all slot operations strictly
require that values are resolvable to work).
.RS
.PP
Implementations \fIshould not\fR enforce uniqueness and ordering constraints
in this method; that is the responsibility of the \fBSet\fR method.
.RE
.VE TIP516
.TP
\fIslot\fR \fBSet \fIelementList\fR

.
Sets the contents of the slot to the list \fIelementList\fR and returns the
empty string. This method must always be called from a stack frame created by
a call to \fBoo::define\fR or \fBoo::objdefine\fR. This method may return an
error if it rejects the change to the slot contents (e.g., because of invalid
values) as well as if it is called from outside a definition context or with
the wrong number of arguments.
.RS
.PP
This method \fImay\fR reorder and filter the elements if this is necessary in
order to satisfy the underlying constraints of the slot. (For example, slots
of classes enforce a uniqueness constraint that places each element in the
earliest location in the slot that it can.)
.RE
.PP
The implementation of these methods is slot-dependent (and responsible for
accessing the correct part of the class or object definition). Slots also have
an unknown method handler to tie all these pieces together, and they hide
their \fBdestroy\fR method so that it is not invoked inadvertently. It is
\fIrecommended\fR that any user changes to the slot mechanism be restricted to
defining new operations whose names start with a hyphen.
.PP
.VS TIP516
Most slot operations will initially \fBResolve\fR their argument list, combine
it with the results of the \fBGet\fR method, and then \fBSet\fR the result.
Some operations omit one or both of the first two steps; omitting the third
would result in an idempotent read-only operation (but the standard mechanism
for reading from slots is via \fBinfo class\fR and \fBinfo object\fR).
.VE TIP516
.SH EXAMPLES
This example demonstrates how to use both forms of the \fBoo::define\fR and
\fBoo::objdefine\fR commands (they work in the same way), as well as
illustrating four of their subcommands.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c
c create o
\fBoo::define\fR c \fBmethod\fR foo {} {
    puts "world"
}
................................................................................
}
\fBoo::objdefine\fR inst {
    \fBmixin -append\fR B
}
inst m1              \fI\(-> prints "red brick"\fR
inst m2              \fI\(-> prints "blue brick"\fR
.CE
.PP
.VS TIP478
This example shows how to create and use class variables. It is a class that
counts how many instances of itself have been made.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create Counted
\fBoo::define\fR Counted {
    \fBinitialise\fR {
        variable count 0
    }

    \fBvariable\fR number
    \fBconstructor\fR {} {
        classvariable count
        set number [incr count]
    }

    \fBmethod\fR report {} {
        classvariable count
        puts "This is instance $number of $count"
    }
}

set a [Counted new]
set b [Counted new]
$a report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 1 of 2\fR
set c [Counted new]
$b report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 2 of 3\fR
$c report
        \fI\(-> This is instance 3 of 3\fR
.CE
.PP
This example demonstrates how to use class methods. (Note that the constructor
for \fBoo::class\fR calls \fBoo::define\fR on the class.)
.PP
.CS
oo::class create DBTable {
    \fBclassmethod\fR find {description} {
        puts "DB: locate row from [self] matching $description"
        return [my new]
    }
    \fBclassmethod\fR insert {description} {
        puts "DB: create row in [self] matching $description"
        return [my new]
    }
    \fBmethod\fR update {description} {
        puts "DB: update row [self] with $description"
    }
    \fBmethod\fR delete {} {
        puts "DB: delete row [self]"
        my destroy; # Just delete the object, not the DB row
    }
}

oo::class create Users {
    \fBsuperclass\fR DBTable
}
oo::class create Groups {
    \fBsuperclass\fR DBTable
}

set u1 [Users insert "username=abc"]
        \fI\(-> DB: create row from ::Users matching username=abc\fR
set u2 [Users insert "username=def"]
        \fI\(-> DB: create row from ::Users matching username=def\fR
$u2 update "group=NULL"
        \fI\(-> DB: update row ::oo::Obj124 with group=NULL\fR
$u1 delete
        \fI\(-> DB: delete row ::oo::Obj123\fR
set g [Group find "groupname=webadmins"]
        \fI\(-> DB: locate row ::Group with groupname=webadmins\fR
$g update "emailaddress=admins"
        \fI\(-> DB: update row ::oo::Obj125 with emailaddress=admins\fR
.CE
.VE TIP478
.PP
.VS TIP524
This example shows how to make a custom definition for a class. Note that it
explicitly includes delegation to the existing definition commands via
\fBnamespace path\fR.
.PP
.CS
namespace eval myDefinitions {
    # Delegate to existing definitions where not overridden
    namespace path \fB::oo::define\fR

    # A custom type of method
    proc exprmethod {name arguments body} {
        tailcall \fBmethod\fR $name $arguments [list expr $body]
    }

    # A custom way of building a constructor
    proc parameters args {
        uplevel 1 [list \fBvariable\fR {*}$args]
        set body [join [lmap a $args {
            string map [list VAR $a] {
                set [my varname VAR] [expr {double($VAR)}]
            }
        }] ";"]
        tailcall \fBconstructor\fR $args $body
    }
}

# Bind the namespace into a (very simple) metaclass for use
oo::class create exprclass {
    \fBsuperclass\fR oo::class
    \fBdefinitionnamespace\fR myDefinitions
}

# Use the custom definitions
exprclass create quadratic {
    parameters a b c
    exprmethod evaluate {x} {
        ($a * $x**2) + ($b * $x) + $c
    }
}

# Showing the resulting class and object in action
quadratic create quad 1 2 3
for {set x 0} {$x <= 4} {incr x} {
    puts [format "quad(%d) = %.2f" $x [quad evaluate $x]]
}
        \fI\(-> quad(0) = 3.00\fR
        \fI\(-> quad(1) = 6.00\fR
        \fI\(-> quad(2) = 11.00\fR
        \fI\(-> quad(3) = 18.00\fR
        \fI\(-> quad(4) = 27.00\fR
.CE
.VE TIP524
.SH "SEE ALSO"
next(n), oo::class(n), oo::object(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
class, definition, method, object, slot
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

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\fBdict append \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIstring ...\fR?
.
This appends the given string (or strings) to the value that the given
key maps to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable,
writing the resulting dictionary value back to that variable.
Non-existent keys are treated as if they map to an empty string. The
updated dictionary value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict create \fR?\fIkey value ...\fR?
.
Return a new dictionary that contains each of the key/value mappings
listed as arguments (keys and values alternating, with each key being
followed by its associated value.)
.TP
................................................................................
elements in a manner similar to \fBarray get\fR. That is, the first
element of each pair would be the key and the second element would be
the value for that key.
.PP
It is an error to attempt to retrieve a value for a key that is not
present in the dictionary.
.RE
















.TP
\fBdict incr \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIincrement\fR?
.
This adds the given increment value (an integer that defaults to 1 if
not specified) to the value that the given key maps to in the
dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing the
resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent keys
are treated as if they map to 0. It is an error to increment a value
for an existing key if that value is not an integer. The updated
dictionary value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict info \fIdictionaryValue\fR
.
This returns information (intended for display to people) about the
given dictionary though the format of this data is dependent on the
implementation of the dictionary. For dictionaries that are
implemented by hash tables, it is expected that this will return the
................................................................................
This appends the given items to the list value that the given key maps
to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing
the resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent
keys are treated as if they map to an empty list, and it is legal for
there to be no items to append to the list. It is an error for the
value that the key maps to to not be representable as a list. The
updated dictionary value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict map \fR{\fIkeyVariable valueVariable\fR} \fIdictionaryValue body\fR
.
This command applies a transformation to each element of a dictionary,
returning a new dictionary. It takes three arguments: the first is a
two-element list of variable names (for the key and value respectively of each
mapping in the dictionary), the second the dictionary value to iterate across,
................................................................................
\fBdict set \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIkey ...\fR? \fIvalue\fR
.
This operation takes the name of a variable containing a dictionary
value and places an updated dictionary value in that variable
containing a mapping from the given key to the given value. When
multiple keys are present, this operation creates or updates a chain
of nested dictionaries. The updated dictionary value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict size \fIdictionaryValue\fR
.
Return the number of key/value mappings in the given dictionary value.
.TP
\fBdict unset \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIkey ...\fR?
.
................................................................................
variable containing a dictionary value and places an updated
dictionary value in that variable that does not contain a mapping for
the given key. Where multiple keys are present, this describes a path
through nested dictionaries to the mapping to remove. At least one key
must be specified, but the last key on the key-path need not exist.
All other components on the path must exist. The updated dictionary
value is returned.





.TP
\fBdict update \fIdictionaryVariable key varName \fR?\fIkey varName ...\fR? \fIbody\fR
.
Execute the Tcl script in \fIbody\fR with the value for each \fIkey\fR
(as found by reading the dictionary value in \fIdictionaryVariable\fR)
mapped to the variable \fIvarName\fR. There may be multiple
\fIkey\fR/\fIvarName\fR pairs. If a \fIkey\fR does not have a mapping,
................................................................................
terminates, any changes made to the \fIvarName\fRs is reflected back
to the dictionary within \fIdictionaryVariable\fR (unless
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR itself becomes unreadable, when all updates
are silently discarded), even if the result of \fIbody\fR is an error
or some other kind of exceptional exit. The result of \fBdict
update\fR is (unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the
evaluation of \fIbody\fR.





.RS
.PP
Each \fIvarName\fR is mapped in the scope enclosing the \fBdict update\fR;
it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope
(\fBproc\fRedure, lambda term for \fBapply\fR, or method). Because of
this, the variables set by \fBdict update\fR will continue to
exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly \fBunset\fR).
................................................................................
for the execution of \fIbody\fR. As with \fBdict update\fR, making
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR unreadable will make the updates to the
dictionary be discarded, and this also happens if the contents of
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR are adjusted so that the chain of
dictionaries no longer exists. The result of \fBdict with\fR is
(unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the evaluation of
\fIbody\fR.





.RS
.PP
The variables are mapped in the scope enclosing the \fBdict with\fR;
it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope
(\fBproc\fRedure, lambda term for \fBapply\fR, or method). Because of
this, the variables set by \fBdict with\fR will continue to
exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly \fBunset\fR).






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\fBdict append \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIstring ...\fR?
.
This appends the given string (or strings) to the value that the given
key maps to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable,
writing the resulting dictionary value back to that variable.
Non-existent keys are treated as if they map to an empty string. The
updated dictionary value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the appending operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict create \fR?\fIkey value ...\fR?
.
Return a new dictionary that contains each of the key/value mappings
listed as arguments (keys and values alternating, with each key being
followed by its associated value.)
.TP
................................................................................
elements in a manner similar to \fBarray get\fR. That is, the first
element of each pair would be the key and the second element would be
the value for that key.
.PP
It is an error to attempt to retrieve a value for a key that is not
present in the dictionary.
.RE
.TP
\fBdict getdef \fIdictionaryValue \fR?\fIkey ...\fR? \fIkey default\fR
.TP
\fBdict getwithdefault \fIdictionaryValue \fR?\fIkey ...\fR? \fIkey default\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP342"
This behaves the same as \fBdict get\fR (with at least one \fIkey\fR
argument), returning the value that the key path maps to in the
dictionary \fIdictionaryValue\fR, except that instead of producing an
error because the \fIkey\fR (or one of the \fIkey\fRs on the key path)
is absent, it returns the \fIdefault\fR argument instead.
.RS
.PP
Note that there must always be at least one \fIkey\fR provided, and that
\fBdict getdef\fR and \fBdict getwithdefault\fR are aliases for each other.
.RE
.VE "8.7, TIP342"
.TP
\fBdict incr \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIincrement\fR?
.
This adds the given increment value (an integer that defaults to 1 if
not specified) to the value that the given key maps to in the
dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing the
resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent keys
are treated as if they map to 0. It is an error to increment a value
for an existing key if that value is not an integer. The updated
dictionary value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the incrementing operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict info \fIdictionaryValue\fR
.
This returns information (intended for display to people) about the
given dictionary though the format of this data is dependent on the
implementation of the dictionary. For dictionaries that are
implemented by hash tables, it is expected that this will return the
................................................................................
This appends the given items to the list value that the given key maps
to in the dictionary value contained in the given variable, writing
the resulting dictionary value back to that variable. Non-existent
keys are treated as if they map to an empty list, and it is legal for
there to be no items to append to the list. It is an error for the
value that the key maps to to not be representable as a list. The
updated dictionary value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the list-appending operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict map \fR{\fIkeyVariable valueVariable\fR} \fIdictionaryValue body\fR
.
This command applies a transformation to each element of a dictionary,
returning a new dictionary. It takes three arguments: the first is a
two-element list of variable names (for the key and value respectively of each
mapping in the dictionary), the second the dictionary value to iterate across,
................................................................................
\fBdict set \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIkey ...\fR? \fIvalue\fR
.
This operation takes the name of a variable containing a dictionary
value and places an updated dictionary value in that variable
containing a mapping from the given key to the given value. When
multiple keys are present, this operation creates or updates a chain
of nested dictionaries. The updated dictionary value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the value insert/update operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict size \fIdictionaryValue\fR
.
Return the number of key/value mappings in the given dictionary value.
.TP
\fBdict unset \fIdictionaryVariable key \fR?\fIkey ...\fR?
.
................................................................................
variable containing a dictionary value and places an updated
dictionary value in that variable that does not contain a mapping for
the given key. Where multiple keys are present, this describes a path
through nested dictionaries to the mapping to remove. At least one key
must be specified, but the last key on the key-path need not exist.
All other components on the path must exist. The updated dictionary
value is returned.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the value remove operation.
.VE TIP508
.TP
\fBdict update \fIdictionaryVariable key varName \fR?\fIkey varName ...\fR? \fIbody\fR
.
Execute the Tcl script in \fIbody\fR with the value for each \fIkey\fR
(as found by reading the dictionary value in \fIdictionaryVariable\fR)
mapped to the variable \fIvarName\fR. There may be multiple
\fIkey\fR/\fIvarName\fR pairs. If a \fIkey\fR does not have a mapping,
................................................................................
terminates, any changes made to the \fIvarName\fRs is reflected back
to the dictionary within \fIdictionaryVariable\fR (unless
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR itself becomes unreadable, when all updates
are silently discarded), even if the result of \fIbody\fR is an error
or some other kind of exceptional exit. The result of \fBdict
update\fR is (unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the
evaluation of \fIbody\fR.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the update operation.
.VE TIP508
.RS
.PP
Each \fIvarName\fR is mapped in the scope enclosing the \fBdict update\fR;
it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope
(\fBproc\fRedure, lambda term for \fBapply\fR, or method). Because of
this, the variables set by \fBdict update\fR will continue to
exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly \fBunset\fR).
................................................................................
for the execution of \fIbody\fR. As with \fBdict update\fR, making
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR unreadable will make the updates to the
dictionary be discarded, and this also happens if the contents of
\fIdictionaryVariable\fR are adjusted so that the chain of
dictionaries no longer exists. The result of \fBdict with\fR is
(unless some kind of error occurs) the result of the evaluation of
\fIbody\fR.
.VS TIP508
If \fIdictionaryVarable\fR indicates an element that does not exist of an
array that has a default value set, the default value and will be used as the
value of the dictionary prior to the updating operation.
.VE TIP508
.RS
.PP
The variables are mapped in the scope enclosing the \fBdict with\fR;
it is recommended that this command only be used in a local scope
(\fBproc\fRedure, lambda term for \fBapply\fR, or method). Because of
this, the variables set by \fBdict with\fR will continue to
exist after the command finishes (unless explicitly \fBunset\fR).

Changes to doc/eof.n.

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    puts "Read record: $record"
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), close(n), fblocked(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
channel, end of file










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    puts "Read record: $record"
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), close(n), fblocked(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
channel, end of file
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/exec.n.

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.QW \[email protected]\0\fIfileId\fR
notation, does not work.  When reading from a socket, a 16-bit DOS
application will hang and a 32-bit application will return immediately with
end-of-file.  When either type of application writes to a socket, the
information is instead sent to the console, if one is present, or is
discarded.
.RS













.PP
The Tk console text widget does not provide real standard IO capabilities.
Under Tk, when redirecting from standard input, all applications will see an
immediate end-of-file; information redirected to standard output or standard
error will be discarded.
.PP
Either forward or backward slashes are accepted as path separators for
................................................................................
.CS
\fBexec\fR cmp.bat somefile.c -o somefile
.CE
.PP
With the file \fIcmp.bat\fR looking something like:
.PP
.CS




@gcc %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 %6 %7 %8 %9
.CE
.SS "WORKING WITH COMMAND BUILT-INS"
.PP
Sometimes you need to be careful, as different programs may have the
same name and be in the path. It can then happen that typing a command
at the DOS prompt finds \fIa different program\fR than the same






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212
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.QW \[email protected]\0\fIfileId\fR
notation, does not work.  When reading from a socket, a 16-bit DOS
application will hang and a 32-bit application will return immediately with
end-of-file.  When either type of application writes to a socket, the
information is instead sent to the console, if one is present, or is
discarded.
.RS
.PP
Note that the current escape resp. quoting of arguments for windows works only
with executables using CommandLineToArgv, CRT-library or similar, as well as
with the windows batch files (excepting the newline, see below).
Although it is the common escape algorithm, but, in fact, the way how the
executable parses the command-line (resp. splits it into single arguments)
is decisive.
.PP
Unfortunately, there is currently no way to supply newline character within
an argument to the batch files (\fB.cmd\fR or \fB.bat\fR) or to the command
processor (\fBcmd.exe /c\fR), because this causes truncation of command-line
(also the argument chain) on the first newline character.
But it works properly with an executable (using CommandLineToArgv, etc).
.PP
The Tk console text widget does not provide real standard IO capabilities.
Under Tk, when redirecting from standard input, all applications will see an
immediate end-of-file; information redirected to standard output or standard
error will be discarded.
.PP
Either forward or backward slashes are accepted as path separators for
................................................................................
.CS
\fBexec\fR cmp.bat somefile.c -o somefile
.CE
.PP
With the file \fIcmp.bat\fR looking something like:
.PP
.CS
@gcc %*
.CE
or like another variant using single parameters:
.CS
@gcc %1 %2 %3 %4 %5 %6 %7 %8 %9
.CE
.SS "WORKING WITH COMMAND BUILT-INS"
.PP
Sometimes you need to be careful, as different programs may have the
same name and be in the path. It can then happen that typing a command
at the DOS prompt finds \fIa different program\fR than the same

Changes to doc/exit.n.

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    \fBexit\fR 2
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
exec(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, exit, process










>
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    \fBexit\fR 2
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
exec(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
abort, exit, process
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/expr.n.

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\fBTcl\fR.
.PP
Below are some examples of simple expressions where the value of \fBa\fR is 3
and the value of \fBb\fR is 6.  The command on the left side of each line
produces the value on the right side.
.PP
.CS
.ta 6c
\fBexpr\fR 3.1 + $a	\fI6.1\fR
\fBexpr\fR 2 + "$a.$b"	\fI5.6\fR
\fBexpr\fR 4*[llength "6 2"]	\fI8\fR
\fBexpr\fR {{word one} < "word $a"}	\fI0\fR
.CE
.SS OPERATORS
.PP
................................................................................
.
Unary minus, unary plus, bit-wise NOT, logical NOT.  These operators
may only be applied to numeric operands, and bit-wise NOT may only be
applied to integers.
.TP 20
\fB**\fR
.
Exponentiation.  Valid for numeric operands.

.TP 20
\fB*\0\0/\0\0%\fR
.
Multiply and divide, which are valid for numeric operands, and remainder, which
is valid for integers.  The remainder, an absolute value smaller than the
absolute value of the divisor, has the same sign as the divisor.
.RS
................................................................................
\fB|\fR
.
Bit-wise OR.  Valid for integer operands.
.TP 20
\fB&&\fR
.
Logical AND.  If both operands are true, the result is 1, or 0 otherwise.





.TP 20
\fB||\fR
.
Logical OR.  If both operands are false, the result is 0, or 1 otherwise.


.TP 20
\fIx\fB?\fIy\fB:\fIz\fR

.
If-then-else, as in C.  If \fIx\fR is false , the result is the value of
\fIy\fR.  Otherwise the result is the value of \fIz\fR.

.PP
The exponentiation operator promotes types in the same way that the multiply
and divide operators do, and the result is is the same as the result of
\fBpow\fR.
Exponentiation groups right-to-left within a precedence level. Other binary
operators group left-to-right.  For example, the value of

.PP
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {4*2 < 7}
.CE
.PP
is 0, while the value of
.PP
................................................................................
substitutions on, enclosing an expression in braces or otherwise quoting it
so that it's a static value allows the Tcl compiler to generate bytecode for
the expression, resulting in better speed and smaller storage requirements.
This also avoids issues that can arise if Tcl is allowed to perform
substitution on the value before \fBexpr\fR is called.
.PP
In the following example, the value of the expression is 11 because the Tcl parser first
substitutes \fB$b\fR and \fBexpr\fR then substitutes \fB$a\fR.  Enclosing the



expression in braces would result in a syntax error.


.CS
set a 3
set b {$a + 2}
\fBexpr\fR $b*4
.CE
.PP

When an expression is generated at runtime, like the one above is, the bytcode
compiler must ensure that new code is generated each time the expression
is evaluated.  This is the most costly kind of expression from a performance
perspective.  In such cases, consider directly using the commands described in
the \fBmathfunc\fR(n) or \fBmathop\fR(n) documentation instead of \fBexpr\fR.

Most expressions are not formed at runtime, but are literal strings or contain
substitutions that don't introduce other substitutions.  To allow the bytecode
compiler to work with an expression as a string literal at compilation time,
ensure that it contains no substitutions or that it is enclosed in braces or
otherwise quoted to prevent Tcl from performing substitutions, allowing
\fBexpr\fR to perform them instead.




















