Tcl Source Code

Artifact [6934c9ea66]
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Bounty program for improvements to Tcl and certain Tcl packages.

Artifact 6934c9ea66d17949ffd0216644c835484081fc79e39d2f85d942d2a941dde09c:


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/*
 * tclStringObj.c --
 *
 *	This file contains functions that implement string operations on Tcl
 *	objects. Some string operations work with UTF strings and others
 *	require Unicode format. Functions that require knowledge of the width
 *	of each character, such as indexing, operate on Unicode data.
 *
 *	A Unicode string is an internationalized string. Conceptually, a
 *	Unicode string is an array of 16-bit quantities organized as a
 *	sequence of properly formed UTF-8 characters. There is a one-to-one
 *	map between Unicode and UTF characters. Because Unicode characters
 *	have a fixed width, operations such as indexing operate on Unicode
 *	data. The String object is optimized for the case where each UTF char
 *	in a string is only one byte. In this case, we store the value of
 *	numChars, but we don't store the Unicode data (unless Tcl_GetUnicode
 *	is explicitly called).
 *
 *	The String object type stores one or both formats. The default
 *	behavior is to store UTF. Once Unicode is calculated by a function, it
 *	is stored in the internal rep for future access (without an additional
 *	O(n) cost).
 *
 *	To allow many appends to be done to an object without constantly
 *	reallocating the space for the string or Unicode representation, we
 *	allocate double the space for the string or Unicode and use the
 *	internal representation to keep track of how much space is used vs.
 *	allocated.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1995-1997 Sun Microsystems, Inc.
 * Copyright (c) 1999 by Scriptics Corporation.
 *
 * See the file "license.terms" for information on usage and redistribution of
 * this file, and for a DISCLAIMER OF ALL WARRANTIES.
 */

#include "tclInt.h"
#include "tommath.h"
#include "tclStringRep.h"

/*
 * Prototypes for functions defined later in this file:
 */

static void		AppendPrintfToObjVA(Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
			    const char *format, va_list argList);
static void		AppendUnicodeToUnicodeRep(Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
			    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode, int appendNumChars);
static void		AppendUnicodeToUtfRep(Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
			    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode, int numChars);
static void		AppendUtfToUnicodeRep(Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
			    const char *bytes, int numBytes);
static void		AppendUtfToUtfRep(Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
			    const char *bytes, int numBytes);
static void		DupStringInternalRep(Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
			    Tcl_Obj *copyPtr);
static int		ExtendStringRepWithUnicode(Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
			    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode, int numChars);
static void		ExtendUnicodeRepWithString(Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
			    const char *bytes, int numBytes,
			    int numAppendChars);
static void		FillUnicodeRep(Tcl_Obj *objPtr);
static void		FreeStringInternalRep(Tcl_Obj *objPtr);
static void		GrowStringBuffer(Tcl_Obj *objPtr, int needed, int flag);
static void		GrowUnicodeBuffer(Tcl_Obj *objPtr, int needed);
static int		SetStringFromAny(Tcl_Interp *interp, Tcl_Obj *objPtr);
static void		SetUnicodeObj(Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
			    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode, int numChars);
static int		UnicodeLength(const Tcl_UniChar *unicode);
static void		UpdateStringOfString(Tcl_Obj *objPtr);

/*
 * The structure below defines the string Tcl object type by means of
 * functions that can be invoked by generic object code.
 */

const Tcl_ObjType tclStringType = {
    "string",			/* name */
    FreeStringInternalRep,	/* freeIntRepPro */
    DupStringInternalRep,	/* dupIntRepProc */
    UpdateStringOfString,	/* updateStringProc */
    SetStringFromAny		/* setFromAnyProc */
};

/*
 * TCL STRING GROWTH ALGORITHM
 *
 * When growing strings (during an append, for example), the following growth
 * algorithm is used:
 *
 *   Attempt to allocate 2 * (originalLength + appendLength)
 *   On failure:
 *	attempt to allocate originalLength + 2*appendLength + TCL_MIN_GROWTH
 *
 * This algorithm allows very good performance, as it rapidly increases the
 * memory allocated for a given string, which minimizes the number of
 * reallocations that must be performed. However, using only the doubling
 * algorithm can lead to a significant waste of memory. In particular, it may
 * fail even when there is sufficient memory available to complete the append
 * request (but there is not 2*totalLength memory available). So when the
 * doubling fails (because there is not enough memory available), the
 * algorithm requests a smaller amount of memory, which is still enough to
 * cover the request, but which hopefully will be less than the total
 * available memory.
 *
 * The addition of TCL_MIN_GROWTH allows for efficient handling of very
 * small appends. Without this extra slush factor, a sequence of several small
 * appends would cause several memory allocations. As long as
 * TCL_MIN_GROWTH is a reasonable size, we can avoid that behavior.
 *
 * The growth algorithm can be tuned by adjusting the following parameters:
 *
 * TCL_MIN_GROWTH		Additional space, in bytes, to allocate when
 *				the double allocation has failed. Default is
 *				1024 (1 kilobyte).  See tclInt.h.
 */

#ifndef TCL_MIN_UNICHAR_GROWTH
#define TCL_MIN_UNICHAR_GROWTH	TCL_MIN_GROWTH/sizeof(Tcl_UniChar)
#endif

static void
GrowStringBuffer(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
    int needed,
    int flag)
{
    /*
     * Pre-conditions:
     *	objPtr->typePtr == &tclStringType
     *	needed > stringPtr->allocated
     *	flag || objPtr->bytes != NULL
     */

    String *stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    char *ptr = NULL;
    int attempt;

    if (objPtr->bytes == &tclEmptyString) {
	objPtr->bytes = NULL;
    }
    if (flag == 0 || stringPtr->allocated > 0) {
	attempt = 2 * needed;
	if (attempt >= 0) {
	    ptr = attemptckrealloc(objPtr->bytes, attempt + 1);
	}
	if (ptr == NULL) {
	    /*
	     * Take care computing the amount of modest growth to avoid
	     * overflow into invalid argument values for attempt.
	     */

	    unsigned int limit = INT_MAX - needed;
	    unsigned int extra = needed - objPtr->length + TCL_MIN_GROWTH;
	    int growth = (int) ((extra > limit) ? limit : extra);

	    attempt = needed + growth;
	    ptr = attemptckrealloc(objPtr->bytes, attempt + 1);
	}
    }
    if (ptr == NULL) {
	/*
	 * First allocation - just big enough; or last chance fallback.
	 */

	attempt = needed;
	ptr = ckrealloc(objPtr->bytes, attempt + 1);
    }
    objPtr->bytes = ptr;
    stringPtr->allocated = attempt;
}

static void
GrowUnicodeBuffer(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
    int needed)
{
    /*
     * Pre-conditions:
     *	objPtr->typePtr == &tclStringType
     *	needed > stringPtr->maxChars
     *	needed < STRING_MAXCHARS
     */

    String *ptr = NULL, *stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    int attempt;

    if (stringPtr->maxChars > 0) {
	/*
	 * Subsequent appends - apply the growth algorithm.
	 */

	attempt = 2 * needed;
	if (attempt >= 0 && attempt <= STRING_MAXCHARS) {
	    ptr = stringAttemptRealloc(stringPtr, attempt);
	}
	if (ptr == NULL) {
	    /*
	     * Take care computing the amount of modest growth to avoid
	     * overflow into invalid argument values for attempt.
	     */

	    unsigned int limit = STRING_MAXCHARS - needed;
	    unsigned int extra = needed - stringPtr->numChars
		    + TCL_MIN_UNICHAR_GROWTH;
	    int growth = (int) ((extra > limit) ? limit : extra);

	    attempt = needed + growth;
	    ptr = stringAttemptRealloc(stringPtr, attempt);
	}
    }
    if (ptr == NULL) {
	/*
	 * First allocation - just big enough; or last chance fallback.
	 */

	attempt = needed;
	ptr = stringRealloc(stringPtr, attempt);
    }
    stringPtr = ptr;
    stringPtr->maxChars = attempt;
    SET_STRING(objPtr, stringPtr);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_NewStringObj --
 *
 *	This function is normally called when not debugging: i.e., when
 *	TCL_MEM_DEBUG is not defined. It creates a new string object and
 *	initializes it from the byte pointer and length arguments.
 *
 *	When TCL_MEM_DEBUG is defined, this function just returns the result
 *	of calling the debugging version Tcl_DbNewStringObj.
 *
 * Results:
 *	A newly created string object is returned that has ref count zero.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The new object's internal string representation will be set to a copy
 *	of the length bytes starting at "bytes". If "length" is negative, use
 *	bytes up to the first NUL byte; i.e., assume "bytes" points to a
 *	C-style NUL-terminated string. The object's type is set to NULL. An
 *	extra NUL is added to the end of the new object's byte array.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

#ifdef TCL_MEM_DEBUG
#undef Tcl_NewStringObj
Tcl_Obj *
Tcl_NewStringObj(
    const char *bytes,		/* Points to the first of the length bytes
				 * used to initialize the new object. */
    int length)			/* The number of bytes to copy from "bytes"
				 * when initializing the new object. If
				 * negative, use bytes up to the first NUL
				 * byte. */
{
    return Tcl_DbNewStringObj(bytes, length, "unknown", 0);
}
#else /* if not TCL_MEM_DEBUG */
Tcl_Obj *
Tcl_NewStringObj(
    const char *bytes,		/* Points to the first of the length bytes
				 * used to initialize the new object. */
    int length)			/* The number of bytes to copy from "bytes"
				 * when initializing the new object. If
				 * negative, use bytes up to the first NUL
				 * byte. */
{
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr;

    if (length < 0) {
	length = (bytes? strlen(bytes) : 0);
    }
    TclNewStringObj(objPtr, bytes, length);
    return objPtr;
}
#endif /* TCL_MEM_DEBUG */

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_DbNewStringObj --
 *
 *	This function is normally called when debugging: i.e., when
 *	TCL_MEM_DEBUG is defined. It creates new string objects. It is the
 *	same as the Tcl_NewStringObj function above except that it calls
 *	Tcl_DbCkalloc directly with the file name and line number from its
 *	caller. This simplifies debugging since then the [memory active]
 *	command will report the correct file name and line number when
 *	reporting objects that haven't been freed.
 *
 *	When TCL_MEM_DEBUG is not defined, this function just returns the
 *	result of calling Tcl_NewStringObj.
 *
 * Results:
 *	A newly created string object is returned that has ref count zero.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The new object's internal string representation will be set to a copy
 *	of the length bytes starting at "bytes". If "length" is negative, use
 *	bytes up to the first NUL byte; i.e., assume "bytes" points to a
 *	C-style NUL-terminated string. The object's type is set to NULL. An
 *	extra NUL is added to the end of the new object's byte array.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

#ifdef TCL_MEM_DEBUG
Tcl_Obj *
Tcl_DbNewStringObj(
    const char *bytes,		/* Points to the first of the length bytes
				 * used to initialize the new object. */
    int length,			/* The number of bytes to copy from "bytes"
				 * when initializing the new object. If
				 * negative, use bytes up to the first NUL
				 * byte. */
    const char *file,		/* The name of the source file calling this
				 * function; used for debugging. */
    int line)			/* Line number in the source file; used for
				 * debugging. */
{
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr;

    if (length < 0) {
	length = (bytes? strlen(bytes) : 0);
    }
    TclDbNewObj(objPtr, file, line);
    TclInitStringRep(objPtr, bytes, length);
    return objPtr;
}
#else /* if not TCL_MEM_DEBUG */
Tcl_Obj *
Tcl_DbNewStringObj(
    const char *bytes,		/* Points to the first of the length bytes
				 * used to initialize the new object. */
    int length,			/* The number of bytes to copy from "bytes"
				 * when initializing the new object. If
				 * negative, use bytes up to the first NUL
				 * byte. */
    const char *file,		/* The name of the source file calling this
				 * function; used for debugging. */
    int line)			/* Line number in the source file; used for
				 * debugging. */
{
    return Tcl_NewStringObj(bytes, length);
}
#endif /* TCL_MEM_DEBUG */

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_NewUnicodeObj --
 *
 *	This function is creates a new String object and initializes it from
 *	the given Unicode String. If the Utf String is the same size as the
 *	Unicode string, don't duplicate the data.
 *
 * Results:
 *	The newly created object is returned. This object will have no initial
 *	string representation. The returned object has a ref count of 0.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Memory allocated for new object and copy of Unicode argument.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_Obj *
Tcl_NewUnicodeObj(
    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode,	/* The unicode string used to initialize the
				 * new object. */
    int numChars)		/* Number of characters in the unicode
				 * string. */
{
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr;

    TclNewObj(objPtr);
    SetUnicodeObj(objPtr, unicode, numChars);
    return objPtr;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_GetCharLength --
 *
 *	Get the length of the Unicode string from the Tcl object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	Pointer to unicode string representing the unicode object.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Frees old internal rep. Allocates memory for new "String" internal
 *	rep.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_GetCharLength(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr)		/* The String object to get the num chars
				 * of. */
{
    String *stringPtr;
    int numChars;

    /*
     * Quick, no-shimmer return for short string reps.
     */

    if ((objPtr->bytes) && (objPtr->length < 2)) {
	/* 0 bytes -> 0 chars; 1 byte -> 1 char */
	return objPtr->length;
    }

    /*
     * Optimize the case where we're really dealing with a bytearray object
     * without string representation; we don't need to convert to a string to
     * perform the get-length operation.
     */

    if (TclIsPureByteArray(objPtr)) {
	int length;

