Tcl Source Code

History of Tcl string values
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Speculative and likely revisionist look back at Tcl strings.

Tcl programmers are familiar with the phrase Every value is a string. Discussions of this aspect of Tcl are found in many places. It is harder to find detailed discussions of precisely what is "a string" in Tcl, and how that precise definition has shifted over the years. This document is meant to tackle that task, based on a review of the changing interfaces and implementation in the Tcl source code itself.

Prehistoric Tcl (7.6 and earlier, pre-1997)

NUL terminated array of char (C string)

The inspirations for the original Tcl string values were clearly the in-memory representations of C string literals, and the arguments used by C programs to receive their command line.

int main ( int argc, char **argv)

Every command in Tcl 7 is implemented by a Tcl_CmdProc with signature

int Tcl_CmdProc ( ClientData, interp, int argc, char *argv[])

Each argument value argv[i] passed to a command arrives in the form of a (char *). The caller is presumed to pass a non-NULL pointer to a suitably usable contiguous chunk of memory, interpreted as a C array of type char. This includes a duty of the caller to keep this memory allocated and undisturbed while the command procedure executes. (In the days of Tcl 7, this was trivially achieved with an assumption that all use of the Tcl library was single-threaded.) The elements of that array determine the string value. Each element with (unsigned) char value between 1 and 255 represents an element of the string, stored at the correponding index of that string. The first element with value 0 (aka NUL) is not part of the string value, but marks its end.

From this implementation, we see that a Tcl string in release 7.6 is a sequence of zero or more char values from the range 1..255. In the C type system, each string element is a char. It is also useful to think of each string element as a byte. The type name char suggests "character", and written works about Tcl from that time probably refer to a Tcl string as a "sequence of characters". In later developments the terms "byte" and "character" have diverged in meaning. There is no defined limit on the length of this string representation; the only limit is available memory.

There is a one-to-one connection between stored memory patterns and the abstract notion of valid Tcl strings. The Tcl string "cat" is always represented by a 4-byte chunk of memory storing (0x63, 0x61, 0x74, 0x00). Any different bytes in memory represent different strings. This means byte comparisons are string comparisons and byte array size is string length. The byte values themselves are what Tcl commands operate on. From early on, the documentation has claimed complete freedom for each command to interpret the bytes that are passed to it as arguments (or "words"):

The first word is used to locate a command procedure to carry out the command, then all of the words of the command are passed to the command procedure. The command procedure is free to interpret each of its words in any way it likes, such as an integer, variable name, list, or Tcl script. Different commands interpret their words differently.

In practice though, it has been expected that where interpretation of a string element value as a member of a charset matters, the ASCII encoding is presumed for the byte values 1..127. This is in agreement with the representation of C string literals in all C compilers, and it anchors the character definitions that are important to the syntax of Tcl itself. For instance, the newline character that terminates a command in a script is the byte value 0x0A . No command purporting to accept and evaluate an argument as a Tcl script would be free to choose something else. The handling of byte values 128..255 showed more variation among commands that took any particular note of them. Tcl provided built-in commands format and scan, as well as the backslash encoding forms of \xHH and \ooo to manage the transformation between string element values and the corresponding numeric values.

Each Tcl command also leaves a result value in the interpreter of evaluation, whether that is some result defined by the proper functioning of the command, or a readable message describing an error condition. In Tcl 7, a caller of Tcl_Eval has only one mechanism to retrieve that result value after evaluating a command: read a (char *) directly from the result field of the same Tcl_Interp struct passed to Tcl_Eval. The pointer found there points to the same kind of NUL-terminated array of char used to pass in the argument words. The set of possible return values from a command is the same as the set of possible arguments (and set of possible values stored in a variable), a sequence of zero or more char values from the range 1..255.