.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
A numeric comparison whose result is 1:

.CS
\fBexpr\fR {"0x03" > "2"}
.CE
.PP
A string comparison whose result is 1:

.CS
\fBexpr\fR {"0y" > "0x12"}
.CE
.PP
Define a procedure that computes an
.QW interesting
mathematical function:






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\fBTcl\fR.
.PP
Below are some examples of simple expressions where the value of \fBa\fR is 3
and the value of \fBb\fR is 6.  The command on the left side of each line
produces the value on the right side.
.PP
.CS
.ta 9c
\fBexpr\fR 3.1 + $a	\fI6.1\fR
\fBexpr\fR 2 + "$a.$b"	\fI5.6\fR
\fBexpr\fR 4*[llength "6 2"]	\fI8\fR
\fBexpr\fR {{word one} < "word $a"}	\fI0\fR
.CE
.SS OPERATORS
.PP
................................................................................
.
Unary minus, unary plus, bit-wise NOT, logical NOT.  These operators
may only be applied to numeric operands, and bit-wise NOT may only be
applied to integers.
.TP 20
\fB**\fR
.
Exponentiation.  Valid for numeric operands.  The maximum exponent value
that Tcl can handle if the first number is an integer > 1 is 268435455.
.TP 20
\fB*\0\0/\0\0%\fR
.
Multiply and divide, which are valid for numeric operands, and remainder, which
is valid for integers.  The remainder, an absolute value smaller than the
absolute value of the divisor, has the same sign as the divisor.
.RS
................................................................................
\fB|\fR
.
Bit-wise OR.  Valid for integer operands.
.TP 20
\fB&&\fR
.
Logical AND.  If both operands are true, the result is 1, or 0 otherwise.

This operator evaluates lazily; it only evaluates its second operand if it
must in order to determine its result.
This operator evaluates lazily; it only evaluates its second operand if it
must in order to determine its result.
.TP 20
\fB||\fR
.
Logical OR.  If both operands are false, the result is 0, or 1 otherwise.
This operator evaluates lazily; it only evaluates its second operand if it
must in order to determine its result.
.TP 20

\fIx \fB?\fI y \fB:\fI z\fR
.
If-then-else, as in C.  If \fIx\fR is false , the result is the value of
\fIy\fR.  Otherwise the result is the value of \fIz\fR.
This operator evaluates lazily; it evaluates only one of \fIy\fR or \fIz\fR.
.PP
The exponentiation operator promotes types in the same way that the multiply
and divide operators do, and the result is is the same as the result of
\fBpow\fR.
Exponentiation groups right-to-left within a precedence level. Other binary
operators group left-to-right.  For example, the value of
.PP
.PP
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {4*2 < 7}
.CE
.PP
is 0, while the value of
.PP
................................................................................
substitutions on, enclosing an expression in braces or otherwise quoting it
so that it's a static value allows the Tcl compiler to generate bytecode for
the expression, resulting in better speed and smaller storage requirements.
This also avoids issues that can arise if Tcl is allowed to perform
substitution on the value before \fBexpr\fR is called.
.PP
In the following example, the value of the expression is 11 because the Tcl parser first
substitutes \fB$b\fR and \fBexpr\fR then substitutes \fB$a\fR as part
of evaluating the expression
.QW "$a + 2*4" .
Enclosing the
expression in braces would result in a syntax error as \fB$b\fR does
not evaluate to a numeric value.
.PP
.CS
set a 3
set b {$a + 2}
\fBexpr\fR $b*4
.CE
.PP

When an expression is generated at runtime, like the one above is, the bytecode
compiler must ensure that new code is generated each time the expression
is evaluated.  This is the most costly kind of expression from a performance
perspective.  In such cases, consider directly using the commands described in
the \fBmathfunc\fR(n) or \fBmathop\fR(n) documentation instead of \fBexpr\fR.
.PP
Most expressions are not formed at runtime, but are literal strings or contain
substitutions that don't introduce other substitutions.  To allow the bytecode
compiler to work with an expression as a string literal at compilation time,
ensure that it contains no substitutions or that it is enclosed in braces or
otherwise quoted to prevent Tcl from performing substitutions, allowing
\fBexpr\fR to perform them instead.
.PP
If it is necessary to include a non-constant expression string within the
wider context of an otherwise-constant expression, the most efficient
technique is to put the varying part inside a recursive \fBexpr\fR, as this at
least allows for the compilation of the outer part, though it does mean that
the varying part must itself be evaluated as a separate expression. Thus, in
this example the result is 20 and the outer expression benefits from fully
cached bytecode compilation.
.PP
.CS
set a 3
set b {$a + 2}
\fBexpr\fR {[\fBexpr\fR $b] * 4}
.CE
.PP
In general, you should enclose your expression in braces wherever possible,
and where not possible, the argument to \fBexpr\fR should be an expression
defined elsewhere as simply as possible. It is usually more efficient and
safer to use other techniques (e.g., the commands in the \fBtcl::mathop\fR
namespace) than it is to do complex expression generation.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
A numeric comparison whose result is 1:
.PP
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {"0x03" > "2"}
.CE
.PP
A string comparison whose result is 1:
.PP
.CS
\fBexpr\fR {"0y" > "0x12"}
.CE
.PP
Define a procedure that computes an
.QW interesting
mathematical function:

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socket -server connect 12345
vwait forever
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
gets(n), open(n), read(n), socket(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, nonblocking










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socket -server connect 12345
vwait forever
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
gets(n), open(n), read(n), socket(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, nonblocking
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/file.n.

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\fBfile tail \fIname\fR
.
Returns all of the characters in the last filesystem component of
\fIname\fR.  Any trailing directory separator in \fIname\fR is ignored.
If \fIname\fR contains no separators then returns \fIname\fR.  So,
\fBfile tail a/b\fR, \fBfile tail a/b/\fR and \fBfile tail b\fR all
return \fBb\fR.






























.TP
\fBfile tempfile\fR ?\fInameVar\fR? ?\fItemplate\fR?
'\" TIP #210
.VS 8.6
Creates a temporary file and returns a read-write channel opened on that file.
If the \fInameVar\fR is given, it specifies a variable that the name of the
temporary file will be written into; if absent, Tcl will attempt to arrange






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\fBfile tail \fIname\fR
.
Returns all of the characters in the last filesystem component of
\fIname\fR.  Any trailing directory separator in \fIname\fR is ignored.
If \fIname\fR contains no separators then returns \fIname\fR.  So,
\fBfile tail a/b\fR, \fBfile tail a/b/\fR and \fBfile tail b\fR all
return \fBb\fR.
.TP
\fBfile tempdir\fR ?\fItemplate\fR?
.VS "8.7, TIP 431"
Creates a temporary directory (guaranteed to be newly created and writable by
the current script) and returns its name. If \fItemplate\fR is given, it
specifies one of or both of the existing directory (on a filesystem controlled
by the operating system) to contain the temporary directory, and the base part
of the directory name; it is considered to have the location of the directory
if there is a directory separator in the name, and the base part is everything
after the last directory separator (if non-empty).  The default containing
directory is determined by system-specific operations, and the default base
name prefix is
.QW \fBtcl\fR .
.RS
.PP
The following output is typical and illustrative; the actual output will vary
between platforms:
.PP
.CS
% \fBfile tempdir\fR
/var/tmp/tcl_u0kuy5
 % \fBfile tempdir\fR /tmp/myapp
/tmp/myapp_8o7r9L
% \fBfile tempdir\fR /tmp/
/tmp/tcl_1mOJHD
% \fBfile tempdir\fR myapp
/var/tmp/myapp_0ihS0n
.CE
.RE
.VE "8.7, TIP 431"
.TP
\fBfile tempfile\fR ?\fInameVar\fR? ?\fItemplate\fR?
'\" TIP #210
.VS 8.6
Creates a temporary file and returns a read-write channel opened on that file.
If the \fInameVar\fR is given, it specifies a variable that the name of the
temporary file will be written into; if absent, Tcl will attempt to arrange

Changes to doc/fileevent.n.

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\fBfileevent\fR is based on the \fBaddinput\fR command created
by Mark Diekhans.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
fconfigure(n), gets(n), interp(n), puts(n), read(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
asynchronous I/O, blocking, channel, event handler, nonblocking, readable,
script, writable.










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\fBfileevent\fR is based on the \fBaddinput\fR command created
by Mark Diekhans.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
fconfigure(n), gets(n), interp(n), puts(n), read(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
asynchronous I/O, blocking, channel, event handler, nonblocking, readable,
script, writable.
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/filename.n.

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.QW .....abc
is illegal.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), glob(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
current directory, absolute file name, relative file name,
volume-relative file name, portability










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.QW .....abc
is illegal.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), glob(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
current directory, absolute file name, relative file name,
volume-relative file name, portability
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/flush.n.

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gets stdin name
puts "Hello there, $name!"
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), socket(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, buffer, channel, flush, nonblocking, output










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gets stdin name
puts "Hello there, $name!"
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), open(n), socket(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
blocking, buffer, channel, flush, nonblocking, output
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

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.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
for(n), while(n), break(n), continue(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
foreach, iteration, list, loop










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.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
for(n), while(n), break(n), continue(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
foreach, iteration, list, loop
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/global.n.

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    append accumulator $string \en
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
namespace(n), upvar(n), variable(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
global, namespace, procedure, variable










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    append accumulator $string \en
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
namespace(n), upvar(n), variable(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
global, namespace, procedure, variable
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

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is modified to eliminate the history command and replace it with
the result of the history command.
If you want to redo an event without modifying history, then use
the \fBevent\fR operation to retrieve some event,
and the \fBadd\fR operation to add it to history and execute it.
.SH KEYWORDS
event, history, record










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is modified to eliminate the history command and replace it with
the result of the history command.
If you want to redo an event without modifying history, then use
the \fBevent\fR operation to retrieve some event,
and the \fBadd\fR operation to add it to history and execute it.
.SH KEYWORDS
event, history, record
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

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'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Ajuba Solutions.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH "http" n 2.7 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
http \- Client-side implementation of the HTTP/1.1 protocol
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBpackage require http ?2.7?\fR
.\" See Also -useragent option documentation in body!
.sp
\fB::http::config ?\fI\-option value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::geturl \fIurl\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR \fIkey value\fR ?\fIkey value\fR ...?


.sp
\fB::http::reset\fR \fItoken\fR ?\fIwhy\fR?
.sp
\fB::http::wait \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::status \fItoken\fR
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
\fB::http::error \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::cleanup \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::register \fIproto port command\fR
.sp


\fB::http::unregister \fIproto\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBhttp\fR package provides the client side of the HTTP/1.1
protocol, as defined in RFC 2616.
The package implements the GET, POST, and HEAD operations
of HTTP/1.1.  It allows configuration of a proxy host to get through
firewalls.  The package is compatible with the \fBSafesock\fR security
policy, so it can be used by untrusted applets to do URL fetching from
a restricted set of hosts. This package can be extended to support
additional HTTP transport protocols, such as HTTPS, by providing
a custom \fBsocket\fR command, via \fB::http::register\fR.
................................................................................
\fB\-accept\fR \fImimetypes\fR
.
The Accept header of the request.  The default is */*, which means that
all types of documents are accepted.  Otherwise you can supply a
comma-separated list of mime type patterns that you are
willing to receive.  For example,
.QW "image/gif, image/jpeg, text/*" .






















.TP
\fB\-proxyhost\fR \fIhostname\fR
.
The name of the proxy host, if any.  If this value is the
empty string, the URL host is contacted directly.
.TP
\fB\-proxyport\fR \fInumber\fR
................................................................................
to determine if a proxy is required for a given host.  One argument, a
host name, is added to \fIcommand\fR when it is invoked.  If a proxy
is required, the callback should return a two-element list containing
the proxy server and proxy port.  Otherwise the filter should return
an empty list.  The default filter returns the values of the
\fB\-proxyhost\fR and \fB\-proxyport\fR settings if they are
non-empty.












.TP
\fB\-urlencoding\fR \fIencoding\fR
.
The \fIencoding\fR used for creating the x-url-encoded URLs with

\fB::http::formatQuery\fR.  The default is \fButf-8\fR, as specified by RFC
2718.  Prior to http 2.5 this was unspecified, and that behavior can be
returned by specifying the empty string (\fB{}\fR), although
\fIiso8859-1\fR is recommended to restore similar behavior but without the
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR throwing an error processing non-latin-1
characters.
.TP
\fB\-useragent\fR \fIstring\fR
.
The value of the User-Agent header in the HTTP request.  The default is
.QW "\fBTcl http client package 2.7\fR" .














.RE
.TP
\fB::http::geturl\fR \fIurl\fR ?\fIoptions\fR?
.
The \fB::http::geturl\fR command is the main procedure in the package.
The \fB\-query\fR option causes a POST operation and
the \fB\-validate\fR option causes a HEAD operation;
................................................................................
.CS
Pragma: no-cache
.CE
.RE
.TP
\fB\-keepalive\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
If true, attempt to keep the connection open for servicing
multiple requests.  Default is 0.
.TP
\fB\-method\fR \fItype\fR
.
Force the HTTP request method to \fItype\fR. \fB::http::geturl\fR will
auto-select GET, POST or HEAD based on other options, but this option
enables choices like PUT and DELETE for webdav support.
................................................................................
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR \fIkey value\fR ?\fIkey value\fR ...?
.
This procedure does x-url-encoding of query data.  It takes an even
number of arguments that are the keys and values of the query.  It
encodes the keys and values, and generates one string that has the
proper & and = separators.  The result is suitable for the
\fB\-query\fR value passed to \fB::http::geturl\fR.





.TP
\fB::http::reset\fR \fItoken\fR ?\fIwhy\fR?
.
This command resets the HTTP transaction identified by \fItoken\fR, if any.
This sets the \fBstate(status)\fR value to \fIwhy\fR, which defaults to
\fBreset\fR, and then calls the registered \fB\-command\fR callback.
.TP
................................................................................
package require tls

::http::register https 443 ::tls::socket

set token [::http::geturl https://my.secure.site/]
.CE
.RE











.TP
\fB::http::unregister\fR \fIproto\fR
.
This procedure unregisters a protocol handler that was previously
registered via \fB::http::register\fR, returning a two-item list of
the default port and handler command that was previously installed
(via \fB::http::register\fR) if there was such a handler, and an error if
................................................................................
Once the data associated with the URL is no longer needed, the state
array should be unset to free up storage.
The \fB::http::cleanup\fR procedure is provided for that purpose.
The following elements of
the array are supported:
.RS
.TP








\fBbody\fR
.
The contents of the URL.  This will be empty if the \fB\-channel\fR
option has been specified.  This value is returned by the \fB::http::data\fR command.
.TP
\fBcharset\fR
.
................................................................................
.
A copy of the \fBContent-Type\fR meta-data value.
.TP
\fBurl\fR
.
The requested URL.
.RE










































































































































































































.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
This example creates a procedure to copy a URL to a file while printing a
progress meter, and prints the meta-data associated with the URL.
.PP
.CS
proc httpcopy { url file {chunk 4096} } {






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'\" Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
'\" Copyright (c) 1998-2000 by Ajuba Solutions.
'\" Copyright (c) 2004 ActiveState Corporation.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH "http" n 2.9 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
http \- Client-side implementation of the HTTP/1.1 protocol
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBpackage require http\fI ?\fB2.8\fR?
.\" See Also -useragent option documentation in body!
.sp
\fB::http::config\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::geturl \fIurl\fR ?\fI\-option value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR \fIkey value\fR ?\fIkey value\fR ...?
.sp
\fB::http::quoteString\fR \fIvalue\fR
.sp
\fB::http::reset\fR \fItoken\fR ?\fIwhy\fR?
.sp
\fB::http::wait \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::status \fItoken\fR
.sp
................................................................................
.sp
\fB::http::error \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::cleanup \fItoken\fR
.sp
\fB::http::register \fIproto port command\fR
.sp
\fB::http::registerError \fIport\fR ?\fImessage\fR?
.sp
\fB::http::unregister \fIproto\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBhttp\fR package provides the client side of the HTTP/1.1
protocol, as defined in RFC 7230 to RFC 7235, which supersede RFC 2616.
The package implements the GET, POST, and HEAD operations
of HTTP/1.1.  It allows configuration of a proxy host to get through
firewalls.  The package is compatible with the \fBSafesock\fR security
policy, so it can be used by untrusted applets to do URL fetching from
a restricted set of hosts. This package can be extended to support
additional HTTP transport protocols, such as HTTPS, by providing
a custom \fBsocket\fR command, via \fB::http::register\fR.
................................................................................
\fB\-accept\fR \fImimetypes\fR
.
The Accept header of the request.  The default is */*, which means that
all types of documents are accepted.  Otherwise you can supply a
comma-separated list of mime type patterns that you are
willing to receive.  For example,
.QW "image/gif, image/jpeg, text/*" .
.TP
\fB\-cookiejar\fR \fIcommand\fR
.VS TIP406
The cookie store for the package to use to manage HTTP cookies.
\fIcommand\fR is a command prefix list; if the empty list (the
default value) is used, no cookies will be sent by requests or stored
from responses. The command indicated by \fIcommand\fR, if supplied,
must obey the \fBCOOKIE JAR PROTOCOL\fR described below.
.VE TIP406
.TP
\fB\-pipeline\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
Specifies whether HTTP/1.1 transactions on a persistent socket will be
pipelined.  See the \fBPERSISTENT SOCKETS\fR section for details. The default
is 1.
.TP
\fB\-postfresh\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
Specifies whether requests that use the \fBPOST\fR method will always use a
fresh socket, overriding the \fB-keepalive\fR option of
command \fBhttp::geturl\fR.  See the \fBPERSISTENT SOCKETS\fR section for details.
The default is 0.
.TP
\fB\-proxyhost\fR \fIhostname\fR
.
The name of the proxy host, if any.  If this value is the
empty string, the URL host is contacted directly.
.TP
\fB\-proxyport\fR \fInumber\fR
................................................................................
to determine if a proxy is required for a given host.  One argument, a
host name, is added to \fIcommand\fR when it is invoked.  If a proxy
is required, the callback should return a two-element list containing
the proxy server and proxy port.  Otherwise the filter should return
an empty list.  The default filter returns the values of the
\fB\-proxyhost\fR and \fB\-proxyport\fR settings if they are
non-empty.
.TP
\fB\-repost\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
Specifies what to do if a POST request over a persistent connection fails
because the server has half-closed the connection.  If boolean \fBtrue\fR, the
request
will be automatically retried; if boolean \fBfalse\fR it will not, and the
application
that uses \fBhttp::geturl\fR is expected to seek user confirmation before
retrying the POST.  The value \fBtrue\fR should be used only under certain
conditions. See the \fBPERSISTENT SOCKETS\fR section for details. The
default is 0.
.TP
\fB\-urlencoding\fR \fIencoding\fR
.
The \fIencoding\fR used for creating the x-url-encoded URLs with
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR and \fB::http::quoteString\fR.
The default is \fButf-8\fR, as specified by RFC
2718.  Prior to http 2.5 this was unspecified, and that behavior can be
returned by specifying the empty string (\fB{}\fR), although
\fIiso8859-1\fR is recommended to restore similar behavior but without the
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR or \fB::http::quoteString\fR
throwing an error processing non-latin-1 characters.
.TP
\fB\-useragent\fR \fIstring\fR
.
The value of the User-Agent header in the HTTP request.  In an unsafe
interpreter, the default value depends upon the operating system, and
the version numbers of \fBhttp\fR and \fBTcl\fR, and is (for example)
.QW "\fBMozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 10.0) http/2.8.12 Tcl/8.6.8\fR" .
A safe interpreter cannot determine its operating system, and so the default
in a safe interpreter is to use a Windows 10 value with the current version
numbers of \fBhttp\fR and \fBTcl\fR.
.TP
\fB\-zip\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
If the value is boolean \fBtrue\fR, then by default requests will send a header
.QW "\fBAccept-Encoding: gzip,deflate,compress\fR" .
If the value is boolean \fBfalse\fR, then by default this header will not be sent.
In either case the default can be overridden for an individual request by
supplying a custom \fBAccept-Encoding\fR header in the \fB-headers\fR option
of \fBhttp::geturl\fR. The default is 1.
.RE
.TP
\fB::http::geturl\fR \fIurl\fR ?\fIoptions\fR?
.
The \fB::http::geturl\fR command is the main procedure in the package.
The \fB\-query\fR option causes a POST operation and
the \fB\-validate\fR option causes a HEAD operation;
................................................................................
.CS
Pragma: no-cache
.CE
.RE
.TP
\fB\-keepalive\fR \fIboolean\fR
.
If boolean \fBtrue\fR, attempt to keep the connection open for servicing
multiple requests.  Default is 0.
.TP
\fB\-method\fR \fItype\fR
.
Force the HTTP request method to \fItype\fR. \fB::http::geturl\fR will
auto-select GET, POST or HEAD based on other options, but this option
enables choices like PUT and DELETE for webdav support.
................................................................................
\fB::http::formatQuery\fR \fIkey value\fR ?\fIkey value\fR ...?
.
This procedure does x-url-encoding of query data.  It takes an even
number of arguments that are the keys and values of the query.  It
encodes the keys and values, and generates one string that has the
proper & and = separators.  The result is suitable for the
\fB\-query\fR value passed to \fB::http::geturl\fR.
.TP
\fB::http::quoteString\fR \fIvalue\fR
.
This procedure does x-url-encoding of string.  It takes a single argument and
encodes it.
.TP
\fB::http::reset\fR \fItoken\fR ?\fIwhy\fR?
.
This command resets the HTTP transaction identified by \fItoken\fR, if any.
This sets the \fBstate(status)\fR value to \fIwhy\fR, which defaults to
\fBreset\fR, and then calls the registered \fB\-command\fR callback.
.TP
................................................................................
package require tls