	(void) Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objPtr, &length);
	return length;
    }

    /*
     * OK, need to work with the object as a string.
     */

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    numChars = stringPtr->numChars;

    /*
     * If numChars is unknown, compute it.
     */

    if (numChars == -1) {
	TclNumUtfChars(numChars, objPtr->bytes, objPtr->length);
	stringPtr->numChars = numChars;
    }
    return numChars;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_GetUniChar --
 *
 *	Get the index'th Unicode character from the String object. The index
 *	is assumed to be in the appropriate range.
 *
 * Results:
 *	Returns the index'th Unicode character in the Object.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Fills unichar with the index'th Unicode character.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_UniChar
Tcl_GetUniChar(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* The object to get the Unicode charater
				 * from. */
    int index)			/* Get the index'th Unicode character. */
{
    String *stringPtr;

    /*
     * Optimize the case where we're really dealing with a bytearray object
     * without string representation; we don't need to convert to a string to
     * perform the indexing operation.
     */

    if (TclIsPureByteArray(objPtr)) {
	unsigned char *bytes = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objPtr, NULL);

	return (Tcl_UniChar) bytes[index];
    }

    /*
     * OK, need to work with the object as a string.
     */

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode == 0) {
	/*
	 * If numChars is unknown, compute it.
	 */

	if (stringPtr->numChars == -1) {
	    TclNumUtfChars(stringPtr->numChars, objPtr->bytes, objPtr->length);
	}
	if (stringPtr->numChars == objPtr->length) {
	    return (Tcl_UniChar) objPtr->bytes[index];
	}
	FillUnicodeRep(objPtr);
	stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    }
    return stringPtr->unicode[index];
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_GetUnicode --
 *
 *	Get the Unicode form of the String object. If the object is not
 *	already a String object, it will be converted to one. If the String
 *	object does not have a Unicode rep, then one is create from the UTF
 *	string format.
 *
 * Results:
 *	Returns a pointer to the object's internal Unicode string.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Converts the object to have the String internal rep.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_UniChar *
Tcl_GetUnicode(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr)		/* The object to find the unicode string
				 * for. */
{
    return Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(objPtr, NULL);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj --
 *
 *	Get the Unicode form of the String object with length. If the object
 *	is not already a String object, it will be converted to one. If the
 *	String object does not have a Unicode rep, then one is create from the
 *	UTF string format.
 *
 * Results:
 *	Returns a pointer to the object's internal Unicode string.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Converts the object to have the String internal rep.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_UniChar *
Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* The object to find the unicode string
				 * for. */
    int *lengthPtr)		/* If non-NULL, the location where the string
				 * rep's unichar length should be stored. If
				 * NULL, no length is stored. */
{
    String *stringPtr;

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode == 0) {
	FillUnicodeRep(objPtr);
	stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    }

    if (lengthPtr != NULL) {
	*lengthPtr = stringPtr->numChars;
    }
    return stringPtr->unicode;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_GetRange --
 *
 *	Create a Tcl Object that contains the chars between first and last of
 *	the object indicated by "objPtr". If the object is not already a
 *	String object, convert it to one. The first and last indices are
 *	assumed to be in the appropriate range.
 *
 * Results:
 *	Returns a new Tcl Object of the String type.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Changes the internal rep of "objPtr" to the String type.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_Obj *
Tcl_GetRange(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* The Tcl object to find the range of. */
    int first,			/* First index of the range. */
    int last)			/* Last index of the range. */
{
    Tcl_Obj *newObjPtr;		/* The Tcl object to find the range of. */
    String *stringPtr;

    /*
     * Optimize the case where we're really dealing with a bytearray object
     * without string representation; we don't need to convert to a string to
     * perform the substring operation.
     */

    if (TclIsPureByteArray(objPtr)) {
	unsigned char *bytes = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objPtr, NULL);

	return Tcl_NewByteArrayObj(bytes+first, last-first+1);
    }

    /*
     * OK, need to work with the object as a string.
     */

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode == 0) {
	/*
	 * If numChars is unknown, compute it.
	 */

	if (stringPtr->numChars == -1) {
	    TclNumUtfChars(stringPtr->numChars, objPtr->bytes, objPtr->length);
	}
	if (stringPtr->numChars == objPtr->length) {
	    newObjPtr = Tcl_NewStringObj(objPtr->bytes + first, last-first+1);

	    /*
	     * Since we know the char length of the result, store it.
	     */

	    SetStringFromAny(NULL, newObjPtr);
	    stringPtr = GET_STRING(newObjPtr);
	    stringPtr->numChars = newObjPtr->length;
	    return newObjPtr;
	}
	FillUnicodeRep(objPtr);
	stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    }

    return Tcl_NewUnicodeObj(stringPtr->unicode + first, last-first+1);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_SetStringObj --
 *
 *	Modify an object to hold a string that is a copy of the bytes
 *	indicated by the byte pointer and length arguments.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The object's string representation will be set to a copy of the
 *	"length" bytes starting at "bytes". If "length" is negative, use bytes
 *	up to the first NUL byte; i.e., assume "bytes" points to a C-style
 *	NUL-terminated string. The object's old string and internal
 *	representations are freed and the object's type is set NULL.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_SetStringObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Object whose internal rep to init. */
    const char *bytes,		/* Points to the first of the length bytes
				 * used to initialize the object. */
    int length)			/* The number of bytes to copy from "bytes"
				 * when initializing the object. If negative,
				 * use bytes up to the first NUL byte.*/
{
    if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	Tcl_Panic("%s called with shared object", "Tcl_SetStringObj");
    }

    /*
     * Set the type to NULL and free any internal rep for the old type.
     */

    TclFreeIntRep(objPtr);

    /*
     * Free any old string rep, then set the string rep to a copy of the
     * length bytes starting at "bytes".
     */

    TclInvalidateStringRep(objPtr);
    if (length < 0) {
	length = (bytes? strlen(bytes) : 0);
    }
    TclInitStringRep(objPtr, bytes, length);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_SetObjLength --
 *
 *	This function changes the length of the string representation of an
 *	object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	If the size of objPtr's string representation is greater than length,
 *	then it is reduced to length and a new terminating null byte is stored
 *	in the strength. If the length of the string representation is greater
 *	than length, the storage space is reallocated to the given length; a
 *	null byte is stored at the end, but other bytes past the end of the
 *	original string representation are undefined. The object's internal
 *	representation is changed to "expendable string".
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_SetObjLength(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Pointer to object. This object must not
				 * currently be shared. */
    int length)			/* Number of bytes desired for string
				 * representation of object, not including
				 * terminating null byte. */
{
    String *stringPtr;

    if (length < 0) {
	/*
	 * Setting to a negative length is nonsense. This is probably the
	 * result of overflowing the signed integer range.
	 */

	Tcl_Panic("Tcl_SetObjLength: negative length requested: "
		"%d (integer overflow?)", length);
    }
    if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	Tcl_Panic("%s called with shared object", "Tcl_SetObjLength");
    }

    if (objPtr->bytes && objPtr->length == length) {
	return;
    }

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    if (objPtr->bytes != NULL) {
	/*
	 * Change length of an existing string rep.
	 */
	if (length > stringPtr->allocated) {
	    /*
	     * Need to enlarge the buffer.
	     */
	    if (objPtr->bytes == &tclEmptyString) {
		objPtr->bytes = ckalloc(length + 1);
	    } else {
		objPtr->bytes = ckrealloc(objPtr->bytes, length + 1);
	    }
	    stringPtr->allocated = length;
	}

	objPtr->length = length;
	objPtr->bytes[length] = 0;

	/*
	 * Invalidate the unicode data.
	 */

	stringPtr->numChars = -1;
	stringPtr->hasUnicode = 0;
    } else {
	/*
	 * Changing length of pure unicode string.
	 */

	stringCheckLimits(length);
	if (length > stringPtr->maxChars) {
	    stringPtr = stringRealloc(stringPtr, length);
	    SET_STRING(objPtr, stringPtr);
	    stringPtr->maxChars = length;
	}

	/*
	 * Mark the new end of the unicode string
	 */

	stringPtr->numChars = length;
	stringPtr->unicode[length] = 0;
	stringPtr->hasUnicode = 1;

	/*
	 * Can only get here when objPtr->bytes == NULL. No need to invalidate
	 * the string rep.
	 */
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength --
 *
 *	This function changes the length of the string representation of an
 *	object. It uses the attempt* (non-panic'ing) memory allocators.
 *
 * Results:
 *	1 if the requested memory was allocated, 0 otherwise.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	If the size of objPtr's string representation is greater than length,
 *	then it is reduced to length and a new terminating null byte is stored
 *	in the strength. If the length of the string representation is greater
 *	than length, the storage space is reallocated to the given length; a
 *	null byte is stored at the end, but other bytes past the end of the
 *	original string representation are undefined. The object's internal
 *	representation is changed to "expendable string".
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Pointer to object. This object must not
				 * currently be shared. */
    int length)			/* Number of bytes desired for string
				 * representation of object, not including
				 * terminating null byte. */
{
    String *stringPtr;

    if (length < 0) {
	/*
	 * Setting to a negative length is nonsense. This is probably the
	 * result of overflowing the signed integer range.
	 */

	return 0;
    }
    if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	Tcl_Panic("%s called with shared object", "Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength");
    }
    if (objPtr->bytes && objPtr->length == length) {
	return 1;
    }

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    if (objPtr->bytes != NULL) {
	/*
	 * Change length of an existing string rep.
	 */
	if (length > stringPtr->allocated) {
	    /*
	     * Need to enlarge the buffer.
	     */

	    char *newBytes;

	    if (objPtr->bytes == &tclEmptyString) {
		newBytes = attemptckalloc(length + 1);
	    } else {
		newBytes = attemptckrealloc(objPtr->bytes, length + 1);
	    }
	    if (newBytes == NULL) {
		return 0;
	    }
	    objPtr->bytes = newBytes;
	    stringPtr->allocated = length;
	}

	objPtr->length = length;
	objPtr->bytes[length] = 0;

	/*
	 * Invalidate the unicode data.
	 */

	stringPtr->numChars = -1;
	stringPtr->hasUnicode = 0;
    } else {
	/*
	 * Changing length of pure unicode string.
	 */

	if (length > STRING_MAXCHARS) {
	    return 0;
	}
	if (length > stringPtr->maxChars) {
	    stringPtr = stringAttemptRealloc(stringPtr, length);
	    if (stringPtr == NULL) {
		return 0;
	    }
	    SET_STRING(objPtr, stringPtr);
	    stringPtr->maxChars = length;
	}

	/*
	 * Mark the new end of the unicode string.
	 */

	stringPtr->unicode[length] = 0;
	stringPtr->numChars = length;
	stringPtr->hasUnicode = 1;

	/*
	 * Can only get here when objPtr->bytes == NULL. No need to invalidate
	 * the string rep.
	 */
    }
    return 1;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_SetUnicodeObj --
 *
 *	Modify an object to hold the Unicode string indicated by "unicode".
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Memory allocated for new "String" internal rep.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_SetUnicodeObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* The object to set the string of. */
    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode,	/* The unicode string used to initialize the
				 * object. */
    int numChars)		/* Number of characters in the unicode
				 * string. */
{
    if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	Tcl_Panic("%s called with shared object", "Tcl_SetUnicodeObj");
    }
    TclFreeIntRep(objPtr);
    SetUnicodeObj(objPtr, unicode, numChars);
}

static int
UnicodeLength(
    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode)
{
    int numChars = 0;

    if (unicode) {
	while (numChars >= 0 && unicode[numChars] != 0) {
	    numChars++;
	}
    }
    stringCheckLimits(numChars);
    return numChars;
}

static void
SetUnicodeObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* The object to set the string of. */
    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode,	/* The unicode string used to initialize the
				 * object. */
    int numChars)		/* Number of characters in the unicode
				 * string. */
{
    String *stringPtr;

    if (numChars < 0) {
	numChars = UnicodeLength(unicode);
    }

    /*
     * Allocate enough space for the String structure + Unicode string.
     */

    stringCheckLimits(numChars);
    stringPtr = stringAlloc(numChars);
    SET_STRING(objPtr, stringPtr);
    objPtr->typePtr = &tclStringType;

    stringPtr->maxChars = numChars;
    memcpy(stringPtr->unicode, unicode, numChars * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
    stringPtr->unicode[numChars] = 0;
    stringPtr->numChars = numChars;
    stringPtr->hasUnicode = 1;

    TclInvalidateStringRep(objPtr);
    stringPtr->allocated = 0;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_AppendLimitedToObj --
 *
 *	This function appends a limited number of bytes from a sequence of
 *	bytes to an object, marking any limitation with an ellipsis.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The bytes at *bytes are appended to the string representation of
 *	objPtr.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_AppendLimitedToObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Points to the object to append to. */
    const char *bytes,		/* Points to the bytes to append to the
				 * object. */
    int length,			/* The number of bytes available to be
				 * appended from "bytes". If < 0, then all
				 * bytes up to a NUL byte are available. */
    int limit,			/* The maximum number of bytes to append to
				 * the object. */
    const char *ellipsis)	/* Ellipsis marker string, appended to the
				 * object to indicate not all available bytes
				 * at "bytes" were appended. */
{
    String *stringPtr;
    int toCopy = 0;

    if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	Tcl_Panic("%s called with shared object", "Tcl_AppendLimitedToObj");
    }

    if (length < 0) {
	length = (bytes ? strlen(bytes) : 0);
    }
    if (length == 0) {
	return;
    }

    if (length <= limit) {
	toCopy = length;
    } else {
	if (ellipsis == NULL) {
	    ellipsis = "...";
	}
	toCopy = (bytes == NULL) ? limit
		: Tcl_UtfPrev(bytes+limit+1-strlen(ellipsis), bytes) - bytes;
    }