It must be arranged that the pointer in interp->result points to valid memory readable by the caller even after the Tcl_CmdProc is fully returned. The routine Tcl_SetResult offers several options. If a command procedure already has the result value as a (char *) result, it will always work to call

Tcl_SetResult (interp, result, TCL_VOLATILE);

The argument TCL_VOLATILE instructs the Tcl library to allocate a large enough block of memory to copy result into, makes that copy, and then stores a pointer to that copy in interp->result. When the string to be copied has length no greater than TCL_RESULT_SIZE, this "allocation" takes the form of using an internal interp field of static buffer space, avoiding dynamic memory allocation for short-enough results. A record is kept in other fields of interp recording that this memory must be freed whenever the result machinery must be re-initialized for the use of the next command procedure, a task performed by Tcl_ResetResult. This general solution to passing back the result value using TCL_VOLATILE always imposes the cost of copying it. In some situations there are other options.

When the result value of a command originates in a static string literal in the source code of the command procedure, there is no need to work with memory management and copies. A pointer to the literal in static storage will be valid for the caller. The call

Tcl_SetResult (interp, "literal", TCL_STATIC);

is appropriate for this situation. The argument TCL_STATIC instructs the Tcl library to directly write the pointer to the literal into interp->result. It is a welcome efficiency to avoid copies when possible.

A third option is when the command procedure has used ckalloc to allocate the storage for result and then filled it with the proper bytes of the result value. Then the call

Tcl_SetResult (interp, result, TCL_DYNAMIC);

instructs the Tcl library not to make another copy, but to take ownership of the allocated storage and the duty to call ckfree at the appropriate time. It is also supported for the command procedure to use a custom allocator and pass a function pointer for the corresponding custom deallocator routine.

Besides Tcl_SetResult, a command procedure might also build up the result in place inside the interp result machinery by use of the routines Tcl_AppendResult or Tcl_AppendElement, which places more of the housekeeping burdens in the Tcl library. You may also see examples like

sprintf (interp->result, "%d", n);

where the command procedure can be confident about not overflowing the TCL_RESULT_SIZE bytes of static buffer space.

When the caller reads the result from interp->result, it is given no supported indication which storage protocol is in use, and no supported mechanism to claim ownership. This means if the caller has any need to keep the result value for later use, it will need to make another copy and make provisions for the storage of that copy. Often this takes the form of calling Tcl_SetVar to store the value in a Tcl variable (which performs the housekeeping of making the copy of its newValue argument).

This system of values has several merits. It is familiar to the intended audience of C programmers. The representation of each string element by a single byte is simple and direct and one-to-one. The result is a fixed-length encoding which makes random access indexing simple and efficient. The processing of string values takes the form of iterating a pointer through an array, a familiar technique that compilers and hardware have strong history of making efficient. The overall simplicity keeps the conceptual burden low, which enhances the utility for connecting software modules from different origins, the use of Tcl as a so-called "glue language".

There are some deficits to contend with. The greatest complexity at work is the need to manage memory allocation and ownership. The solutions to these matters involve a significant amount of string copying. For any commands that treat arguments and produce results based on interpretations other than sequences of characters, parsing of argument strings into other representations suitable for command operations and the generation of a result strings from those other representations are costs that must be repeated again and again, since only the string values themselves carry information into and out of command procedures.

Finally a large deficit of this value model of strings is they cannot include the element NUL within a string, even though that string element otherwise appears to be legal in the language. In the language of the day, Tcl 7 is not binary safe or 8-bit clean.

```
	% string length <\x01>
	3
	% string length <\x00>
	1
```

Note here that Tcl backslash substitution raises no error when asked to generate the NUL byte, even though Tcl version 7.6 has no way at all to do anything with that byte. At some point it gets treated as a string terminator.

Since Tcl 7 strings are C strings, C programmers of the time were familiar with the issue of binary safety, and several systems of the day made use of solutions. Electronic mail systems had to deal with the ability to pass arbitrary binary data through systems where binary safety of all the components could not be assumed. The solution was to define a number of encoding schemes. Tcl 7 did not take this approach. Any encoding defined to support the NUL byte would have to borrow from some byte sequence already representing itself. It must have been judged that the utility of the NUL was less than the disutility of complicating the value encoding that all commands would need to contend with, at least for general values.

As Tcl gained cross-platform channel support, the inabilty to store in a Tcl value the arbitrary data read in from a channel started to cause more and more pain. In particular it was not possible to safely copy a file, or transmit its contents to an output channel (as one might seek to do when programming a web server) with code like

```
	fconfigure $in -translation binary
	fconfigure $out -translation binary
	puts -nonewline $out [read $in]
```

The issue was so compelling that Tcl gained a semi-secret unsupported command unsupported0 for just this purpose with functionality much like the command fcopy that would come later.