::http::register https 443 ::tls::socket

set token [::http::geturl https://my.secure.site/]
.CE
.RE
.TP
\fB::http::registerError\fR \fIport\fR ?\fImessage\fR?
.
This procedure allows a registered protocol handler to deliver an error
message for use by \fBhttp\fR.  Calling this command does not raise an
error. The command is useful when a registered protocol detects an problem
(for example, an invalid TLS certificate) that will cause an error to
propagate to \fBhttp\fR.  The command allows \fBhttp\fR to provide a
precise error message rather than a general one.  The command returns the
value provided by the last call with argument \fImessage\fR, or the empty
string if no such call has been made.
.TP
\fB::http::unregister\fR \fIproto\fR
.
This procedure unregisters a protocol handler that was previously
registered via \fB::http::register\fR, returning a two-item list of
the default port and handler command that was previously installed
(via \fB::http::register\fR) if there was such a handler, and an error if
................................................................................
Once the data associated with the URL is no longer needed, the state
array should be unset to free up storage.
The \fB::http::cleanup\fR procedure is provided for that purpose.
The following elements of
the array are supported:
.RS
.TP
\fBbinary\fR
.
This is boolean \fBtrue\fR if (after decoding any compression specified
by the
.QW "Content-Encoding"
response header) the HTTP response is binary.  It is boolean \fBfalse\fR
if the HTTP response is text.
.TP
\fBbody\fR
.
The contents of the URL.  This will be empty if the \fB\-channel\fR
option has been specified.  This value is returned by the \fB::http::data\fR command.
.TP
\fBcharset\fR
.
................................................................................
.
A copy of the \fBContent-Type\fR meta-data value.
.TP
\fBurl\fR
.
The requested URL.
.RE
.SH "PERSISTENT CONNECTIONS"
.PP
.SS "BASICS"
.PP
See RFC 7230 Sec 6, which supersedes RFC 2616 Sec 8.1.
.PP
A persistent connection allows multiple HTTP/1.1 transactions to be
carried over the same TCP connection.  Pipelining allows a
client to make multiple requests over a persistent connection without
waiting for each response.  The server sends responses in the same order
that the requests were received.
.PP
If a POST request fails to complete, typically user confirmation is
needed before sending the request again.  The user may wish to verify
whether the server was modified by the failed POST request, before
sending the same request again.
.PP
A HTTP request will use a persistent socket if the call to
\fBhttp::geturl\fR has the option \fB-keepalive true\fR. It will use
pipelining where permitted if the \fBhttp::config\fR option
\fB-pipeline\fR is boolean \fBtrue\fR (its default value).
.PP
The http package maintains no more than one persistent connection to each
server (i.e. each value of
.QW "domain:port" ).
If \fBhttp::geturl\fR is called to make a request over a persistent
connection while the connection is busy with another request, the new
request will be held in a queue until the connection is free.
.PP
The http package does not support HTTP/1.0 persistent connections
controlled by the \fBKeep-Alive\fR header.
.SS "SPECIAL CASES"
.PP
This subsection discusses issues related to closure of the
persistent connection by the server, automatic retry of failed requests,
the special treatment necessary for POST requests, and the options for
dealing with these cases.
.PP
In accordance with RFC 7230, \fBhttp::geturl\fR does not pipeline
requests that use the POST method.  If a POST uses a persistent
connection and is not the first request on that connection,
\fBhttp::geturl\fR waits until it has received the response for the previous
request; or (if \fBhttp::config\fR option \fB-postfresh\fR is boolean \fBtrue\fR) it
uses a new connection for each POST.
.PP
If the server is processing a number of pipelined requests, and sends a
response header
.QW "\fBConnection: close\fR"
with one of the responses (other than the last), then subsequent responses
are unfulfilled. \fBhttp::geturl\fR will send the unfulfilled requests again
over a new connection.
.PP
A difficulty arises when a HTTP client sends a request over a persistent
connection that has been idle for a while.  The HTTP server may
half-close an apparently idle connection while the client is sending a
request, but before the request arrives at the server: in this case (an
.QW "asynchronous close event" )
the request will fail.  The difficulty arises because the client cannot
be certain whether the POST modified the state of the server.  For HEAD or
GET requests, \fBhttp::geturl\fR opens another connection and retransmits
the failed request. However, if the request was a POST, RFC 7230 forbids
automatic retry by default, suggesting either user confirmation, or
confirmation by user-agent software that has semantic understanding of
the application.  The \fBhttp::config\fR option \fB-repost\fR allows for
either possibility.
.PP
Asynchronous close events can occur only in a short interval of time.  The
\fBhttp\fR package monitors each persistent connection for closure by the
server.  Upon detection, the connection is also closed at the client end,
and subsequent requests will use a fresh connection.
.PP
If the \fBhttp::geturl\fR command is called with option \fB-keepalive true\fR,
then it will both try to use an existing persistent connection
(if one is available), and it will send the server a
.QW "\fBConnection: keep-alive\fR"
request header asking to keep the connection open for future requests.
.PP
The \fBhttp::config\fR options \fB-pipeline\fR, \fB-postfresh\fR, and
\fB-repost\fR relate to persistent connections.
.PP
Option \fB-pipeline\fR, if boolean \fBtrue\fR, will pipeline GET and HEAD requests
made
over a persistent connection.  POST requests will not be pipelined - if the
POST is not the first transaction on the connection, its request will not
be sent until the previous response has finished.  GET and HEAD requests
made after a POST will not be sent until the POST response has been
delivered, and will not be sent if the POST fails.
.PP
Option \fB-postfresh\fR, if boolean \fBtrue\fR, will override the \fBhttp::geturl\fR option
\fB-keepalive\fR, and always open a fresh connection for a POST request.
.PP
Option \fB-repost\fR, if \fBtrue\fR, permits automatic retry of a POST request
that fails because it uses a persistent connection that the server has
half-closed (an
.QW "asynchronous close event" ).
Subsequent GET and HEAD requests in a failed pipeline will also be retried.
\fIThe -repost option should be used only if the application understands
that the retry is appropriate\fR - specifically, the application must know
that if the failed POST successfully modified the state of the server, a repeat POST
would have no adverse effect.
.VS TIP406
.SH "COOKIE JAR PROTOCOL"
.PP
Cookies are short key-value pairs used to implement sessions within the
otherwise-stateless HTTP protocol. (See RFC 6265 for details; Tcl does not
implement the Cookie2 protocol as that is rarely seen in the wild.)
.PP
Cookie storage managment commands \(em
.QW "cookie jars"
\(em must support these subcommands which form the HTTP cookie storage
management protocol. Note that \fIcookieJar\fR below does not have to be a
command name; it is properly a command prefix (a Tcl list of words that will
be expanded in place) and admits many possible implementations.
.PP
Though not formally part of the protocol, it is expected that particular
values of \fIcookieJar\fR will correspond to sessions; it is up to the caller
of \fB::http::config\fR to decide what session applies and to manage the
deletion of said sessions when they are no longer desired (which should be
when they not configured as the current cookie jar).
.TP
\fIcookieJar \fBgetCookies \fIprotocol host requestPath\fR
.
This command asks the cookie jar what cookies should be supplied for a
particular request. It should take the \fIprotocol\fR (typically \fBhttp\fR or
\fBhttps\fR), \fIhost\fR name and \fIrequestPath\fR (parsed from the \fIurl\fR
argument to \fB::http::geturl\fR) and return a list of cookie keys and values
that describe the cookies to supply to the remote host. The list must have an
even number of elements.
.RS
.PP
There should only ever be at most one cookie with a particular key for any
request (typically the one with the most specific \fIhost\fR/domain match and
most specific \fIrequestPath\fR/path match), but there may be many cookies
with different names in any request.
.RE
.TP
\fIcookieJar \fBstoreCookie \fIcookieDictionary\fR
.
This command asks the cookie jar to store a particular cookie that was
returned by a request; the result of this command is ignored. The cookie
(which will have been parsed by the http package) is described by a
dictionary, \fIcookieDictionary\fR, that may have the following keys:
.RS
.TP
\fBdomain\fR
.
This is always present. Its value describes the domain hostname \fIor
prefix\fR that the cookie should be returned for.  The checking of the domain
against the origin (below) should be careful since sites that issue cookies
should only do so for domains related to themselves. Cookies that do not obey
a relevant origin matching rule should be ignored.
.TP
\fBexpires\fR
.
This is optional. If present, the cookie is intended to be a persistent cookie
and the value of the option is the Tcl timestamp (in seconds from the same
base as \fBclock seconds\fR) of when the cookie expires (which may be in the
past, which should result in the cookie being deleted immediately). If absent,
the cookie is intended to be a session cookie that should be not persisted
beyond the lifetime of the cookie jar.
.TP
\fBhostonly\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is a boolean that describes whether the
cookie is a single host cookie (true) or a domain-level cookie (false).
.TP
\fBhttponly\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is a boolean that is true when the site
wishes the cookie to only ever be used with HTTP (or HTTPS) traffic.
.TP
\fBkey\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is the \fIkey\fR of the cookie, which is
part of the information that must be return when sending this cookie back in a
future request.
.TP
\fBorigin\fR
.
This is always present. Its value describes where the http package believes it
received the cookie from, which may be useful for checking whether the
cookie's domain is valid.
.TP
\fBpath\fR
.
This is always present. Its value describes the path prefix of requests to the
cookie domain where the cookie should be returned.
.TP
\fBsecure\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is a boolean that is true when the cookie
should only used on requests sent over secure channels (typically HTTPS).
.TP
\fBvalue\fR
.
This is always present. Its value is the value of the cookie, which is part of
the information that must be return when sending this cookie back in a future
request.
.PP
Other keys may always be ignored; they have no meaning in this protocol.
.RE
.VE TIP406
.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
This example creates a procedure to copy a URL to a file while printing a
progress meter, and prints the meta-data associated with the URL.
.PP
.CS
proc httpcopy { url file {chunk 4096} } {

Added doc/idna.n.
















































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2014-2018 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH "idna" n 0.1 http "Tcl Bundled Packages"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tcl::idna \- Support for normalization of Internationalized Domain Names
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require tcl::idna 1.0

\fBtcl::idna decode\fR \fIhostname\fR
\fBtcl::idna encode\fR \fIhostname\fR
\fBtcl::idna puny decode\fR \fIstring\fR ?\fIcase\fR?
\fBtcl::idna puny encode\fR \fIstring\fR ?\fIcase\fR?
\fBtcl::idna version\fR
.fi
.SH DESCRIPTION
This package provides an implementation of the punycode scheme used in
Internationalised Domain Names, and some access commands. (See RFC 3492 for a
description of punycode.)
.TP
\fBtcl::idna decode\fR \fIhostname\fR
.
This command takes the name of a host that potentially contains
punycode-encoded character sequences, \fIhostname\fR, and returns the hostname
as might be displayed to the user. Note that there are often UNICODE
characters that have extremely similar glyphs, so care should be taken with
displaying hostnames to users.
.TP
\fBtcl::idna encode\fR \fIhostname\fR
.
This command takes the name of a host as might be displayed to the user,
\fIhostname\fR, and returns the version of the hostname with characters not
permitted in basic hostnames encoded with punycode.
.TP
\fBtcl::idna puny\fR \fIsubcommand ...\fR
.
This command provides direct access to the basic punycode encoder and
decoder. It supports two \fIsubcommand\fRs:
.RS
.TP
\fBtcl::idna puny decode\fR \fIstring\fR ?\fIcase\fR?
.
This command decodes the punycode-encoded string, \fIstring\fR, and returns
the result. If \fIcase\fR is provided, it is a boolean to make the case be
folded to upper case (if \fIcase\fR is true) or lower case (if \fIcase\fR is
false) during the decoding process; if omitted, no case transformation is
applied.
.TP
\fBtcl::idna puny encode\fR \fIstring\fR ?\fIcase\fR?
.
This command encodes the string, \fIstring\fR, and returns the
punycode-encoded version of the string. If \fIcase\fR is provided, it is a
boolean to make the case be folded to upper case (if \fIcase\fR is true) or
lower case (if \fIcase\fR is false) during the encoding process; if omitted,
no case transformation is applied.
.RE
.TP
\fBtcl::idna version\fR
.
This returns the version of the \fBtcl::idna\fR package.
.SH "EXAMPLE"
.PP
This is an example of how punycoding of a string works:
.PP
.CS
package require tcl::idna

puts [\fBtcl::idna puny encode\fR "abc\(->def"]
#    prints: \fIabcdef-kn2c\fR
puts [\fBtcl::idna puny decode\fR "abcdef-kn2c"]
#    prints: \fIabc\(->def\fR
.CE
'\" TODO: show how it handles a real domain name
.SH "SEE ALSO"
http(n), cookiejar(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
internet, www
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/incr.n.

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1 is added to \fIvarName\fR.
The new value is stored as a decimal string in variable \fIvarName\fR
and also returned as result.
.PP
Starting with the Tcl 8.5 release, the variable \fIvarName\fR passed
to \fBincr\fR may be unset, and in that case, it will be set to
the value \fIincrement\fR or to the default increment value of \fB1\fR.





.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Add one to the contents of the variable \fIx\fR:
.PP
.CS
\fBincr\fR x
.CE
................................................................................
.CS
\fBincr\fR x 0
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), set(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
add, increment, variable, value










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1 is added to \fIvarName\fR.
The new value is stored as a decimal string in variable \fIvarName\fR
and also returned as result.
.PP
Starting with the Tcl 8.5 release, the variable \fIvarName\fR passed
to \fBincr\fR may be unset, and in that case, it will be set to
the value \fIincrement\fR or to the default increment value of \fB1\fR.
.VS TIP508
If \fIvarName\fR indicate an element that does not exist of an array that has
a default value set, the sum of the default value and the \fIincrement\fR (or
1) will be stored in the array element.
.VE TIP508
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Add one to the contents of the variable \fIx\fR:
.PP
.CS
\fBincr\fR x
.CE
................................................................................
.CS
\fBincr\fR x 0
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), set(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
add, increment, variable, value
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH info n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
info \- Return information about the state of the Tcl interpreter
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBinfo \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command provides information about various internals of the Tcl
interpreter.
The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBinfo args \fIprocname\fR
.
Returns a list containing the names of the arguments to procedure
\fIprocname\fR, in order.  \fIProcname\fR must be the name of a
Tcl command procedure.
.TP
\fBinfo body \fIprocname\fR
.
Returns the body of procedure \fIprocname\fR.  \fIProcname\fR must be
the name of a Tcl command procedure.
.TP
\fBinfo class\fI subcommand class\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR
.VS 8.6
Returns information about the class, \fIclass\fR. The \fIsubcommand\fRs are
described in \fBCLASS INTROSPECTION\fR below.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo cmdcount\fR
.
Returns a count of the total number of commands that have been invoked
in this interpreter.
.TP
\fBinfo commands \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified,
returns a list of names of all the Tcl commands visible
(i.e. executable without using a qualified name) to the current namespace,
including both the built-in commands written in C and
the command procedures defined using the \fBproc\fR command.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified,
only those names matching \fIpattern\fR are returned.
Matching is determined using the same rules as for \fBstring match\fR.
\fIpattern\fR can be a qualified name like \fBFoo::print*\fR.
That is, it may specify a particular namespace
using a sequence of namespace names separated by double colons (\fB::\fR),
and may have pattern matching special characters
at the end to specify a set of commands in that namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name,
the resulting list of command names has each one qualified with the name
of the specified namespace, and only the commands defined in the named
namespace are returned.
.\" Technically, most of this hasn't changed; that's mostly just the
.\" way it always worked. Hardly anyone knew that though.
.TP
\fBinfo complete \fIcommand\fR
.
Returns 1 if \fIcommand\fR is a complete Tcl command in the sense of
having no unclosed quotes, braces, brackets or array element names.
If the command does not appear to be complete then 0 is returned.
This command is typically used in line-oriented input environments
to allow users to type in commands that span multiple lines;  if the
command is not complete, the script can delay evaluating it until additional
lines have been typed to complete the command.
.TP
\fBinfo coroutine\fR
.VS 8.6
Returns the name of the currently executing \fBcoroutine\fR, or the empty
string if either no coroutine is currently executing, or the current coroutine
has been deleted (but has not yet returned or yielded since deletion).
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo default \fIprocname arg varname\fR
.
\fIProcname\fR must be the name of a Tcl command procedure and \fIarg\fR
must be the name of an argument to that procedure.  If \fIarg\fR
does not have a default value then the command returns \fB0\fR.
Otherwise it returns \fB1\fR and places the default value of \fIarg\fR
into variable \fIvarname\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo errorstack \fR?\fIinterp\fR?
.VS 8.6
Returns, in a form that is programmatically easy to parse, the function names
and arguments at each level from the call stack of the last error in the given
\fIinterp\fR, or in the current one if not specified.
.RS
.PP
This form is an even-sized list alternating tokens and parameters. Tokens are
currently either \fBCALL\fR, \fBUP\fR, or \fBINNER\fR, but other values may be
introduced in the future. \fBCALL\fR indicates a procedure call, and its











parameter is the corresponding \fBinfo level\fR \fB0\fR. \fBUP\fR indicates a
shift in variable frames generated by \fBuplevel\fR or similar, and applies to
the previous \fBCALL\fR item. Its parameter is the level offset. \fBINNER\fR
identifies the
.QW "inner context" ,
which is the innermost atomic command or bytecode instruction that raised the
error, along with its arguments when available. While \fBCALL\fR and \fBUP\fR
allow to follow complex call paths, \fBINNER\fR homes in on the offending
operation in the innermost procedure call, even going to sub-expression
granularity.
.PP
This information is also present in the \fB\-errorstack\fR entry of the
options dictionary returned by 3-argument \fBcatch\fR; \fBinfo errorstack\fR
is a convenient way of retrieving it for uncaught errors at top-level in an
interactive \fBtclsh\fR.
.RE
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo exists \fIvarName\fR
.
Returns \fB1\fR if the variable named \fIvarName\fR exists in the
current context (either as a global or local variable) and has been
defined by being given a value, returns \fB0\fR otherwise.
.TP
\fBinfo frame\fR ?\fInumber\fR?
.

This command provides access to all frames on the stack, even those
hidden from \fBinfo level\fR. If \fInumber\fR is not specified, this
command returns a number giving the frame level of the command. This
is 1 if the command is invoked at top-level. If \fInumber\fR is
specified, then the result is a dictionary containing the location
information for the command at the \fInumber\fRed level on the stack.
.RS
.PP
If \fInumber\fR is positive (> 0) then it selects a particular stack
level (1 refers to the outer-most active command, 2 to the command it
called, and so on, up to the current frame level which refers to
\fBinfo frame\fR itself); otherwise it gives a level relative to the
current command (0 refers to the current command, i.e., \fBinfo
frame\fR itself, -1 to its caller, and so on).


.PP
This is similar to how \fBinfo level\fR works, except that this
subcommand reports all frames, like \fBsource\fRd scripts,
\fBeval\fRs, \fBuplevel\fRs, etc.
.PP
Note that for nested commands, like

.QW "foo [bar [x]]" ,
only
.QW x
will be seen by an \fBinfo frame\fR invoked within
.QW x .
This is the same as for \fBinfo level\fR and error stack traces.
.PP
The result dictionary may contain the keys listed below, with the
specified meanings for their values:
.TP
\fBtype\fR
.
This entry is always present and describes the nature of the location
for the command. The recognized values are \fBsource\fR, \fBproc\fR,
\fBeval\fR, and \fBprecompiled\fR.
.RS
.TP
\fBsource\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
means that the command is found in a script loaded by the \fBsource\fR
command.
.TP
\fBproc\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
means that the command is found in dynamically created procedure body.

.TP
\fBeval\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
means that the command is executed by \fBeval\fR or \fBuplevel\fR.
.TP
\fBprecompiled\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
means that the command is found in a pre-compiled script (loadable by
the package \fBtbcload\fR), and no further information will be
available.
.RE
.TP
\fBline\fR
.
This entry provides the number of the line the command is at inside of
the script it is a part of. This information is not present for type
\fBprecompiled\fR. For type \fBsource\fR this information is counted
relative to the beginning of the file, whereas for the last two types
the line is counted relative to the start of the script.
.TP
\fBfile\fR
.
This entry is present only for type \fBsource\fR. It provides the
normalized path of the file the command is in.
.TP
\fBcmd\fR
.
This entry provides the string representation of the command. This is
usually the unsubstituted form, however for commands which are a
canonically-constructed list (e.g., as produced by the \fBlist\fR command)
executed by \fBeval\fR it is the substituted form as they have no other
string representation. Care is taken that the canonicality property of
the latter is not spoiled.
.TP
\fBproc\fR
.
This entry is present only if the command is found in the body of a
regular Tcl procedure. It then provides the name of that procedure.
.TP
\fBlambda\fR
.
This entry is present only if the command is found in the body of an
anonymous Tcl procedure, i.e. a lambda. It then provides the entire
definition of the lambda in question.
.TP
\fBlevel\fR
.
This entry is present only if the queried frame has a corresponding
frame returned by \fBinfo level\fR. It provides the index of this
frame, relative to the current level (0 and negative numbers).
.PP
A thing of note is that for procedures statically defined in files the
locations of commands in their bodies will be reported with type
\fBsource\fR and absolute line numbers, and not as type
\fBproc\fR. The same is true for procedures nested in statically
defined procedures, and literal eval scripts in files or statically
defined procedures.
.PP
In contrast, procedure definitions and \fBeval\fR within a dynamically
\fBeval\fRuated environment count line numbers relative to the start of
their script, even if they would be able to count relative to the
start of the outer dynamic script. That type of number usually makes
more sense.
.PP
A different way of describing this behaviour is that file based
locations are tracked as deeply as possible, and where this is not
possible the lines are counted based on the smallest possible
\fBeval\fR or procedure body, as that scope is usually easier to find
than any dynamic outer scope.
.PP
The syntactic form \fB{*}\fR is handled like \fBeval\fR. I.e. if it
is given a literal list argument the system tracks the line number
within the list words as well, and otherwise all line numbers are
counted relative to the start of each word (smallest scope)
.RE
.TP
\fBinfo functions \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, returns a list of all the math
functions currently defined.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those functions whose name matches
\fIpattern\fR are returned.  Matching is determined using the same
rules as for \fBstring match\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo globals \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, returns a list of all the names
of currently-defined global variables.
Global variables are variables in the global namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those names matching \fIpattern\fR
are returned.  Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo hostname\fR
.
Returns the name of the computer on which this invocation is being
executed.

Note that this name is not guaranteed to be the fully qualified domain
name of the host.  Where machines have several different names (as is
common on systems with both TCP/IP (DNS) and NetBIOS-based networking
installed,) it is the name that is suitable for TCP/IP networking that
is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo level\fR ?\fInumber\fR?
.
If \fInumber\fR is not specified, this command returns a number
giving the stack level of the invoking procedure, or 0 if the
command is invoked at top-level.  If \fInumber\fR is specified,
then the result is a list consisting of the name and arguments for the
procedure call at level \fInumber\fR on the stack.  If \fInumber\fR
is positive then it selects a particular stack level (1 refers
to the top-most active procedure, 2 to the procedure it called, and
so on); otherwise it gives a level relative to the current level
(0 refers to the current procedure, -1 to its caller, and so on).
See the \fBuplevel\fR command for more information on what stack
levels mean.
.TP
\fBinfo library\fR
.
Returns the name of the library directory in which standard Tcl
scripts are stored.
This is actually the value of the \fBtcl_library\fR
variable and may be changed by setting \fBtcl_library\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo loaded \fR?\fIinterp\fR? ?\fIpackage\fR?
.
Returns the filename loaded as part of \fIpackage\fR. If \fIpackage\fR
is not specified, returns a list describing all of the packages
that have been loaded into \fIinterp\fR with the \fBload\fR command.
Each list element is a sub-list with two elements consisting of the
name of the file from which the package was loaded and the name of
the package.
For statically-loaded packages the file name will be an empty string.
If \fIinterp\fR is omitted then information is returned for all packages
loaded in any interpreter in the process.
To get a list of just the packages in the current interpreter, specify
an empty string for the \fIinterp\fR argument.
.TP
\fBinfo locals \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, returns a list of all the names
of currently-defined local variables, including arguments to the
current procedure, if any.