    /*
     * If objPtr has a valid Unicode rep, then append the Unicode conversion
     * of "bytes" to the objPtr's Unicode rep, otherwise append "bytes" to
     * objPtr's string rep.
     */

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode && stringPtr->numChars > 0) {
	AppendUtfToUnicodeRep(objPtr, bytes, toCopy);
    } else {
	AppendUtfToUtfRep(objPtr, bytes, toCopy);
    }

    if (length <= limit) {
	return;
    }

    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode && stringPtr->numChars > 0) {
	AppendUtfToUnicodeRep(objPtr, ellipsis, strlen(ellipsis));
    } else {
	AppendUtfToUtfRep(objPtr, ellipsis, strlen(ellipsis));
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_AppendToObj --
 *
 *	This function appends a sequence of bytes to an object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The bytes at *bytes are appended to the string representation of
 *	objPtr.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_AppendToObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Points to the object to append to. */
    const char *bytes,		/* Points to the bytes to append to the
				 * object. */
    int length)			/* The number of bytes to append from "bytes".
				 * If < 0, then append all bytes up to NUL
				 * byte. */
{
    Tcl_AppendLimitedToObj(objPtr, bytes, length, INT_MAX, NULL);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_AppendUnicodeToObj --
 *
 *	This function appends a Unicode string to an object in the most
 *	efficient manner possible. Length must be >= 0.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Invalidates the string rep and creates a new Unicode string.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_AppendUnicodeToObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Points to the object to append to. */
    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode,	/* The unicode string to append to the
				 * object. */
    int length)			/* Number of chars in "unicode". */
{
    String *stringPtr;

    if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	Tcl_Panic("%s called with shared object", "Tcl_AppendUnicodeToObj");
    }

    if (length == 0) {
	return;
    }

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    /*
     * If objPtr has a valid Unicode rep, then append the "unicode" to the
     * objPtr's Unicode rep, otherwise the UTF conversion of "unicode" to
     * objPtr's string rep.
     */

    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode) {
	AppendUnicodeToUnicodeRep(objPtr, unicode, length);
    } else {
	AppendUnicodeToUtfRep(objPtr, unicode, length);
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_AppendObjToObj --
 *
 *	This function appends the string rep of one object to another.
 *	"objPtr" cannot be a shared object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The string rep of appendObjPtr is appended to the string
 *	representation of objPtr.
 *	IMPORTANT: This routine does not and MUST NOT shimmer appendObjPtr.
 *	Callers are counting on that.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_AppendObjToObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Points to the object to append to. */
    Tcl_Obj *appendObjPtr)	/* Object to append. */
{
    String *stringPtr;
    int length, numChars, appendNumChars = -1;
    const char *bytes;

    /*
     * Special case: second object is standard-empty is fast case. We know
     * that appending nothing to anything leaves that starting anything...
     */

    if (appendObjPtr->bytes == &tclEmptyString) {
	return;
    }

    /*
     * Handle append of one bytearray object to another as a special case.
     * Note that we only do this when the objects don't have string reps; if
     * it did, then appending the byte arrays together could well lose
     * information; this is a special-case optimization only.
     */

    if ((TclIsPureByteArray(objPtr) || objPtr->bytes == &tclEmptyString)
	    && TclIsPureByteArray(appendObjPtr)) {

	/*
	 * You might expect the code here to be
	 *
	 *  bytes = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(appendObjPtr, &length);
	 *  TclAppendBytesToByteArray(objPtr, bytes, length);
	 *
	 * and essentially all of the time that would be fine.  However,
	 * it would run into trouble in the case where objPtr and
	 * appendObjPtr point to the same thing.  That may never be a
	 * good idea.  It seems to violate Copy On Write, and we don't
	 * have any tests for the situation, since making any Tcl commands
	 * that call Tcl_AppendObjToObj() do that appears impossible
	 * (They honor Copy On Write!).  For the sake of extensions that
	 * go off into that realm, though, here's a more complex approach
	 * that can handle all the cases.
	 */

	/* Get lengths */
	int lengthSrc;

	(void) Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objPtr, &length);
	(void) Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(appendObjPtr, &lengthSrc);

	/* Grow buffer enough for the append */
	TclAppendBytesToByteArray(objPtr, NULL, lengthSrc);

	/* Reset objPtr back to the original value */
	Tcl_SetByteArrayLength(objPtr, length);

	/*
	 * Now do the append knowing that buffer growth cannot cause
	 * any trouble.
	 */

	TclAppendBytesToByteArray(objPtr,
		Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(appendObjPtr, NULL), lengthSrc);
	return;
    }

    /*
     * Must append as strings.
     */

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    /*
     * If objPtr has a valid Unicode rep, then get a Unicode string from
     * appendObjPtr and append it.
     */

    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode) {
	/*
	 * If appendObjPtr is not of the "String" type, don't convert it.
	 */

	if (appendObjPtr->typePtr == &tclStringType) {
	    Tcl_UniChar *unicode =
		    Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(appendObjPtr, &numChars);

	    AppendUnicodeToUnicodeRep(objPtr, unicode, numChars);
	} else {
	    bytes = TclGetStringFromObj(appendObjPtr, &length);
	    AppendUtfToUnicodeRep(objPtr, bytes, length);
	}
	return;
    }

    /*
     * Append to objPtr's UTF string rep. If we know the number of characters
     * in both objects before appending, then set the combined number of
     * characters in the final (appended-to) object.
     */

    bytes = TclGetStringFromObj(appendObjPtr, &length);

    numChars = stringPtr->numChars;
    if ((numChars >= 0) && (appendObjPtr->typePtr == &tclStringType)) {
	String *appendStringPtr = GET_STRING(appendObjPtr);
	appendNumChars = appendStringPtr->numChars;
    }

    AppendUtfToUtfRep(objPtr, bytes, length);

    if (numChars >= 0 && appendNumChars >= 0) {
	stringPtr->numChars = numChars + appendNumChars;
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * AppendUnicodeToUnicodeRep --
 *
 *	This function appends the contents of "unicode" to the Unicode rep of
 *	"objPtr". objPtr must already have a valid Unicode rep.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	objPtr's internal rep is reallocated.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
AppendUnicodeToUnicodeRep(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Points to the object to append to. */
    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode,	/* String to append. */
    int appendNumChars)		/* Number of chars of "unicode" to append. */
{
    String *stringPtr;
    int numChars;

    if (appendNumChars < 0) {
	appendNumChars = UnicodeLength(unicode);
    }
    if (appendNumChars == 0) {
	return;
    }

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    /*
     * If not enough space has been allocated for the unicode rep, reallocate
     * the internal rep object with additional space. First try to double the
     * required allocation; if that fails, try a more modest increase. See the
     * "TCL STRING GROWTH ALGORITHM" comment at the top of this file for an
     * explanation of this growth algorithm.
     */

    numChars = stringPtr->numChars + appendNumChars;
    stringCheckLimits(numChars);

    if (numChars > stringPtr->maxChars) {
	int offset = -1;

	/*
	 * Protect against case where unicode points into the existing
	 * stringPtr->unicode array. Force it to follow any relocations due to
	 * the reallocs below.
	 */

	if (unicode && unicode >= stringPtr->unicode
		&& unicode <= stringPtr->unicode + stringPtr->maxChars) {
	    offset = unicode - stringPtr->unicode;
	}

	GrowUnicodeBuffer(objPtr, numChars);
	stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

	/*
	 * Relocate unicode if needed; see above.
	 */

	if (offset >= 0) {
	    unicode = stringPtr->unicode + offset;
	}
    }

    /*
     * Copy the new string onto the end of the old string, then add the
     * trailing null.
     */

    if (unicode) {
	memmove(stringPtr->unicode + stringPtr->numChars, unicode,
		appendNumChars * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
    }
    stringPtr->unicode[numChars] = 0;
    stringPtr->numChars = numChars;
    stringPtr->allocated = 0;

    TclInvalidateStringRep(objPtr);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * AppendUnicodeToUtfRep --
 *
 *	This function converts the contents of "unicode" to UTF and appends
 *	the UTF to the string rep of "objPtr".
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	objPtr's internal rep is reallocated.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
AppendUnicodeToUtfRep(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Points to the object to append to. */
    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode,	/* String to convert to UTF. */
    int numChars)		/* Number of chars of "unicode" to convert. */
{
    String *stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    numChars = ExtendStringRepWithUnicode(objPtr, unicode, numChars);

    if (stringPtr->numChars != -1) {
	stringPtr->numChars += numChars;
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * AppendUtfToUnicodeRep --
 *
 *	This function converts the contents of "bytes" to Unicode and appends
 *	the Unicode to the Unicode rep of "objPtr". objPtr must already have a
 *	valid Unicode rep. numBytes must be non-negative.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	objPtr's internal rep is reallocated.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
AppendUtfToUnicodeRep(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Points to the object to append to. */
    const char *bytes,		/* String to convert to Unicode. */
    int numBytes)		/* Number of bytes of "bytes" to convert. */
{
    String *stringPtr;

    if (numBytes == 0) {
	return;
    }

    ExtendUnicodeRepWithString(objPtr, bytes, numBytes, -1);
    TclInvalidateStringRep(objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    stringPtr->allocated = 0;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * AppendUtfToUtfRep --
 *
 *	This function appends "numBytes" bytes of "bytes" to the UTF string
 *	rep of "objPtr". objPtr must already have a valid String rep.
 *	numBytes must be non-negative.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	objPtr's internal rep is reallocated.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
AppendUtfToUtfRep(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Points to the object to append to. */
    const char *bytes,		/* String to append. */
    int numBytes)		/* Number of bytes of "bytes" to append. */
{
    String *stringPtr;
    int newLength, oldLength;

    if (numBytes == 0) {
	return;
    }

    /*
     * Copy the new string onto the end of the old string, then add the
     * trailing null.
     */

    if (objPtr->bytes == NULL) {
	objPtr->length = 0;
    }
    oldLength = objPtr->length;
    newLength = numBytes + oldLength;
    if (newLength < 0) {
	Tcl_Panic("max size for a Tcl value (%d bytes) exceeded", INT_MAX);
    }

    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    if (newLength > stringPtr->allocated) {
	int offset = -1;

	/*
	 * Protect against case where unicode points into the existing
	 * stringPtr->unicode array. Force it to follow any relocations due to
	 * the reallocs below.
	 */

	if (bytes && bytes >= objPtr->bytes
		&& bytes <= objPtr->bytes + objPtr->length) {
	    offset = bytes - objPtr->bytes;
	}

	/*
	 * TODO: consider passing flag=1: no overalloc on first append. This
	 * would make test stringObj-8.1 fail.
	 */

	GrowStringBuffer(objPtr, newLength, 0);

	/*
	 * Relocate bytes if needed; see above.
	 */

	if (offset >= 0) {
	    bytes = objPtr->bytes + offset;
	}
    }

    /*
     * Invalidate the unicode data.
     */

    stringPtr->numChars = -1;
    stringPtr->hasUnicode = 0;

    if (bytes) {
	memmove(objPtr->bytes + oldLength, bytes, numBytes);
    }
    objPtr->bytes[newLength] = 0;
    objPtr->length = newLength;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_AppendStringsToObjVA --
 *
 *	This function appends one or more null-terminated strings to an
 *	object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The contents of all the string arguments are appended to the string
 *	representation of objPtr.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_AppendStringsToObjVA(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,		/* Points to the object to append to. */
    va_list argList)		/* Variable argument list. */
{
    if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	Tcl_Panic("%s called with shared object", "Tcl_AppendStringsToObj");
    }

    while (1) {
	const char *bytes = va_arg(argList, char *);

	if (bytes == NULL) {
	    break;
	}
	Tcl_AppendToObj(objPtr, bytes, -1);
    }
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_AppendStringsToObj --
 *
 *	This function appends one or more null-terminated strings to an
 *	object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The contents of all the string arguments are appended to the string
 *	representation of objPtr.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_AppendStringsToObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
    ...)
{
    va_list argList;

    va_start(argList, objPtr);
    Tcl_AppendStringsToObjVA(objPtr, argList);
    va_end(argList);
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_AppendFormatToObj --
 *
 *	This function appends a list of Tcl_Obj's to a Tcl_Obj according to
 *	the formatting instructions embedded in the format string. The
 *	formatting instructions are inspired by sprintf(). Returns TCL_OK when
 *	successful. If there's an error in the arguments, TCL_ERROR is
 *	returned, and an error message is written to the interp, if non-NULL.
 *
 * Results:
 *	A standard Tcl result.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
Tcl_AppendFormatToObj(
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    Tcl_Obj *appendObj,
    const char *format,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    const char *span = format, *msg, *errCode;
    int numBytes = 0, objIndex = 0, gotXpg = 0, gotSequential = 0;
    int originalLength, limit;
    Tcl_UniChar ch = 0;
    static const char *mixedXPG =
	    "cannot mix \"%\" and \"%n$\" conversion specifiers";
    static const char *const badIndex[2] = {
	"not enough arguments for all format specifiers",
	"\"%n$\" argument index out of range"
    };
    static const char *overflow = "max size for a Tcl value exceeded";

    if (Tcl_IsShared(appendObj)) {
	Tcl_Panic("%s called with shared object", "Tcl_AppendFormatToObj");
    }
    TclGetStringFromObj(appendObj, &originalLength);
    limit = INT_MAX - originalLength;