It is more speculative, but it appears the inability to pass arbitrary binary data through Tcl contributed to the late development of full support of many image formats for Tk command image create photo -data. Tk 4 never had any built-in image format that supported this function.

Since Tcl I/O could read in and write out binary data, but that data could not pass between commands, this forced the design of many commands to accept filename arguments to do their own I/O rather than compose with general language-wide I/O facilities. As channels expanded to include sockets and pipes the corresponding expansion of utility could not occur in commands coded in this way without further revisions.

The public C API for Tcl 7.6 includes 22 routines that return a (char *) which is a Tcl string value. It includes 74 routines that accept at least one (char *) argument that is intended to be a Tcl string value. It includes 6 callback signature typedefs that specify callback interfaces which must accept at least one (char *) argument that is a Tcl string value. It includes one callback signature typedef, Tcl_VarTraceProc, that specfies a callback interface that must return a (char *) that is a Tcl string value. All of these components of the public API are points of potential compatibility concern as the conception of Tcl strings shifts over time.

Tcl 8.0 (Development begun 1996, Official release 1997-1999)

Counted array of char

In order to remedy the deficits of the Tcl 7 value set, the implementation of Tcl strings had to be modified. The modification put in place by Tcl 8.0 was to stop treating every NUL byte as a marker of the end of a Tcl string value. Tcl would begin to permit a NUL byte in the internal portion of the char arrays holding Tcl strings. Since the presence of a NUL byte would no longer (always) terminate a string, a (char *) alone could no longer convey an arbitrary string value. New interfaces were defined where a (char *) argument was accompanied by an int argument that would specify how many bytes of memory at the pointer should be taken as the string value.

As an illustration, consider the Tcl 7 public routine

int Tcl_ScanElement (const char * string, int * flagPtr );

It is a utility routine used in the task of generating the string value of a list out of the string values of its elements. The argument string is an element of the list passed in as a NUL-terminated string. It is not possible to successfully use this interface to pass in the string value of a list element that includes the NUL character. By expanding the Tcl value set, Tcl left many public interfaces incapable of dealing with the entire value set. These routines continue to do what they always did, and for some purposes that is good enough, but they are unsuitable for uses that must accommodate the new values supported in Tcl 8.0. This leads to the creation of an additional public routine

int Tcl_ScanCountedElement (const char * string, int length, int * flagPtr );

The additional argument length combines with the argument string to transmit any Tcl 8.0 string value into the routine. In most interfaces expanded in this way, it is conventional for the length argument to accept the value -1 (or sometimes any negative value) as a signal that string is NUL-terminated. Another advantage of this interface is that it is not necessary for string [ length ] to contain the byte value NUL . This makes it easier to pass substrings of larger strings without the need to copy or overwrite.

This implementation is often called a counted string to distinguish it from a NUL-terminated string. In Tcl 8.0, every valid Tcl string is a sequence of zero up to INT_MAX char values from the range 0..255. In the new representation, the set of valid Tcl strings is both expanded and contracted. The alphabet is expanded to include NUL, while a defined limit is imposed on the length of the string sequence of elements from that alphabet for the first time.

In the context of available memory in most computing systems of the day, the limitation on string length did not seem unreasonable. The new implementation solves the problem of storing in a Tcl value arbitrary binary data up to 2Gb in size. The encoding of string elements as char array elements is still direct, simple, one-to-one, and every char array that was a valid representation of a value in Tcl 7 remains valid and continues to represent the same value in Tcl 8.0, which offers a high degree of accommodation of client code written for Tcl 7. Every collection of bytes in the char array represents a valid string, so there is no need to consider how any routine ought to respond to an invalid input.