Variables defined with the \fBglobal\fR, \fBupvar\fR  and
\fBvariable\fR commands will not be returned.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those names matching \fIpattern\fR
are returned.  Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR
.
Returns the full path name of the binary file from which the application
was invoked.  If Tcl was unable to identify the file, then an empty
string is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo object\fI subcommand object\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR
.VS 8.6

Returns information about the object, \fIobject\fR. The \fIsubcommand\fRs are
described in \fBOBJECT INTROSPECTION\fR below.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo patchlevel\fR
.
Returns the value of the global variable \fBtcl_patchLevel\fR, which holds
the exact version of the Tcl library by default.
.TP
\fBinfo procs \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified, returns a list of all the
names of Tcl command procedures in the current namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified,
only those procedure names in the current namespace
matching \fIpattern\fR are returned.
Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.
If \fIpattern\fR contains any namespace separators, they are used to
select a namespace relative to the current namespace (or relative to
the global namespace if \fIpattern\fR starts with \fB::\fR) to match
within; the matching pattern is taken to be the part after the last
namespace separator.
.TP
\fBinfo script\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?
.
If a Tcl script file is currently being evaluated (i.e. there is a
call to \fBTcl_EvalFile\fR active or there is an active invocation
of the \fBsource\fR command), then this command returns the name
of the innermost file being processed.  If \fIfilename\fR is specified,
then the return value of this command will be modified for the
duration of the active invocation to return that name.  This is



useful in virtual file system applications.
Otherwise the command returns an empty string.

.TP
\fBinfo sharedlibextension\fR
.
Returns the extension used on this platform for the names of files
containing shared libraries (for example, \fB.so\fR under Solaris).
If shared libraries are not supported on this platform then an empty
string is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo tclversion\fR
.
Returns the value of the global variable \fBtcl_version\fR, which holds the
major and minor version of the Tcl library by default.
.TP
\fBinfo vars\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not specified,
returns a list of all the names of currently-visible variables.
This includes locals and currently-visible globals.
If \fIpattern\fR is specified, only those names matching \fIpattern\fR
are returned.  Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.
\fIpattern\fR can be a qualified name like \fBFoo::option*\fR.
That is, it may specify a particular namespace
using a sequence of namespace names separated by double colons (\fB::\fR),
and may have pattern matching special characters
at the end to specify a set of variables in that namespace.

If \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name,
the resulting list of variable names
has each matching namespace variable qualified with the name
of its namespace.
Note that a currently-visible variable may not yet
.QW exist
if it has not
been set (e.g. a variable declared but not set by \fBvariable\fR).



.SS "CLASS INTROSPECTION"
.VS 8.6
.PP
The following \fIsubcommand\fR values are supported by \fBinfo class\fR:
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class call\fI class method\fR
.VS

Returns a description of the method implementations that are used to provide a
stereotypical instance of \fIclass\fR's implementation of \fImethod\fR
(stereotypical instances being objects instantiated by a class without having
any object-specific definitions added). This consists of a list of lists of
four elements, where each sublist consists of a word that describes the
general type of method implementation (being one of \fBmethod\fR for an
ordinary method, \fBfilter\fR for an applied filter, and \fBunknown\fR for a




method that is invoked as part of unknown method handling), a word giving the
name of the particular method invoked (which is always the same as
\fImethod\fR for the \fBmethod\fR type, and
.QW \fBunknown\fR
for the \fBunknown\fR type), a word giving the fully qualified name of the
class that defined the method, and a word describing the type of method
implementation (see \fBinfo class methodtype\fR).
.RS
.PP
Note that there is no inspection of whether the method implementations
actually use \fBnext\fR to transfer control along the call chain.




.RE
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class constructor\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the constructor of
class \fIclass\fR. The definition is described as a two element list; the first
element is the list of arguments to the constructor in a form suitable for
passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition, and the second
element is the body of the constructor. If no constructor is present, this
returns the empty list.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class definition\fI class method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the method named
\fImethod\fR of class \fIclass\fR. The definition is described as a two element
list; the first element is the list of arguments to the method in a form
suitable for passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition, and
the second element is the body of the method.

















.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class destructor\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the body of the destructor of class \fIclass\fR. If no
destructor is present, this returns the empty string.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class filters\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the list of filter methods set on the class.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class forward\fI class method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the argument list for the method forwarding called
\fImethod\fR that is set on the class called \fIclass\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class instances\fI class\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of instances of class \fIclass\fR. If the
optional \fIpattern\fR argument is present, it constrains the list of returned
instances to those that match it according to the rules of \fBstring match\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class methods\fI class\fR ?\fIoptions...\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all public (i.e. exported) methods of the
class called \fIclass\fR. Any of the following \fIoption\fRs may be
specified, controlling exactly which method names are returned:
.RS
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fB\-all\fR


.VS 8.6


If the \fB\-all\fR flag is given, the list of methods will include those
methods defined not just by the class, but also by the class's superclasses
and mixins.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fB\-private\fR


.VS 8.6


If the \fB\-private\fR flag is given, the list of methods will also include
the private (i.e. non-exported) methods of the class (and superclasses and
mixins, if \fB\-all\fR is also given).




















.RE
.VE 8.6

.TP
\fBinfo class methodtype\fI class method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the type of implementation used for
the method named \fImethod\fR of class \fIclass\fR. When the result is
\fBmethod\fR, further information can be discovered with \fBinfo class
definition\fR, and when the result is \fBforward\fR, further information can
be discovered with \fBinfo class forward\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class mixins\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all classes that have been mixed into the
class named \fIclass\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class subclasses\fI class\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of direct subclasses of class \fIclass\fR. If
the optional \fIpattern\fR argument is present, it constrains the list of
returned classes to those that match it according to the rules of
\fBstring match\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class superclasses\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of direct superclasses of class \fIclass\fR in
inheritance precedence order.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo class variables\fI class\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all variables that have been declared for
the class named \fIclass\fR (i.e. that are automatically present in the
class's methods, constructor and destructor).




.SS "OBJECT INTROSPECTION"
.PP
The following \fIsubcommand\fR values are supported by \fBinfo object\fR:
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object call\fI object method\fR
.VS 8.6

Returns a description of the method implementations that are used to provide
\fIobject\fR's implementation of \fImethod\fR.  This consists of a list of
lists of four elements, where each sublist consists of a word that describes
the general type of method implementation (being one of \fBmethod\fR for an
ordinary method, \fBfilter\fR for an applied filter, and \fBunknown\fR for a




method that is invoked as part of unknown method handling), a word giving the
name of the particular method invoked (which is always the same as
\fImethod\fR for the \fBmethod\fR type, and
.QW \fBunknown\fR
for the \fBunknown\fR type), a word giving what defined the method (the fully
qualified name of the class, or the literal string \fBobject\fR if the method
implementation is on an instance), and a word describing the type of method
implementation (see \fBinfo object methodtype\fR).
.RS
.PP
Note that there is no inspection of whether the method implementations
actually use \fBnext\fR to transfer control along the call chain.




.RE
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object class\fI object\fR ?\fIclassName\fR?
.VS 8.6

If \fIclassName\fR is unspecified, this subcommand returns class of the
\fIobject\fR object. If \fIclassName\fR is present, this subcommand returns a
boolean value indicating whether the \fIobject\fR is of that class.











.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object definition\fI object method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the method named
\fImethod\fR of object \fIobject\fR. The definition is described as a two
element list; the first element is the list of arguments to the method in a
form suitable for passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition,
and the second element is the body of the method.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object filters\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the list of filter methods set on the object.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object forward\fI object method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the argument list for the method forwarding called
\fImethod\fR that is set on the object called \fIobject\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa\fI category object\fR ?\fIarg\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand tests whether an object belongs to a particular category,
returning a boolean value that indicates whether the \fIobject\fR argument
meets the criteria for the category. The supported categories are:
.VE 8.6
.RS
.TP
\fBinfo object isa class\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIobject\fR is a class (i.e. an instance of
\fBoo::class\fR or one of its subclasses).
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa metaclass\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIobject\fR is a class that can manufacture classes
(i.e. is \fBoo::class\fR or a subclass of it).
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa mixin\fI object class\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIclass\fR is directly mixed into \fIobject\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa object\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIobject\fR really is an object.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object isa typeof\fI object class\fR
.VS 8.6

This returns whether \fIclass\fR is the type of \fIobject\fR (i.e. whether
\fIobject\fR is an instance of \fIclass\fR or one of its subclasses, whether
direct or indirect).
.RE
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object methods\fI object\fR ?\fIoption...\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all public (i.e. exported) methods of the
object called \fIobject\fR. Any of the following \fIoption\fRs may be
specified, controlling exactly which method names are returned:
.RS
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fB\-all\fR


.VS 8.6


If the \fB\-all\fR flag is given, the list of methods will include those
methods defined not just by the object, but also by the object's class and
mixins, plus the superclasses of those classes.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fB\-private\fR


.VS 8.6


If the \fB\-private\fR flag is given, the list of methods will also include
the private (i.e. non-exported) methods of the object (and classes, if
\fB\-all\fR is also given).




















.RE
.VE 8.6

.TP
\fBinfo object methodtype\fI object method\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a description of the type of implementation used for
the method named \fImethod\fR of object \fIobject\fR. When the result is
\fBmethod\fR, further information can be discovered with \fBinfo object
definition\fR, and when the result is \fBforward\fR, further information can
be discovered with \fBinfo object forward\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object mixins\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all classes that have been mixed into the
object named \fIobject\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object namespace\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns the name of the internal namespace of the object named
\fIobject\fR.
.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object variables\fI object\fR
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all variables that have been declared for
the object named \fIobject\fR (i.e. that are automatically present in the
object's methods).



.VE 8.6
.TP
\fBinfo object vars\fI object\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.VS 8.6

This subcommand returns a list of all variables in the private namespace of
the object named \fIobject\fR. If the optional \fIpattern\fR argument is
given, it is a filter (in the syntax of a \fBstring match\fR glob pattern)
that constrains the list of variables returned. Note that this is different
from the list returned by \fBinfo object variables\fR; that can include
variables that are currently unset, whereas this can include variables that
are not automatically included by any of \fIobject\fR's methods (or those of
its class, superclasses or mixins).
.VE 8.6
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This command prints out a procedure suitable for saving in a Tcl
script:
.PP
.CS
proc printProc {procName} {
................................................................................
            lappend formals [list $var]
        }
    }
    puts [lappend result $formals [\fBinfo body\fR $procName]]
}
.CE
.SS "EXAMPLES WITH OBJECTS"
.VS 8.6
.PP
Every object necessarily knows what its class is; this information is
trivially extractable through introspection:
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c
c create o
................................................................................
The introspection capabilities can be used to discover what class implements a
method and get how it is defined. This procedure illustrates how:
.PP
.CS
proc getDef {obj method} {
    foreach inf [\fBinfo object call\fR $obj $method] {
        lassign $inf calltype name locus methodtype

        # Assume no forwards or filters, and hence no $calltype
        # or $methodtype checks...

        if {$locus eq "object"} {
            return [\fBinfo object definition\fR $obj $name]
        } else {
            return [\fBinfo class definition\fR $locus $name]
        }
    }
    error "no definition for $method"
................................................................................
.PP
.CS
proc getDef {obj method} {
    if {$method in [\fBinfo object methods\fR $obj]} {
        # Assume no forwards
        return [\fBinfo object definition\fR $obj $method]
    }

    set cls [\fBinfo object class\fR $obj]

    while {$method ni [\fBinfo class methods\fR $cls]} {
        # Assume the simple case
        set cls [lindex [\fBinfo class superclass\fR $cls] 0]
        if {$cls eq ""} {
            error "no definition for $method"
        }
    }

    # Assume no forwards
    return [\fBinfo class definition\fR $cls $method]
}
.CE
.VE 8.6
.SH "SEE ALSO"
.VS 8.6
global(n), oo::class(n), oo::define(n), oo::object(n), proc(n), self(n),
.VE 8.6
tcl_library(n), tcl_patchLevel(n), tcl_version(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, information, interpreter, introspection, level, namespace,
.VS 8.6
object,
.VE 8.6
procedure, variable
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:






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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH info n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
info \- Information about the state of the Tcl interpreter
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBinfo \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Available commands:


.TP
\fBinfo args \fIprocname\fR
.
Returns the names of the parameters to the procedure named \fIprocname\fR.


.TP
\fBinfo body \fIprocname\fR
.
Returns the body of the procedure named \fIprocname\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo class\fI subcommand class\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR
.
Returns information about the class named \fIclass\fR.
See \fBCLASS INTROSPECTION\fR below.
.TP
\fBinfo cmdcount\fR
.
Returns the total number of commands evaluated in this interpreter.
.TP
\fBinfo cmdtype \fIcommandName\fR
.VS TIP426
Returns a the type of the command named \fIcommandName\fR.
Built-in types are:
.RS
.IP \fBalias\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBinterp alias\fR.
In a safe interpreter an alias is only visible if both the alias and the
target are visible.
.IP \fBcoroutine\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBcoroutine\fR.
.IP \fBensemble\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBnamespace ensemble\fR.
.IP \fBimport\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBnamespace import\fR.
.IP \fBnative\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by the \fBTcl_CreateObjProc\fR
interface directly without further registration of the type of command.
.IP \fBobject\fR
\fIcommandName\fR is the public command that represents an
instance of \fBoo::object\fR or one of its subclasses.
.IP \fBprivateObject\fR
\fIcommandName\fR is the private command, \fBmy\fR by default,
that represents an instance of \fBoo::object\fR or one of its subclasses.
.IP \fBproc\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBproc\fR.
.IP \fBslave\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBinterp create\fR.
.IP \fBzlibStream\fR
\fIcommandName\fR was created by \fBzlib stream\fR.
.PP
Other types may be also registered as well.  See \fBTcl_RegisterCommandTypeName\fR.
.RE
.VE TIP426
.TP
\fBinfo commands \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
Returns the names of all commands visible in the current namespace.  If
\fIpattern\fR is given, returns only those names that match according to
\fBstring match\fR.  Only the last component of \fIpattern\fR is a pattern.
Other components identify a namespace.  See \fBNAMESPACE RESOLUTION\fR in the
\fBnamespace\fR(n) documentation.
.TP
\fBinfo complete \fIcommand\fR
.
Returns 1 if \fIcommand\fR is a complete command, and \fB0\fR otherwise.
Typically used in line-oriented input environments
to allow users to type in commands that span multiple lines.
.TP
\fBinfo coroutine\fR
.
Returns the name of the current \fBcoroutine\fR, or the empty
string if there is no current coroutine or the current coroutine
has been deleted.
.TP
\fBinfo default \fIprocname parameter varname\fR
.
If the parameter \fIparameter\fR for the procedure named \fIprocname\fR has a
default value, stores that value in \fIvarname\fR and returns \fB1\fR.
Otherwise, returns \fB0\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo errorstack \fR?\fIinterp\fR?
.
Returns a description of the active command at each level for the
last error in the current interpreter, or in the interpreter named
\fIinterp\fR if given.
.RS
.PP
The description is a dictionary of tokens and parameters. Tokens are
currently either \fBCALL\fR, \fBUP\fR, or \fBINNER\fR, but other values may be
introduced in the future. \fBCALL\fR indicates a command call, and its
parameter is the corresponding \fBinfo level\fR \fB0\fR. \fBUP\fR indicates a
shift in variable frames generated by \fBuplevel\fR or similar, and applies to
the previous \fBCALL\fR item. Its parameter is the level offset. \fBINNER\fR
identifies the
.QW "inner context" ,
which is the innermost atomic command or bytecode instruction that raised the
error, along with its arguments when available. While \fBCALL\fR and \fBUP\fR
provide a trail of the call path, \fBINNER\fR provides details of the offending
operation in the innermost procedure call, even to sub-expression
granularity.
.PP
This information is also present in the \fB\-errorstack\fR entry of the
options dictionary returned by 3-argument \fBcatch\fR; \fBinfo errorstack\fR
is a convenient way of retrieving it for uncaught errors at top-level in an
interactive \fBinterpreter\fR.
.RE

.TP
\fBinfo exists \fIvarName\fR
.
Returns \fB1\fR if a variable named \fIvarName\fR is visible and has been

defined, and \fB0\fR otherwise.
.TP
\fBinfo frame\fR ?\fIdepth\fR?
.
Returns the depth of the call to \fBinfo frame\fR itself.  Otherwise, returns a
dictionary describing the active command at the \fIdepth\fR, which counts all
commands visible to \fBinfo level\fR, plus commands that don't create a new
level, such as \fBeval\fR, \fBsource\fR, or \fIuplevel\fR. The frame depth is
always greater than the current level.


.RS
.PP






If \fIdepth\fR is greater than \fB0\fR it is the frame at that depth.  Otherwise
it is the number of frames up from the current frame.
.PP





As with \fBinfo level\fR and error traces, for nested commands like
.QW "foo [bar [x]]" ,
only
.QW x
is seen by \fBinfo frame\fR invoked within
.QW x .

.PP
The dictionary may contain the following keys:

.TP
\fBtype\fR
.

Always present.  Possible values are \fBsource\fR, \fBproc\fR,
\fBeval\fR, and \fBprecompiled\fR.
.RS
.TP
\fBsource\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
A script loaded via the \fBsource\fR
command.
.TP
\fBproc\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
The body of a procedure that could not be traced back to a
line in a particular script.
.TP
\fBeval\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
The body of a script provided to \fBeval\fR or \fBuplevel\fR.
.TP
\fBprecompiled\fR\0\0\0\0\0\0\0\0
.
A pre-compiled script (loadable by the package
\fBtbcload\fR), and no further information is available.

.RE
.TP
\fBline\fR
.
The line number of of the command inside its script.  Not available for
\fBprecompiled\fR commands.  When the type is \fBsource\fR, the line number is

relative to the beginning of the file, whereas for the last two types it is
relative to the start of the script.
.TP
\fBfile\fR
.
For type \fBsource\fR, provides the normalized path of the file that contains
the command.
.TP
\fBcmd\fR
.
The command before substitutions were performed.





.TP
\fBproc\fR
.
For type \fBprod\fR, the name of the procedure containing the command.

.TP
\fBlambda\fR
.
For a command in a script evaluated as the body of an unnamed routine via the

\fBapply\fR command, the definition of that routine.
.TP
\fBlevel\fR
.
For a frame that corresponds to a level, (to be determined).
.PP
When a command can be traced to its literal definition in some script, e.g.
procedures nested in statically defined procedures, and literal eval scripts in
files or statically defined procedures, its type is \fBsource\fR and its
location is the absolute line number in the script.  Otherwise, its type is
\fBproc\fR and its location is its line number within the body of the
procedure.


.PP
In contrast, procedure definitions and \fBeval\fR within a dynamically
\fBeval\fRuated environment count line numbers relative to the start of
their script, even if they would be able to count relative to the
start of the outer dynamic script. That type of number usually makes
more sense.
.PP
A different way of describing this behaviour is that file-based
locations are tracked as deeply as possible, and where this is not
possible the lines are counted based on the smallest possible
\fBeval\fR or procedure body, as that scope is usually easier to find
than any dynamic outer scope.
.PP
The syntactic form \fB{*}\fR is handled like \fBeval\fR. I.e. if it
is given a literal list argument the system tracks the line number
within the list words as well, and otherwise all line numbers are
counted relative to the start of each word (smallest scope)
.RE
.TP
\fBinfo functions \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not given, returns a list of all the math
functions currently defined.
If \fIpattern\fR is given, returns only those names that match

\fIpattern\fR according to \fBstring match\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo globals \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not given, returns a list of all the names
of currently-defined global variables.
Global variables are variables in the global namespace.
If \fIpattern\fR is given, only those names matching \fIpattern\fR
are returned.  Matching is determined using the same rules as for
\fBstring match\fR.
.TP
\fBinfo hostname\fR
.
Returns the name of the current host.


This name is not guaranteed to be the fully-qualified domain
name of the host.  Where machines have several different names, as is
common on systems with both TCP/IP (DNS) and NetBIOS-based networking
installed, it is the name that is suitable for TCP/IP networking that
is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo level\fR ?\fIlevel\fR?
.
If \fInumber\fR is not given, the level this routine was called from.
Otherwise returns the complete command active at the given level.  If
\fInumber\fR is greater than \fB0\fR, it is the desired level.  Otherwise, it
is \fInumber\fR levels up from the current level.  A complete command is the
words in the command, with all subsitutions performed, meaning that it is a




list.  See \fBuplevel\fR for more information on levels.

.TP
\fBinfo library\fR
.
Returns the value of \fBtcl_library\fR, which is the name of the library
directory in which the scripts distributed with Tcl scripts are stored.


.TP
\fBinfo loaded \fR?\fIinterp\fR? ?\fIpackage\fR?
.
Returns the name of each file loaded in \fIinterp\fR va \fBload\fR as part of
\fIpackage\fR .  If \fIpackage\fR is not given, returns a list where each item
is the name of the loaded file and the name of the package for which the file
was loaded.  For a statically-loaded package the name of the file is the empty
string.  For \fInterp\fR, the empty string is the current interpreter.






.TP
\fBinfo locals \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.



If \fIpattern\fR is given, returns the name of each local variable matching
\fIpattern\fR according to \fBstring match\fR.  Otherwise, returns the name of
each local variable.  A variables defined with the \fBglobal\fR, \fBupvar\fR or
\fBvariable\fR is not local.




.TP
\fBinfo nameofexecutable\fR
.
Returns the absolute pathname of the program for the current interpreter.  If

such a file can not be identified an empty string is returned.
.TP
\fBinfo object\fI subcommand object\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR

.
Returns information about the object named \fIobject\fR. \fIsubcommand\fR is
described \fBOBJECT INTROSPECTION\fR below.

.TP
\fBinfo patchlevel\fR
.
Returns the value of the global variable \fBtcl_patchLevel\fR, in which the
exact version of the Tcl library initially stored.
.TP
\fBinfo procs \fR?\fIpattern\fR?
.
Returns the names of all visible procedures. If \fIpattern\fR is given, returns
only those names that match according to \fBstring match\fR.  Only the final
component in \fIpattern\fR is actually considered a pattern.  Any qualifying
components simply select a namespace.  See \fBNAMESPACE RESOLUTION\fR in the
\fBnamespace\fR(n) documentation.







.TP
\fBinfo script\fR ?\fIfilename\fR?
.