    /*
     * Format string is NUL-terminated.
     */

    while (*format != '\0') {
	char *end;
	int gotMinus = 0, gotHash = 0, gotZero = 0, gotSpace = 0, gotPlus = 0;
	int width, gotPrecision, precision, sawFlag, useShort = 0, useBig = 0;
#ifndef TCL_WIDE_INT_IS_LONG
	int useWide = 0;
#endif
	int newXpg, numChars, allocSegment = 0, segmentLimit, segmentNumBytes;
	Tcl_Obj *segment;
	int step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);

	format += step;
	if (ch != '%') {
	    numBytes += step;
	    continue;
	}
	if (numBytes) {
	    if (numBytes > limit) {
		msg = overflow;
		errCode = "OVERFLOW";
		goto errorMsg;
	    }
	    Tcl_AppendToObj(appendObj, span, numBytes);
	    limit -= numBytes;
	    numBytes = 0;
	}

	/*
	 * Saw a % : process the format specifier.
	 *
	 * Step 0. Handle special case of escaped format marker (i.e., %%).
	 */

	step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	if (ch == '%') {
	    span = format;
	    numBytes = step;
	    format += step;
	    continue;
	}

	/*
	 * Step 1. XPG3 position specifier
	 */

	newXpg = 0;
	if (isdigit(UCHAR(ch))) {
	    int position = strtoul(format, &end, 10);

	    if (*end == '$') {
		newXpg = 1;
		objIndex = position - 1;
		format = end + 1;
		step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	    }
	}
	if (newXpg) {
	    if (gotSequential) {
		msg = mixedXPG;
		errCode = "MIXEDSPECTYPES";
		goto errorMsg;
	    }
	    gotXpg = 1;
	} else {
	    if (gotXpg) {
		msg = mixedXPG;
		errCode = "MIXEDSPECTYPES";
		goto errorMsg;
	    }
	    gotSequential = 1;
	}
	if ((objIndex < 0) || (objIndex >= objc)) {
	    msg = badIndex[gotXpg];
	    errCode = gotXpg ? "INDEXRANGE" : "FIELDVARMISMATCH";
	    goto errorMsg;
	}

	/*
	 * Step 2. Set of flags.
	 */

	sawFlag = 1;
	do {
	    switch (ch) {
	    case '-':
		gotMinus = 1;
		break;
	    case '#':
		gotHash = 1;
		break;
	    case '0':
		gotZero = 1;
		break;
	    case ' ':
		gotSpace = 1;
		break;
	    case '+':
		gotPlus = 1;
		break;
	    default:
		sawFlag = 0;
	    }
	    if (sawFlag) {
		format += step;
		step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	    }
	} while (sawFlag);

	/*
	 * Step 3. Minimum field width.
	 */

	width = 0;
	if (isdigit(UCHAR(ch))) {
	    width = strtoul(format, &end, 10);
	    format = end;
	    step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	} else if (ch == '*') {
	    if (objIndex >= objc - 1) {
		msg = badIndex[gotXpg];
		errCode = gotXpg ? "INDEXRANGE" : "FIELDVARMISMATCH";
		goto errorMsg;
	    }
	    if (TclGetIntFromObj(interp, objv[objIndex], &width) != TCL_OK) {
		goto error;
	    }
	    if (width < 0) {
		width = -width;
		gotMinus = 1;
	    }
	    objIndex++;
	    format += step;
	    step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	}
	if (width > limit) {
	    msg = overflow;
	    errCode = "OVERFLOW";
	    goto errorMsg;
	}

	/*
	 * Step 4. Precision.
	 */

	gotPrecision = precision = 0;
	if (ch == '.') {
	    gotPrecision = 1;
	    format += step;
	    step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	}
	if (isdigit(UCHAR(ch))) {
	    precision = strtoul(format, &end, 10);
	    format = end;
	    step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	} else if (ch == '*') {
	    if (objIndex >= objc - 1) {
		msg = badIndex[gotXpg];
		errCode = gotXpg ? "INDEXRANGE" : "FIELDVARMISMATCH";
		goto errorMsg;
	    }
	    if (TclGetIntFromObj(interp, objv[objIndex], &precision)
		    != TCL_OK) {
		goto error;
	    }

	    /*
	     * TODO: Check this truncation logic.
	     */

	    if (precision < 0) {
		precision = 0;
	    }
	    objIndex++;
	    format += step;
	    step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	}

	/*
	 * Step 5. Length modifier.
	 */

	if (ch == 'h') {
	    useShort = 1;
	    format += step;
	    step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	} else if (ch == 'l') {
	    format += step;
	    step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	    if (ch == 'l') {
		useBig = 1;
		format += step;
		step = TclUtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
#ifndef TCL_WIDE_INT_IS_LONG
	    } else {
		useWide = 1;
#endif
	    }
	} else if (ch == 'I') {
	    if ((format[1] == '6') && (format[2] == '4')) {
		format += (step + 2);
		step = Tcl_UtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
#ifndef TCL_WIDE_INT_IS_LONG
		useWide = 1;
#endif
	    } else if ((format[1] == '3') && (format[2] == '2')) {
		format += (step + 2);
		step = Tcl_UtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	    } else {
		format += step;
		step = Tcl_UtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
	    }
	} else if ((ch == 't') || (ch == 'z')) {
	    format += step;
	    step = Tcl_UtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
#ifndef TCL_WIDE_INT_IS_LONG
	    if (sizeof(size_t) > sizeof(int)) {
		useWide = 1;
	    }
#endif
	} else if ((ch == 'q') ||(ch == 'j')) {
	    format += step;
	    step = Tcl_UtfToUniChar(format, &ch);
#ifndef TCL_WIDE_INT_IS_LONG
	    useWide = 1;
#endif
	}

	format += step;
	span = format;

	/*
	 * Step 6. The actual conversion character.
	 */

	segment = objv[objIndex];
	numChars = -1;
	if (ch == 'i') {
	    ch = 'd';
	}
	switch (ch) {
	case '\0':
	    msg = "format string ended in middle of field specifier";
	    errCode = "INCOMPLETE";
	    goto errorMsg;
	case 's':
	    if (gotPrecision) {
		numChars = Tcl_GetCharLength(segment);
		if (precision < numChars) {
		    segment = Tcl_GetRange(segment, 0, precision - 1);
		    numChars = precision;
		    Tcl_IncrRefCount(segment);
		    allocSegment = 1;
		}
	    }
	    break;
	case 'c': {
	    char buf[TCL_UTF_MAX];
	    int code, length;

	    if (TclGetIntFromObj(interp, segment, &code) != TCL_OK) {
		goto error;
	    }
	    length = Tcl_UniCharToUtf(code, buf);
	    segment = Tcl_NewStringObj(buf, length);
	    Tcl_IncrRefCount(segment);
	    allocSegment = 1;
	    break;
	}

	case 'u':
	    if (useBig) {
		msg = "unsigned bignum format is invalid";
		errCode = "BADUNSIGNED";
		goto errorMsg;
	    }
	case 'd':
	case 'o':
	case 'p':
	case 'x':
	case 'X':
	case 'b': {
	    short s = 0;	/* Silence compiler warning; only defined and
				 * used when useShort is true. */
	    long l;
	    Tcl_WideInt w;
	    mp_int big;
	    int toAppend, isNegative = 0;

#ifndef TCL_WIDE_INT_IS_LONG
	    if (ch == 'p') {
		useWide = 1;
	    }
#endif
	    if (useBig) {
		if (Tcl_GetBignumFromObj(interp, segment, &big) != TCL_OK) {
		    goto error;
		}
		isNegative = (mp_cmp_d(&big, 0) == MP_LT);
#ifndef TCL_WIDE_INT_IS_LONG
	    } else if (useWide) {
		if (Tcl_GetWideIntFromObj(NULL, segment, &w) != TCL_OK) {
		    Tcl_Obj *objPtr;

		    if (Tcl_GetBignumFromObj(interp,segment,&big) != TCL_OK) {
			goto error;
		    }
		    mp_mod_2d(&big, (int) CHAR_BIT*sizeof(Tcl_WideInt), &big);
		    objPtr = Tcl_NewBignumObj(&big);
		    Tcl_IncrRefCount(objPtr);
		    Tcl_GetWideIntFromObj(NULL, objPtr, &w);
		    Tcl_DecrRefCount(objPtr);
		}
		isNegative = (w < (Tcl_WideInt) 0);
#endif
	    } else if (TclGetLongFromObj(NULL, segment, &l) != TCL_OK) {
		if (Tcl_GetWideIntFromObj(NULL, segment, &w) != TCL_OK) {
		    Tcl_Obj *objPtr;

		    if (Tcl_GetBignumFromObj(interp,segment,&big) != TCL_OK) {
			goto error;
		    }
		    mp_mod_2d(&big, (int) CHAR_BIT * sizeof(long), &big);
		    objPtr = Tcl_NewBignumObj(&big);
		    Tcl_IncrRefCount(objPtr);
		    TclGetLongFromObj(NULL, objPtr, &l);
		    Tcl_DecrRefCount(objPtr);
		} else {
		    l = Tcl_WideAsLong(w);
		}
		if (useShort) {
		    s = (short) l;
		    isNegative = (s < (short) 0);
		} else {
		    isNegative = (l < (long) 0);
		}
	    } else if (useShort) {
		s = (short) l;
		isNegative = (s < (short) 0);
	    } else {
		isNegative = (l < (long) 0);
	    }

	    segment = Tcl_NewObj();
	    allocSegment = 1;
	    segmentLimit = INT_MAX;
	    Tcl_IncrRefCount(segment);

	    if ((isNegative || gotPlus || gotSpace) && (useBig || ch=='d')) {
		Tcl_AppendToObj(segment,
			(isNegative ? "-" : gotPlus ? "+" : " "), 1);
		segmentLimit -= 1;
	    }

	    if (gotHash || (ch == 'p')) {
		switch (ch) {
		case 'o':
		    Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, "0", 1);
		    segmentLimit -= 1;
		    precision--;
		    break;
		case 'X':
		    Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, "0X", 2);
		    segmentLimit -= 2;
		    break;
		case 'p':
		case 'x':
		    Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, "0x", 2);
		    segmentLimit -= 2;
		    break;
		case 'b':
		    Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, "0b", 2);
		    segmentLimit -= 2;
		    break;
		case 'd':
		    Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, "0d", 2);
		    segmentLimit -= 2;
		    break;
		}
	    }

	    switch (ch) {
	    case 'd': {
		int length;
		Tcl_Obj *pure;
		const char *bytes;

		if (useShort) {
		    pure = Tcl_NewIntObj((int) s);
#ifndef TCL_WIDE_INT_IS_LONG
		} else if (useWide) {
		    pure = Tcl_NewWideIntObj(w);
#endif
		} else if (useBig) {
		    pure = Tcl_NewBignumObj(&big);
		} else {
		    pure = Tcl_NewLongObj(l);
		}
		Tcl_IncrRefCount(pure);
		bytes = TclGetStringFromObj(pure, &length);

		/*
		 * Already did the sign above.
		 */

		if (*bytes == '-') {
		    length--;
		    bytes++;
		}
		toAppend = length;

		/*
		 * Canonical decimal string reps for integers are composed
		 * entirely of one-byte encoded characters, so "length" is the
		 * number of chars.
		 */

		if (gotPrecision) {
		    if (length < precision) {
			segmentLimit -= precision - length;
		    }
		    while (length < precision) {
			Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, "0", 1);
			length++;
		    }
		    gotZero = 0;
		}
		if (gotZero) {
		    length += Tcl_GetCharLength(segment);
		    if (length < width) {
			segmentLimit -= width - length;
		    }
		    while (length < width) {
			Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, "0", 1);
			length++;
		    }
		}
		if (toAppend > segmentLimit) {
		    msg = overflow;
		    errCode = "OVERFLOW";
		    goto errorMsg;
		}
		Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, bytes, toAppend);
		Tcl_DecrRefCount(pure);
		break;
	    }

	    case 'u':
	    case 'o':
	    case 'p':
	    case 'x':
	    case 'X':
	    case 'b': {
		Tcl_WideUInt bits = (Tcl_WideUInt) 0;
		Tcl_WideInt numDigits = (Tcl_WideInt) 0;
		int length, numBits = 4, base = 16, index = 0, shift = 0;
		Tcl_Obj *pure;
		char *bytes;

		if (ch == 'u') {
		    base = 10;
		} else if (ch == 'o') {
		    base = 8;
		    numBits = 3;
		} else if (ch == 'b') {
		    base = 2;
		    numBits = 1;
		}
		if (useShort) {
		    unsigned short us = (unsigned short) s;

		    bits = (Tcl_WideUInt) us;
		    while (us) {
			numDigits++;
			us /= base;
		    }
#ifndef TCL_WIDE_INT_IS_LONG
		} else if (useWide) {
		    Tcl_WideUInt uw = (Tcl_WideUInt) w;

		    bits = uw;
		    while (uw) {
			numDigits++;
			uw /= base;
		    }
#endif
		} else if (useBig && big.used) {
		    int leftover = (big.used * DIGIT_BIT) % numBits;
		    mp_digit mask = (~(mp_digit)0) << (DIGIT_BIT-leftover);

		    numDigits = 1 +
			    (((Tcl_WideInt) big.used * DIGIT_BIT) / numBits);
		    while ((mask & big.dp[big.used-1]) == 0) {
			numDigits--;
			mask >>= numBits;
		    }
		    if (numDigits > INT_MAX) {
			msg = overflow;
			errCode = "OVERFLOW";
			goto errorMsg;
		    }
		} else if (!useBig) {
		    unsigned long ul = (unsigned long) l;

		    bits = (Tcl_WideUInt) ul;
		    while (ul) {
			numDigits++;
			ul /= base;
		    }
		}

