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Comment:Refine documentation for Tcl_NR* functions.
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User & Date: pooryorick 2018-02-03 18:15:06
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2018-02-11
19:19
Refine documentation for Tcl_NR* functions. check-in: 8573999b79 user: pooryorick tags: core-8-6-branch
2018-02-06
19:35
Rework a set of TclString*() routines for consistency. check-in: e317b90b9f user: dgp tags: core-8-branch
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Improved overflow prevention. check-in: 37bc8a96c8 user: dgp tags: dgp-string-tidy
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2018-02-03
18:15
Refine documentation for Tcl_NR* functions. check-in: 66c9beaeff user: pooryorick tags: core-8-branch
2018-02-02
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Update TZ info to tzdata2018c. check-in: 22d68dec9d user: jima tags: core-8-branch
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\fBTCL_EVAL_DIRECT\fR flag is useful in situations where the
contents of a value are going to change immediately, so the
bytecodes will not be reused in a future execution.  In this case,
it is faster to execute the script directly.
.TP 23
\fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR
.
If this flag is set, the script is processed at global level.  This
means that it is evaluated in the global namespace and its variable
context consists of global variables only (it ignores any Tcl
procedures that are active).


.SH "MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS"
.PP
During the processing of a Tcl command it is legal to make nested
calls to evaluate other commands (this is how procedures and
some control structures are implemented).
If a code other than \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned






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\fBTCL_EVAL_DIRECT\fR flag is useful in situations where the
contents of a value are going to change immediately, so the
bytecodes will not be reused in a future execution.  In this case,
it is faster to execute the script directly.
.TP 23
\fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR
.
If this flag is set, the script is evaluated in the global namespace instead of

the current namespace and its variable context consists of global variables
only (it ignores any Tcl procedures that are active).
.\" TODO: document TCL_EVAL_INVOKE and TCL_EVAL_NOERR.

.SH "MISCELLANEOUS DETAILS"
.PP
During the processing of a Tcl command it is legal to make nested
calls to evaluate other commands (this is how procedures and
some control structures are implemented).
If a code other than \fBTCL_OK\fR is returned

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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny.

.\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH NRE 3 8.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
.sp
void
\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR(\fIinterp, postProcPtr, data0, data1, data2, data3\fR)
.fi
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *interp in
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
Interpreter in which to create or evaluate a command.
.AP char *cmdName in
Name of a new command to create.
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
Implementation of a command that will be called whenever \fIcmdName\fR
is invoked as a command in the unoptimized way.


.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *nreProc in
Implementation of a command that will be called whenever \fIcmdName\fR
is invoked and requested to conserve the C stack.

.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value that will be passed to \fIproc\fR, \fInreProc\fR,
\fIdeleteProc\fR and \fIobjProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
Procedure to call before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter.
This procedure allows for command-specific cleanup. If \fIdeleteProc\fR
is \fBNULL\fR, then no procedure is called before the command is deleted.
.AP int objc in
Count of parameters provided to the implementation of a command.
.AP Tcl_Obj **objv in
Pointer to an array of Tcl values. Each value holds the value of a
single word in the command to execute.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
Pointer to a Tcl_Obj whose value is a script or expression to execute.
.AP int flags in

ORed combination of flag bits that specify additional options.
\fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR is the only flag that is currently supported.
.\" TODO: This is a lie. But kbk didn't grasp TCL_EVAL_INVOKE and
.\"       TCL_EVAL_NOERR well enough to document them.
.AP Tcl_Command cmd in
Token for a command that is to be used instead of the currently

executing command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *resultPtr out
Pointer to an unshared Tcl_Obj where the result of expression
evaluation is written.

.AP Tcl_NRPostProc *postProcPtr in
Pointer to a function that will be invoked when the command currently
executing in the interpreter designated by \fIinterp\fR completes.

.AP ClientData data0 in
.AP ClientData data1 in
.AP ClientData data2 in
.AP ClientData data3 in
\fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR are four one-word values that will be passed
to the function designated by \fIpostProcPtr\fR when it is invoked.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
This series of C functions provides an interface whereby commands that
are implemented in C can be evaluated, and invoke Tcl commands scripts
and scripts, without consuming space on the C stack. The non-recursive
evaluation is done by installing a \fItrampoline\fR, a small piece of
code that invokes a command or script, and then executes a series of
callbacks when the command or script returns.