Returns the pathname of the innermost script currently being evaluated, or the
empty string if no pathname can be determined.  If \fIfilename\fR is given,
sets the return value of any future calls to \fBinfo script\fR for the duration
of the innermost active script.  This is useful in virtual file system

applications.
.TP
\fBinfo sharedlibextension\fR
.
Returns the extension used on this platform for names of shared libraries, e.g.
\fB.so\fR under Solaris.  Returns the empty string if shared libraries are not
supported on this platform.

.TP
\fBinfo tclversion\fR
.
Returns the value of the global variable \fBtcl_version\fR, in which the
major and minor version of the Tcl library are stored.
.TP
\fBinfo vars\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?
.
If \fIpattern\fR is not given, returns the names of all visible variables.  If
\fIpattern\fR is given, returns only those names that match according to



\fBstring match\fR.  Only the last component of \fIpattern\fR is a pattern.





Other components identify a namespace.  See \fBNAMESPACE RESOLUTION\fR in the
\fBnamespace\fR(n) documentation.  When \fIpattern\fR is a qualified name,







results are fully qualified.

A variable that has declared but not yet defined is included in the results.
.SS "CLASS INTROSPECTION"

.PP
The following \fIsubcommand\fR values are supported by \fBinfo class\fR:

.TP
\fBinfo class call\fI class method\fR

.
Returns a description of the method implementations that are used to provide a
stereotypical instance of \fIclass\fR's implementation of \fImethod\fR
(stereotypical instances being objects instantiated by a class without having
any object-specific definitions added). This consists of a list of lists of
four elements, where each sublist consists of a word that describes the
general type of method implementation (being one of \fBmethod\fR for an
ordinary method, \fBfilter\fR for an applied filter,
.VS TIP500
\fBprivate\fR for a private method,
.VE TIP500
and \fBunknown\fR for a
method that is invoked as part of unknown method handling), a word giving the
name of the particular method invoked (which is always the same as
\fImethod\fR for the \fBmethod\fR type, and
.QW \fBunknown\fR
for the \fBunknown\fR type), a word giving the fully qualified name of the
class that defined the method, and a word describing the type of method
implementation (see \fBinfo class methodtype\fR).
.RS
.PP
Note that there is no inspection of whether the method implementations
actually use \fBnext\fR to transfer control along the call chain,
.VS TIP500
and the call chains that this command files do not actually contain private
methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE

.TP
\fBinfo class constructor\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the constructor of
class \fIclass\fR. The definition is described as a two element list; the first
element is the list of arguments to the constructor in a form suitable for
passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition, and the second
element is the body of the constructor. If no constructor is present, this
returns the empty list.

.TP
\fBinfo class definition\fI class method\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the method named
\fImethod\fR of class \fIclass\fR. The definition is described as a two element
list; the first element is the list of arguments to the method in a form
suitable for passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition, and
the second element is the body of the method.
.TP
\fBinfo class definitionnamespace\fI class\fR ?\fIkind\fR?
.VS TIP524
This subcommand returns the definition namespace for \fIkind\fR definitions of
the class \fIclass\fR; the definition namespace only affects the instances of
\fIclass\fR, not \fIclass\fR itself. The \fIkind\fR can be either
\fB\-class\fR to return the definition namespace used for \fBoo::define\fR, or
\fB\-instance\fR to return the definition namespace used for
\fBoo::objdefine\fR; the \fB\-class\fR kind is default (though this is only
actually useful on classes that are subclasses of \fBoo::class\fR).
.RS
.PP
If \fIclass\fR does not provide a definition namespace of the given kind,
this command returns the empty string. In those circumstances, the
\fBoo::define\fR and \fBoo::objdefine\fR commands look up which definition
namespace to use using the class inheritance hierarchy.
.RE
.VE TIP524
.TP
\fBinfo class destructor\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns the body of the destructor of class \fIclass\fR. If no
destructor is present, this returns the empty string.

.TP
\fBinfo class filters\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns the list of filter methods set on the class.

.TP
\fBinfo class forward\fI class method\fR

.
This subcommand returns the argument list for the method forwarding called
\fImethod\fR that is set on the class called \fIclass\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class instances\fI class\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of instances of class \fIclass\fR. If the
optional \fIpattern\fR argument is present, it constrains the list of returned
instances to those that match it according to the rules of \fBstring match\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class methods\fI class\fR ?\fIoptions...\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all public (i.e. exported) methods of the
class called \fIclass\fR. Any of the following \fIoption\fRs may be
given, controlling exactly which method names are returned:
.RS

.TP
\fB\-all\fR
.
If the \fB\-all\fR flag is given,
.VS TIP500
and the \fB\-scope\fR flag is not given,
.VE TIP500
the list of methods will include those
methods defined not just by the class, but also by the class's superclasses
and mixins.

.TP
\fB\-private\fR
.
If the \fB\-private\fR flag is given,
.VS TIP500
and the \fB\-scope\fR flag is not given,
.VE TIP500
the list of methods will also include
the non-exported methods of the class (and superclasses and
mixins, if \fB\-all\fR is also given).
.VS TIP500
Note that this naming is an unfortunate clash with true private methods; this
option name is retained for backward compatibility.
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fB\-scope\fI scope\fR
.VS TIP500
Returns a list of all methods on \fIclass\fR that have the given visibility
\fIscope\fR.  When this option is supplied, both the \fB\-all\fR and
\fB\-private\fR options are ignored. The valid values for \fIscope\fR are:
.RS
.IP \fBpublic\fR 3
Only methods with \fIpublic\fR scope (i.e., callable from anywhere by any instance
of this class) are to be returned.
.IP \fBunexported\fR 3
Only methods with \fIunexported\fR scope (i.e., only callable via \fBmy\fR) are to
be returned.
.IP \fBprivate\fR 3
Only methods with \fIprivate\fR scope (i.e., only callable from within this class's
methods) are to be returned.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBinfo class methodtype\fI class method\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the type of implementation used for
the method named \fImethod\fR of class \fIclass\fR. When the result is
\fBmethod\fR, further information can be discovered with \fBinfo class
definition\fR, and when the result is \fBforward\fR, further information can
be discovered with \fBinfo class forward\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class mixins\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns a list of all classes that have been mixed into the
class named \fIclass\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class subclasses\fI class\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of direct subclasses of class \fIclass\fR. If
the optional \fIpattern\fR argument is present, it constrains the list of
returned classes to those that match it according to the rules of
\fBstring match\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo class superclasses\fI class\fR

.
This subcommand returns a list of direct superclasses of class \fIclass\fR in
inheritance precedence order.

.TP
\fBinfo class variables\fI class\fR ?\fB\-private\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all variables that have been declared for
the class named \fIclass\fR (i.e. that are automatically present in the
class's methods, constructor and destructor).
.VS TIP500
If the \fB\-private\fR option is given, this lists the private variables
declared instead.
.VE TIP500
.SS "OBJECT INTROSPECTION"
.PP
The following \fIsubcommand\fR values are supported by \fBinfo object\fR:

.TP
\fBinfo object call\fI object method\fR

.
Returns a description of the method implementations that are used to provide
\fIobject\fR's implementation of \fImethod\fR.  This consists of a list of
lists of four elements, where each sublist consists of a word that describes
the general type of method implementation (being one of \fBmethod\fR for an
ordinary method, \fBfilter\fR for an applied filter,
.VS TIP500
\fBprivate\fR for a private method,
.VE TIP500
and \fBunknown\fR for a
method that is invoked as part of unknown method handling), a word giving the
name of the particular method invoked (which is always the same as
\fImethod\fR for the \fBmethod\fR type, and
.QW \fBunknown\fR
for the \fBunknown\fR type), a word giving what defined the method (the fully
qualified name of the class, or the literal string \fBobject\fR if the method
implementation is on an instance), and a word describing the type of method
implementation (see \fBinfo object methodtype\fR).
.RS
.PP
Note that there is no inspection of whether the method implementations
actually use \fBnext\fR to transfer control along the call chain,
.VS TIP500
and the call chains that this command files do not actually contain private
methods.
.VE TIP500
.RE

.TP
\fBinfo object class\fI object\fR ?\fIclassName\fR?

.
If \fIclassName\fR is not given, this subcommand returns class of the
\fIobject\fR object. If \fIclassName\fR is present, this subcommand returns a
boolean value indicating whether the \fIobject\fR is of that class.
.TP
\fBinfo object creationid\fI object\fR
.VS TIP500
Returns the unique creation identifier for the \fIobject\fR object. This
creation identifier is unique to the object (within a Tcl interpreter) and
cannot be controlled at object creation time or altered afterwards.
.RS
.PP
\fIImplementation note:\fR the creation identifier is used to generate unique
identifiers associated with the object, especially for private variables.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fBinfo object definition\fI object method\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the definition of the method named
\fImethod\fR of object \fIobject\fR. The definition is described as a two
element list; the first element is the list of arguments to the method in a
form suitable for passing to another call to \fBproc\fR or a method definition,
and the second element is the body of the method.

.TP
\fBinfo object filters\fI object\fR

.
This subcommand returns the list of filter methods set on the object.

.TP
\fBinfo object forward\fI object method\fR

.
This subcommand returns the argument list for the method forwarding called
\fImethod\fR that is set on the object called \fIobject\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object isa\fI category object\fR ?\fIarg\fR?

.
This subcommand tests whether an object belongs to a particular category,
returning a boolean value that indicates whether the \fIobject\fR argument
meets the criteria for the category. The supported categories are:

.RS
.TP
\fBinfo object isa class\fI object\fR

.
This returns whether \fIobject\fR is a class (i.e. an instance of
\fBoo::class\fR or one of its subclasses).

.TP
\fBinfo object isa metaclass\fI object\fR

.
This returns whether \fIobject\fR is a class that can manufacture classes
(i.e. is \fBoo::class\fR or a subclass of it).

.TP
\fBinfo object isa mixin\fI object class\fR

.
This returns whether \fIclass\fR is directly mixed into \fIobject\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object isa object\fI object\fR

.
This returns whether \fIobject\fR really is an object.

.TP
\fBinfo object isa typeof\fI object class\fR

.
This returns whether \fIclass\fR is the type of \fIobject\fR (i.e. whether
\fIobject\fR is an instance of \fIclass\fR or one of its subclasses, whether
direct or indirect).
.RE

.TP
\fBinfo object methods\fI object\fR ?\fIoption...\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all public (i.e. exported) methods of the
object called \fIobject\fR. Any of the following \fIoption\fRs may be
given, controlling exactly which method names are returned:
.RS

.TP
\fB\-all\fR
.
If the \fB\-all\fR flag is given,
.VS TIP500
and the \fB\-scope\fR flag is not given,
.VE TIP500
the list of methods will include those
methods defined not just by the object, but also by the object's class and
mixins, plus the superclasses of those classes.

.TP
\fB\-private\fR
.
If the \fB\-private\fR flag is given,
.VS TIP500
and the \fB\-scope\fR flag is not given,
.VE TIP500
the list of methods will also include
the non-exported methods of the object (and classes, if
\fB\-all\fR is also given).
.VS TIP500
Note that this naming is an unfortunate clash with true private methods; this
option name is retained for backward compatibility.
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fB\-scope\fI scope\fR
.VS TIP500
Returns a list of all methods on \fIobject\fR that have the given visibility
\fIscope\fR.  When this option is supplied, both the \fB\-all\fR and
\fB\-private\fR options are ignored. The valid values for \fIscope\fR are:
.RS
.IP \fBpublic\fR 3
Only methods with \fIpublic\fR scope (i.e., callable from anywhere) are to be
returned.
.IP \fBunexported\fR 3
Only methods with \fIunexported\fR scope (i.e., only callable via \fBmy\fR) are to
be returned.
.IP \fBprivate\fR 3
Only methods with \fIprivate\fR scope (i.e., only callable from within this object's
instance methods) are to be returned.
.RE
.VE TIP500
.RE
.TP
\fBinfo object methodtype\fI object method\fR

.
This subcommand returns a description of the type of implementation used for
the method named \fImethod\fR of object \fIobject\fR. When the result is
\fBmethod\fR, further information can be discovered with \fBinfo object
definition\fR, and when the result is \fBforward\fR, further information can
be discovered with \fBinfo object forward\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object mixins\fI object\fR

.
This subcommand returns a list of all classes that have been mixed into the
object named \fIobject\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object namespace\fI object\fR

.
This subcommand returns the name of the internal namespace of the object named
\fIobject\fR.

.TP
\fBinfo object variables\fI object\fRR ?\fB\-private\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all variables that have been declared for
the object named \fIobject\fR (i.e. that are automatically present in the
object's methods).
.VS TIP500
If the \fB\-private\fR option is given, this lists the private variables
declared instead.
.VE TIP500
.TP
\fBinfo object vars\fI object\fR ?\fIpattern\fR?

.
This subcommand returns a list of all variables in the private namespace of
the object named \fIobject\fR. If the optional \fIpattern\fR argument is
given, it is a filter (in the syntax of a \fBstring match\fR glob pattern)
that constrains the list of variables returned. Note that this is different
from the list returned by \fBinfo object variables\fR; that can include
variables that are currently unset, whereas this can include variables that
are not automatically included by any of \fIobject\fR's methods (or those of
its class, superclasses or mixins).

.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This command prints out a procedure suitable for saving in a Tcl
script:
.PP
.CS
proc printProc {procName} {
................................................................................
            lappend formals [list $var]
        }
    }
    puts [lappend result $formals [\fBinfo body\fR $procName]]
}
.CE
.SS "EXAMPLES WITH OBJECTS"

.PP
Every object necessarily knows what its class is; this information is
trivially extractable through introspection:
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c
c create o
................................................................................
The introspection capabilities can be used to discover what class implements a
method and get how it is defined. This procedure illustrates how:
.PP
.CS
proc getDef {obj method} {
    foreach inf [\fBinfo object call\fR $obj $method] {
        lassign $inf calltype name locus methodtype

        # Assume no forwards or filters, and hence no $calltype
        # or $methodtype checks...

        if {$locus eq "object"} {
            return [\fBinfo object definition\fR $obj $name]
        } else {
            return [\fBinfo class definition\fR $locus $name]
        }
    }
    error "no definition for $method"
................................................................................
.PP
.CS
proc getDef {obj method} {
    if {$method in [\fBinfo object methods\fR $obj]} {
        # Assume no forwards
        return [\fBinfo object definition\fR $obj $method]
    }

    set cls [\fBinfo object class\fR $obj]

    while {$method ni [\fBinfo class methods\fR $cls]} {
        # Assume the simple case
        set cls [lindex [\fBinfo class superclass\fR $cls] 0]
        if {$cls eq ""} {
            error "no definition for $method"
        }
    }

    # Assume no forwards
    return [\fBinfo class definition\fR $cls $method]
}
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"

global(n), oo::class(n), oo::define(n), oo::object(n), proc(n), self(n),

tcl_library(n), tcl_patchLevel(n), tcl_version(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, information, interpreter, introspection, level, namespace,



object, procedure, variable
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/interp.n.

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\fBinterp\fR \fBdebug \fIpath\fR ?\fB\-frame\fR ?\fIbool\fR??
.
Controls whether frame-level stack information is captured in the
slave interpreter identified by \fIpath\fR.  If no arguments are
given, option and current setting are returned.  If \fB\-frame\fR
is given, the debug setting is set to the given boolean if provided
and the current setting is returned.
This only effects the output of \fBinfo frame\fR, in that exact
frame-level information for command invocation at the bytecode level
is only captured with this setting on.
.RS
.PP
For example, with code like
.PP
.CS
................................................................................
execution of all commands.
.PP
Note that once it is on, this flag cannot be switched back off: such
attempts are silently ignored. This is needed to maintain the
consistency of the underlying interpreter's state.
.RE
.TP
\fBinterp\fR \fBdelete \fR?\fIpath ...?\fR
.
Deletes zero or more interpreters given by the optional \fIpath\fR
arguments, and for each interpreter, it also deletes its slaves. The
command also deletes the slave command for each interpreter deleted.
For each \fIpath\fR argument, if no interpreter by that name
exists, the command raises an error.
.TP






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\fBinterp\fR \fBdebug \fIpath\fR ?\fB\-frame\fR ?\fIbool\fR??
.
Controls whether frame-level stack information is captured in the
slave interpreter identified by \fIpath\fR.  If no arguments are
given, option and current setting are returned.  If \fB\-frame\fR
is given, the debug setting is set to the given boolean if provided
and the current setting is returned.
This only affects the output of \fBinfo frame\fR, in that exact
frame-level information for command invocation at the bytecode level
is only captured with this setting on.
.RS
.PP
For example, with code like
.PP
.CS
................................................................................
execution of all commands.
.PP
Note that once it is on, this flag cannot be switched back off: such
attempts are silently ignored. This is needed to maintain the
consistency of the underlying interpreter's state.
.RE
.TP
\fBinterp\fR \fBdelete \fR?\fIpath ...\fR?
.
Deletes zero or more interpreters given by the optional \fIpath\fR
arguments, and for each interpreter, it also deletes its slaves. The
command also deletes the slave command for each interpreter deleted.
For each \fIpath\fR argument, if no interpreter by that name
exists, the command raises an error.
.TP

Changes to doc/join.n.

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\fBjoin\fR $data
     \fB\(-> 1 2 3 4 5 {6 7} 8\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), split(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, join, list, separator










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\fBjoin\fR $data
     \fB\(-> 1 2 3 4 5 {6 7} 8\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), split(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, join, list, separator
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/lappend.n.

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.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command treats the variable given by \fIvarName\fR as a list
and appends each of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to that list as a separate
element, with spaces between elements.
If \fIvarName\fR does not exist, it is created as a list with elements
given by the \fIvalue\fR arguments.






\fBLappend\fR is similar to \fBappend\fR except that the \fIvalue\fRs
are appended as list elements rather than raw text.
This command provides a relatively efficient way to build up
large lists.  For example,
.QW "\fBlappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
.QW "\fBset a [concat $a [list $b]]\fR"
................................................................................
1 2 3 4 5
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n),
lsort(n), lrange(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
append, element, list, variable










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.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command treats the variable given by \fIvarName\fR as a list
and appends each of the \fIvalue\fR arguments to that list as a separate
element, with spaces between elements.
If \fIvarName\fR does not exist, it is created as a list with elements
given by the \fIvalue\fR arguments.
.VS TIP508
If \fIvarName\fR indicate an element that does not exist of an array that has
a default value set, list that is comprised of the default value with all the
\fIvalue\fR arguments appended as elements will be stored in the array
element.
.VE TIP508
\fBLappend\fR is similar to \fBappend\fR except that the \fIvalue\fRs
are appended as list elements rather than raw text.
This command provides a relatively efficient way to build up
large lists.  For example,
.QW "\fBlappend a $b\fR"
is much more efficient than
.QW "\fBset a [concat $a [list $b]]\fR"
................................................................................
1 2 3 4 5
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n),
lsort(n), lrange(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
append, element, list, variable
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/lindex.n.

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.TH lindex n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lindex \- Retrieve an element from a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlindex \fIlist ?index ...?\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlindex\fR command accepts a parameter, \fIlist\fR, which
it treats as a Tcl list. It also accepts zero or more \fIindices\fR into
the list.  The indices may be presented either consecutively on the
command line, or grouped in a






|







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.TH lindex n 8.4 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lindex \- Retrieve an element from a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlindex \fIlist\fR ?\fIindex ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlindex\fR command accepts a parameter, \fIlist\fR, which
it treats as a Tcl list. It also accepts zero or more \fIindices\fR into
the list.  The indices may be presented either consecutively on the
command line, or grouped in a

Added doc/link.n.
























































































































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2011-2015 Andreas Kupries
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH link n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
link \- create link from command to method of object
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBlink\fR \fImethodName\fR ?\fI...\fR?
\fBlink\fR \fB{\fIcommandName methodName\fB}\fR ?\fI...\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
The \fBlink\fR command is available within methods. It takes a series of one
or more method names (\fImethodName ...\fR) and/or pairs of command- and
method-name (\fB{\fIcommandName methodName\fB}\fR) and makes the named methods
available as commands without requiring the explicit use of the name of the
object or the \fBmy\fR command. The method does not need to exist at the time
that the link is made; if the link command is invoked when the method does not
exist, the standard \fBunknown\fR method handling system is used.
.PP
The command name under which the method becomes available defaults to the
method name, except where explicitly specified through an alias/method pair.
Formally, every argument must be a list; if the list has two elements, the
first element is the name of the command to create and the second element is
the name of the method of the current object to which the command links;
otherwise, the name of the command and the name of the method are the same
string (the first element of the list).
.PP
If the name of the command is not a fully-qualified command name, it will be
resolved with respect to the current namespace (i.e., the object namespace).
.SH EXAMPLES
This demonstrates linking a single method in various ways. First it makes a
simple link, then a renamed link, then an external link. Note that the method
itself is unexported, but that it can still be called directly from outside
the class.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create ABC {
    method Foo {} {
        puts "This is Foo in [self]"
    }

    constructor {} {
        \fBlink\fR Foo
        # The method foo is now directly accessible as foo here
        \fBlink\fR {bar Foo}
        # The method foo is now directly accessible as bar
        \fBlink\fR {::ExternalCall Foo}
        # The method foo is now directly accessible in the global
        # namespace as ExternalCall
    }

    method grill {} {
        puts "Step 1:"
        Foo
        puts "Step 2:"
        bar
    }
}

ABC create abc
abc grill
        \fI\(-> Step 1:\fR
        \fI\(-> This is foo in ::abc\fR
        \fI\(-> Step 2:\fR
        \fI\(-> This is foo in ::abc\fR
# Direct access via the linked command
puts "Step 3:"; ExternalCall
        \fI\(-> Step 3:\fR
        \fI\(-> This is foo in ::abc\fR
.CE
.PP
This example shows that multiple linked commands can be made in a call to
\fBlink\fR, and that they can handle arguments.
.PP
.CS
oo::class create Ex {
    constructor {} {
        \fBlink\fR a b c
        # The methods a, b, and c (defined below) are all now
        # directly acessible within methods under their own names.
    }

    method a {} {
        puts "This is a"
    }
    method b {x} {
        puts "This is b($x)"
    }
    method c {y z} {
        puts "This is c($y,$z)"
    }

    method call {p q r} {
        a
        b $p
        c $q $r
    }
}

set o [Ex new]
$o 3 5 7
        \fI\(-> This is a\fR
        \fI\(-> This is b(3)\fR
        \fI\(-> This is c(5,7)\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
interp(n), my(n), oo::class(n), oo::define(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, method, object
.\" Local Variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/llength.n.

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1,0
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, length










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1,0
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, length
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/load.n.