		/*
		 * Need to be sure zero becomes "0", not "".
		 */

		if ((numDigits == 0) && !((ch == 'o') && gotHash)) {
		    numDigits = 1;
		}
		pure = Tcl_NewObj();
		Tcl_SetObjLength(pure, (int) numDigits);
		bytes = TclGetString(pure);
		toAppend = length = (int) numDigits;
		while (numDigits--) {
		    int digitOffset;

		    if (useBig && big.used) {
			if (index < big.used && (size_t) shift <
				CHAR_BIT*sizeof(Tcl_WideUInt) - DIGIT_BIT) {
			    bits |= ((Tcl_WideUInt) big.dp[index++]) << shift;
			    shift += DIGIT_BIT;
			}
			shift -= numBits;
		    }
		    digitOffset = (int) (bits % base);
		    if (digitOffset > 9) {
			if (ch == 'X') {
			    bytes[numDigits] = 'A' + digitOffset - 10;
			} else {
			    bytes[numDigits] = 'a' + digitOffset - 10;
			}
		    } else {
			bytes[numDigits] = '0' + digitOffset;
		    }
		    bits /= base;
		}
		if (useBig) {
		    mp_clear(&big);
		}
		if (gotPrecision) {
		    if (length < precision) {
			segmentLimit -= precision - length;
		    }
		    while (length < precision) {
			Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, "0", 1);
			length++;
		    }
		    gotZero = 0;
		}
		if (gotZero) {
		    length += Tcl_GetCharLength(segment);
		    if (length < width) {
			segmentLimit -= width - length;
		    }
		    while (length < width) {
			Tcl_AppendToObj(segment, "0", 1);
			length++;
		    }
		}
		if (toAppend > segmentLimit) {
		    msg = overflow;
		    errCode = "OVERFLOW";
		    goto errorMsg;
		}
		Tcl_AppendObjToObj(segment, pure);
		Tcl_DecrRefCount(pure);
		break;
	    }

	    }
	    break;
	}

	case 'e':
	case 'E':
	case 'f':
	case 'g':
	case 'G': {
#define MAX_FLOAT_SIZE 320
	    char spec[2*TCL_INTEGER_SPACE + 9], *p = spec;
	    double d;
	    int length = MAX_FLOAT_SIZE;
	    char *bytes;

	    if (Tcl_GetDoubleFromObj(interp, segment, &d) != TCL_OK) {
		/* TODO: Figure out ACCEPT_NAN here */
		goto error;
	    }
	    *p++ = '%';
	    if (gotMinus) {
		*p++ = '-';
	    }
	    if (gotHash) {
		*p++ = '#';
	    }
	    if (gotZero) {
		*p++ = '0';
	    }
	    if (gotSpace) {
		*p++ = ' ';
	    }
	    if (gotPlus) {
		*p++ = '+';
	    }
	    if (width) {
		p += sprintf(p, "%d", width);
		if (width > length) {
		    length = width;
		}
	    }
	    if (gotPrecision) {
		*p++ = '.';
		p += sprintf(p, "%d", precision);
		if (precision > INT_MAX - length) {
		    msg = overflow;
		    errCode = "OVERFLOW";
		    goto errorMsg;
		}
		length += precision;
	    }

	    /*
	     * Don't pass length modifiers!
	     */

	    *p++ = (char) ch;
	    *p = '\0';

	    segment = Tcl_NewObj();
	    allocSegment = 1;
	    if (!Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength(segment, length)) {
		msg = overflow;
		errCode = "OVERFLOW";
		goto errorMsg;
	    }
	    bytes = TclGetString(segment);
	    if (!Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength(segment, sprintf(bytes, spec, d))) {
		msg = overflow;
		errCode = "OVERFLOW";
		goto errorMsg;
	    }
	    break;
	}
	default:
	    if (interp != NULL) {
		Tcl_SetObjResult(interp,
			Tcl_ObjPrintf("bad field specifier \"%c\"", ch));
		Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "FORMAT", "BADTYPE", NULL);
	    }
	    goto error;
	}

	if (width>0 && numChars<0) {
	    numChars = Tcl_GetCharLength(segment);
	}
	if (!gotMinus && width>0) {
	    if (numChars < width) {
		limit -= width - numChars;
	    }
	    while (numChars < width) {
		Tcl_AppendToObj(appendObj, (gotZero ? "0" : " "), 1);
		numChars++;
	    }
	}

	TclGetStringFromObj(segment, &segmentNumBytes);
	if (segmentNumBytes > limit) {
	    if (allocSegment) {
		Tcl_DecrRefCount(segment);
	    }
	    msg = overflow;
	    errCode = "OVERFLOW";
	    goto errorMsg;
	}
	Tcl_AppendObjToObj(appendObj, segment);
	limit -= segmentNumBytes;
	if (allocSegment) {
	    Tcl_DecrRefCount(segment);
	}
	if (width > 0) {
	    if (numChars < width) {
		limit -= width-numChars;
	    }
	    while (numChars < width) {
		Tcl_AppendToObj(appendObj, (gotZero ? "0" : " "), 1);
		numChars++;
	    }
	}

	objIndex += gotSequential;
    }
    if (numBytes) {
	if (numBytes > limit) {
	    msg = overflow;
	    errCode = "OVERFLOW";
	    goto errorMsg;
	}
	Tcl_AppendToObj(appendObj, span, numBytes);
	limit -= numBytes;
	numBytes = 0;
    }

    return TCL_OK;

  errorMsg:
    if (interp != NULL) {
	Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_NewStringObj(msg, -1));
	Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "FORMAT", errCode, NULL);
    }
  error:
    Tcl_SetObjLength(appendObj, originalLength);
    return TCL_ERROR;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_Format--
 *
 * Results:
 *	A refcount zero Tcl_Obj.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_Obj *
Tcl_Format(
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    const char *format,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj *const objv[])
{
    int result;
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr = Tcl_NewObj();

    result = Tcl_AppendFormatToObj(interp, objPtr, format, objc, objv);
    if (result != TCL_OK) {
	Tcl_DecrRefCount(objPtr);
	return NULL;
    }
    return objPtr;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * AppendPrintfToObjVA --
 *
 * Results:
 *
 * Side effects:
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
AppendPrintfToObjVA(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
    const char *format,
    va_list argList)
{
    int code, objc;
    Tcl_Obj **objv, *list = Tcl_NewObj();
    const char *p;

    p = format;
    Tcl_IncrRefCount(list);
    while (*p != '\0') {
	int size = 0, seekingConversion = 1, gotPrecision = 0;
	int lastNum = -1;

	if (*p++ != '%') {
	    continue;
	}
	if (*p == '%') {
	    p++;
	    continue;
	}
	do {
	    switch (*p) {
	    case '\0':
		seekingConversion = 0;
		break;
	    case 's': {
		const char *q, *end, *bytes = va_arg(argList, char *);
		seekingConversion = 0;

		/*
		 * The buffer to copy characters from starts at bytes and ends
		 * at either the first NUL byte, or after lastNum bytes, when
		 * caller has indicated a limit.
		 */

		end = bytes;
		while ((!gotPrecision || lastNum--) && (*end != '\0')) {
		    end++;
		}

		/*
		 * Within that buffer, we trim both ends if needed so that we
		 * copy only whole characters, and avoid copying any partial
		 * multi-byte characters.
		 */

		q = Tcl_UtfPrev(end, bytes);
		if (!Tcl_UtfCharComplete(q, (int)(end - q))) {
		    end = q;
		}

		q = bytes + TCL_UTF_MAX;
		while ((bytes < end) && (bytes < q)
			&& ((*bytes & 0xC0) == 0x80)) {
		    bytes++;
		}

		Tcl_ListObjAppendElement(NULL, list,
			Tcl_NewStringObj(bytes , (int)(end - bytes)));

		break;
	    }
	    case 'c':
	    case 'i':
	    case 'u':
	    case 'd':
	    case 'o':
	    case 'p':
	    case 'x':
	    case 'X':
		seekingConversion = 0;
		switch (size) {
		case -1:
		case 0:
		    Tcl_ListObjAppendElement(NULL, list, Tcl_NewLongObj(
			    (long) va_arg(argList, int)));
		    break;
		case 1:
		    Tcl_ListObjAppendElement(NULL, list, Tcl_NewLongObj(
			    va_arg(argList, long)));
		    break;
		case 2:
		    Tcl_ListObjAppendElement(NULL, list, Tcl_NewWideIntObj(
			    va_arg(argList, Tcl_WideInt)));
		    break;
		}
		break;
	    case 'e':
	    case 'E':
	    case 'f':
	    case 'g':
	    case 'G':
		Tcl_ListObjAppendElement(NULL, list, Tcl_NewDoubleObj(
			va_arg(argList, double)));
		seekingConversion = 0;
		break;
	    case '*':
		lastNum = (int) va_arg(argList, int);
		Tcl_ListObjAppendElement(NULL, list, Tcl_NewIntObj(lastNum));
		p++;
		break;
	    case '0': case '1': case '2': case '3': case '4':
	    case '5': case '6': case '7': case '8': case '9': {
		char *end;

		lastNum = (int) strtoul(p, &end, 10);
		p = end;
		break;
	    }
	    case '.':
		gotPrecision = 1;
		p++;
		break;
	    /* TODO: support for bignum arguments */
	    case 'l':
		++size;
		p++;
		break;
	    case 't':
	    case 'z':
		if (sizeof(size_t) == sizeof(Tcl_WideInt)) {
		    size = 2;
		}
		p++;
		break;
	    case 'j':
	    case 'q':
		size = 2;
		p++;
		break;
	    case 'I':
		if (p[1]=='6' && p[2]=='4') {
		    p += 2;
		    size = 2;
		} else if (p[1]=='3' && p[2]=='2') {
		    p += 2;
		} else if (sizeof(size_t) == sizeof(Tcl_WideInt)) {
		    size = 2;
		}
		p++;
		break;
	    case 'h':
		size = -1;
	    default:
		p++;
	    }
	} while (seekingConversion);
    }
    TclListObjGetElements(NULL, list, &objc, &objv);
    code = Tcl_AppendFormatToObj(NULL, objPtr, format, objc, objv);
    if (code != TCL_OK) {
	Tcl_AppendPrintfToObj(objPtr,
		"Unable to format \"%s\" with supplied arguments: %s",
		format, Tcl_GetString(list));
    }
    Tcl_DecrRefCount(list);
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_AppendPrintfToObj --
 *
 * Results:
 *	A standard Tcl result.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

void
Tcl_AppendPrintfToObj(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
    const char *format,
    ...)
{
    va_list argList;

    va_start(argList, format);
    AppendPrintfToObjVA(objPtr, format, argList);
    va_end(argList);
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_ObjPrintf --
 *
 * Results:
 *	A refcount zero Tcl_Obj.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	None.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_Obj *
Tcl_ObjPrintf(
    const char *format,
    ...)
{
    va_list argList;
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr = Tcl_NewObj();

    va_start(argList, format);
    AppendPrintfToObjVA(objPtr, format, argList);
    va_end(argList);
    return objPtr;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * TclGetStringStorage --
 *
 *	Returns the string storage space of a Tcl_Obj.
 *
 * Results:
 *	The pointer value objPtr->bytes is returned and the number of bytes
 *	allocated there is written to *sizePtr (if known).
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	May set objPtr->bytes.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

char *
TclGetStringStorage(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
    unsigned int *sizePtr)
{
    String *stringPtr;

    if (objPtr->typePtr != &tclStringType || objPtr->bytes == NULL) {
	return TclGetStringFromObj(objPtr, (int *)sizePtr);
    }

    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    *sizePtr = stringPtr->allocated;
    return objPtr->bytes;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * TclStringRepeat --
 *
 *	Performs the [string repeat] function.
 *
 * Results:
 * 	A standard Tcl result.
 *
 * Side effects:
 * 	Writes to *objPtrPtr the address of Tcl_Obj that is concatenation
 * 	of count copies of the value in objPtr.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
TclStringRepeat(
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
    int count,
    Tcl_Obj **objPtrPtr)
{
    Tcl_Obj *objResultPtr;
    int length = 0, unichar = 0, done = 1;
    int binary = TclIsPureByteArray(objPtr);

    /* assert (count >= 2) */

    /*
     * Analyze to determine what representation result should be.
     * GOALS:	Avoid shimmering & string rep generation.
     * 		Produce pure bytearray when possible.
     * 		Error on overflow.
     */

    if (!binary) {
	if (objPtr->typePtr == &tclStringType) {
	    String *stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
	    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode) {
		unichar = 1;
	    }
	}
    }

    if (binary) {
	/* Result will be pure byte array. Pre-size it */
	Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objPtr, &length);
    } else if (unichar) {
	/* Result will be pure Tcl_UniChar array. Pre-size it. */
	Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(objPtr, &length);
    } else {
	/* Result will be concat of string reps. Pre-size it. */
	Tcl_GetStringFromObj(objPtr, &length);
    }

    if (length == 0) {
	/* Any repeats of empty is empty. */
	*objPtrPtr = objPtr;
	return TCL_OK;
    }

    if (count > INT_MAX/length) {
	if (interp) {
	    Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_ObjPrintf(
		    "max size for a Tcl value (%d bytes) exceeded", INT_MAX));
	    Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "MEMORY", NULL);
	}
	return TCL_ERROR;
    }

    if (binary) {
	/* Efficiently produce a pure byte array result */
	objResultPtr = Tcl_IsShared(objPtr) ? Tcl_DuplicateObj(objPtr)
		: objPtr;