The public C API for Tcl 8.0 includes only 7 new routines that either accept or return explicitly a pair of values of type (char *) and int representing together a counted string value. A second solution is to include these two values as fields of a new struct, Tcl_Obj, and define new interface routines that make use of that struct. The Tcl_Obj struct introduced in Tcl 8.0 includes a (char *) field bytes and an int field length. Taken together these two fields are a Tcl value represented as a counted string. The routine

Tcl_Obj * Tcl_NewStringObj (char * bytes, int length);

is used to create such a struct out of the pair of arguments defining a counted string. The routine

char * Tcl_GetStringFromObj ( Tcl_Obj * objPtr, int * lengthPtr );

provides the reverse functionality, returning a (char *) value and writing to *lengthPtr an int value making up the counted string retrieved from objPtr. These routines support the transmission of the complete binary-safe set of Tcl 8.0 values.

It is mostly outside the scope of this document, but additional fields of the Tcl_Obj struct enable value sharing, and caching of conversions to other value representations. These other functions solve many of the defects of the Tcl 7 value representation other than the constrained universe of supported values itself. Notably these other features enable substantial performance gains. Much of the published advice to adopt interfaces using the Tcl_Obj struct centers on the performance rewards rather than the expanded capability to include NUL bytes.

The storage of a char array by a Tcl_Obj has some parallels with the storage of a char array as the result of a command evaluated in a Tcl_Interp. However, the same functionality of Tcl_SetResult was not made available. To do so, something like a freeProc field would need to be included in the Tcl_Obj struct, and concerns about excessive memory requirements to store every value in Tcl ruled the day. As a consequence, it is an implicit requirement that objPtr->bytes normally points to memory allocated by ckalloc and when sharing demands are all released it will be freed by a call to ckfree. The routine Tcl_NewStringObj makes such an allocation and copies the char array in its bytes argument into it. In contrast, the (char *) value returned by Tcl_GetStringFromObj is a pointer to the same char array that is stored by objPtr. The caller of Tcl_GetStringFromObj can sustain the validity of that memory by claiming a share on objPtr with a call to Tcl_IncrRefCount and then later releasing that claim with a call to Tcl_DecrRefCount. One complete copy of the char array contents cannot be avoided by this value model, but value sharing permits most subsequent copying to be avoided. This design also imposes consequential costs on the "Copy on Write" strategy when over-writing a Tcl_Obj struct. No alternative to complete allocation and copy is available, with performance consequences for large values that have visible impact on scripts.

With a Tcl_Obj struct defined as a container for any Tcl 8.0 value, a new signature for command procedures was defined,

int Tcl_ObjCmdProc ( ClientData, interp, int objc, Tcl_Obj * const objv[]);

and a new public routine Tcl_CreateObjCommand to create commands implemented using the new command procedure signature. Commands using the new signature have the ability to receive the complete argument set of Tcl 8.0 as arguments. An arbitrary Tcl 8.0 value can be returned using a call to Tcl_SetObjResult. One of these commands can be evaluated by use of the old routine Tcl_Eval or the new routine Tcl_EvalObj when the script to be evaluated itself might include the NUL byte. The caller then retrieves the result of the evaluated command with a call to Tcl_GetObjResult. A new routine Tcl_GetStringResult allows the interpreter result to be retrieved as a NUL-terminated string, with the corresponding truncation at any NUL byte that might be in it. This is not a recommended routine, but it is an improvement over direct access to the interp->result field, which Tcl 8.0 declares deprecated. All Tcl operations that need to support the complete new Tcl value set had to be revised to make use of new facilities and interfaces.

Continuing earlier illustrations, we can see that the string command was adapted in Tcl 8.0

```
	% string length <\x00>
	3
```

Likewise the puts and read commands are fully binary safe, so that

```
	fconfigure $in -translation binary
	fconfigure $out -translation binary
	puts -nonewline $out [read $in]
```

now faithfully copies all bytes from one channel to another. Tcl 8.0 also introduces new commands binary format and binary scan that Tcl programs can use to process binary values. In Tcl 8.0, these commands operate directly on the counted string in objPtr->bytes.