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.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
The following is a minimal extension:
.PP
.CS
#include <tcl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
static int fooCmd(ClientData clientData,
        Tcl_Interp *interp, int objc, Tcl_Obj *const objv[]) {
    printf("called with %d arguments\en", objc);
    return TCL_OK;
}
int Foo_Init(Tcl_Interp *interp) {
    if (Tcl_InitStubs(interp, "8.1", 0) == NULL) {
	return TCL_ERROR;






|







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.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
The following is a minimal extension:
.PP
.CS
#include <tcl.h>
#include <stdio.h>
static int fooCmd(void *clientData,
        Tcl_Interp *interp, int objc, Tcl_Obj *const objv[]) {
    printf("called with %d arguments\en", objc);
    return TCL_OK;
}
int Foo_Init(Tcl_Interp *interp) {
    if (Tcl_InitStubs(interp, "8.1", 0) == NULL) {
	return TCL_ERROR;

Added doc/lpop.n.
































































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 by Peter Spjuth.  All rights reserved.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH lpop n 8.7 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lpop \- Get and remove an element in a list
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlpop \fIvarName ?index ...?\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBlpop\fR command accepts a parameter, \fIvarName\fR, which
it interprets as the name of a variable containing a Tcl list.
It also accepts one or more \fIindices\fR into
the list. If no indices are presented, it defaults to "end".
.PP
When presented with a single index, the \fBlpop\fR command
addresses the \fIindex\fR'th element in it, removes if from the list
and returns the element.
.PP
If \fIindex\fR is negative or greater or equal than the number
of elements in \fI$varName\fR, then an error occurs.
.PP
The interpretation of each simple \fIindex\fR value is the same as
for the command \fBstring index\fR, supporting simple index
arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the list.
.PP
If additional \fIindex\fR arguments are supplied, then each argument is
used in turn to address an element within a sublist designated
by the previous indexing operation,
allowing the script to remove elements in sublists.
The command,
.PP
.CS
\fBlpop\fR a 1 2
.CE
.PP
gets and removes element 2 of sublist 1.
.PP
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
In each of these examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is:
.PP
.CS
set x [list [list a b c] [list d e f] [list g h i]]
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {d e f} {g h i}\fR
.CE
.PP
The indicated value becomes the new value of \fIx\fR
(except in the last case, which is an error which leaves the value of
\fIx\fR unchanged.)
.PP
.CS
\fBlpop\fR x 0
      \fI\(-> {d e f} {g h i}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x 2
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {d e f}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x end
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {d e f}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x end-1
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {g h i}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x 2 1
      \fI\(-> {a b c} {d e f} {g i}\fR
\fBlpop\fR x 2 3 j
      \fI\(-> list index out of range\fR
.CE
.PP
In the following examples, the initial value of \fIx\fR is:
.PP
.CS
set x [list [list [list a b] [list c d]] \e
            [list [list e f] [list g h]]]
      \fI\(-> {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} {g h}}\fR
.CE
.PP
The indicated value becomes the new value of \fIx\fR.
.PP
.CS
\fBlpop\fR x 1 1 0
      \fI\(-> {{a b} {c d}} {{e f} h}\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lsort(n), lrange(n), lreplace(n), lset(n)
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list, remove, pop, stack, queue
'\"Local Variables:
'\"mode: nroff
'\"End:

Changes to doc/lrange.n.

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78




% lindex $var 1
elements to
% \fBlrange\fR $var 1 1
{elements to}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lreplace(n), lsort(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, range, sublist










|



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% lindex $var 1
elements to
% \fBlrange\fR $var 1 1
{elements to}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lremove(n), lreplace(n), lsort(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, range, sublist
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Added doc/lremove.n.














































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2019 Donal K. Fellows.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH lremove n 8.7 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
lremove \- Remove elements from a list by index
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlremove \fIlist\fR ?\fIindex ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBlremove\fR returns a new list formed by simultaneously removing zero or
more elements of \fIlist\fR at each of the indices given by an arbirary number
of \fIindex\fR arguments. The indices may be in any order and may be repeated;
the element at index will only be removed once.  The index values are
interpreted the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR,
supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the end of the
list.  0 refers to the first element of the list, and \fBend\fR refers to the
last element of the list.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Removing the third element of a list:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlremove\fR {a b c d e} 2
a b d e
.CE
.PP
Removing two elements from a list:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlremove\fR {a b c d e} end-1 1
a c e
.CE
.PP
Removing the same element indicated in two different ways:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlremove\fR {a b c d e} 2 end-2
a b d e
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lrange(n), lsearch(n), lsearch(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, remove
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

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\fBlrepeat\fR 3 a b c
      \fI\(-> a b c a b c a b c\fR
\fBlrepeat\fR 3 [\fBlrepeat\fR 2 a] b c
      \fI\(-> {a a} b c {a a} b c {a a} b c\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list










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\fBlrepeat\fR 3 a b c
      \fI\(-> a b c a b c a b c\fR
\fBlrepeat\fR 3 [\fBlrepeat\fR 2 a] b c
      \fI\(-> {a a} b c {a a} b c {a a} b c\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lset(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
element, index, list
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

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.SH NAME
lreplace \- Replace elements in a list with new elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlreplace \fIlist first last \fR?\fIelement element ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBlreplace\fR returns a new list formed by replacing one or more elements of
\fIlist\fR with the \fIelement\fR arguments.
\fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are index values specifying the first and
last elements of the range to replace.
The index values \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are interpreted
the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR,
supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the
end of the list.
0 refers to the first element of the
list, and \fBend\fR refers to the last element of the list.
If \fIlist\fR is empty, then \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are ignored.
.PP

If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero, it is considered to refer to before the
first element of the list.  For non-empty lists, the element indicated
by \fIfirst\fR must exist or \fIfirst\fR must indicate before the
start of the list.




.PP
If \fIlast\fR is less than \fIfirst\fR, then any specified elements
will be inserted into the list before the point specified by \fIfirst\fR
with no elements being deleted.
.PP
The \fIelement\fR arguments specify zero or more new arguments to
be added to the list in place of those that were deleted.
Each \fIelement\fR argument will become a separate element of
the list.  If no \fIelement\fR arguments are specified, then the elements
between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are simply deleted.  If \fIlist\fR
is empty, any \fIelement\fR arguments are added to the end of the list.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Replacing an element of a list with another:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlreplace\fR {a b c d e} 1 1 foo
a foo c d e
................................................................................
.CS
proc lremove {listVariable value} {
    upvar 1 $listVariable var
    set idx [lsearch -exact $var $value]
    set var [\fBlreplace\fR $var $idx $idx]
}
.CE













.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lrange(n), lsort(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, replace










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.SH NAME
lreplace \- Replace elements in a list with new elements
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBlreplace \fIlist first last \fR?\fIelement element ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
\fBlreplace\fR returns a new list formed by replacing zero or more elements of
\fIlist\fR with the \fIelement\fR arguments.
\fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are index values specifying the first and
last elements of the range to replace.
The index values \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are interpreted
the same as index values for the command \fBstring index\fR,
supporting simple index arithmetic and indices relative to the
end of the list.
0 refers to the first element of the
list, and \fBend\fR refers to the last element of the list.

.PP
If either \fIfirst\fR or \fIlast\fR is less than zero, it is considered
to refer to before the first element of the list. This allows \fBlreplace\fR
to prepend elements to \fIlist\fR.
.VS TIP505
If either \fIfirst\fR or \fIlast\fR indicates a position greater than the
index of the last element of the list, it is treated as if it is an
index one greater than the last element. This allows \fBlreplace\fR to
append elements to \fIlist\fR.
.VE TIP505
.PP
If \fIlast\fR is less than \fIfirst\fR, then any specified elements
will be inserted into the list before the element specified by \fIfirst\fR
with no elements being deleted.
.PP
The \fIelement\fR arguments specify zero or more new elements to
be added to the list in place of those that were deleted.
Each \fIelement\fR argument will become a separate element of
the list.  If no \fIelement\fR arguments are specified, then the elements
between \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR are simply deleted.

.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
Replacing an element of a list with another:
.PP
.CS
% \fBlreplace\fR {a b c d e} 1 1 foo
a foo c d e
................................................................................
.CS
proc lremove {listVariable value} {
    upvar 1 $listVariable var
    set idx [lsearch -exact $var $value]
    set var [\fBlreplace\fR $var $idx $idx]
}
.CE
.PP
.VS TIP505
Appending elements to the list; note that \fBend+2\fR will initially
be treated as if it is \fB6\fR here, but both that and \fB12345\fR are greater
than the index of the final item so they behave identically:
.PP
.CS
% set var {a b c d e}
a b c d e
% set var [\fBlreplace\fR $var 12345 end+2 f g h i]
a b c d e f g h i
.CE
.VE TIP505
.SH "SEE ALSO"
list(n), lappend(n), lindex(n), linsert(n), llength(n), lsearch(n),
lset(n), lrange(n), lremove(n), lsort(n),
string(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
element, list, replace
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

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Returns the result of raising each value to the power of the result of
recursively operating on the result of processing the following arguments, so
.QW "\fB** 2 3 4\fR"
is the same as
.QW "\fB** 2 [** 3 4]\fR" .
Each \fInumber\fR may be
any numeric value, though the second number must not be fractional if the

first is negative. If no arguments are given, the result will be one, and if
only one argument is given, the result will be that argument. The
result will have an integral value only when all arguments are
integral values.
.SS "COMPARISON OPERATORS"
.PP
The behaviors of the comparison operator commands (most of which operate
preferentially on numeric arguments) are as follows:
.TP
\fB==\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.






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Returns the result of raising each value to the power of the result of
recursively operating on the result of processing the following arguments, so
.QW "\fB** 2 3 4\fR"
is the same as
.QW "\fB** 2 [** 3 4]\fR" .
Each \fInumber\fR may be
any numeric value, though the second number must not be fractional if the
first is negative.  The maximum exponent value that Tcl can handle if the
first number is an integer > 1 is 268435455. If no arguments are given,
the result will be one, and if only one argument is given, the result will
be that argument. The result will have an integral value only when all
arguments are integral values.
.SS "COMPARISON OPERATORS"
.PP
The behaviors of the comparison operator commands (most of which operate
preferentially on numeric arguments) are as follows:
.TP
\fB==\fR ?\fIarg\fR ...?
.

Changes to doc/memory.n.

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.TP
\fBmemory active\fR \fIfile\fR
.
Write a list of all currently allocated memory to the specified \fIfile\fR.
.TP
\fBmemory break_on_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR
.
After the \fIcount\fR allocations have been performed, \fBckalloc\fR
outputs a message to this effect and that it is now attempting to enter
the C debugger.  Tcl will then issue a \fISIGINT\fR signal against itself.
If you are running Tcl under a C debugger, it should then enter the debugger
command mode.
.TP
\fBmemory info\fR
.
Returns a report containing the total allocations and frees since
Tcl began, the current packets allocated (the current
number of calls to \fBckalloc\fR not met by a corresponding call
to \fBckfree\fR), the current bytes allocated, and the maximum number
of packets and bytes allocated.
.TP
\fBmemory init \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR]
.
Turn on or off the pre-initialization of all allocated memory
with bogus bytes.  Useful for detecting the use of uninitialized
values.
................................................................................
.
Causes a list of all allocated memory to be written to the specified \fIfile\fR
during the finalization of Tcl's memory subsystem.  Useful for checking
that memory is properly cleaned up during process exit.
.TP
\fBmemory tag\fR \fIstring\fR
.
Each packet of memory allocated by \fBckalloc\fR can have associated
with it a string-valued tag.  In the lists of allocated memory generated
by \fBmemory active\fR and \fBmemory onexit\fR, the tag for each packet
is printed along with other information about the packet.  The
\fBmemory tag\fR command sets the tag value for subsequent calls
to \fBckalloc\fR to be \fIstring\fR.
.TP
\fBmemory trace \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR]
.
Turns memory tracing on or off.  When memory tracing is on, every call
to \fBckalloc\fR causes a line of trace information to be written to
\fIstderr\fR, consisting of the word \fIckalloc\fR, followed by the
address returned, the amount of memory allocated, and the C filename
and line number of the code performing the allocation.  For example:
.RS
.PP
.CS
ckalloc 40e478 98 tclProc.c 1406
.CE
.PP
Calls to \fBckfree\fR are traced in the same manner.
.RE
.TP
\fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR
.
Enable memory tracing after \fIcount\fR \fBckalloc\fRs have been performed.
For example, if you enter \fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc 100\fR,
after the 100th call to \fBckalloc\fR, memory trace information will begin
being displayed for all allocations and frees.  Since there can be a lot
of memory activity before a problem occurs, judicious use of this option
can reduce the slowdown caused by tracing (and the amount of trace information
produced), if you can identify a number of allocations that occur before
the problem sets in.  The current number of memory allocations that have
occurred since Tcl started is printed on a guard zone failure.
.TP
\fBmemory validate \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR]
.
Turns memory validation on or off. When memory validation is enabled,
on every call to \fBckalloc\fR or \fBckfree\fR, the guard zones are
checked for every piece of memory currently in existence that was
allocated by \fBckalloc\fR.  This has a large performance impact and
should only be used when overwrite problems are strongly suspected.
The advantage of enabling memory validation is that a guard zone
overwrite can be detected on the first call to \fBckalloc\fR or
\fBckfree\fR after the overwrite occurred, rather than when the
specific memory with the overwritten guard zone(s) is freed, which may
occur long after the overwrite occurred.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
ckalloc, ckfree, Tcl_ValidateAllMemory, Tcl_DumpActiveMemory, TCL_MEM_DEBUG
.SH KEYWORDS
memory, debug
'\"Local Variables:
'\"mode: nroff
'\"End:






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.TP
\fBmemory active\fR \fIfile\fR
.
Write a list of all currently allocated memory to the specified \fIfile\fR.
.TP
\fBmemory break_on_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR
.
After the \fIcount\fR allocations have been performed, \fBTcl_Alloc\fR
outputs a message to this effect and that it is now attempting to enter
the C debugger.  Tcl will then issue a \fISIGINT\fR signal against itself.
If you are running Tcl under a C debugger, it should then enter the debugger
command mode.
.TP
\fBmemory info\fR
.
Returns a report containing the total allocations and frees since
Tcl began, the current packets allocated (the current
number of calls to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR not met by a corresponding call
to \fBTcl_Free\fR), the current bytes allocated, and the maximum number
of packets and bytes allocated.
.TP
\fBmemory init \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR]
.
Turn on or off the pre-initialization of all allocated memory
with bogus bytes.  Useful for detecting the use of uninitialized
values.
................................................................................
.
Causes a list of all allocated memory to be written to the specified \fIfile\fR
during the finalization of Tcl's memory subsystem.  Useful for checking
that memory is properly cleaned up during process exit.
.TP
\fBmemory tag\fR \fIstring\fR
.
Each packet of memory allocated by \fBTcl_Alloc\fR can have associated
with it a string-valued tag.  In the lists of allocated memory generated
by \fBmemory active\fR and \fBmemory onexit\fR, the tag for each packet
is printed along with other information about the packet.  The
\fBmemory tag\fR command sets the tag value for subsequent calls
to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR to be \fIstring\fR.
.TP
\fBmemory trace \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR]
.
Turns memory tracing on or off.  When memory tracing is on, every call
to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR causes a line of trace information to be written to
\fIstderr\fR, consisting of the word \fITcl_Alloc\fR, followed by the
address returned, the amount of memory allocated, and the C filename
and line number of the code performing the allocation.  For example:
.RS
.PP
.CS
Tcl_Alloc 40e478 98 tclProc.c 1406
.CE
.PP
Calls to \fBTcl_Free\fR are traced in the same manner.
.RE
.TP
\fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc\fR \fIcount\fR
.
Enable memory tracing after \fIcount\fR \fBTcl_Alloc\fRs have been performed.
For example, if you enter \fBmemory trace_on_at_malloc 100\fR,
after the 100th call to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR, memory trace information will begin
being displayed for all allocations and frees.  Since there can be a lot
of memory activity before a problem occurs, judicious use of this option
can reduce the slowdown caused by tracing (and the amount of trace information
produced), if you can identify a number of allocations that occur before
the problem sets in.  The current number of memory allocations that have
occurred since Tcl started is printed on a guard zone failure.
.TP
\fBmemory validate \fR[\fBon\fR|\fBoff\fR]
.
Turns memory validation on or off. When memory validation is enabled,
on every call to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or \fBTcl_Free\fR, the guard zones are
checked for every piece of memory currently in existence that was
allocated by \fBTcl_Alloc\fR.  This has a large performance impact and
should only be used when overwrite problems are strongly suspected.
The advantage of enabling memory validation is that a guard zone
overwrite can be detected on the first call to \fBTcl_Alloc\fR or
\fBTcl_Free\fR after the overwrite occurred, rather than when the
specific memory with the overwritten guard zone(s) is freed, which may
occur long after the overwrite occurred.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_Alloc, Tcl_Free, Tcl_ValidateAllMemory, Tcl_DumpActiveMemory, TCL_MEM_DEBUG
.SH KEYWORDS
memory, debug
'\"Local Variables:
'\"mode: nroff
'\"End:

Changes to doc/msgcat.n.

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.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcmax ?\fIsrc-string src-string ...\fR?
.
Given several source strings, \fB::msgcat::mcmax\fR returns the length
of the longest translated string.  This is useful when designing
localized GUIs, which may require that all buttons, for example, be a
fixed width (which will be the width of the widest button).
.TP
.VS "TIP 412"

\fB::msgcat::mcexists\fR ?\fB-exactnamespace\fR? ?\fB-exactlocale\fR? ?\fB-namespace\fR \fInamespace\fR? \fIsrc-string\fR
.
Return true, if there is a translation for the given \fIsrc-string\fR.
.PP
.RS
The search may be limited by the option \fB\-exactnamespace\fR to only check the current namespace and not any parent namespaces.
.PP






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.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcmax ?\fIsrc-string src-string ...\fR?
.
Given several source strings, \fB::msgcat::mcmax\fR returns the length
of the longest translated string.  This is useful when designing
localized GUIs, which may require that all buttons, for example, be a
fixed width (which will be the width of the widest button).

.VS "TIP 412"
.TP
\fB::msgcat::mcexists\fR ?\fB-exactnamespace\fR? ?\fB-exactlocale\fR? ?\fB-namespace\fR \fInamespace\fR? \fIsrc-string\fR
.
Return true, if there is a translation for the given \fIsrc-string\fR.
.PP
.RS
The search may be limited by the option \fB\-exactnamespace\fR to only check the current namespace and not any parent namespaces.
.PP

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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH my n 0.1 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
my \- invoke any method of current object
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBmy\fI methodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?

.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmy\fR command is used to allow methods of objects to invoke any method





of the object (or its class). In particular, the set of valid values for
\fImethodName\fR is the set of all methods supported by an object and its
superclasses, including those that are not exported. The object upon which the
method is invoked is always the one that is the current context of the method
(i.e. the object that is returned by \fBself object\fR) from which the
\fBmy\fR command is invoked.




.PP












Each object has its own \fBmy\fR command, contained in its instance namespace.

.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example shows basic use of \fBmy\fR to use the \fBvariables\fR method of
the \fBoo::object\fR class, which is not publicly visible by default:
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c {
    method count {} {
        \fBmy\fR variable counter
        puts [incr counter]
    }
}

c create o
o count              \fI\(-> prints "1"\fR
o count              \fI\(-> prints "2"\fR
o count              \fI\(-> prints "3"\fR
.CE























































.SH "SEE ALSO"
next(n), oo::object(n), self(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
method, method visibility, object, private method, public method

.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:






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'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH my n 0.1 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
my, myclass \- invoke any method of current object or its class
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBmy\fI methodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?
\fBmyclass\fI methodName\fR ?\fIarg ...\fR?
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
The \fBmy\fR command is used to allow methods of objects to invoke methods
of the object (or its class),
.VS TIP478
and he \fBmyclass\fR command is used to allow methods of objects to invoke
methods of the current class of the object \fIas an object\fR.
.VE TIP478
In particular, the set of valid values for
\fImethodName\fR is the set of all methods supported by an object and its
superclasses, including those that are not exported



.VS TIP500
and private methods of the object or class when used within another method
defined by that object or class.
.VE TIP500
.PP
The object upon which the method is invoked via \fBmy\fR is the one that owns
the namespace that the \fBmy\fR command is contained in initially (\fBNB:\fR the link
remains if the command is renamed), which is the currently invoked object by
default.
.VS TIP478
Similarly, the object on which the method is invoked via \fBmyclass\fR is the
object that is the current class of the object that owns the namespace that
the \fBmyclass\fR command is contained in initially. As with \fBmy\fR, the
link remains even if the command is renamed into another namespace, and
defaults to being the manufacturing class of the current object.
.VE TIP478
.PP
Each object has its own \fBmy\fR and \fBmyclass\fR commands, contained in its
instance namespace.
.SH EXAMPLES
.PP
This example shows basic use of \fBmy\fR to use the \fBvariables\fR method of
the \fBoo::object\fR class, which is not publicly visible by default:
.PP
.CS
oo::class create c {
    method count {} {
        \fBmy\fR variable counter
        puts [incr counter]
    }
}

c create o
o count              \fI\(-> prints "1"\fR
o count              \fI\(-> prints "2"\fR
o count              \fI\(-> prints "3"\fR
.CE
.PP
This example shows how you can use \fBmy\fR to make callbacks to private
methods from outside the object (from a \fBtrace\fR), using
\fBnamespace code\fR to enter the correct context. (See the \fBcallback\fR
command for the recommended way of doing this.)
.PP
.CS
oo::class create HasCallback {
    method makeCallback {} {
        return [namespace code {
            \fBmy\fR Callback
        }]
    }

    method Callback {args} {
        puts "callback: $args"
    }
}

set o [HasCallback new]
trace add variable xyz write [$o makeCallback]
set xyz "called"     \fI\(-> prints "callback: xyz {} write"\fR
.CE
.PP
.VS TIP478
This example shows how to access a private method of a class from an instance
of that class. (See the \fBclassmethod\fR declaration in \fBoo::define\fR for
a higher level interface for doing this.)
.PP
.CS
oo::class create CountedSteps {
    self {
        variable count
        method Count {} {
            return [incr count]
        }
    }
    method advanceTwice {} {
        puts "in [self] step A: [\fBmyclass\fR Count]"
        puts "in [self] step B: [\fBmyclass\fR Count]"
    }
}

CountedSteps create x
CountedSteps create y
x advanceTwice       \fI\(-> prints "in ::x step A: 1"\fR
                     \fI\(-> prints "in ::x step B: 2"\fR
y advanceTwice       \fI\(-> prints "in ::y step A: 3"\fR
                     \fI\(-> prints "in ::y step B: 4"\fR
x advanceTwice       \fI\(-> prints "in ::x step A: 5"\fR
                     \fI\(-> prints "in ::x step B: 6"\fR
y advanceTwice       \fI\(-> prints "in ::y step A: 7"\fR
                     \fI\(-> prints "in ::y step B: 8"\fR
.CE
.VE TIP478
.SH "SEE ALSO"
next(n), oo::object(n), self(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
method, method visibility, object, private method, public method

.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

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.PP
.CS
oo::class create theSuperclass {
    method example {args} {
        puts "in the superclass, args = $args"
    }
}

oo::class create theSubclass {
    superclass theSuperclass
    method example {args} {
        puts "before chaining from subclass, args = $args"
        \fBnext\fR a {*}$args b
        \fBnext\fR pureSynthesis
        puts "after chaining from subclass"
    }
}

theSubclass create obj
oo::objdefine obj method example args {
    puts "per-object method, args = $args"
    \fBnext\fR x {*}$args y
    \fBnext\fR
}
obj example 1 2 3
................................................................................
        if {[info exist ValueCache($key)]} {
            return $ValueCache($key)
        }

        \fI# Compute value, insert into cache, and return it\fR
        return [set ValueCache($key) [\fBnext\fR {*}$args]]
    }

    method flushCache {} {
        my variable ValueCache
        unset ValueCache
        \fI# Skip the caching\fR
        return -level 2 ""
    }
}

oo::object create demo
oo::objdefine demo {
    mixin cache

    method compute {a b c} {
        after 3000 \fI;# Simulate deep thought\fR
        return [expr {$a + $b * $c}]
    }

    method compute2 {a b c} {
        after 3000 \fI;# Simulate deep thought\fR
        return [expr {$a * $b + $c}]
    }
}

puts [demo compute  1 2 3]      \fI\(-> prints "7" after delay\fR






>









>







 







>











>




>







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.PP
.CS
oo::class create theSuperclass {
    method example {args} {
        puts "in the superclass, args = $args"
    }
}

oo::class create theSubclass {
    superclass theSuperclass
    method example {args} {
        puts "before chaining from subclass, args = $args"
        \fBnext\fR a {*}$args b
        \fBnext\fR pureSynthesis
        puts "after chaining from subclass"
    }
}

theSubclass create obj
oo::objdefine obj method example args {
    puts "per-object method, args = $args"
    \fBnext\fR x {*}$args y
    \fBnext\fR
}
obj example 1 2 3
................................................................................
        if {[info exist ValueCache($key)]} {
            return $ValueCache($key)
        }

        \fI# Compute value, insert into cache, and return it\fR
        return [set ValueCache($key) [\fBnext\fR {*}$args]]
    }

    method flushCache {} {
        my variable ValueCache
        unset ValueCache
        \fI# Skip the caching\fR
        return -level 2 ""
    }
}

oo::object create demo
oo::objdefine demo {
    mixin cache

    method compute {a b c} {
        after 3000 \fI;# Simulate deep thought\fR
        return [expr {$a + $b * $c}]
    }

    method compute2 {a b c} {
        after 3000 \fI;# Simulate deep thought\fR
        return [expr {$a * $b + $c}]
    }
}

puts [demo compute  1 2 3]      \fI\(-> prints "7" after delay\fR

Changes to doc/open.n.