	Tcl_SetByteArrayLength(objResultPtr, count*length); /* PANIC? */
	Tcl_SetByteArrayLength(objResultPtr, length);
	while (count - done > done) {
	    Tcl_AppendObjToObj(objResultPtr, objResultPtr);
	    done *= 2;
	}
	TclAppendBytesToByteArray(objResultPtr,
		Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objResultPtr, NULL),
		(count - done) * length);
    } else if (unichar) {
	/* Efficiently produce a pure Tcl_UniChar array result */
	if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	    objResultPtr = Tcl_NewUnicodeObj(Tcl_GetUnicode(objPtr), length);
	} else {
	    TclInvalidateStringRep(objPtr);
	    objResultPtr = objPtr;
	}

        if (0 == Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength(objResultPtr, count*length)) {
	    if (interp) {
		Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_ObjPrintf(
			"string size overflow: unable to alloc %"
			TCL_LL_MODIFIER "d bytes",
			(Tcl_WideUInt)STRING_SIZE(count*length)));
		Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "MEMORY", NULL);
	    }
	    return TCL_ERROR;
	}
	Tcl_SetObjLength(objResultPtr, length);
	while (count - done > done) {
	    Tcl_AppendObjToObj(objResultPtr, objResultPtr);
	    done *= 2;
	}
	Tcl_AppendUnicodeToObj(objResultPtr, Tcl_GetUnicode(objResultPtr),
		(count - done) * length);
    } else {
	/* Efficiently concatenate string reps */
	if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	    objResultPtr = Tcl_NewStringObj(Tcl_GetString(objPtr), length);
	} else {
	    TclFreeIntRep(objPtr);
	    objResultPtr = objPtr;
	}
        if (0 == Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength(objResultPtr, count*length)) {
	    if (interp) {
		Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_ObjPrintf(
			"string size overflow: unable to alloc %u bytes",
			count*length));
		Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "MEMORY", NULL);
	    }
	    return TCL_ERROR;
	}
	Tcl_SetObjLength(objResultPtr, length);
	while (count - done > done) {
	    Tcl_AppendObjToObj(objResultPtr, objResultPtr);
	    done *= 2;
	}
	Tcl_AppendToObj(objResultPtr, Tcl_GetString(objResultPtr),
		(count - done) * length);
    }
    *objPtrPtr = objResultPtr;
    return TCL_OK;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * TclStringCatObjv --
 *
 *	Performs the [string cat] function.
 *
 * Results:
 * 	A standard Tcl result.
 *
 * Side effects:
 * 	Writes to *objPtrPtr the address of Tcl_Obj that is concatenation
 * 	of all objc values in objv.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
TclStringCatObjv(
    Tcl_Interp *interp,
    int inPlace,
    int objc,
    Tcl_Obj * const objv[],
    Tcl_Obj **objPtrPtr)
{
    Tcl_Obj *objResultPtr, * const *ov;
    int oc, length = 0, binary = 1;
    int allowUniChar = 1, requestUniChar = 0;
    int first = objc - 1;	/* Index of first value possibly not empty */
    int last = 0;		/* Index of last value possibly not empty */

    /* assert ( objc >= 0 ) */

    if (objc <= 1) {
	/* Only one or no objects; return first or empty */
	*objPtrPtr = objc ? objv[0] : Tcl_NewObj();
	return TCL_OK;
    }

    /* assert ( objc >= 2 ) */

    /*
     * Analyze to determine what representation result should be.
     * GOALS:	Avoid shimmering & string rep generation.
     * 		Produce pure bytearray when possible.
     * 		Error on overflow.
     */

    ov = objv, oc = objc;
    do {
	Tcl_Obj *objPtr = *ov++;

	if (objPtr->bytes) {
	    /* Value has a string rep. */
	    if (objPtr->length) {
		/*
		 * Non-empty string rep. Not a pure bytearray, so we
		 * won't create a pure bytearray
		 */
	 	binary = 0;
		if ((objPtr->typePtr) && (objPtr->typePtr != &tclStringType)) {
		    /* Prevent shimmer of non-string types. */
		    allowUniChar = 0;
		}
	    }
	} else {
	    /* assert (objPtr->typePtr != NULL) -- stork! */
	    if (TclIsPureByteArray(objPtr)) {
		allowUniChar = 0;
	    } else {
		binary = 0;
		if (objPtr->typePtr == &tclStringType) {
		    /* Have a pure Unicode value; ask to preserve it */
		    requestUniChar = 1;
		} else {
		    /* Have another type; prevent shimmer */
		    allowUniChar = 0;
		}
	    }
	}
    } while (--oc && (binary || allowUniChar));

    if (binary) {
	/* Result will be pure byte array. Pre-size it */
	ov = objv; oc = objc;
	do {
	    Tcl_Obj *objPtr = *ov++;

	    if (objPtr->bytes == NULL) {
		int numBytes;

		Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objPtr, &numBytes); /* PANIC? */
		if (numBytes) {
		    last = objc - oc;
		    if (length == 0) {
			first = last;
		    } else if (numBytes > INT_MAX - length) {
			goto overflow;
		    }
		    length += numBytes;
		}
	    }
	} while (--oc);
    } else if (allowUniChar && requestUniChar) {
	/* Result will be pure Tcl_UniChar array. Pre-size it. */
	ov = objv; oc = objc;
	do {
	    Tcl_Obj *objPtr = *ov++;

	    if ((objPtr->bytes == NULL) || (objPtr->length)) {
		int numChars;

		Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(objPtr, &numChars); /* PANIC? */
		if (numChars) {
		    last = objc - oc;
		    if (length == 0) {
			first = last;
		    } else if (numChars > INT_MAX - length) {
			goto overflow;
		    }
		    length += numChars;
		}
	    }
	} while (--oc);
    } else {
	/* Result will be concat of string reps. Pre-size it. */
	ov = objv; oc = objc;
	do {
	    Tcl_Obj *pendingPtr = NULL;

	    /*
	     * Loop until a possibly non-empty value is reached.
	     * Keep string rep generation pending when possible.
	     */

	    do {
		/* assert ( pendingPtr == NULL ) */
		/* assert ( length == 0 ) */

		Tcl_Obj *objPtr = *ov++;

		if (objPtr->bytes == NULL) {
		    /* No string rep; Take the chance we can avoid making it */
		    pendingPtr = objPtr;
		} else {
		    Tcl_GetStringFromObj(objPtr, &length); /* PANIC? */
		}
	    } while (--oc && (length == 0) && (pendingPtr == NULL));

	    /*
 	     * Either we found a possibly non-empty value, and we
 	     * remember this index as the first and last such value so
 	     * far seen, or (oc == 0) and all values are known empty,
 	     * so first = last = objc - 1 signals the right quick return.
 	     */

	    first = last = objc - oc - 1;

	    if (oc && (length == 0)) {
		int numBytes;

		/* assert ( pendingPtr != NULL ) */

		/*
		 * There's a pending value followed by more values.
		 * Loop over remaining values generating strings until
		 * a non-empty value is found, or the pending value gets
		 * its string generated.
		 */

		do {
		    Tcl_Obj *objPtr = *ov++;
		    Tcl_GetStringFromObj(objPtr, &numBytes); /* PANIC? */
		} while (--oc && numBytes == 0 && pendingPtr->bytes == NULL);

		if (numBytes) {
		    last = objc -oc -1;
		}
		if (oc || numBytes) {
		    Tcl_GetStringFromObj(pendingPtr, &length);
		}
		if (length == 0) {
		    if (numBytes) {
			first = last;
		    }
		} else if (numBytes > INT_MAX - length) {
		    goto overflow;
		}
		length += numBytes;
	    }
	} while (oc && (length == 0));

	while (oc) {
	    int numBytes;
	    Tcl_Obj *objPtr = *ov++;

	    /* assert ( length > 0 && pendingPtr == NULL )  */

	    Tcl_GetStringFromObj(objPtr, &numBytes); /* PANIC? */
	    if (numBytes) {
		last = objc - oc;
		if (numBytes > INT_MAX - length) {
		    goto overflow;
		}
		length += numBytes;
	    }
	    --oc;
	}
    }

    if (last <= first /*|| length == 0 */) {
	/* Only one non-empty value or zero length; return first */
	/* NOTE: (length == 0) implies (last <= first) */
	*objPtrPtr = objv[first];
	return TCL_OK;
    }

    objv += first; objc = (last - first + 1);

    if (binary) {
	/* Efficiently produce a pure byte array result */
	unsigned char *dst;

	/*
	 * Broken interface! Byte array value routines offer no way
	 * to handle failure to allocate enough space. Following
	 * stanza may panic.
	 */
	if (inPlace && !Tcl_IsShared(*objv)) {
	    int start;

	    objResultPtr = *objv++; objc--;
	    Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objResultPtr, &start);
	    dst = Tcl_SetByteArrayLength(objResultPtr, length) + start;
	} else {
	    objResultPtr = Tcl_NewByteArrayObj(NULL, length);
	    dst = Tcl_SetByteArrayLength(objResultPtr, length);
	}
	while (objc--) {
	    Tcl_Obj *objPtr = *objv++;

	    if (objPtr->bytes == NULL) {
		int more;
		unsigned char *src = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objPtr, &more);
		memcpy(dst, src, (size_t) more);
		dst += more;
	    }
	}
    } else if (allowUniChar && requestUniChar) {
	/* Efficiently produce a pure Tcl_UniChar array result */
	Tcl_UniChar *dst;

	if (inPlace && !Tcl_IsShared(*objv)) {
	    int start;

	    objResultPtr = *objv++; objc--;

	    /* Ugly interface! Force resize of the unicode array. */
	    Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(objResultPtr, &start);
	    Tcl_InvalidateStringRep(objResultPtr);
	    if (0 == Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength(objResultPtr, length)) {
		if (interp) {
		    Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_ObjPrintf(
		    	"concatenation failed: unable to alloc %"
			TCL_LL_MODIFIER "d bytes",
			(Tcl_WideUInt)STRING_SIZE(length)));
		    Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "MEMORY", NULL);
		}
		return TCL_ERROR;
	    }
	    dst = Tcl_GetUnicode(objResultPtr) + start;
	} else {
	    Tcl_UniChar ch = 0;

	    /* Ugly interface! No scheme to init array size. */
	    objResultPtr = Tcl_NewUnicodeObj(&ch, 0);	/* PANIC? */
	    if (0 == Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength(objResultPtr, length)) {
		if (interp) {
		    Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_ObjPrintf(
		    	"concatenation failed: unable to alloc %"
			TCL_LL_MODIFIER "d bytes",
			(Tcl_WideUInt)STRING_SIZE(length)));
		    Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "MEMORY", NULL);
		}
		return TCL_ERROR;
	    }
	    dst = Tcl_GetUnicode(objResultPtr);
	}
	while (objc--) {
	    Tcl_Obj *objPtr = *objv++;

	    if ((objPtr->bytes == NULL) || (objPtr->length)) {
		int more;
		Tcl_UniChar *src = Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(objPtr, &more);
		memcpy(dst, src, more * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
		dst += more;
	    }
	}
    } else {
	/* Efficiently concatenate string reps */
	char *dst;

	if (inPlace && !Tcl_IsShared(*objv)) {
	    int start;

	    objResultPtr = *objv++; objc--;

	    Tcl_GetStringFromObj(objResultPtr, &start);
	    if (0 == Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength(objResultPtr, length)) {
		if (interp) {
		    Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_ObjPrintf(
		    	"concatenation failed: unable to alloc %u bytes",
			length));
		    Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "MEMORY", NULL);
		}
		return TCL_ERROR;
	    }
	    dst = Tcl_GetString(objResultPtr) + start;