A deployed collection of extension commands written for Tcl 7 could still be used by Tcl 8.0. Since these commands were implemented by command procedures using the Tcl_CmdProc signature, they could only accept NUL-terminated strings as arguments. Attempts to pass any argument value to them that included a NUL byte would only pass the truncated value. Note that this remains within the very free requirements of an arbitrary Tcl command. Each command is free to interpret its arguments as it chooses, including the choice to truncate them at the first NUL. A Tcl 7 command would produce a result within the constrained value set, but that is acceptable. If the command records that result via direct write to interp->result that is deprecated and formally unsupported, but in practice tolerated and functional. Such an approach allowed for a gentle, even lazy, approach to migration to new capabilities. All of the public Tcl 7 routines that accept or return NUL-terminated strings noted in the earlier section continue to be supported public routines in Tcl 8.0, doing what they do, with all the implicit limitations. The model in place was clearly an expectation that all commands would migrate in time, but there was not a big hurry. Several routines incapable of supporting the expanded Tcl value model were declared deprecated as a prod toward eventual migration.

Tcl 8.0 itself did not fully convert all of its built-in commands. At least 23 Tcl_CmdProc command procedures persist within it. Some can be demonstrated.

```
	% regsub -all y zyz|zyz x foo
	2
	% set foo
	zxz|zxz
	% regsub -all y zyz\x00zyz x foo
	1
	% set foo
	zxz
```

Others are largely masked by the use of the bytecode compiler and execution engine, also new in Tcl 8.0. In other built-in commands, the use of routines with these interface limitations leads to similar failures.

```
	% set foo <\x00>
	<>
	% subst {$foo}
	<
```

Several routines, both public and private, and a number of established data structures continue to make use of NUL-terminated strings. Because of this, although the fully general set of Tcl values includes all binary sequences, several components of Tcl remain limited in release 8.0, and may not include the NUL byte. Examples include command names, namespace names, channel names, channel type names, Tcl_ObjType names, and likely more.

Tcl 8.1 (Development begun 1997, Official release 1999-)

Strings encoded in UTF-8, as modified in Java 1.1

A major re-thinking of Tcl values began in 1997 as work toward Tcl 8.1 began. The reconciliation of Unicode 1.1 and ISO-10646 into agreement showed a clear path forward for software to manage text encodings under one organized plan. With this new future vision of text management in software, the notion that programmers could benefit from being shielded from the need to deal with encodings rapidly vanished. In contrast, the value of joining in support of a developing standard was apparent.

The Tcl changes file records an entry (in part):

```
6/18/97 (new feature) Tcl now supports international character sets:
    - All C APIs now accept UTF-8 strings instead of iso8859-1 strings,
      wherever you see "char *", unless explicitly noted otherwise.
    - All Tcl strings represented in UTF-8, which is a convenient
      multi-byte encoding of Unicode.  Variable names, procedure names,
      and all other values in Tcl may include arbitrary Unicode characters.
      For example, the Tcl command "string length" returns how many
      Unicode characters are in the argument string.
    - For Java compatibility, embedded null bytes in C strings are
      represented as \xC080 in UTF-8 strings, but the null byte at the end
      of a UTF-8 string remains \0.  Thus Tcl strings once again do not
      contain null bytes, except for termination bytes.
    - For Java compatibility, "\uXXXX" is used in Tcl to enter a Unicode
      character.  "\u0000" through "\uffff" are acceptable Unicode
      characters.
```

The corresponding development patch is no longer available. The relevant code development fossil record for Tcl starts on September 21, 1998, with the source code of something close to the Tcl 8.1a2 release (February 24, 1998). We also have the Tcl 8.1a1 release (January 23, 1998). The absence of relevant entries in the changes file suggests the "international character set" support in the Tcl 8.1a1 release is what was committed in June, 1997. We can only speculate what development effort, what judgments and what referrals to what sources and standards played out in the development of that first implementation patch. Our speculation is informed, though, by what we know and can reasonably infer from the technical environment where this work took place.

The claim that Tcl 8.1 strings are stored in UTF-8 is false, strictly speaking. Neither the encoding generated nor the encoding accepted by Tcl 8.1 follow the precise specification of UTF-8. Not the specification in place today, nor any of the specifications in place near the time of this work. As the changes entry indicates, a number of implementation choices are claimed to serve "Java compatibility". Tcl development at this time took place at Sun Microsystems, which was also the home of Java. It appears that "Java compatibility" is not a statement about any sort of interoperability, but about following the same conventions for the sake of programmer familiarity. Tcl 8.1 added the \uHHHH syntax as a way for scripts to specify Unicode characters using only the ASCII characters. This is the same syntax Java uses for the same thing. The "compatibility" at work is a reduction of cognitive burden by using the same solution to the same problem in two languages. Tcl copied some other deviations from standard UTF-8 from Java as well.