.PP
The \fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR function creates a Tcl command in the
interpreter designated by \fIinterp\fR that is prepared to handle
nonrecursive evaluation with a trampoline. The \fIcmdName\fR argument
gives the name of the new command. If \fIcmdName\fR contains any
namespace qualifiers, then the new command is added to the specified
namespace; otherwise, it is added to the global namespace. \fIproc\fR
gives the procedure that will be called when the interpreter wishes to
evaluate the command in an unoptimized manner, and \fInreProc\fR is
the procedure that will be called when the interpreter wishes to
evaluate the command using a trampoline. \fIdeleteProc\fR is a
function that will be called before the command is deleted from the
interpreter. When any of the three functions is invoked, it is passed
the \fIclientData\fR parameter.
.PP
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR deletes any existing command
\fIname\fR already associated with the interpreter
(however see below for an exception where the existing command
is not deleted).
It returns a token that may be used to refer


to the command in subsequent calls to \fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR.
If \fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR is called for an interpreter that is in

the process of being deleted, then it does not create a new command,

does not delete any existing command of the same name, and returns NULL.
.PP
The \fIproc\fR and \fInreProc\fR function are expected to conform to
all the rules set forth for the \fIproc\fR argument to
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(3) (\fIq.v.\fR).


.PP
When a command that is written to cope with evaluation via trampoline
is invoked without a trampoline on the stack, it will usually respond
to the invocation by creating a trampoline and calling the
trampoline-enabled implementation of the same command. This call is done by
means of \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR. In the call to
\fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR, the \fIinterp\fR, \fIclientData\fR,
\fIobjc\fR and \fIobjv\fR parameters should be the same ones that were
passed to \fIproc\fR. The \fInreProc\fR parameter should designate the
trampoline-enabled implementation of the command.
.PP
\fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR arranges for the script contained in \fIobjPtr\fR
to be evaluated in the interpreter designated by \fIinterp\fR after
the current command (which must be trampoline-enabled) returns. It is
the method by which a command may invoke a script without consuming

space on the C stack. Similarly, \fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR arranges to
invoke a single Tcl command whose words have already been separated
and substituted. The \fIobjc\fR and \fIobjv\fR parameters give the
words of the command to be evaluated when execution reaches the
trampoline.
.PP
\fBTcl_NRCmdSwap\fR allows for trampoline evaluation of a command whose
resolution is already known.  The \fIcmd\fR parameter gives a

\fBTcl_Command\fR token (returned from \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR or
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR) identifying the command to be invoked in
the trampoline; this command must match the word in \fIobjv[0]\fR.
The remaining arguments are as for \fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR.

.PP
\fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR, \fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR and \fBTcl_NRCmdSwap\fR
all accept a \fIflags\fR parameter, which is an OR-ed-together set of
bits to control evaluation. At the present time, the only supported flag
available to callers is \fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR.
.\" TODO: Again, this is a lie. Do we want to explain TCL_EVAL_INVOKE
.\"       and TCL_EVAL_NOERR?
If the \fBTCL_EVAL_GLOBAL\fR flag is set, the script or command is
evaluated in the global namespace. If it is not set, it is evaluated
in the current namespace.



.PP
\fBTcl_NRExprObj\fR arranges for the expression contained in \fIobjPtr\fR
to be evaluated in the interpreter designated by \fIinterp\fR after
the current command (which must be trampoline-enabled) returns. It is
the method by which a command may evaluate a Tcl expression without consuming
space on the C stack.  The argument \fIresultPtr\fR is a pointer to an
unshared Tcl_Obj where the result of expression evaluation is to be written.
If expression evaluation returns any code other than TCL_OK, the
\fIresultPtr\fR value is left untouched.
.PP
All of the routines return \fBTCL_OK\fR if command or expression invocation

has been scheduled successfully. If for any reason the scheduling cannot
be completed (for example, if the interpreter is unable to find
the requested command), they return \fBTCL_ERROR\fR with an
appropriate message left in the interpreter's result.
.PP
\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR arranges to have a C function called when the
current trampoline-enabled command in the Tcl interpreter designated
by \fIinterp\fR returns.  The \fIpostProcPtr\fR argument is a pointer
to the callback function, which must have arguments and return value

consistent with the \fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR data type:
.PP
.CS
typedef int
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR(
        \fBClientData\fR \fIdata\fR[],
        \fBTcl_Interp\fR *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIresult\fR);
.CE
.PP
When the trampoline invokes the callback function, the \fIdata\fR
parameter will point to an array containing the four one-word
quantities that were passed to \fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR in the
\fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR parameters. The Tcl interpreter will
be designated by the \fIinterp\fR parameter, and the \fIresult\fR
parameter will contain the result (\fBTCL_OK\fR, \fBTCL_ERROR\fR,
\fBTCL_RETURN\fR, \fBTCL_BREAK\fR or \fBTCL_CONTINUE\fR) that was
returned by the command evaluation. The callback function is expected,
in turn, either to return a \fIresult\fR to control further evaluation.
.PP
Multiple \fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR invocations may request multiple
callbacks, which may be to the same or different callback
functions. If multiple callbacks are requested, they are executed in
last-in, first-out order, that is, the most recently requested
callback is executed first.
.SH EXAMPLE
.PP
The usual pattern for Tcl commands that invoke other Tcl commands
is something like:


.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
................................................................................

    return result;
}
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(interp, "theCommand",
        \fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR, clientData, TheCmdDeleteProc);
.CE
.PP
To enable a command like this one for trampoline-based evaluation,
it must be split into three pieces:
.IP \(bu
A non-trampoline implementation, \fITheCmdNewObjProc\fR,
which will simply create a trampoline
and invoke the trampoline-based implementation.
.IP \(bu
A trampoline-enabled implementation, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR.  This
function will perform the initialization, request that the trampoline
call the postprocessing routine after command evaluation, and finally,
request that the trampoline call the inner command.
.IP \(bu
A postprocessing routine, \fITheCmdPostProc\fR. This function will
perform the postprocessing formerly done after the return from the
inner command in \fITheCmdObjProc\fR.
.PP
The non-trampoline implementation is simple and stylized, containing
a single statement:
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNewObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    return \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR(interp, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR,
            clientData, objc, objv);
}
.CE
.PP
The trampoline-enabled implementation requests postprocessing,
and returns to the trampoline requesting command evaluation.
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
................................................................................
    /* \fIdata0 .. data3\fR are up to four one-word items to
     * pass to the postprocessing procedure */

    return \fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR(interp, objPtr, 0);
}
.CE
.PP
The postprocessing procedure does whatever the original command did
upon return from the inner evaluation.
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRPostProc\fR(
    ClientData data[],
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int result)
{
................................................................................

    \fI... postprocessing ...\fR

    return result;
}
.CE
.PP
If \fItheCommand\fR is a command that results in multiple commands or
scripts being evaluated, its postprocessing routine may schedule
additional postprocessing and then request another command evaluation
by means of \fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR or one of the other evaluation
routines. Looping and sequencing constructs may be implemented in this way.
.PP
Finally, to install a trampoline-enabled command in the interpreter,
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR is used in place of
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR.  It accepts two command procedures instead
of one. The first is for use when no trampoline is yet on the stack,
and the second is for use when there is already a trampoline in place.
.PP
.CS
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR(interp, "theCommand",
        \fITheCmdNewObjProc\fR, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR, clientData,
        TheCmdDeleteProc);
.CE
.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateCommand(3), Tcl_CreateObjCommand(3), Tcl_EvalObjEx(3), Tcl_GetCommandFromObj(3), Tcl_ExprObj(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
stackless, nonrecursive, execute, command, global, value, result, script
.SH COPYRIGHT
Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny


>







 







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.\"
.\" Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny.
.\" Copyright (c) 2018 by Nathan Coulter. 
.\"
'\" See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution
'\" of this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
'\"
.TH NRE 3 8.6 Tcl "Tcl Library Procedures"
.so man.macros
.BS
................................................................................
.sp
void
\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR(\fIinterp, postProcPtr, data0, data1, data2, data3\fR)
.fi
.SH ARGUMENTS
.AS Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *interp in
.AP Tcl_Interp *interp in
The relevant Interpreter.
.AP char *cmdName in
Name of the command to create.
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *proc in
Called in order to evaluate a command.  Is often just a small wrapper that uses
\fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR to call \fInreProc\fR using a new trampoline.  Behaves
in the same way as the \fIproc\fR argument to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(3)
(\fIq.v.\fR).
.AP Tcl_ObjCmdProc *nreProc in


Called instead of \fIproc\fR when a trampoline is already in use.
.AP ClientData clientData in
Arbitrary one-word value passed to \fIproc\fR, \fInreProc\fR, \fIdeleteProc\fR
and \fIobjProc\fR.
.AP Tcl_CmdDeleteProc *deleteProc in/out
Called before \fIcmdName\fR is deleted from the interpreter, allowing for
command-specific cleanup. May be NULL.

.AP int objc in
Number of items in \fIobjv\fR.
.AP Tcl_Obj **objv in

Words in the command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *objPtr in
A script or expression to evaluate.
.AP int flags in
As described for \fITcl_EvalObjv\fR.
.PP