	    /* assert ( length > start ) */
	    TclFreeIntRep(objResultPtr);
	} else {
	    objResultPtr = Tcl_NewObj();	/* PANIC? */
	    if (0 == Tcl_AttemptSetObjLength(objResultPtr, length)) {
		if (interp) {
		    Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_ObjPrintf(
		    	"concatenation failed: unable to alloc %u bytes",
			length));
		    Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "MEMORY", NULL);
		}
		return TCL_ERROR;
	    }
	    dst = Tcl_GetString(objResultPtr);
	}
	while (objc--) {
	    Tcl_Obj *objPtr = *objv++;

	    if ((objPtr->bytes == NULL) || (objPtr->length)) {
		int more;
		char *src = Tcl_GetStringFromObj(objPtr, &more);
		memcpy(dst, src, (size_t) more);
		dst += more;
	    }
	}
    }
    *objPtrPtr = objResultPtr;
    return TCL_OK;

  overflow:
    if (interp) {
	Tcl_SetObjResult(interp, Tcl_ObjPrintf(
		    "max size for a Tcl value (%d bytes) exceeded", INT_MAX));
	Tcl_SetErrorCode(interp, "TCL", "MEMORY", NULL);
    }
    return TCL_ERROR;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * TclStringFind --
 *
 *	Implements the [string first] operation.
 *
 * Results:
 *	If needle is found as a substring of haystack, the index of the
 *	first instance of such a find is returned.  If needle is not present
 *	as a substring of haystack, -1 is returned.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	needle and haystack may have their Tcl_ObjType changed.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
TclStringFind(
    Tcl_Obj *needle,
    Tcl_Obj *haystack,
    int start)
{
    int lh, ln = Tcl_GetCharLength(needle);

    if (ln == 0) {
	/*
	 * 	We don't find empty substrings.  Bizarre!
	 *
	 * 	TODO: When we one day make this a true substring
	 * 	finder, change this to "return 0"
	 */
	return -1;
    }

    if (TclIsPureByteArray(needle) && TclIsPureByteArray(haystack)) {
	unsigned char *end, *try, *bh;
	unsigned char *bn = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(needle, &ln);

	bh = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(haystack, &lh);
	end = bh + lh;

	try = bh + start;
	while (try + ln <= end) {
	    try = memchr(try, bn[0], end - try);

	    if (try == NULL) {
		return -1;
	    }
	    if (0 == memcmp(try+1, bn+1, ln-1)) {
		return (try - bh);
	    }
	    try++;
	}
	return -1;
    }

    lh = Tcl_GetCharLength(haystack);
    if (haystack->bytes && (lh == haystack->length)) {
	/* haystack is all single-byte chars */

	if (needle->bytes && (ln == needle->length)) {
	    /* needle is also all single-byte chars */
	    char *found = strstr(haystack->bytes + start, needle->bytes);

	    if (found) {
		return (found - haystack->bytes);
	    } else {
		return -1;
	    }
	} else {
	    /*
	     * Cannot find substring with a multi-byte char inside
	     * a string with no multi-byte chars.
	     */
	    return -1;
	}
    } else {
	Tcl_UniChar *try, *end, *uh;
	Tcl_UniChar *un = Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(needle, &ln);

	uh = Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(haystack, &lh);
	end = uh + lh;

	try = uh + start;
	while (try + ln <= end) {
	    if ((*try == *un)
		    && (0 == memcmp(try+1, un+1, (ln-1)*sizeof(Tcl_UniChar)))) {
		return (try - uh);
	    }
	    try++;
	}
	return -1;
    }
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * Tcl_ReplaceObj --
 *
 *	Inserts, replaces, or removes characters in a string object.  To insert,
 *	let removeCount be zero.  To replace or remove, let removeCount be
 *	nonzero.  To remove, let insObj be empty string or NULL.
 *
 *	This function is used to implement [string insert] and [string replace].
 *	However, unlike this function, [string replace] cannot be used to insert
 *	a substring without replacing at least one character in the original.
 *
 * Results:
 *	Removes removeCount characters from strObj starting at startIndex and
 *	inserts insObj at that same location.  removeCount may be 0 to insert
 *	without removing, and insObj may be NULL or empty string to remove
 *	without inserting.
 *
 *	On success, returns a pointer to the updated string object.  If the
 *	string object was modified in place, the return value is equal to strObj
 *	or insObj, whichever was found to be unshared.  If this optimization
 *	could not be performed, a new string object is allocated and its pointer
 *	is returned.  On memory allocation failure, returns NULL and places
 *	error information in the interpreter result.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	strObj and insObj may have their Tcl_ObjType changed to tclStringType or
 *	properByteArrayType, and either one's value may be modified if unshared.
 *
 * TODO:
 *	Memory allocation failure is only checked when concatenating shared,
 *	non-pure byte array, non-pure Unicode character array strings.  Need to
 *	commit to a consistent memory allocation failure handling policy.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

Tcl_Obj *
Tcl_ReplaceObj(
    Tcl_Interp *interp,		/* Interpreter for error logging, may be NULL */
    Tcl_Obj *strObj,	    	/* String being modified */
    int startIndex,		/* Index at which to insert/remove/replace */
    int removeCount,		/* Number of characters to remove or replace */
    Tcl_Obj *insObj)	    	/* Substring to insert/replace, may be NULL */
{
    int idx;		    	/* Effective start index */
    int del;		    	/* Effective number of characters to remove */
    int pureBin;		/* 1 if byte array with no string rep */
    int pureUni;    	    	/* 1 if Unicode with no string representation */
    /* Representations of strObj (string being modified) */
    unsigned char *strBin;	/* String being modified, byte array */
    Tcl_UniChar   *strUni;	/* String being modified, Unicode char array */
    int		   strLen;	/* String being modified, byte or char count */
    /* Representations of insObj (substring to insert or replace) */
    unsigned char *insBin;	/* String to insert, byte array */
    Tcl_UniChar   *insUni;	/* String to insert, Unicode character array */
    int		   insLen;	/* String to insert, byte or character count */
    /* Representations of output string */
    unsigned char *outBin;	/* Output string, byte array */
    Tcl_UniChar   *outUni;	/* Output string, Unicode character array */
    String	  *outStr;	/* Output string, Tcl string buffer */
    Tcl_Obj	  *outObj;	/* Output string, Tcl object */

    /*
     * Check if strObj is a pure byte array or pure Unicode character array.
     * Get its length and byte array or Unicode character array representation.
     */

    if ((pureBin = TclIsPureByteArray(strObj))) {
	strBin = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(strObj, &strLen);
    } else {
	pureUni = !strObj->bytes;
	strUni = Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(strObj, &strLen);
    }

    /*
     * Do the same for insObj, and update pureBin or pureUni to indicate if both
     * strObj and insObj are pure byte arrays or pure Unicode character arrays.
     * If insObj is NULL, treat it as empty string, which is effectively both a
     * pure byte array and a pure Unicode character array.
     */

    if (!insObj) {
	insLen = 0;
    } else if (pureBin && (pureBin &= TclIsPureByteArray(insObj))) {
	insBin = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(insObj, &insLen);
    } else {
	pureUni = pureUni && !insObj->bytes;
	insUni = Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(insObj, &insLen);
    }

    /*
     * Clip start index and removal count to lie within string length limits.
     */

    if (startIndex <= 0) {
	idx = 0;
    } else if (startIndex >= strLen) {
	idx = strLen;
    } else {
	idx = startIndex;
    }
    if (removeCount <= 0) {
	del = 0;
    } else if (idx + removeCount >= strLen) {
	del = strLen - idx;
    } else {
	del = removeCount;
    }

    /*
     * Setup is complete.  Now perform the actual string replacement.
     */

    if (!insLen && !del) {
	/*
	 * If insObj is empty/NULL and no removal is being done, return strObj.
	 */

	outObj = strObj;
    } else if (!strLen) {
	/*
	 * If strObj is empty, return insObj, which is guaranteed non-NULL.
	 */

	outObj = insObj;
    } else if (pureBin) {
	/*
	 * Optimize the pure byte array case to avoid shimmering.  If either
	 * byte array argument is unshared, modify it in place.  If both
	 * arguments are shared, create a new, unshared byte array result.
	 * ASCII strings are frequently represented as pure byte arrays.
	 */

	if (Tcl_IsShared(strObj) && (!insObj || Tcl_IsShared(insObj))) {
	    /*
	     * Both arguments are shared, so fill a new byte array with bytes
	     * from strObj and insObj.
	     */

	    outObj = Tcl_NewByteArrayObj(NULL, strLen + insLen - del);
	    outBin = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(outObj, NULL);
	    if (idx) {
		memcpy(outBin, strBin, idx);
	    }
	    if (insLen) {
		memcpy(outBin + idx, insBin, insLen);
	    }
	    if (strLen != idx + del) {
		memcpy(outBin + idx + insLen, strBin + idx + del,
			strLen - idx - del);
	    }
	} else {
	    /*
	     * An argument is unshared and can be modified in place.  Note: At
	     * this point, if insObj is NULL, strObj is necessarily unshared.
	     */

	    if (!Tcl_IsShared(strObj)) {
		outObj = strObj;
	    } else {
		outObj = insObj;
	    }

	    /*
	     * If more bytes are about to be inserted than deleted, increase the
	     * allocation now.  Defer decreasing allocation until later to avoid
	     * accessing memory after deallocating it.
	     */

	    if (insLen > del) {
		outBin = Tcl_SetByteArrayLength(outObj, strLen + insLen - del);
	    } else {
		outBin = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(outObj, NULL);
	    }

	    if (!Tcl_IsShared(strObj)) {
		/*
		 * Handle modifying strObj in place.  The bytes before idx are
		 * already where they need to be.  Adjust the position of the
		 * bytes after the end of the insert/replace/delete region, then
		 * insert the substring.
		 */

		if (insLen != del && strLen != idx + del) {
		    memmove(outBin + idx + insLen, outBin + idx + del,
			    strLen - idx - del);
		}
		if (insLen) {
		    memcpy(outBin + idx, insBin, insLen);
		}
	    } else {
		/*
		 * Handle modifying insObj in place.  Move the insObj bytes to
		 * idx, then copy strObj in two parts before and after insObj.
		 */

		if (idx && insLen) {
		    memmove(outBin + idx, outBin, insLen);
		}
		if (idx) {
		    memcpy(outBin, strBin, idx);
		}
		if (insLen != del && strLen != idx + del) {
		    memcpy(outBin + idx + insLen, strBin + idx + del,
			    strLen - idx - del);
		}
	    }

	    /*
	     * Now that all bytes are in place, decrease allocation if more
	     * bytes were deleted than were inserted.
	     */

	    if (del > insLen) {
		Tcl_SetByteArrayLength(outObj, strLen + insLen - del);
	    }
	}
    } else if (pureUni || !Tcl_IsShared(strObj)
	    || (insObj && !Tcl_IsShared(insObj))) {
	/*
	 * Same as above, but for pure Unicode character arrays and for unshared
	 * arguments.  Modify the unshared argument in place, or create a new
	 * output object if the arguments are shared.
	 */

	if (!Tcl_IsShared(strObj)) {
	    outObj = strObj;
	} else if (insObj && !Tcl_IsShared(insObj)) {
	    outObj = insObj;
	} else {
	    outObj = Tcl_NewUnicodeObj(strUni, idx);
	}

	/*
	 * Increase the string allocation as necessary, and get access to the
	 * Unicode character array internals.
	 */

	outStr = GET_STRING(outObj);
	if (strLen + insLen - del > outStr->maxChars) {
	    GrowUnicodeBuffer(outObj, strLen + insLen - del);
	    outStr = GET_STRING(outObj);
	}
	outUni = outStr->unicode;
	outStr->numChars = strLen + insLen - del;

	/*
	 * Convert output to a pure Unicode character array if not already so.
	 */

	if (!pureUni) {
	    TclInvalidateStringRep(outObj);
	    outStr->allocated = 0;
	}

	/*
	 * Rearrange the character array to accomplish the replace operation.
	 */

	if (!Tcl_IsShared(strObj)) {
	    /*
	     * Handle modifying strObj in place.  The characters before idx are
	     * already where they need to be.  Adjust the position of the
	     * characters after the end of the insert/replace/delete region,
	     * then insert the substring.
	     */

	    memmove(outUni + idx + insLen, outUni + idx + del,
		    (strLen - idx - del) * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
	    memcpy(outUni + idx, insUni, insLen * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
	} else if (insObj && !Tcl_IsShared(insObj)) {
	    /*
	     * Handle modifying insObj in place.  Move the insObj characters to
	     * idx, then copy strObj in two parts before and after insObj.
	     */

	    memmove(outUni + idx, outUni, insLen * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
	    memcpy(outUni, strUni, idx * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
	    memcpy(outUni + idx + insLen, strUni + idx + del,
		    (strLen - idx - del) * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
	} else {
	    /*
	     * Both arguments are shared, so fill the new Unicode character
	     * array with characters from strObj and insObj.
	     */

	    memcpy(outUni + idx, insUni, insLen * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
	    memcpy(outUni + idx + insLen, strUni + idx + del,
		    (strLen - idx - del) * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
	}
    } else if ((!idx || idx == strLen) && !del) {
	/*
	 * Inserting at the beginning or end of the string is nothing more than
	 * concatenating the two strings in either order.
	 */