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.SH "SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS"
.PP
If \fIfileName\fR refers to a serial port, then the specified serial port
is opened and initialized in a platform-dependent manner.  Acceptable
values for the \fIfileName\fR to use to open a serial port are described in
the PORTABILITY ISSUES section.
.PP
The \fBfconfigure\fR command can be used to query and set additional
configuration options specific to serial ports (where supported):

.TP
\fB\-mode\fR \fIbaud\fB,\fIparity\fB,\fIdata\fB,\fIstop\fR
.
This option is a set of 4 comma-separated values: the baud rate, parity,
number of data bits, and number of stop bits for this serial port.  The
\fIbaud\fR rate is a simple integer that specifies the connection speed.
\fIParity\fR is one of the following letters: \fBn\fR, \fBo\fR, \fBe\fR,
................................................................................
.TP
\fB\-xchar\fR \fI{xonChar xoffChar}\fR
.
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to query or change the software
handshake characters. Normally the operating system default should be
DC1 (0x11) and DC3 (0x13) representing the ASCII standard
XON and XOFF characters.





































































.TP
\fB\-pollinterval\fR \fImsec\fR
.
(Windows only). This option is used to set the maximum time between
polling for fileevents.
This affects the time interval between checking for events throughout the Tcl
interpreter (the smallest value always wins).  Use this option only if
................................................................................
\fB\-lasterror\fR
.
(Windows only). This option is query only.
In case of a serial communication error, \fBread\fR or \fBputs\fR
returns a general Tcl file I/O error.
\fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-lasterror\fR can be called to get a list of error details.
See below for an explanation of the various error codes.
.SH "SERIAL PORT SIGNALS"
.PP
RS-232 is the most commonly used standard electrical interface for serial
communications. A negative voltage (-3V..-12V) define a mark (on=1) bit and
a positive voltage (+3..+12V) define a space (off=0) bit (RS-232C).  The
following signals are specified for incoming and outgoing data, status
lines and handshaking. Here we are using the terms \fIworkstation\fR for
your computer and \fImodem\fR for the external device, because some signal
................................................................................
.IP \fBBREAK\fR
A BREAK condition is not a hardware signal line, but a logical zero on the
TXD or RXD lines for a long period of time, usually 250 to 500
milliseconds.  Normally a receive or transmit data signal stays at the mark
(on=1) voltage until the next character is transferred. A BREAK is sometimes
used to reset the communications line or change the operating mode of
communications hardware.
.SH "ERROR CODES (Windows only)"
.PP
A lot of different errors may occur during serial read operations or during
event polling in background. The external device may have been switched
off, the data lines may be noisy, system buffers may overrun or your mode
settings may be wrong.  That is why a reliable software should always
\fBcatch\fR serial read operations.  In cases of an error Tcl returns a
general file I/O error.  Then \fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-lasterror\fR may help to
................................................................................
A stop-bit error has been detected by your UART.
Wrong mode settings with \fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-mode\fR or a noisy data line (RXD)
may cause this error.
.TP 10
\fBBREAK\fR
.
A BREAK condition has been detected by your UART (see above).
.SH "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows \fR
.
Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are of the form
\fBcom\fIX\fB\fR, where \fIX\fR is a number, generally from 1 to 9.
A legacy form accepted as well is \fBcom\fIX\fB:\fR. This notation only
works for serial ports from 1 to 9.  An attempt to open a serial port that
................................................................................
not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard
input, but is redirected from a file, then the above problem does not occur.
.RE
.PP
See the \fBPORTABILITY ISSUES\fR section of the \fBexec\fR command for
additional information not specific to command pipelines about executing
applications on the various platforms
















































.SH "EXAMPLE"
.PP
Open a command pipeline and catch any errors:
.PP
.CS
set fl [\fBopen\fR "| ls this_file_does_not_exist"]
set data [read $fl]
if {[catch {close $fl} err]} {
    puts "ls command failed: $err"
}
.CE
















.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), close(n), filename(n), fconfigure(n), gets(n), read(n),
puts(n), exec(n), pid(n), fopen(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
access mode, append, create, file, non-blocking, open, permissions,
pipeline, process, serial
'\"Local Variables:
'\"mode: nroff
'\"End:






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.SH "SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS"
.PP
If \fIfileName\fR refers to a serial port, then the specified serial port
is opened and initialized in a platform-dependent manner.  Acceptable
values for the \fIfileName\fR to use to open a serial port are described in
the PORTABILITY ISSUES section.
.PP
The \fBchan configure\fR and \fBfconfigure\fR commands can be used to query
and set additional configuration options specific to serial ports (where
supported):
.TP
\fB\-mode\fR \fIbaud\fB,\fIparity\fB,\fIdata\fB,\fIstop\fR
.
This option is a set of 4 comma-separated values: the baud rate, parity,
number of data bits, and number of stop bits for this serial port.  The
\fIbaud\fR rate is a simple integer that specifies the connection speed.
\fIParity\fR is one of the following letters: \fBn\fR, \fBo\fR, \fBe\fR,
................................................................................
.TP
\fB\-xchar\fR \fI{xonChar xoffChar}\fR
.
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to query or change the software
handshake characters. Normally the operating system default should be
DC1 (0x11) and DC3 (0x13) representing the ASCII standard
XON and XOFF characters.
.TP
\fB\-closemode\fR \fIcloseMode\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 160"
(Windows and Unix). This option is used to query or change the close mode of
the serial channel, which defines how pending output in operating system
buffers is handled when the channel is closed. The following values for
\fIcloseMode\fR are supported:
.RS
.TP
\fBdefault\fR
.
indicates that a system default operation should be used; all serial channels
default to this.
.TP
\fBdiscard\fR
.
indicates that the contents of the OS buffers should be discarded.  Note that
this is \fInot recommended\fR when writing to a POSIX terminal, as it can
interact unexpectedly with handling of \fBstderr\fR.
.TP
\fBdrain\fR
.
indicates that Tcl should wait when closing the channel until all output has
been consumed. This may slow down \fBclose\fR noticeably.
.RE
.VE "8.7, TIP 160"
.TP
\fB\-inputmode\fR \fIinputMode\fR
.VS "8.7, TIP 160"
(Unix only; Windows has the equivalent option on console channels). This
option is used to query or change the input mode of the serial channel under
the assumption that it is talking to a terminal, which controls how interactive
input from users is handled. The following values for \fIinputMode\fR are
supported:
.RS
.TP
\fBnormal\fR
.
indicates that normal line-oriented input should be used, with standard
terminal editing capabilities enabled.
.TP
\fBpassword\fR
.
indicates that non-echoing input should be used, with standard terminal
editing capabilities enabled but no writing of typed characters to the
terminal (except for newlines). Some terminals may indicate this specially.
.TP
\fBraw\fR
.
indicates that all keyboard input should be given directly to Tcl with the
terminal doing no processing at all. It does not echo the keys, leaving it up
to the Tcl script to interpret what to do.
.TP
\fBreset\fR (set only)
.
indicates that the terminal should be reset to what state it was in when the
terminal was opened.
.PP
Note that setting this option (technically, anything that changes the terminal
state from its initial value \fIvia this option\fR) will cause the channel to
turn on an automatic reset of the terminal when the channel is closed.
.RE
.TP
\fB\-winsize\fR
.
(Unix only; Windows has the equivalent option on console channels). This
option is query only. It retrieves a two-element list with the the current
width and height of the terminal.
.VE "8.7, TIP 160"
.TP
\fB\-pollinterval\fR \fImsec\fR
.
(Windows only). This option is used to set the maximum time between
polling for fileevents.
This affects the time interval between checking for events throughout the Tcl
interpreter (the smallest value always wins).  Use this option only if
................................................................................
\fB\-lasterror\fR
.
(Windows only). This option is query only.
In case of a serial communication error, \fBread\fR or \fBputs\fR
returns a general Tcl file I/O error.
\fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-lasterror\fR can be called to get a list of error details.
See below for an explanation of the various error codes.
.SS "SERIAL PORT SIGNALS"
.PP
RS-232 is the most commonly used standard electrical interface for serial
communications. A negative voltage (-3V..-12V) define a mark (on=1) bit and
a positive voltage (+3..+12V) define a space (off=0) bit (RS-232C).  The
following signals are specified for incoming and outgoing data, status
lines and handshaking. Here we are using the terms \fIworkstation\fR for
your computer and \fImodem\fR for the external device, because some signal
................................................................................
.IP \fBBREAK\fR
A BREAK condition is not a hardware signal line, but a logical zero on the
TXD or RXD lines for a long period of time, usually 250 to 500
milliseconds.  Normally a receive or transmit data signal stays at the mark
(on=1) voltage until the next character is transferred. A BREAK is sometimes
used to reset the communications line or change the operating mode of
communications hardware.
.SS "ERROR CODES (Windows only)"
.PP
A lot of different errors may occur during serial read operations or during
event polling in background. The external device may have been switched
off, the data lines may be noisy, system buffers may overrun or your mode
settings may be wrong.  That is why a reliable software should always
\fBcatch\fR serial read operations.  In cases of an error Tcl returns a
general file I/O error.  Then \fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-lasterror\fR may help to
................................................................................
A stop-bit error has been detected by your UART.
Wrong mode settings with \fBfconfigure\fR \fB\-mode\fR or a noisy data line (RXD)
may cause this error.
.TP 10
\fBBREAK\fR
.
A BREAK condition has been detected by your UART (see above).
.SS "PORTABILITY ISSUES"
.TP
\fBWindows \fR
.
Valid values for \fIfileName\fR to open a serial port are of the form
\fBcom\fIX\fB\fR, where \fIX\fR is a number, generally from 1 to 9.
A legacy form accepted as well is \fBcom\fIX\fB:\fR. This notation only
works for serial ports from 1 to 9.  An attempt to open a serial port that
................................................................................
not accessing the console, or if the command pipeline does not use standard
input, but is redirected from a file, then the above problem does not occur.
.RE
.PP
See the \fBPORTABILITY ISSUES\fR section of the \fBexec\fR command for
additional information not specific to command pipelines about executing
applications on the various platforms
.SH "CONSOLE CHANNELS"
.VS "8.7, TIP 160"
On Windows only, console channels (usually \fBstdin\fR or \fBstdout\fR)
support the following options:
.TP
\fB\-inputmode\fR \fIinputMode\fR
.
This option is used to query or change the input mode of the console channel,
which controls how interactive input from users is handled. The following
values for \fIinputMode\fR are supported:
.RS
.TP
\fBnormal\fR
.
indicates that normal line-oriented input should be used, with standard
console editing capabilities enabled.
.TP
\fBpassword\fR
.
indicates that non-echoing input should be used, with standard console
editing capabilitied enabled but no writing of typed characters to the
terminal (except for newlines).
.TP
\fBraw\fR
.
indicates that all keyboard input should be given directly to Tcl with the
console doing no processing at all. It does not echo the keys, leaving it up
to the Tcl script to interpret what to do.
.TP
\fBreset\fR (set only)
.
indicates that the console should be reset to what state it was in when the
console channel was opened.
.PP
Note that setting this option (technically, anything that changes the console
state from its default \fIvia this option\fR) will cause the channel to turn
on an automatic reset of the console when the channel is closed.
.RE
.TP
\fB\-winsize\fR
.
This option is query only.
It retrieves a two-element list with the the current width and height of the
console that this channel is talking to.
.PP
Note that the equivalent options exist on Unix, but are on the serial channel
type.
.VE "8.7, TIP 160"
.SH "EXAMPLES"
.PP
Open a command pipeline and catch any errors:
.PP
.CS
set fl [\fBopen\fR "| ls this_file_does_not_exist"]
set data [read $fl]
if {[catch {close $fl} err]} {
    puts "ls command failed: $err"
}
.CE
.PP
.VS "8.7, TIP 160"
Read a password securely from the user (assuming that the script is being run
interactively):
.PP
.CS
chan configure stdin \fB-inputmode password\fR
try {
    chan puts -nonewline "Password: "
    chan flush stdout
    set thePassword [chan gets stdin]
} finally {
    chan configure stdin \fB-inputmode reset\fR
}
.CE
.VE "8.7, TIP 160"
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), close(n), filename(n), fconfigure(n), gets(n), read(n),
puts(n), exec(n), pid(n), fopen(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
access mode, append, create, file, non-blocking, open, permissions,
pipeline, process, serial
'\"Local Variables:
'\"mode: nroff
'\"End:

Changes to doc/packagens.n.

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specified.
.PP
At least one \fB\-load\fR or \fB\-source\fR parameter must be given.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
auto-load, index, package, version










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specified.
.PP
At least one \fB\-load\fR or \fB\-source\fR parameter must be given.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
package(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
auto-load, index, package, version
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

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puts [string repeat - 70]
puts [read $pipeline]
close $pipeline
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
exec(n), open(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
file, pipeline, process identifier










<


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puts [string repeat - 70]
puts [read $pipeline]
close $pipeline
.CE

.SH "SEE ALSO"
exec(n), open(n)

.SH KEYWORDS
file, pipeline, process identifier
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/platform.n.

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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
platform \- System identification support code and utilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require platform ?1.0.10?\fR
.sp
\fBplatform::generic\fR
\fBplatform::identify\fR
\fBplatform::patterns \fIidentifier\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION






|







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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
platform \- System identification support code and utilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require platform\fR ?\fB1.0.10\fR?
.sp
\fBplatform::generic\fR
\fBplatform::identify\fR
\fBplatform::patterns \fIidentifier\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION

Changes to doc/platform_shell.n.

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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
platform::shell \- System identification support code and utilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require platform::shell ?1.1.4?\fR
.sp
\fBplatform::shell::generic \fIshell\fR
\fBplatform::shell::identify \fIshell\fR
\fBplatform::shell::platform \fIshell\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
for the specified Tcl shell, in contrast to the running shell.
.TP
\fBplatform::shell::platform \fIshell\fR
This command returns the contents of \fBtcl_platform(platform)\fR for
the specified Tcl shell.
.SH KEYWORDS
operating system, cpu architecture, platform, architecture










|







 







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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
platform::shell \- System identification support code and utilities
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fBpackage require platform::shell\fR ?\fB1.1.4\fR?
.sp
\fBplatform::shell::generic \fIshell\fR
\fBplatform::shell::identify \fIshell\fR
\fBplatform::shell::platform \fIshell\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
................................................................................
for the specified Tcl shell, in contrast to the running shell.
.TP
\fBplatform::shell::platform \fIshell\fR
This command returns the contents of \fBtcl_platform(platform)\fR for
the specified Tcl shell.
.SH KEYWORDS
operating system, cpu architecture, platform, architecture
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/prefix.n.

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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tcl::prefix \- facilities for prefix matching
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB::tcl::prefix all\fR \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
\fB::tcl::prefix longest\fR \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
\fB::tcl::prefix match\fR \fI?option ...?\fR \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This document describes commands looking up a prefix in a list of strings.
The following commands are supported:
.TP
\fB::tcl::prefix all\fR \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
.
Returns a list of all elements in \fItable\fR that begin with the prefix
\fIstring\fR.
.TP
\fB::tcl::prefix longest\fR \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
.
Returns the longest common prefix of all elements in \fItable\fR that
begin with the prefix \fIstring\fR.
.TP
\fB::tcl::prefix match\fR ?\fIoptions\fR? \fItable\fR \fIstring\fR
.
If \fIstring\fR equals one element in \fItable\fR or is a prefix to exactly
one element, the matched element is returned. If not, the result depends
on the \fB\-error\fR option. (It is recommended that the \fItable\fR be sorted
before use with this subcommand, so that the list of matches presented in the
error message also becomes sorted, though this is not strictly necessary for
the operation of this subcommand itself.)






|
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.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tcl::prefix \- facilities for prefix matching
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
\fB::tcl::prefix all\fR \fItable string\fR
\fB::tcl::prefix longest\fR \fItable string\fR
\fB::tcl::prefix match\fR ?\fIoption ...\fR? \fItable string\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This document describes commands looking up a prefix in a list of strings.
The following commands are supported:
.TP
\fB::tcl::prefix all\fR \fItable string\fR
.
Returns a list of all elements in \fItable\fR that begin with the prefix
\fIstring\fR.
.TP
\fB::tcl::prefix longest\fR \fItable string\fR
.
Returns the longest common prefix of all elements in \fItable\fR that
begin with the prefix \fIstring\fR.
.TP
\fB::tcl::prefix match\fR ?\fIoptions\fR? \fItable string\fR
.
If \fIstring\fR equals one element in \fItable\fR or is a prefix to exactly
one element, the matched element is returned. If not, the result depends
on the \fB\-error\fR option. (It is recommended that the \fItable\fR be sorted
before use with this subcommand, so that the list of matches presented in the
error message also becomes sorted, though this is not strictly necessary for
the operation of this subcommand itself.)

Added doc/process.n.












































































































































































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2017 Frederic Bonnet.
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH process n 8.7 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
tcl::process \- Subprocess management
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fB::tcl::process \fIoption \fR?\fIarg arg ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This command provides a way to manage subprocesses created by the \fBopen\fR
and \fBexec\fR commands, as identified by the process identifiers (PIDs) of
those subprocesses. The legal \fIoptions\fR (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fB::tcl::process autopurge\fR ?\fIflag\fR?
.
Automatic purge facility. If \fIflag\fR is specified as a boolean value then
it activates or deactivate autopurge. In all cases it returns the current
status as a boolean value. When autopurge is active,
\fBTcl_ReapDetachedProcs\fR is called each time the \fBexec\fR command is
executed or a pipe channel created by \fBopen\fR is closed. When autopurge is
inactive, \fB::tcl::process\fR purge must be called explicitly. By default
autopurge is active.
.TP
\fB::tcl::process list\fR
.
Returns the list of subprocess PIDs. This includes all currently executing
subprocesses and all terminated subprocesses that have not yet had their
corresponding process table entries purged.
.TP
\fB::tcl::process purge\fR ?\fIpids\fR?
.
Cleans up all data associated with terminated subprocesses. If \fIpids\fR is
specified as a list of PIDs then the command only cleanup data for the matching
subprocesses if they exist, and raises an error otherwise. If a process listed is
still active, this command does nothing to that process.
.TP
\fB::tcl::process status\fR ?\fIswitches\fR? ?\fIpids\fR?
.
Returns a dictionary mapping subprocess PIDs to their respective status. If
\fIpids\fR is specified as a list of PIDs then the command only returns the
status of the matching subprocesses if they exist, and raises an error
otherwise. For active processes, the status is an empty value. For terminated
processes, the status is a list with the following format:
.QW "\fB{\fIcode\fR ?\fImsg errorCode\fR?\fB}\fR" ,
where:
.RS
.TP
\fIcode\fR\0
.
is a standard Tcl return code, i.e., \fB0\fR for TCL_OK and \fB1\fR
for TCL_ERROR,
.TP
\fImsg\fR\0
.
is the human-readable error message,
.TP
\fIerrorCode\fR\0
.
uses the same format as the \fBerrorCode\fR global variable
.PP
Note that \fBmsg\fR and \fBerrorCode\fR are only present for abnormally
terminated processes (i.e. those where the \fIcode\fR is nonzero). Under the
hood this command calls \fBTcl_WaitPid\fR with the \fBWNOHANG\fR flag set for
non-blocking behavior, unless the \fB\-wait\fR switch is set (see below).
.PP
Additionally, \fB::tcl::process status\fR accepts the following switches:
.TP
\fB\-wait\fR\0
.
By default the command returns immediately (the underlying \fBTcl_WaitPid\fR is
called with the \fBWNOHANG\fR flag set) unless this switch is set. If \fIpids\fR
is specified as a list of PIDs then the command waits until the status of the
matching subprocesses are available. If \fIpids\fR was not specified, this
command will wait for all known subprocesses.
.TP
\fB\-\|\-\fR
.
Marks the end of switches.  The argument following this one will
be treated as the first \fIarg\fR even if it starts with a \fB\-\fR.
.RE
.SH "EXAMPLES"
.PP
These show the use of \fB::tcl::process\fR. Some of the results from
\fB::tcl::process status\fR are split over multiple lines for readability.
.PP
.CS
\fB::tcl::process autopurge\fR
     \fI\(-> true\fR
\fB::tcl::process autopurge\fR false
     \fI\(-> false\fR

set pid1 [exec command1 a b c | command2 d e f &]
     \fI\(-> 123 456\fR
set chan [open "|command1 a b c | command2 d e f"]
     \fI\(-> file123\fR
set pid2 [pid $chan]
     \fI\(-> 789 1011\fR

\fB::tcl::process list\fR
     \fI\(-> 123 456 789 1011\fR

\fB::tcl::process status\fR
     \fI\(-> 123 0
       456 {1 "child killed: write on pipe with no readers" {
         CHILDKILLED 456 SIGPIPE "write on pipe with no readers"}}
       789 {1 "child suspended: background tty read" {
         CHILDSUSP 789 SIGTTIN "background tty read"}}
       1011 {}\fR

\fB::tcl::process status\fR 123
     \fI\(-> 123 0\fR

\fB::tcl::process status\fR 1011
     \fI\(-> 1011 {}\fR

\fB::tcl::process status\fR -wait
     \fI\(-> 123 0
       456 {1 "child killed: write on pipe with no readers" {
         CHILDKILLED 456 SIGPIPE "write on pipe with no readers"}}
       789 {1 "child suspended: background tty read" {
         CHILDSUSP 789 SIGTTIN "background tty read"}}
       1011 {1 "child process exited abnormally" {
         CHILDSTATUS 1011 -1}}\fR

\fB::tcl::process status\fR 1011
     \fI\(-> 1011 {1 "child process exited abnormally" {
         CHILDSTATUS 1011 -1}}\fR

\fB::tcl::process purge\fR
exec command1 1 2 3 &
     \fI\(-> 1213\fR
\fB::tcl::process list\fR
     \fI\(-> 1213\fR
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
exec(n), open(n), pid(n),
Tcl_DetachPids(3), Tcl_WaitPid(3), Tcl_ReapDetachedProcs(3)
.SH "KEYWORDS"
background, child, detach, process, wait
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" End:

Changes to doc/puts.n.