To appreciate the choices made by Tcl in how to implement support for the "international character set", it is helpful to review some of the basics of encoding, and the players and offered standards of the time. Two efforts at defining a single Universal Coded Character Set (UCS) were active during the 1990s, ISO-10646 and Unicode. The common task was to define a mapping from each integer index value (codepoint) to a character assigned to the location in the character set table identified by the codepoint. The ISO-10646 effort conceived of a table with 4-byte (32-bit) codepoints, with space for up to 2^32 characters. They gave the name UCS-4 to both this conceptual character set and the trivial encoding of its codepoints as 4-byte integer values. In contrast, the Unicode effort proposed a character set table with up to 2^16 characters, indexed by 2-byte (16 bit) indices. This (potentially) smaller character set was formally known as UCS-2, The trivial encoding of its codepoints as 2-byte integer values was also called UCS-2. Less formally, but very commonly the character set UCS-2 was called "Unicode", and two-byte codepoint values were called "Unicode characters", emphasizing the much smaller table, and smaller codepoints of the Unicode project. The notation U+HHHH for codepoint values was also in use. In the mid-1990s, no codepoints outside UCS-2 were assigned by either UCS project.

At the time, a migration away from single-byte encodings like ASCII or ISO-8859-1 to either UCS-2 or UCS-4 was a tough sell. A doubling or quadrupling of memory and network traffic requirements for the sake of additional characters that many applications had no need to handle was not a welcome proposition. It was clear that a variable-length encoding that better managed the costs involved would be needed. Appendix F of The Unicode Standard, Version 1.1 (1993) contains a description of what was called the File System Safe UCS Transformation Format (FSS-UTF). FSS-UTF is a variable-length byte-oriented encoding of UCS codepoints. The implementation code in Tcl 8.1 more closely matches this specification than anything bearing the name UTF-8. The encoding rules of FSS-UTF are summarized in the table

```
	Codepoints		Encoding
	----------		--------
	U+0000 - U+007F		0bbbbbbb
	U+0080 - U+07FF		110bbbbb 10bbbbbb
	U+0800 - U+FFFF		1110bbbb (10bbbbbb)2

	U+00010000 - U+001FFFFF	11110bbb (10bbbbbb)3
	U+00200000 - U+03FFFFFF	111110bb (10bbbbbb)4
	U+04000000 - U+7FFFFFFF	1111110b (10bbbbbb)5
```

FSS-UTF encodes each codepoint in the ASCII range as a single-byte, the same byte already used by ASCII for that character. Longer byte seqeunces encode higher codepoints that were less frequently used. A footnote in Appendix F makes the observation that encoded sequences of three bytes are sufficient to cover all 16-bit codepoints of UCS-2 (Unicode). The longer encodings of four through six bytes prepared the way to cover codepoints in UCS-4 up to 31 bits.

(Side observation: it would be straightforward to continue the table of encoding rules by one more line, using the lead byte 0xFE to introduce a sequence of six trail bytes. This would be a seven byte encoding that could encode up to 36 bits, easily covering the remainder of the 32-bit range of all of UCS-4. It seems the value of keeping byte 0xFE out of encoded streams outweighed the failure to encode the upper half of UCS-4, which had no forseeable use. The bytes 0xFE and 0xFF together make up a Byte Order Mark that is used to determine endianness of UCS-2 data. When neither byte appears in UTF-8 or FSS-UTF the confidence of that interpretation is boldened.)