	Tcl_Obj *parts[2];
	
	if (idx) {
	    parts[0] = strObj;
	    parts[1] = insObj;
	} else {
	    parts[0] = insObj;
	    parts[1] = strObj;
	}

	if (TclStringCatObjv(interp, 1, 2, parts, &outObj) != TCL_OK) {
	    return NULL;
	}
    } else {
	/*
	 * Non-byte array, non-Unicode, non-prepend, non-append, non-empty,
	 * non-unshared case.  Build a new string by concatenating the parts.
	 */

	outObj = Tcl_NewUnicodeObj(strUni, idx);
	if (insLen) {
	    Tcl_AppendObjToObj(outObj, insObj);
	}
	if (strLen != idx + del) {
	    Tcl_AppendUnicodeToObj(outObj, strUni + idx + del,
		    strLen - idx - del);
	}
    }

    return outObj;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * TclStringLast --
 *
 *	Implements the [string last] operation.
 *
 * Results:
 *	If needle is found as a substring of haystack, the index of the
 *	last instance of such a find is returned.  If needle is not present
 *	as a substring of haystack, -1 is returned.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	needle and haystack may have their Tcl_ObjType changed.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

int
TclStringLast(
    Tcl_Obj *needle,
    Tcl_Obj *haystack,
    int last)
{
    int lh, ln = Tcl_GetCharLength(needle);

    if (ln == 0) {
	/*
	 * 	We don't find empty substrings.  Bizarre!
	 *
	 * 	TODO: When we one day make this a true substring
	 * 	finder, change this to "return 0"
	 */
	return -1;
    }

    if (ln > last + 1) {
	return -1;
    }

    if (TclIsPureByteArray(needle) && TclIsPureByteArray(haystack)) {
	unsigned char *try, *bh;
	unsigned char *bn = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(needle, &ln);

	bh = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(haystack, &lh);

	if (last + 1 > lh) {
	    last = lh - 1;
	}
	try = bh + last + 1 - ln;
	while (try >= bh) {
	    if ((*try == bn[0])
		    && (0 == memcmp(try+1, bn+1, ln-1))) {
		return (try - bh);
	    }
	    try--;
	}
	return -1;
    }

    lh = Tcl_GetCharLength(haystack);
    if (last + 1 > lh) {
	last = lh - 1;
    }
    if (haystack->bytes && (lh == haystack->length)) {
	/* haystack is all single-byte chars */

	if (needle->bytes && (ln == needle->length)) {
	    /* needle is also all single-byte chars */

	    char *try = haystack->bytes + last + 1 - ln;
	    while (try >= haystack->bytes) {
		if ((*try == needle->bytes[0])
			&& (0 == memcmp(try+1, needle->bytes + 1, ln - 1))) {
		    return (try - haystack->bytes);
		}
		try--;
	    }
	    return -1;
	} else {
	    /*
	     * Cannot find substring with a multi-byte char inside
	     * a string with no multi-byte chars.
	     */
	    return -1;
	}
    } else {
	Tcl_UniChar *try, *uh;
	Tcl_UniChar *un = Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(needle, &ln);

	uh = Tcl_GetUnicodeFromObj(haystack, &lh);

	try = uh + last + 1 - ln;
	while (try >= uh) {
	    if ((*try == un[0])
		    && (0 == memcmp(try+1, un+1, (ln-1)*sizeof(Tcl_UniChar)))) {
		return (try - uh);
	    }
	    try--;
	}
	return -1;
    }
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * TclStringObjReverse --
 *
 *	Implements the [string reverse] operation.
 *
 * Results:
 *	An unshared Tcl value which is the [string reverse] of the argument
 *	supplied. When sharing rules permit, the returned value might be the
 *	argument with modifications done in place.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	May allocate a new Tcl_Obj.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
ReverseBytes(
    unsigned char *to,		/* Copy bytes into here... */
    unsigned char *from,	/* ...from here... */
    int count)		/* Until this many are copied, */
				/* reversing as you go. */
{
    unsigned char *src = from + count;
    if (to == from) {
	/* Reversing in place */
	while (--src > to) {
	    unsigned char c = *src;
	    *src = *to;
	    *to++ = c;
	}
    }  else {
	while (--src >= from) {
	    *to++ = *src;
	}
    }
}

Tcl_Obj *
TclStringObjReverse(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr)
{
    String *stringPtr;
    Tcl_UniChar ch = 0;

    if (TclIsPureByteArray(objPtr)) {
	int numBytes;
	unsigned char *from = Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objPtr, &numBytes);

	if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	    objPtr = Tcl_NewByteArrayObj(NULL, numBytes);
	}
	ReverseBytes(Tcl_GetByteArrayFromObj(objPtr, NULL), from, numBytes);
	return objPtr;
    }

    SetStringFromAny(NULL, objPtr);
    stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode) {
	Tcl_UniChar *from = Tcl_GetUnicode(objPtr);
	Tcl_UniChar *src = from + stringPtr->numChars;

	if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	    Tcl_UniChar *to;

	    /*
	     * Create a non-empty, pure unicode value, so we can coax
	     * Tcl_SetObjLength into growing the unicode rep buffer.
	     */

	    ch = 0;
	    objPtr = Tcl_NewUnicodeObj(&ch, 1);
	    Tcl_SetObjLength(objPtr, stringPtr->numChars);
	    to = Tcl_GetUnicode(objPtr);
	    while (--src >= from) {
		*to++ = *src;
	    }
	} else {
	    /* Reversing in place */
	    while (--src > from) {
		ch = *src;
		*src = *from;
		*from++ = ch;
	    }
	}
    }

    if (objPtr->bytes) {
	int numChars = stringPtr->numChars;
	int numBytes = objPtr->length;
	char *to, *from = objPtr->bytes;

	if (Tcl_IsShared(objPtr)) {
	    objPtr = Tcl_NewObj();
	    Tcl_SetObjLength(objPtr, numBytes);
	}
	to = objPtr->bytes;

	if (numChars < numBytes) {
	    /*
	     * Either numChars == -1 and we don't know how many chars are
	     * represented by objPtr->bytes and we need Pass 1 just in case,
	     * or numChars >= 0 and we know we have fewer chars than bytes,
	     * so we know there's a multibyte character needing Pass 1.
	     *
	     * Pass 1. Reverse the bytes of each multi-byte character.
	     */
	    int charCount = 0;
	    int bytesLeft = numBytes;

	    while (bytesLeft) {
		/*
		 * NOTE: We know that the from buffer is NUL-terminated.
		 * It's part of the contract for objPtr->bytes values.
		 * Thus, we can skip calling Tcl_UtfCharComplete() here.
		 */
		int bytesInChar = TclUtfToUniChar(from, &ch);

		ReverseBytes((unsigned char *)to, (unsigned char *)from,
			bytesInChar);
		to += bytesInChar;
		from += bytesInChar;
		bytesLeft -= bytesInChar;
		charCount++;
	    }

	    from = to = objPtr->bytes;
	    stringPtr->numChars = charCount;
	}
	/* Pass 2. Reverse all the bytes. */
	ReverseBytes((unsigned char *)to, (unsigned char *)from, numBytes);
    }

    return objPtr;
}

/*
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * FillUnicodeRep --
 *
 *	Populate the Unicode internal rep with the Unicode form of its string
 *	rep. The object must alread have a "String" internal rep.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Reallocates the String internal rep.
 *
 *---------------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
FillUnicodeRep(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr)		/* The object in which to fill the unicode
				 * rep. */
{
    String *stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    ExtendUnicodeRepWithString(objPtr, objPtr->bytes, objPtr->length,
	    stringPtr->numChars);
}

static void
ExtendUnicodeRepWithString(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
    const char *bytes,
    int numBytes,
    int numAppendChars)
{
    String *stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    int needed, numOrigChars = 0;
    Tcl_UniChar *dst;

    if (stringPtr->hasUnicode) {
	numOrigChars = stringPtr->numChars;
    }
    if (numAppendChars == -1) {
	TclNumUtfChars(numAppendChars, bytes, numBytes);
    }
    needed = numOrigChars + numAppendChars;
    stringCheckLimits(needed);

    if (needed > stringPtr->maxChars) {
	GrowUnicodeBuffer(objPtr, needed);
	stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);
    }

    stringPtr->hasUnicode = 1;
    if (bytes) {
	stringPtr->numChars = needed;
    } else {
	numAppendChars = 0;
    }
    for (dst=stringPtr->unicode + numOrigChars; numAppendChars-- > 0; dst++) {
	bytes += TclUtfToUniChar(bytes, dst);
    }
    *dst = 0;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * DupStringInternalRep --
 *
 *	Initialize the internal representation of a new Tcl_Obj to a copy of
 *	the internal representation of an existing string object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	copyPtr's internal rep is set to a copy of srcPtr's internal
 *	representation.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
DupStringInternalRep(
    Tcl_Obj *srcPtr,		/* Object with internal rep to copy. Must have
				 * an internal rep of type "String". */
    Tcl_Obj *copyPtr)		/* Object with internal rep to set. Must not
				 * currently have an internal rep.*/
{
    String *srcStringPtr = GET_STRING(srcPtr);
    String *copyStringPtr = NULL;

    if (srcStringPtr->numChars == -1) {
	/*
	 * The String struct in the source value holds zero useful data. Don't
	 * bother copying it. Don't even bother allocating space in which to
	 * copy it. Just let the copy be untyped.
	 */

	return;
    }

    if (srcStringPtr->hasUnicode) {
	int copyMaxChars;

	if (srcStringPtr->maxChars / 2 >= srcStringPtr->numChars) {
	    copyMaxChars = 2 * srcStringPtr->numChars;
	} else {
	    copyMaxChars = srcStringPtr->maxChars;
	}
	copyStringPtr = stringAttemptAlloc(copyMaxChars);
	if (copyStringPtr == NULL) {
	    copyMaxChars = srcStringPtr->numChars;
	    copyStringPtr = stringAlloc(copyMaxChars);
	}
	copyStringPtr->maxChars = copyMaxChars;
	memcpy(copyStringPtr->unicode, srcStringPtr->unicode,
		srcStringPtr->numChars * sizeof(Tcl_UniChar));
	copyStringPtr->unicode[srcStringPtr->numChars] = 0;
    } else {
	copyStringPtr = stringAlloc(0);
	copyStringPtr->maxChars = 0;
	copyStringPtr->unicode[0] = 0;
    }
    copyStringPtr->hasUnicode = srcStringPtr->hasUnicode;
    copyStringPtr->numChars = srcStringPtr->numChars;

    /*
     * Tricky point: the string value was copied by generic object management
     * code, so it doesn't contain any extra bytes that might exist in the
     * source object.
     */

    copyStringPtr->allocated = copyPtr->bytes ? copyPtr->length : 0;

    SET_STRING(copyPtr, copyStringPtr);
    copyPtr->typePtr = &tclStringType;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * SetStringFromAny --
 *
 *	Create an internal representation of type "String" for an object.
 *
 * Results:
 *	This operation always succeeds and returns TCL_OK.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Any old internal reputation for objPtr is freed and the internal
 *	representation is set to "String".
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static int
SetStringFromAny(
    Tcl_Interp *interp,		/* Used for error reporting if not NULL. */
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr)		/* The object to convert. */
{
    if (objPtr->typePtr != &tclStringType) {
	String *stringPtr = stringAlloc(0);

	/*
	 * Convert whatever we have into an untyped value. Just A String.
	 */

	(void) TclGetString(objPtr);
	TclFreeIntRep(objPtr);

	/*
	 * Create a basic String intrep that just points to the UTF-8 string
	 * already in place at objPtr->bytes.
	 */

	stringPtr->numChars = -1;
	stringPtr->allocated = objPtr->length;
	stringPtr->maxChars = 0;
	stringPtr->hasUnicode = 0;
	SET_STRING(objPtr, stringPtr);
	objPtr->typePtr = &tclStringType;
    }
    return TCL_OK;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * UpdateStringOfString --
 *
 *	Update the string representation for an object whose internal
 *	representation is "String".
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	The object's string may be set by converting its Unicode represention
 *	to UTF format.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
UpdateStringOfString(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr)		/* Object with string rep to update. */
{
    String *stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    /*
     * This routine is only called when we need to generate the
     * string rep objPtr->bytes because it does not exist -- it is NULL.
     * In that circumstance, any lingering claim about the size of
     * memory pointed to by that NULL pointer is clearly bogus, and
     * needs a reset.
     */

    stringPtr->allocated = 0;

    if (stringPtr->numChars == 0) {
	TclInitStringRep(objPtr, &tclEmptyString, 0);
    } else {
	(void) ExtendStringRepWithUnicode(objPtr, stringPtr->unicode,
		stringPtr->numChars);
    }
}

static int
ExtendStringRepWithUnicode(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr,
    const Tcl_UniChar *unicode,
    int numChars)
{
    /*
     * Pre-condition: this is the "string" Tcl_ObjType.
     */

    int i, origLength, size = 0;
    char *dst;
    String *stringPtr = GET_STRING(objPtr);

    if (numChars < 0) {
	numChars = UnicodeLength(unicode);
    }

    if (numChars == 0) {
	return 0;
    }

    if (objPtr->bytes == NULL) {
	objPtr->length = 0;
    }
    size = origLength = objPtr->length;

    /*
     * Quick cheap check in case we have more than enough room.
     */

    if (numChars <= (INT_MAX - size)/TCL_UTF_MAX
	    && stringPtr->allocated >= size + numChars * TCL_UTF_MAX) {
	goto copyBytes;
    }

    for (i = 0; i < numChars && size >= 0; i++) {
	size += TclUtfCount(unicode[i]);
    }
    if (size < 0) {
	Tcl_Panic("max size for a Tcl value (%d bytes) exceeded", INT_MAX);
    }

    /*
     * Grow space if needed.
     */

    if (size > stringPtr->allocated) {
	GrowStringBuffer(objPtr, size, 1);
    }

  copyBytes:
    dst = objPtr->bytes + origLength;
    for (i = 0; i < numChars; i++) {
	dst += Tcl_UniCharToUtf((int) unicode[i], dst);
    }
    *dst = '\0';
    objPtr->length = dst - objPtr->bytes;
    return numChars;
}

/*
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 *
 * FreeStringInternalRep --
 *
 *	Deallocate the storage associated with a String data object's internal
 *	representation.
 *
 * Results:
 *	None.
 *
 * Side effects:
 *	Frees memory.
 *
 *----------------------------------------------------------------------
 */

static void
FreeStringInternalRep(
    Tcl_Obj *objPtr)		/* Object with internal rep to free. */
{
    ckfree(GET_STRING(objPtr));
    objPtr->typePtr = NULL;
}

/*
 * Local Variables:
 * mode: c
 * c-basic-offset: 4
 * fill-column: 78
 * End:
 */