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\fBputs\fR $chan "$timestamp - Hello, World!"
close $chan
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), fileevent(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
channel, newline, output, write










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\fBputs\fR $chan "$timestamp - Hello, World!"
close $chan
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), fileevent(n), Tcl_StandardChannels(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
channel, newline, output, write
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/pwd.n.

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34
35
36
37
38
39




exec tar -xf $tarFile
cd $savedDir
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), cd(n), glob(n), filename(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
working directory










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37
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40
41
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43
exec tar -xf $tarFile
cd $savedDir
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), cd(n), glob(n), filename(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
working directory
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/re_syntax.n.

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385
for a Unicode extension up to 21 bits. The digits are parsed until the
first non-hexadecimal character is encountered, the maximun of eight
hexadecimal digits are reached, or an overflow would occur in the maximum
value of \fBU+\fI10ffff\fR.
.TP
\fB\ev\fR
.
vertical tab, as in C are all available.
.TP
\fB\ex\fIhh\fR
.
(where \fIhh\fR is one or two hexadecimal digits) the character
whose hexadecimal value is \fB0x\fIhh\fR.
.TP
\fB\e0\fR






|







371
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374
375
376
377
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384
385
for a Unicode extension up to 21 bits. The digits are parsed until the
first non-hexadecimal character is encountered, the maximun of eight
hexadecimal digits are reached, or an overflow would occur in the maximum
value of \fBU+\fI10ffff\fR.
.TP
\fB\ev\fR
.
vertical tab, as in C
.TP
\fB\ex\fIhh\fR
.
(where \fIhh\fR is one or two hexadecimal digits) the character
whose hexadecimal value is \fB0x\fIhh\fR.
.TP
\fB\e0\fR

Changes to doc/rename.n.

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45




    uplevel 1 ::theRealSource $args
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
namespace(n), proc(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, delete, namespace, rename










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    uplevel 1 ::theRealSource $args
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
namespace(n), proc(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
command, delete, namespace, rename
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/self.n.

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42
\fBself call\fR
.
This returns a two-element list describing the method implementations used to
implement the current call chain. The first element is the same as would be
reported by \fBinfo object\fR \fBcall\fR for the current method (except that this
also reports useful values from within constructors and destructors, whose
names are reported as \fB<constructor>\fR and \fB<destructor>\fR





respectively), and the second element is an index into the first element's
list that indicates which actual implementation is currently executing (the
first implementation to execute is always at index 0).
.TP
\fBself caller\fR
.
When the method was invoked from inside another object method, this subcommand
returns a three element list describing the containing object and method. The






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47
\fBself call\fR
.
This returns a two-element list describing the method implementations used to
implement the current call chain. The first element is the same as would be
reported by \fBinfo object\fR \fBcall\fR for the current method (except that this
also reports useful values from within constructors and destructors, whose
names are reported as \fB<constructor>\fR and \fB<destructor>\fR
respectively,
.VS TIP500
and for private methods, which are described as being \fBprivate\fR instead of
being a \fBmethod\fR),
.VE TIP500
and the second element is an index into the first element's
list that indicates which actual implementation is currently executing (the
first implementation to execute is always at index 0).
.TP
\fBself caller\fR
.
When the method was invoked from inside another object method, this subcommand
returns a three element list describing the containing object and method. The

Changes to doc/set.n.

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73
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75




\fBset\fR vbl in[expr {rand() >= 0.5}]
\fBset\fR out [\fBset\fR $vbl]
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), global(n), namespace(n), proc(n), trace(n), unset(n), upvar(n), variable(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
read, write, variable










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\fBset\fR vbl in[expr {rand() >= 0.5}]
\fBset\fR out [\fBset\fR $vbl]
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
expr(n), global(n), namespace(n), proc(n), trace(n), unset(n), upvar(n), variable(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
read, write, variable
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Added doc/singleton.n.






































































































































































































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'\"
'\" Copyright (c) 2018 Donal K. Fellows
'\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH singleton n 0.3 TclOO "TclOO Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
'\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
oo::singleton \- a class that does only allows one instance of itself
.SH SYNOPSIS
.nf
package require TclOO

\fBoo::singleton\fI method \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.fi
.SH "CLASS HIERARCHY"
.nf
\fBoo::object\fR
   \(-> \fBoo::class\fR
       \(-> \fBoo::singleton\fR
.fi
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
Singleton classes are classes that only permit at most one instance of
themselves to exist. They unexport the \fBcreate\fR and
\fBcreateWithNamespace\fR methods entirely, and override the \fBnew\fR method
so that it only makes a new instance if there is no existing instance.  It is
not recommended to inherit from a singleton class; singleton-ness is \fInot\fR
inherited. It is not recommended that a singleton class's constructor take any
arguments.
.PP
Instances have their\fB destroy\fR method overridden with a method that always
returns an error in order to discourage destruction of the object, but
destruction remains possible if strictly necessary (e.g., by destroying the
class or using \fBrename\fR to delete it). They also have a (non-exported)
\fB<cloned>\fR method defined on them that similarly always returns errors to
make attempts to use the singleton instance with \fBoo::copy\fR fail.
.SS CONSTRUCTOR
The \fBoo::singleton\fR class does not define an explicit constructor; this
means that it is effectively the same as the constructor of the
\fBoo::class\fR class.
.SS DESTRUCTOR
The \fBoo::singleton\fR class does not define an explicit destructor;
destroying an instance of it is just like destroying an ordinary class (and
will destroy the singleton object).
.SS "EXPORTED METHODS"
.TP
\fIcls \fBnew \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.
This returns the current instance of the singleton class, if one exists, and
creates a new instance only if there is no existing instance. The additional
arguments, \fIarg ...\fR, are only used if a new instance is actually
manufactured; that construction is via the \fBoo::class\fR class's \fBnew\fR
method.
.RS
.PP
This is an override of the behaviour of a superclass's method with an
identical call signature to the superclass's implementation.
.RE
.SS "NON-EXPORTED METHODS"
The \fBoo::singleton\fR class explicitly states that \fBcreate\fR and
\fBcreateWithNamespace\fR are unexported; callers should not assume that they
have control over either the name or the namespace name of the singleton instance.
.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
This example demonstrates that there is only one instance even though the
\fBnew\fR method is called three times.
.PP
.CS
\fBoo::singleton\fR create Highlander {
    method say {} {
        puts "there can be only one"
    }
}

set h1 [Highlander new]
set h2 [Highlander new]
if {$h1 eq $h2} {
    puts "equal objects"    \fI\(-> prints "equal objects"\fR
}
set h3 [Highlander new]
if {$h1 eq $h3} {
    puts "equal objects"    \fI\(-> prints "equal objects"\fR
}
.CE
.PP
Note that the name of the instance of the singleton is not guaranteed to be
anything in particular.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
oo::class(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
class, metaclass, object, single instance
.\" Local variables:
.\" mode: nroff
.\" fill-column: 78
.\" End:

Changes to doc/source.n.

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    \fBsource\fR $scriptFile
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), cd(n), encoding(n), info(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
file, script










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    \fBsource\fR $scriptFile
}
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
file(n), cd(n), encoding(n), info(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
file, script
'\" Local Variables:
'\" mode: nroff
'\" fill-column: 78
'\" End:

Changes to doc/string.n.

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.TH string n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
.\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
string \- Manipulate strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBstring \fIoption arg \fR?\fIarg ...?\fR
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Performs one of several string operations, depending on \fIoption\fR.
The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBstring cat\fR ?\fIstring1\fR? ?\fIstring2...\fR?
.VS 8.6.2
Concatenate the given \fIstring\fRs just like placing them directly
next to each other and return the resulting compound string.  If no
\fIstring\fRs are present, the result is an empty string.
.RS
.PP
This primitive is occasionally handier than juxtaposition of strings
when mixed quoting is wanted, or when the aim is to return the result
of a concatenation without resorting to \fBreturn\fR \fB\-level 0\fR,
and is more efficient than building a list of arguments and using
\fBjoin\fR with an empty join string.
.RE
.VE
.TP
\fBstring compare\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB\-length\fI length\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR
.
Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR
and \fIstring2\fR.  Returns \-1, 0, or 1, depending on whether
\fIstring1\fR is lexicographically less than, equal to, or greater
than \fIstring2\fR.  If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only the
................................................................................
string.  \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as described in the
\fBSTRING INDICES\fR section.
.RS
.PP
If \fIcharIndex\fR is less than 0 or greater than or equal to the
length of the string then this command returns an empty string.
.RE


















.TP
\fBstring is \fIclass\fR ?\fB\-strict\fR? ?\fB\-failindex \fIvarname\fR? \fIstring\fR
.
Returns 1 if \fIstring\fR is a valid member of the specified character
class, otherwise returns 0.  If \fB\-strict\fR is specified, then an
empty string returns 0, otherwise an empty string will return 1 on
any class.  If \fB\-failindex\fR is specified, then if the function
................................................................................
.IP \fBascii\fR 12
Any character with a value less than \eu0080 (those that are in the
7\-bit ascii range).
.IP \fBboolean\fR 12
Any of the forms allowed to \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR.
.IP \fBcontrol\fR 12
Any Unicode control character.








.IP \fBdigit\fR 12
Any Unicode digit character.  Note that this includes characters
outside of the [0\-9] range.
.IP \fBdouble\fR 12
Any of the valid forms for a double in Tcl, with optional surrounding
whitespace.  In case of under/overflow in the value, 0 is returned and
the \fIvarname\fR will contain \-1.
.IP \fBentier\fR 12
.VS 8.6

Any of the valid string formats for an integer value of arbitrary size
in Tcl, with optional surrounding whitespace. The formats accepted are
exactly those accepted by the C routine \fBTcl_GetBignumFromObj\fR.
.VE
.IP \fBfalse\fR 12
Any of the forms allowed to \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR where the value is
false.
.IP \fBgraph\fR 12
Any Unicode printing character, except space.
.IP \fBinteger\fR 12
Any of the valid string formats for a 32-bit integer value in Tcl,
with optional surrounding whitespace.  In case of under/overflow in
the value, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain \-1.
.IP \fBlist\fR 12
Any proper list structure, with optional surrounding whitespace. In
case of improper list structure, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR
will contain the index of the
.QW element
where the list parsing fails, or \-1 if this cannot be determined.
................................................................................
.IP \fBtrue\fR 12
Any of the forms allowed to \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR where the value is
true.
.IP \fBupper\fR 12
Any upper case alphabet character in the Unicode character set.
.IP \fBwideinteger\fR 12
Any of the valid forms for a wide integer in Tcl, with optional
surrounding whitespace.  In case of under/overflow in the value, 0 is
returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain \-1.
.IP \fBwordchar\fR 12
Any Unicode word character.  That is any alphanumeric character, and
any Unicode connector punctuation characters (e.g. underscore).
.IP \fBxdigit\fR 12
Any hexadecimal digit character ([0\-9A\-Fa\-f]).
.PP
................................................................................
\fIpattern\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring range \fIstring first last\fR
.
Returns a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting
with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the
character whose index is \fIlast\fR. An index of 0 refers to the first


character of the string.  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified
as for the \fBindex\fR method.  If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero then
it is treated as if it were zero, and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or
equal to the length of the string then it is treated as if it were
\fBend\fR.  If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty
string is returned.
.TP
\fBstring repeat \fIstring count\fR
.
Returns \fIstring\fR repeated \fIcount\fR number of times.


.TP
\fBstring replace \fIstring first last\fR ?\fInewstring\fR?
.
Removes a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting
with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the
character whose index is \fIlast\fR.  An index of 0 refers to the

first character of the string.  \fIFirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.  If \fInewstring\fR is
specified, then it is placed in the removed character range.  If
\fIfirst\fR is less than zero then it is treated as if it were zero,
and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the length of the string
then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR.  If \fIfirst\fR is greater
than \fIlast\fR or the length of the initial string, or \fIlast\fR is






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.TH string n 8.1 Tcl "Tcl Built-In Commands"
.so man.macros
.BS
.\" Note:  do not modify the .SH NAME line immediately below!
.SH NAME
string \- Manipulate strings
.SH SYNOPSIS
\fBstring \fIoption arg \fR?\fIarg ...\fR?
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
Performs one of several string operations, depending on \fIoption\fR.
The legal \fIoption\fRs (which may be abbreviated) are:
.TP
\fBstring cat\fR ?\fIstring1\fR? ?\fIstring2...\fR?
.
Concatenate the given \fIstring\fRs just like placing them directly
next to each other and return the resulting compound string.  If no
\fIstring\fRs are present, the result is an empty string.
.RS
.PP
This primitive is occasionally handier than juxtaposition of strings
when mixed quoting is wanted, or when the aim is to return the result
of a concatenation without resorting to \fBreturn\fR \fB\-level 0\fR,
and is more efficient than building a list of arguments and using
\fBjoin\fR with an empty join string.
.RE

.TP
\fBstring compare\fR ?\fB\-nocase\fR? ?\fB\-length\fI length\fR? \fIstring1 string2\fR
.
Perform a character-by-character comparison of strings \fIstring1\fR
and \fIstring2\fR.  Returns \-1, 0, or 1, depending on whether
\fIstring1\fR is lexicographically less than, equal to, or greater
than \fIstring2\fR.  If \fB\-length\fR is specified, then only the
................................................................................
string.  \fIcharIndex\fR may be specified as described in the
\fBSTRING INDICES\fR section.
.RS
.PP
If \fIcharIndex\fR is less than 0 or greater than or equal to the
length of the string then this command returns an empty string.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring insert \fIstring index insertString\fR
.VS "TIP 504"
Returns a copy of \fIstring\fR with \fIinsertString\fR inserted at the
\fIindex\fR'th character.  The \fIindex\fR may be specified as described in the
\fBSTRING INDICES\fR section.
.RS
.PP
If \fIindex\fR is start-relative, the first character inserted in the returned
string will be at the specified index.  If \fIindex\fR is end-relative, the last
character inserted in the returned string will be at the specified index.
.PP
If \fIindex\fR is at or before the start of \fIstring\fR (e.g., \fIindex\fR is
\fB0\fR), \fIinsertString\fR is prepended to \fIstring\fR.  If \fIindex\fR is at
or after the end of \fIstring\fR (e.g., \fIindex\fR is \fBend\fR),
\fIinsertString\fR is appended to \fIstring\fR.
.RE
.VE "TIP 504"
.TP
\fBstring is \fIclass\fR ?\fB\-strict\fR? ?\fB\-failindex \fIvarname\fR? \fIstring\fR
.
Returns 1 if \fIstring\fR is a valid member of the specified character
class, otherwise returns 0.  If \fB\-strict\fR is specified, then an
empty string returns 0, otherwise an empty string will return 1 on
any class.  If \fB\-failindex\fR is specified, then if the function
................................................................................
.IP \fBascii\fR 12
Any character with a value less than \eu0080 (those that are in the
7\-bit ascii range).
.IP \fBboolean\fR 12
Any of the forms allowed to \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR.
.IP \fBcontrol\fR 12
Any Unicode control character.
.IP \fBdict\fR 12
.VS TIP501
Any proper dict structure, with optional surrounding whitespace. In
case of improper dict structure, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR
will contain the index of the
.QW element
where the dict parsing fails, or \-1 if this cannot be determined.
.VE TIP501
.IP \fBdigit\fR 12
Any Unicode digit character.  Note that this includes characters
outside of the [0\-9] range.
.IP \fBdouble\fR 12
Any of the forms allowed to \fBTcl_GetDoubleFromObj\fR.


.IP \fBentier\fR 12

.
Any of the valid string formats for an integer value of arbitrary size
in Tcl, with optional surrounding whitespace. The formats accepted are
exactly those accepted by the C routine \fBTcl_GetBignumFromObj\fR.

.IP \fBfalse\fR 12
Any of the forms allowed to \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR where the value is
false.
.IP \fBgraph\fR 12
Any Unicode printing character, except space.
.IP \fBinteger\fR 12
Any of the valid string formats for a 32-bit integer value in Tcl,
with optional surrounding whitespace.  In case of overflow in
the value, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain \-1.
.IP \fBlist\fR 12
Any proper list structure, with optional surrounding whitespace. In
case of improper list structure, 0 is returned and the \fIvarname\fR
will contain the index of the
.QW element
where the list parsing fails, or \-1 if this cannot be determined.
................................................................................
.IP \fBtrue\fR 12
Any of the forms allowed to \fBTcl_GetBoolean\fR where the value is
true.
.IP \fBupper\fR 12
Any upper case alphabet character in the Unicode character set.
.IP \fBwideinteger\fR 12
Any of the valid forms for a wide integer in Tcl, with optional
surrounding whitespace.  In case of overflow in the value, 0 is
returned and the \fIvarname\fR will contain \-1.
.IP \fBwordchar\fR 12
Any Unicode word character.  That is any alphanumeric character, and
any Unicode connector punctuation characters (e.g. underscore).
.IP \fBxdigit\fR 12
Any hexadecimal digit character ([0\-9A\-Fa\-f]).
.PP
................................................................................
\fIpattern\fR.
.RE
.TP
\fBstring range \fIstring first last\fR
.
Returns a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting
with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the
character whose index is \fIlast\fR (using the forms described in
\fBSTRING INDICES\fR). An index of \fB0\fR refers to the first
character of the string; an index of \fBend\fR refers to last
character of the string.  \fIfirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be specified
as for the \fBindex\fR method.  If \fIfirst\fR is less than zero then
it is treated as if it were zero, and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or
equal to the length of the string then it is treated as if it were
\fBend\fR.  If \fIfirst\fR is greater than \fIlast\fR then an empty
string is returned.
.TP
\fBstring repeat \fIstring count\fR
.
Returns a string consisting of \fIstring\fR concatenated with itself
\fIcount\fR times. If \fIcount\fR is 0, the empty string will be
returned.
.TP
\fBstring replace \fIstring first last\fR ?\fInewstring\fR?
.
Removes a range of consecutive characters from \fIstring\fR, starting
with the character whose index is \fIfirst\fR and ending with the
character whose index is \fIlast\fR (using the forms described in
\fBSTRING INDICES\fR).  An index of 0 refers to the
first character of the string.  \fIFirst\fR and \fIlast\fR may be
specified as for the \fBindex\fR method.  If \fInewstring\fR is
specified, then it is placed in the removed character range.  If
\fIfirst\fR is less than zero then it is treated as if it were zero,
and if \fIlast\fR is greater than or equal to the length of the string
then it is treated as if it were \fBend\fR.  If \fIfirst\fR is greater
than \fIlast\fR or the length of the initial string, or \fIlast\fR is

Changes to doc/tclsh.1.

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The variable \fBtcl_prompt2\fR is used in a similar way when
a newline is typed but the current command is not yet complete;
if \fBtcl_prompt2\fR is not set then no prompt is output for
incomplete commands.
.SH "STANDARD CHANNELS"
.PP
See \fBTcl_StandardChannels\fR for more explanations.









.SH "SEE ALSO"
auto_path(n), encoding(n), env(n), fconfigure(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
application, argument, interpreter, prompt, script file, shell






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The variable \fBtcl_prompt2\fR is used in a similar way when
a newline is typed but the current command is not yet complete;
if \fBtcl_prompt2\fR is not set then no prompt is output for
incomplete commands.
.SH "STANDARD CHANNELS"
.PP
See \fBTcl_StandardChannels\fR for more explanations.
.SH ZIPVFS
.PP
When a zipfile is concatenated to the end of a \fBtclsh\fR, on
startup the contents of the zip archive will be mounted as the
virtual file system /zvfs. If a top level directory tcl8.6 is
present in the zip archive, it will become the directory loaded
as env(TCL_LIBRARY). If a file named \fBmain.tcl\fR is present
in the top level directory of the zip archive, it will be sourced
instead of the shell's normal command line handing.
.SH "SEE ALSO"
auto_path(n), encoding(n), env(n), fconfigure(n)
.SH KEYWORDS
application, argument, interpreter, prompt, script file, shell

Changes to doc/tcltest.n.

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