In Tcl 8.1, encoding of Unicode codepoints is accomplished by the routine

int Tcl_UniCharToUtf ( int ch, char *str);

The routine is (nearly) a direct translation of the table of encoding rules of FSS-UTF. However it is clear that a decision was made that Tcl would support "Unicode" which meant UCS-2 which meant 16-bit codepoints as "Unicode characters". Unicode characters require a maximum of three encoded bytes, and Tcl 8.1 source code uses TCL_UTF_MAX to represent that limit. It is useful in sizing buffers where encoded strings are to be written. The public header for Tcl 8.1 includes

#define TCL_UTF_MAX 3

and

typedef unsigned short Tcl_UniChar;

However, the body of Tcl_UniCharToUtf includes code to encode up to six-byte sequences as prescribed by FSS-UTF representing up to 31-bit codepoints, protected by a conditional compiler directive

#if TCL_UTF_MAX > 3 .

With the default setting, Tcl is able to encode a total of 65,536 distinct values of the ch codepoint argument. These are all the codepoints of UCS-2, the complete capacity of Unicode 1.1. When Tcl_UniCharToUtf is passed a ch argument outside that supported range, the codepoint U+FFFD is encoded in its place. Unicode 1.1 assigns this codepoint the name REPLACEMENT CHARACTER. Unicode prescribes the use of U+FFFD to replace an incoming character whose value is unrepresentable. In a configuration of Tcl 8.1 with TCL_UTF_MAX set to 6, the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER would replace only the ch values in the upper half of UCS-4. Note that Tcl 8.1 has made a design choice here to handle unsupported inputs via replacement, and not via raising an error.

It is clear that the Unicode support provided by Tcl 8.1 was intentionally limited to UCS-2, while conventions and migration supports were put in place so that a future (binary incompatible) version of Tcl would expand its support to UCS-4 with FSS-UTF encoding sequences of up to six bytes, at some point where the considerable cost in memory and processing burden traded off against the benefits of support for whatever future codepoint assignments outside of UCS-2 compelled support.

The capacity of UCS-2 is a table of 65,536 codepoints. However, Unicode 1.1 assigns characters to only 40,635 rows in that table. If we generate all possible sequences of those 40,635 assigned codepoints, and then encode each sequence via the FSS-UTF rules, we generate a set of byte sequences far smaller and more constrained that the general set of all byte sequences. When we claim that Tcl 8.1 strings are kept in the UTF-8 encoding, we imply that Tcl 8.1 strings are constrained to a much smaller set of byte sequences than were permitted for Tcl 8.0 strings. This raises questions about both compatibility and what a decoder should do with a non-conformant byte sequence.

It is an expected feature of the Unicode character set that more characters are to be added over time. The number of assigned codepoints grows as new versions of the Unicode standard are codified and published. Because support for standards always lags their publication, software written in conformance to one version of Unicode is likely to encounter data produced in conformance to a later version. In light of this, the best practice is to accommodate and preserve unassigned codepoints as much as possible. Software written to support Unicode 1.1 can then accept Unicode 2 data streams,pass them through and output them again undamaged. In this way a middleware written to an obsolete Unicode standard can still support providers and clients that seek to use characters assigned only in a later standard. The middleware would fail to properly answer any questions about the later-assigned characters, such as a string is alpha test, but could still not be immediately useless. Unicode 1.1 left open the possibility that any codepoint in UCS-2 might one day be assigned. Tcl 8.1 imposes no conditions on the encoding of any Tcl_UniChar value at all.

The standards specifying text encodings published in the mid-1990s were quite clear and explicit about the right way to do things. They were often less demanding and specific about how to respond in the presence of errors. The spirit of the Postel Robustness Principle

Be liberal in what you accept, and conservative in what you send.

held considerable influence at the time. Many implementations chose to accommodate input errors, especially when that was the natural result of laziness. For example, the specification of FSS-UTF and all specifications for UTF-8 are completely clear and explicit that the proper encoding of the codepoint U+0000 is the byte value 0x00, (our old friend the NUL byte!). However, inspection of the FSS-UTF encoding rules quickly reveals that the multi-byte encoding strategies have room to encode all the codepoints that already have a proper encoding as a single byte. Unless we take active steps to prevent it, a decoding procedure will happily decode the byte sequences (0xC0, 0x80) or (0xE0, 0x80, 0x80) as the codepoint U+0000. Both Unicode 1.1 and Unicode 2.0 include sample decoder routines that do exactly that. The text of Appendix A.2 of The Unicode Standard 2.0 (which contains one definition of UTF-8 from 1996) explicitly states,

When converting from UTF-8 to Unicode values, however, implementations do not need to check that the shortest encoding is being used, which simplifies the conversion algorithm.