.AP Tcl_Command cmd in

Token to use instead of one derived from the first word of \fIobjv\fR in order
to evaluate a command.
.AP Tcl_Obj *resultPtr out
Pointer to an unshared Tcl_Obj where the result of the evaluation is stored if

the return code is TCL_OK.
.AP Tcl_NRPostProc *postProcPtr in


A function to push.
.AP ClientData data0 in
.AP ClientData data1 in
.AP ClientData data2 in
.AP ClientData data3 in
\fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR are four one-word values that will be passed
to the function designated by \fIpostProcPtr\fR when it is invoked.
.BE
.SH DESCRIPTION
.PP
These functions provide an interface to the function stack that an interpreter
iterates through to evaluate commands.  The routine behind a command is
implemented by an initial function and any additional functions that the
routine pushes onto the stack as it progresses.  The interpreter itself pushes
functions onto the stack to react to the end of a routine and to exercise other
forms of control such as switching between in-progress stacks and the
evaluation of other scripts at additional levels without adding frames to the C
stack.  To execute a routine, the initial function for the routine is called
and then a small bit of code called a \fItrampoline\fR iteratively takes
functions off the stack and calls them, using the value of the last call as the
value of the routine.
.PP





\fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR calls \fInreProc\fR using a new trampoline.







.PP
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR, an alternative to \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR,




resolves \fIcmdName\fR, which may contain namespace qualifiers, relative to the
current namespace, creates a command by that name, and returns a token for the
command which may be used in subsequent calls to \fBTcl_GetCommandName\fR.

Except for a few cases noted below any existing command by the same name is
first deleted.  If \fIinterp\fR is in the process of being deleted
\fBTcl_NRCreateCommand\fR does not create any command, does not delete any
command, and returns NULL.
.PP



\fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR pushes a function that is like \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR but
consumes no space on the C stack.
.PP














\fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR pushes a function that is like \fBTcl_EvalObjv\fR but
consumes no space on the C stack.




.PP


\fBTcl_NRCmdSwap\fR is like \fBTcl_NREvalObjv\fR, but uses \fIcmd\fR, a token
previously returned by \fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR or
\fBTcl_GetCommandFromObj\fR, instead of resolving the first word of \fIobjv\fR.


.  The name of this command must be the same as \fIobjv[0]\fR.
.PP









\fBTcl_NRExprObj\fR pushes a function that evaluates \fIobjPtr\fR as an
expression in the same manner as \fBTcl_ExprObj\fR but without consuming space
on the C stack.
.PP










All of the functions return \fBTCL_OK\fR if the evaluation of the script,
command, or expression has been scheduled successfully.  Otherwise (for example

if the command name cannot be resolved), they return \fBTCL_ERROR\fR and store
a message as the interpreter's result.
.PP




\fBTcl_NRAddCallback\fR pushes \fIpostProcPtr\fR.  The signature for
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR is:
.PP
.CS
typedef int
\fBTcl_NRPostProc\fR(
        \fBClientData\fR \fIdata\fR[],
        \fBTcl_Interp\fR *\fIinterp\fR,
        int \fIresult\fR);
.CE
.PP
\fIdata\fR is a pointer to an array containing \fIdata0\fR through \fIdata3\fR.
\fIresult\fR is the value returned by the previous function implementing part
the routine.












.SH EXAMPLE
.PP


The following command uses \fBTcl_EvalObjEx\fR, which consumes space on the C
stack, to evalute a script:
.PP
.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
................................................................................

    return result;
}
\fBTcl_CreateObjCommand\fR(interp, "theCommand",
        \fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR, clientData, TheCmdDeleteProc);
.CE
.PP
To avoid consuming space on the C stack, \fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR is renamed to
\fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR and the postprocessing step is split into a separate
function, \fITheCmdPostProc\fR, which is pushed onto the function stack.
\fITcl_EvalObjEx\fR is replaced with \fITcl_NREvalObj\fR, which uses a
trampoline instead of consuming space on the C stack.  A new version of
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR is just a a wrapper that uses \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR to

call \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR:







.PP



.CS
int
\fITheCmdOldObjProc\fR(
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    return \fBTcl_NRCallObjProc\fR(interp, \fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR,
            clientData, objc, objv);
}
.CE
.PP



.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRObjProc\fR
    ClientData clientData,
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
................................................................................
    /* \fIdata0 .. data3\fR are up to four one-word items to
     * pass to the postprocessing procedure */

    return \fBTcl_NREvalObj\fR(interp, objPtr, 0);
}
.CE
.PP



.CS
int
\fITheCmdNRPostProc\fR(
    ClientData data[],
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int result)
{
................................................................................

    \fI... postprocessing ...\fR

    return result;
}
.CE
.PP
Any function comprising a routine can push other functions, making it possible



implement looping and sequencing constructs using the function stack.
.PP











.SH "SEE ALSO"
Tcl_CreateCommand(3), Tcl_CreateObjCommand(3), Tcl_EvalObjEx(3), Tcl_GetCommandFromObj(3), Tcl_ExprObj(3)
.SH KEYWORDS
stackless, nonrecursive, execute, command, global, value, result, script
.SH COPYRIGHT
Copyright (c) 2008 by Kevin B. Kenny.
Copyright (c) 2018 by Nathan Coulter.