Whether or not the Tcl developers were explicitly following this advice, the routine in Tcl 8.1 for decoding Unicode codepoints from the encoded byte sequences,

int Tcl_UtfToUniChar ( const char *str, Tcl_UniChar *chPtr),

implements the same forgiving support for overlong byte sequences.

In the context of the still incomplete transition from the Tcl 7 to the Tcl 8.0 conventions for string values, and the lingering difficulties in handling the NUL byte, the forgiving nature of the UTF-8 decoders presented a clear opportunity. If the decoder is equally happy to receive the byte sequence (0xC0, 0x80) as a representation of U+0000, why not have the encoder encode it that way in the first place? With this modification, encoded byte sequences return to not having the NUL byte in them at all, and we sweep away the remnants of a difficult transition (while admittedly adding a new one). Tcl chose to adopt this modification of the encoding rules. Java 1.1, another language developed by Sun Microsystems at the same time, made the same modification.

The modification is not without its problems. One feature of the proper UTF-8 encoding scheme is that a sorting of encoded byte sequences matches the sorting of the UCS-2 sequences they encode. Not so when custom modifications are in place. Likewise, byte-for-byte comparisons of byte sequences in a proper UTF-8 encoding reliably transfer to character-for-character comparisons of the UCS-2 strings they encode. This is especially important when testing for equality as is vital in searches. When any character has multiple acceptable encodings, the fully correct implementation of these matters becomes much more complex. It is also a complication that when a custom encoding does not match any standard specification, it becomes impossible to document what encoding is supported in short and precise ways. Either a long document spelling out the rules that are in place must be written, or else false claims are made about using "UTF-8" supplemented by haphazard revelations to the curious questioners of all the exceptions and transgressions that are acutally in place.

That is not the end. Even when all overlong encodings of all codepoints of UCS-2 are accepted, there are still many, many more byte sequences to consider. A scheme demanding UTF-8 encoding would be expected to reject these other sequences, either by raising an error, or by inserting the REPLACEMENT CHARACTER in suitable places to mark the non-conformant input. This is not what Tcl_UtfToUniChar does. Instead when any byte is encountered that is invalid by the modified rules of UTF-8 already described, that byte is taken as an encoding of the code-point with the same value as the byte value. That is, when the modified UTF-8 encoding fails to be satisfied, the ISO-8859-1 encoding of Tcl 8.0 is assumed instead. Furthermore, this is not just a quiet accommodation, or perhaps an error in implementation. It is the explict documented behavior of Tcl_UtfToUniChar in Tcl 8.1.

If the input is not in proper UTF‐8 format, Tcl_UtfToUniChar will store the first byte of src in *chPtr as a Tcl_UniChar between 0x0000 and 0x00ff and return 1.

The reasoning behind this encoding choice is not explicitly recorded in any known place. This does not appear to be a choice copied from Java. It seems a reasonable guess to presume this is intended to offer some measure of compatibility to deployed callers of Tcl 7 and Tcl 8.0, though the effectiveness of that strategy is questionable to say the least. A Tcl 8.1 that continues to treat the byte sequence (0xC0, 0x20) as the same two bytes as Tcl 8.0, but begins to treat the byte sequence (0xC0, 0x80) as a representation of NUL is not much of a compatibility accommodation to rely upon.

many-to-one, interpretive freedom, (parse of n) variable length

Compat with 8.0 ByteArrays

UCS-2 sequences bytes v chars

Two-tier encoding.

Threading & memory validity

API Counts?

NUL naming limitations

UTF-16 and surrogate pairs

During the development of Tcl 8.1, the prevailing Unicode standards were Unicode 2.0 and 2.1. In these definitions of Unicode, all assigned codepoints were in the set U+0000 through U+FFFF, the set of characters within UCS-2, also called the Basic Multilingual Plane.

The publication of RFC 2044 describing a UTF-8 encoding for UCS-2 in October 1996 was also a key event.